Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

WOMEN IN POWER 
1940-1970

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


1940-44 Head of State Khertek Anchimaa-Toka, People's Republic of Tannu Tuva

As Chairperson of the Presidium of the Parliament, the Little Hüral, Khertek Amyrbitovna was the Head of the state which became Independent in 1921, a People's Republic in 1926, was incoroprated into the Soviet Union in 1944. She had held various jobs in local administration and the party administration, Chairperson of the Women Department of the Central Committee of  the Tuvinian People's Revolutionary Party 1938-1940. Married to the First Secretary of the TPRP, Salchak Kalbakkhorekovich Toka in 1940, Deputy Chairperson of Oblast Executive Committee 1944-1961 and Deputy Chairperson of the Council of Ministers of Tuva 1961-1972. She lived (1912-2008).


 

1940-46 and 1946-47 HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Tara Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)

Also known as Tarabai Sahib Chhaatrapati or Indumati Devi, she was widow of Maharaja Sir Rajaram II Bhonsle Chhatrapathi Maharaj who "only" had one daughter. She therefore adopted a relative, Shivaji V, who lived (1941-46). Tarabai also adopted his successor. Born as Princess of Baroda (b.1904-).


1941-60 Acting Paramount Chief The Mofumahali 'MaNtsebo Amalia 'Matsaba Sempe of Basutoland (Lesotho)

Reigned after the death of her husband and succeeded as ruler of the British protectorate of Basutoland - now known as Leshoto - by her son, Moshoeshoe II, who was King 1960-70, 1970-88 and 1990-96. She lived (1902-65).


 

1941-43 and 1947-48 Regent HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Pramula Bai Maharaj Sahib of Dewas (Senior) (India)

Her husband, Maharaja Sir Shahaji II (or Sir Vikramsinh Rao Tukoji Rao Puar (1901-83)) was ruler of Dewar (1937-41) but abdicated in order to become ruler of Kolhapur. He had been adopted by Dowager Maharani Tara Bai (See below) and was succeeded in Dewar by oldest son, Krishnaji Rao II. In Kolhapur succeeded by son of oldest daughter, whom Sir Shahaji adopted. Pramula Bai is born as Princess of Jath (b. 1910-).


 

1941 and 1942-1943 Regent Maharani Shri Gulab Kunwarba Sahib of  Nawanagar (India)

In charge of the government during the absences of her husband since 1935, Maharaja Jam Shri Sir Digvijaysinhji Ranjitsinhji Sahib Bahadur of Nawanagar. She was Daughter of H.H. Maharajadhiraj Maharao Shri Sir Sarup Ram Singhji Bahadur, Maharao of Sirohi, by his first wife, H.H. Maharani Krishna Kunwarba Sahib, and lived (1910-94


 

1941-46 Acting Paramount Chiefess Elizabeth Tshatshu of the Xhosa Tribe of amaNtinde (South Africa)

Acted after the death of Mgcawezulu a Nongane until she was succeeded by Zwelitsha a Mgcawezulu, who is still Inkosi Enkhulu.


 

1941 Queen Mother Mutaleni kaMpingana of Ondonga (Namibia)

After the death of King Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa she played an important role in the selection of the 13th King of the Ondonga area, Kambonde kaNamene (1942-1960).


1941-79 Politically Influential HIH Princess Ashraf Pahlavi of Iran

In 1946 her twin brother, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, send her to negotiate with Stalin in the Kremlin, to secure the return of some Soviet occupied parts of Iran. She was Head of the Woman's Organization of Iran and a Special Ambassador to the United Nations. Her first two marriages ended in divorce, her third husband died. According to Iranian usage, her sons two sons and their children had the title H.H. Prince and father's surname. Her daughter is H.H. Princess and the husband's surname. (b. 1919-).


1942-44 Counsellor of State HH Princess Maud Duff of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Countess of Southeask

Princess Maude only acted as ruling Counsellor once in 1943. She was the younger daughter of The Princess Royal and the Duke of Fife, and was married to the 11th Earl of Southeask (1893-1992). Her only son, James Carnagie, succeeded her sister as 3rd Duke of Fife. Maude was appointed as one of the Counsellors of State during king George VI's visit to Africa, and lived (1893-1945)


1942-69 Dwabenhemaa Nana Dwaben Serwaa II of Dwaben (Ghana)
1959-63 Dwabenhene (King)

Concurrent Queen and King of Dwaben. First enstooled as the Queen of Dwaben and held the joint offices until1963, when she placed her son, Nana Kwabena Boateng II on the male Stool of Dwaben, making him Dwabenhene. She continued to rule as Dwabenhemaa until 1969, when she abdicated. Nana Dwaben Serwaa II, is still alive and well over a 100yrs of age. She lives in Dwaben, in Ashanti and in Ghana.


 

1943-57 Acting Chiefess Nofikile a Ngongo of the Xhosa Tribe of imiDushane kaNdlambe (South Africa) 

Acting after the death of Inkosi Enkhulu Gushiphela a Menziwa and succeeded by Zimlindile Payment Muyaka a Gushiphela, who is still Chief of the tribe. 


Giovanna of Italy

1943-55 Guardian Dowager Queen Ioanna of Italy of Bulgaria

Married to King Boris III, who tried to remain natural as World War II broke out, but he met with Hitler in 1940, and in 1941 became part of the pact allying Germany, Italy and Japan. The king has long been described as having been appalled at Hitler's massacres of Jews, and on two occasions he refused orders to deport Bulgarian Jews. Queen Ioanna intervened to obtain transit visas to enable a number of Jews to escape to Argentina. After the death of her husband, Boris III (1894-1918-43) her brother-in-law, Prince Cyrill became regent for her son, Simoen II (1937-43-46-), until a referendum abolished the Monarchy, and she fled with her children to Egypt and later to Spain. Her son became Premier Minister of Bulgaria in 2001 under the name of Saxe-Coburg. Born as Giovanna Savoia of Italy, she lived (1910-2001).


 

1944-48 Tenant Madam Fortington of Jethou (Crown Dependency of the British Monarch)

Took over the Tenantcy of the tiny Channel Island after the death of Harold Fortington (1934-44). George MacDonald was Subtenant (1940-45) and William Gill Withycombe was tenant (1948-55).


 

Before 1944 Regent Princess Sharifah Leng binti al-Marhum Yang di-Pertuan Muda Syed Abdul Hamid of Tampin (Malaysia)

Daughter Sultan Sharif Abdul Hamid ibni al-Marhum Yang di-Pertuan Muda Sultan Muhammad Shah al-Qadri (1872-94) she was regent for her nephew Syed Akil bin Syed Dewa al-Qadri, Tunku Besar of Tampin, who died at the age of 20, and whose brother, Syed Muhammad bin Syed Dewa al-Qadri, ruled until 1944.


1944-77 12th Asantehemaa Nana Ama Serwaa Nyarko II of Asante (Ghana)

The second Queen mother during the reign of king Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempe II (1892-1931/35-70) and during of Otumfuo Nana Opoku Ware II (1919-70-99). She was granddaughter of Aufa Kobi Serwaa Ampen I, who was (1859-1884) and daughter of daughter of Akua Afriyie, the Kumasehemaa. In 1977 she was succeeded by the present Asantehemaa, Nana Afua Kobi Sewaa Ampem II - who is Queen Mother for the present king, Otumfuo Nana Osei Tutu II (1950-99-).


1944-55 Acting Head of the Princely Family HSH. Dowager Princess Margareta Fouche d'Otrante of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (Germany)

After her husband Gustaf Richard was reported missing during WWII she became guardian for her son, Prince Richard (1934/44-). The family went into exile in her Sweden, where she was born. Prince Richard later married HRH Princess Benedikte of Denmark. Born as Duchess Fouche d'Otrante, she lived (1909-2005).


Alexandra of Cumberland

1944-58 Acting Head of the Princely Family HIH Dowager Grand Duchess Alexandra zu Hannover-Cumberland of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Friedrich Franz IV, she was guardian for her son, Grand Duke Friedrich Franz V (d. 2002) as the last of his family. She was daughter of Princess Thyra of Denmark and Ernst August von Hannover, Duke of Cumberland, mother of four children and lived (1882-1963). 


1946-58 Acting Paramount Chiefess, Queen Mother Elizabeth Pulane Seeco of baTawana (British Protectorate, Botswana)

Also known as Princess Pulane Moremi, she was widow of Moremi III (1915-37-46). As regent she administration of the Tribal Administration, which had been mired by inefficiency and corruption. Her regency was troubled by the need to balance the interests of her morafe's diverse population. She helped open the door for such groups as the Wayeyi and Ovaherero to run their own affairs. On the national stage she joined forces with Dikgosi Tshekedi and Bathoen II in calling for self government. Stepped down in favour of her son Letsholathebe II (1940-58-81), and lived (1912-81). 


 

1946-47 Rani Mariyumma Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Also known as Ali Raja Bibi Arakkal Mariumma or Ali Raja Mariumma Beevi Thangal, she was the last ruler before the principality was incorporated in the Republic of India. It is not known when she died, but Adiraja Ayisha Muthu Beevi (1922-2006) was head of the Head of the Arakkal royal house from 1997 and was succeed by Adiraja Ayisha Beevi as the Arakkal Beevi (or Beebi) near the City that is now known as Kannur.


1946-68 Deputy Seigneur Jehanne Beaumont Bell of Sark

Youngest of Dame Sibyl Hathaway's 6 children, she was appointed to act as her mother's substitute during her absence in 1946. In 1947 she was elected Deputy of the People on Chief Pleas and retired from the post of Deputy Seigneur in 1968 due to ill health, but continued to take an interest in Sark's affairs, advising the present Seigneur when he succeeded on the death of La Dame in 1974 until her death. She married in 1948 and lived (1919-88).


Nexhmije Xhugilini Hoxa

1946-90 Partner in Power Nexhmije Xhugilini Hoxa, Albania

Married to Enver Hoxa, Prime minister 1945-53 and President 1954-85. During the resistance war 1941-46, she was a close advisor of her husband. 1946-55 Chairperson of the Women's Wing of the Communist Party, 1952-90 MP, 1968-90 Director of the Institute of Marxist Studies and 1986-90 Chairperson of Albania's Democratic Front, which controlled all the political organizations of the country, and appointed candidates for the parliament. She was imprisoned 1991-96 charged with corruption and abuse of power. (b. 1921-).


1946-54 Partner in Power Eva Duarte de Peron, Argentina 

Known as Evita Peron, she was very powerful during her husband, Juan D. Peron's first tenure as President (1946-55). In 1951 the military prevented her candidature for the post of Vice-President. Very popular among the masses. Juan Peron's third wife, Isabel Peron, was vice-President 1973-74 during his second term in office, and succeeded him as President after his death in 1974. Eva Peron lived (1919-54).


1947 and 1948 Princess-Regent Juliana of the Netherlands 
1948-80 By the Grace of God Queen of the Netherlands 

Member of the Council of State from her 18th birthday in 1927. From 1927 to 1930, she attended lectures at Leiden University. Regent during the illness of her mother, Wilhelmina and succeeded her upon her abdication. The people of the Netherlands watched as their Queen often appeared in public dressed like any ordinary Dutch woman. Like her mother had out of necessity, Queen Juliana began riding a bicycle for exercise and fresh air. She began visiting with the citizens of the nearby towns and, unannounced, would drop in on social institutions and schools. Her refreshingly straightforward manner and talk made her a powerful public speaker. On the international stage, Queen Juliana was particularly interested in the problems of developing countries, the refugee problem, and had a very special interest in child welfare, particularly in the developing countries. In 1949, she signed the documents transferring sovereignty to Indonesia and in 1954 she gave her assent to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which formed the basis for cooperation between the three remaining parts of the Kingdom: the Netherlands, Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles. Suriname became an independent republic in 1975. Closely involved in social questions and involved in the running of the government until her abdication in favour of her oldest daughter, Queen Beatrix. She has since been known as HRH Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, and since the early 1990s, she has gradually withdrawn from public life. Also Princess van Oranje Nassau, Duchess van Mecklenburg-Schwerin etc, etc, etc., she was married to Prince Bernhard zu Lippe-Biesterfeld (1911-2004), and mother of four daughters. She lived (1909-2004).


Rajmata Krishna Kumari

1947-49 Regent Rajmata Krishna Kumari of Marwar and Jodhpur (India)
1949-69 Acting Head of the Princely Family

H.H. Maharani Shri Krishna Kunwarba Baiji Sahiba, Princess of Dhrangadhra, she was regent for son, Maharaja Gaj Singh II (1923-47-52-), After her husband, Maharaja Shri Hanwant Singhji Sahib Bahadur was killed in a plane-crash, and continued as his guardian and was in charge of the interests of the princely family . She provides a strong cultural binding to the family.  She was Member of the Lok Sabha 1971-77 and continues to participate in a myriad of social and religious activities. (b. 1926-).


1947-48 President of the Council of Regency Dowager Maharani H.H. Sri Srimati Maharani Kanchan Prabhavati Mahadevi Sahiba of Tripura (India)
1948-49 Regent (Radhakrishnapada Srila Srimati Maharani)

Also known as Kanchan Prabha Devi. After the death of her husband Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in May 1947, a council of regency under her leadership took over charge of administration on behalf of her minor son, prince Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya (b. 1933). The state was faced an immediate refugee problem, which brought conflict between the people, severe strain on the administration and threatened to exhaust the meagre resources of the state, and she was forced to cede sovereignty to India within a few months and signed the treaty which transferred the state to the Union of India on 9th September 1947 coming effect two years later. Tripura became a Union Territory on 1st November 1956. The Territorial Council was formed on August 15, 1959. The dissolution of Territorial Council and formation of Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers in July 1963 were notable events. Finally Tripura became a full-fledged State in January 1972. She was the eldest daughter of Colonel H.H. Mahendra Maharaja Sri Sir Yadvendra Singh Ju Deo Bahadur, Maharaja of Panna, by his first wife, H.H. Mahendra Maharani Sri Manhar Kunwarba Sahiba, and lived (1914-73).


 

1947-50 President of the Minority Administration H.H. Jadeji Maharani Shri Krishna Kunverba Sahib of Sirohi (India)

Known as H.H. the Rajmata Sahiba, she became regent for the adopted son of her husband,  H.H. Maharajadhiraj Maharao Shri Tej Ram Singhji Bahadur (1946-50) after it had been headed by the Chief Minister for since his accession. Her husband, Maharajadhiraj Maharao Shri Sir Sarup Ram Singhji Bahadur had reigned 1920-46. Tej Ram Singhji  was removed by the Government of India in 1950 and replaced by Thakuran Raj Shri Abhai Singhji of Manadar, following a lengthy investigation into the circumstances surrounding his adoption. She was born as Maharajkumari Bai Shri Takhatba Sahib as the fourth and youngest daughter of H.H. Maharajadhiraj Maharao Mirza Shri Khengarji III Sawai Bahadur of Cutc and she (d. 1979).


 

1947-57 Maradia Regnant of Balannipa (Indonesia)

The state is also know as Balangnipa. After the abdication of her husband, Haji Andi Depu Baso, she ruled in her own right until 1950 and the following seven years in a temporary basis. She was succeeded by the grandson of the brother of the father of her husband, Puang Manda' alias Haji Andi Syahribulan (1959-1963) as the last ruler of the Mandar area north of the main Buginese area. It was a sort of confederation of seven principalities with the Maradia of Balangnipa as chief. In 1873 the Dutch made all the seven states real separate principalities. (b. 1907-).


 

1947-87 Queen Maria Mwengere of Shambyu (Namibia)

Succeeded king Mbambangandu II, who became blind. She prohibited the brewing of traditional beers with sugar, but also curtailed the sale of all kinds of liquor in the Sambyu area. The brewing of traditional beers without the use of sugar for own consumption was however still permitted. On many occasions during the sixties, she severely punished transgressors by fining them up to four head of cattle, but she later stopped this praxis because of strong opposition from her people. In 1989 Hompa Angelina Ribebe Matumbo became Queen of the Shambyu. She lived (circa 1898-1987).


1949-52 Vice-Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Ana Pauker, Romania

Minister of Foreign Affairs 1947-52 and Vice-Premier. Before that she had been Leader of the Romanian Communists in USSR 1940-44 and circa 1940-53 Responsible for the collectivizing of the Agriculture in the Politburo, 1944-56 Secretary General of the Communist Party. She was born Rabinovici but changed her name because of anti-Semitic sentiments, which eventually caused her downfall. She was daughter of Rabbi Hersch Kaufmann Robinsohn and lived (1893-1960).


Makea Karika Takau Margaret Ariki

1949-75 Makea Nui Teremoana Ariki, 31st Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga (Cook Islands)

Also known as Makea Nui Teremona Ariki Tapuanoanoa Tinirau Cowan, she was member of the Rarotongan Legislature 1947-59 and represented the Cook Islands in the South Pacific Commission an institution established by the regional Colonial powers to promote 'native welfare' in their Pacific colonies in 1947. She succeeded her sister, Makea Nui Tinirau Ariki, and married Kainuku Parapu Ariki and was succeeded by daughter, Margaret Tepo Vakatini Ariki, who died in 1988 and then by her oldest daughter. She lived (circa 1910-75).


1949-94 Makea Karika Takau Margaret Ariki, 27th Makea Karika Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga (Cook Islands)

Margaret Tarau was President of the House of Ariki 1978-80 and 1990-94, and was one of the 3 chief of the Teauotonga tribe in succession to her father, Makea Karika George Pa, who had succeeded his mother Makea Karika Takau Tuaraupoko Mokoroa ki Aitu in 1942, and lived (1919-circa 94).


 

1949-62 Titular Acting Head of the Sovereign Family Baroness Maria Gizela Tunkl-Iturbide, Princess de Iturbide of Mexico 
Her mother, Princess Maria Josepha Sophia had stated in her will and Maria Gizela and her older unmarried sister Maria Anna Wilhelmina (b. 1909) had agreed that the leadership of the Mexican Imperial Family passed to Maria Grizela's son, Count Maximiliano von Goetzen Iturbide, (b. 1944), who continues to be head of the Iturbide dynasty but has made no attempt to press his claim to the imperial throne of Mexico. He is married and currently lives in Australia where he is a successful businessman. His heir apparent is his son Count Fernando Goetzen Iturbide (b. 1992). Baroness Maria Gizela first lived in Venezuela and Uruguay before moving to Australia. She is  (b. 1912-).

The Princess Mother

1950-circa 95 Temporary Royal Regent HRH The Princess Mother, Somdet Phra Srinagarindra Boromarajajonani of Thailand

Sangwalya Chrukamol was born as the daughter of a goldsmith. She was married to Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, son of king Chulalongkorn Rama V (1868-1910) by one of his 92 wifes. She was mother of King Anadan Mahidol Rama VIII (1925-35-46) and of King Bhumibol Adulyadej Rama IX (1927-46). She acted as regent on nine different occasions during Bhumibol's reign. She lived (2443-2538 or 1900-95).


 

1950-ca 59 Datuk I Suji of Suppa (Indonesia)

Her son La Kane (or Kunen/Kuneng) is the present chief of the dynasty of Suppa. She (d. circa 1992).


 

1951-... Adatuwang Regnant Bau Rukiah of Sawito (Indonesia)

Appointed as ruler of the state.


1951- Paramount Chief Madam Tity Messi of Kwameba Krim (Sierra Leone)

She was head of 66 chiefs in the Benduma District as head of a new chiefdom which was an anamalgamation of three krim chiefdoms: Messie, Kwako and Baiama. The area is situated near the Liberian boarder, and fighting erupted early in the territory.


1951-85 Counsellor of State HRH Princess Margaret of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

As the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II, she acted as Counsellor of State on various occasions until her youngest nephew, Prince Edward, turned 21. Among others Special Representative of the Queen to the Independence Celebrations of Jamaica in 1962, Domenica and Tuvalu 1978 and of Antigua and Barbuda and of Saint Christopher and Nevis in 1980. Divorced from Anthony Armstrong-Jones, who were created 1st Earl of Snowdon, and mother of two children. She lived (1930-2002).


1952- H.M. Elizabeth II of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Defender of the Faith, Head of the Commonwealth 

Until 1953 her title was Queen of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Overseas Dominions. She is head if state in 15 countries apart from Great Britain and as Head of the Commonwealth, she is the front person of the organization of many other former British colonies and territories. She is the first child of The Duke and Duchess of York. Although when born it was unlikely that she would become Queen, events in the 1930s led to her father's Accession and her becoming heir to the Throne. Her reign takes place during a period of great social change, she has carried out her political duties as Head of State, the ceremonial responsibilities of the Sovereign and an unprecedented programme of visits in the United Kingdom, Commonwealth and overseas. Elizabeth Alexandra Mary is the mother of three sons and a daughter. Married to Phillip Mountbatten, former Prince of Greece. (b. 1926-).  


1952-53 Head of the Regency Council H.M. Queen Zein al-Sharaf of Jordan

In her official Jordanian biography it says that her political instincts and courage allowed her to successfully fill a constitutional vacuum after the assassination of the late King Abdullah in 1951, while the newly proclaimed King Talal was being treated outside the Kingdom for his mental illness. When he was deposed in August 1952 she was regent until her son, Hussein I, until he turned 18 in May the following year. She played a major role in the political development of the Kingdom in the early 1950s, and took part in the writing of the 1952 Constitution that gave full rights to women and enhanced the social development of the country. Born in Egypt as daughter of the Court Chamberlain, Sharif Jamal Ali bin Nasser, she was mother of three sons and a daughter, and lived (1916-94).


 

Around 1952 Liurai Clara Assi of Fatu Mean (Timor Leste)

The state was included in the list made by the Portuguese in 1952, then in the district of Bobonaro.


 

Around 1952 Liurai Bai Buti of Irlelo (Timor-Lester)

Also situated in the former district of Bobonaro in East Timor, which was occupied by Indonesia 1974-99, an UN Protectorate until 2002, when it became independent.


Sühbaataryn Yanjmaa as a young woman

1953-54 Acting Head of State Sühbaataryn Yanjmaa, Mongolia 

Member of the Politburo of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) 1940-54, Secretary of the Central Committee of the MPRP 1941-47), was member of the Presidium of the Little Hüral 1940-50 and of the People's Great Hüral 1950-62, and as 1. Deputy Chair of the Great Hüral since 1950, she took over during a vacancy on the post of Head of State and Chairperson of the Hüral. ) She was the widow of the great national hero Damdiny Sühbaatar (1893-1923), born as Nemendeyen Yanjmaa and lived (1893-1963).


 Aloisia Lavelua of Uvea

1953-58 H.H. Queen Aloisia Lavelua of Uvea (Wallis and Futuna) (French External Territory)

The Monarchs and chiefs are still involved with the government of the French External Territory Wallis and Futuna. After the death of King Kapeliele Tufele Lavelua (1950-53), the Council of Ministers reigned until Soane Toke Lavelua became king for one day - 18.-19. December. On 22. December Aloisia  Brial née Tautuu became Queen. After her abdication, the Council of Ministers again reigned until Tomasi Kulimoetoke II became king at the 12th of March 1959 and reigned until 2007. (d. 1972)


 

From 1953 Acting Paramount Chiefess Nonayithi Jali a Mthati of the Xhosa Tribe of imiQhayi (South Africa) 

Acting after the death of the acting Chief Bofolo a Ntonisi a Donddashe. It is not known when she was succeeded by Inkosi Enkhulu Mabundu Bangelizwe Jali a Enoch, who is still chief.


Madam Ella Koblo Gulama of Kaiyamba

1953-67 and 1992-2006 Paramount Chiefess Madam Ella Koblo Gulama of Kaiyamban (Sierra Leone)

Elected to succeed her father, Julius Gulama, as head of the tribe and district. 1957 she was elected the first female MP and was Minister without Portfolio 1963-67. Imprisoned during the political unrest from 1967-70 and deposed as Paramount Chief, Vice-President of the conference on Finance and Administration of the United Methodist Church 1985-91, she also worked hard to promote the education of girls and to improve the lot of women as President of the Federation of Women’s Organisations in Sierra Leone 1960-67 and President of the National Organization for Women 1985-91. Re-elected Paramount Chief of Kaiyamba Chiefdom by a unanimous vote in 1992.  The rebel war and its effects were devastating to Moyamba District and the country as a whole, resulting in complete set­back to development and progress. She was forced to leave Moyamba and seek refuge in Freetown. On her return to Moyamba, she again put all her efforts into the rehabilitation of her Chiefdom and District. Director of the Sierra Leone Export Development and Investment Corporation (SLEDIC) 1994-96 and also a director of The Sierra Leone Commercial Bank Limited. 1997 she fell ill and appointed a regent. She was married to Paramount Chief Bai Koblo Pathbana II Marampa Masimera Chiefdom,  mother of 7 children, and lived (1921-2006).  


Princess Tuttu Goma

1953 Candidate for the Throne Princess Fatima Ibrahim Didi Tuttu Goma of the Maldive Islands

In 1944 the throne was first offered to the erstwhile Prime Minister Athireegey Abdul Majeed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan, but he declined and remained in exile until his death in 1952. She was offered the throne in 1953 but withdrew her candidature when opposed by the clerics headed by 'Abdu'llah Jalal ud-din. Born as Princess Fatima Tuttu Goma, she was daughter Princess Gulistan of the Maldives and her cousin Al-Amir Ibrahim Fa'amuladeri Kilegefa'anu, who later became Ekgamuge Ibrahim 'Ali Didi (d. 1975), and was member of the Regency 1943-1953 and Prime Minister 1953-1957. She was President of the Senate of the First Republic 1953-54. Married to H.E. Ahmad Zaki (1931-96), who held many government and ambassadorial posts, including that of Prime Minister 1972-1975 and Permanent Representative at the UN 1979-1983 and 1993-1996. One of her two sons were Defence Minister. She lived (1918-2008).


Jovanka Budisavlevic Broz

1953-77 Politically Influential Jovanka Budisavlevic Broz, Yugoslavia

Jovanka Broz is thought to have had a substantial influence in the army and the country, until her husband, Josef Broz Tito, sent her in internal-exile. She was a lieutenant in the army when they got married. She lived (1923-2013).


Kim Song Ae

1953-98 Partner in Power Kim Song Ae in North Korea 

Married Kim II Sung (1912-94) in 1953. He was General Secretary of the Korean Worker's Party 1948-94, Premier Minister (1948-72), President (1972-94) and created an austere and militarized regime. Kim song Ae was Vice-Chairperson 1965-71 and 1971-98 Chairperson of the Central Committee for the Women's League, since 1980 Member of the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party, from 1982 Member of the Standing Committee in the Supreme People's Assembly, and considered to be domineering force and very influential. (b. 1924-).


Van Le Xuan Tran

1954-63 Partner in Power Van Le Xuan Tran in South Vietnam

In the Westen World she was also known as Mme Ngo Dinh Nhu, she was the official first-Lady during her brother-in-law, Ngo Dinh Dimen's term as Premier 1954 and President 1955-63. She was also member of the National Assembly. Ngo was deposed and killed together with her husband, Ngo Dinh Nhu, Chief of the Secret Police. She survived because she was in USA on a Public Relation Tour together with her daughter. (b. 1920-).


 

Circa 1954-? Leirojlaplap Dorothy Litarjikut of Majuro, Arno and Mili (Marshall Islands)

Married to Iroijlaplap Joba Kabua of Guajlen (Kwajalein) and mother of Amata Kabua, who was President of the Marshall Islands 1979-96.


 

1954-71 Guardian Regent Dowager H.H. Sri Badrukhanwala Maharani Malvender Kaur Sahiba of Dholpur (India)

When her husband, Maharajadhiraja Shri Sawai Maharaj Rana Sir Udai Bhan Singh, she adopted the second son of their only daughter, Maharani Urmila Devi Sahiba (1924-97) and her husband Maharaja Shri Sir Pratap Singh Malvendra Bahadur of Nabha,  Maharajadhiraja Shri Sawai Maharaj Rana Shri Hemant Singh (b. 1951-), who was recognized as the new Maharaja by the government of India in 1956 with effect from October 1954, but was deposed as "ruler" in 1971 following the new constitution. He is married to Maharajkumari Shrimant Vasundhara Raje Sahib Scindia, BJP Politician, former Union Minister of State and Chief Minister of Rajasthan since 2003. Maharani Malvender lived (1893-1981). 


1954-61 Head of the Sovereign Family HH. Princess Abigail Kapiolani Kawananakoa of Hawai’i  (USA)

Succeeded her brother Prince David, who became Head of the Royal Family in 1917 as successor to their cousin, Queen Lil’uokalani. Abigail was succeeded by son by Andrew A. Lambert, HRH Prince Edward Keliiahonui Kawananakoa, who died in 1997 and was succeeded by his son Edward J. Kawananakoa. Other relatives also claim the throne.  She lived (1903-61)


Sikrit Kitiyakara

1956 Regent H.M. Somdetch Pra Nang Chao Sirikit Phra Baromma Rajini Nath of Thailand (22.10-07.12)

Took the oath as regent before the National Assembly, as her husband, King Bhumibol, retired to do the traditional Buddhist studies. She was born as Mom Rajawong Sikrit Kitiyakara of Chandaburi - as a distant member of the royal family. Since 1956 she has had the title Somdetch Pra Nang Chao Sirikit Phra Baromma Rajini Nath (Queen Regent) and still occasionally acts as Deputy Head of State. Mother of a son and three daughters. (b. 1932).


1956-60s Politically Influential Khieu Ponnary in Cambodia

Known as "Sister Number One", she played a key role in the development of the Khmer Rouge, and was head of the Cambodian national women's association during the period 1975-1979. She was the first Cambodian woman to get a high school degree and met Pol Pot, also known as Saloth Sar, in 1951, during her studies in Paris. They married in 1956 and returned to Cambodia, where she helped him build his revolutionary ultra-communist movement, the Khmer Rouge. From the 1970s she suffered from dementia and mental illness. Her sister Khieu Ieng Thirith was Minister in the government until 1982. Ponnary lived (1920-2003).


1957-75 Joint Head of State The Ndlovukati Zihlathi Ndwandwe of Swaziland

Senior wife of King Sobhuza II. 


1957-62/80  Counsellor of State HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent, of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland

Dughter of Queen Elizabeth's late cousin, the Duke of Kent, she acted as Counsellor of State during the minority of the closest heirs to the throne, and among others special representative of the Queen at the independence Celebrations of Nigeria in 1960 and Saint Lucia 1979. Widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy (1928-2004), and mother of two children. (b. 1936-).


1957-62 Queen Dowager Doña Isabel Maria da Gama of Kongo (Angola)
1962-?75 Queen Regent

Her husband, Dom Antonio III, was king (1955-58), she succeeded him and in 1962 her son, Dom Pedro VIII Mansala, was king September-October and afterwards she took over the reigns again with the title Ntolia y aNtino ne Kongo.  Some sources claims she is still in office, others that her regency ended in 1975.


1958 Acting Chief Executive Angie Elizabeth Brook-Randolph, Liberia
1967-68 President of the United Nations-Trusteeship Council in charge of Nauru, Papua New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands Territories

1953-58 Assistant Attorney General and 1956-73 Assistant Secretary of State. In 1958 she acted as Chief Executive as both the President and the Secretary of State were abroad for some days. 1967-68 President of the United Nations-Trusteeship Council (Administering Nauru, Papua New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands Territories), 1969 and 1976 she was President of the General Assembly of the UN, 1973-75 Ambassador-at-Large, 1975-77 Ambassador to the United Nations and Cuba, and in 1977 appointed Judge in the Supreme Court. (b. 1928-).


1958 Acting Prime Minister The Hon. Ellen Lourkes Fairclough, Canada (19.02-20.02)

Progressive Conservative MP 1950-63, and has been Privy Councillor since 1957 when she became the first female member of the Government as Secretary of State for Canada, 1958-62 Minister for Citizenship and Immigration and1962-63 Postmaster General. She was appointed Acting Premier for the first of January 1958. She lived (1905-2004).


1958 Acting Prime Minister Ulla Lindström, Sweden

The longest serving Minister as Minister without Portfolio of Family Affairs 1954-66. Already in 1950 Premier Minister Tage Erlander (1946-69) wanted to appoint her as Foreign Minister, but the majority of the Social Democrats was against it. She was daughter of Nils Wohlin, Minister of Trade in the 1920s and 1928-29 for two right-wing parties. She lived (1910-99).


1958-66 (†) Politically Influential Aisha Diori in Niger

Controlled her husband, president Hamani Diori, (1916-89), like a marionette. She was killed during an attempted coup d'etat but executed Aisha. Her husband was the Prime Minister (1958-60) and the first President after Niger's independence in 1960 until he was deposed in 1974.


1959-80 Rain Queen Makoma Modjadji IV of Balobedu (South Africa)

The Queen, apart from her ruling responsibilites, has the duty of providing her nation with rain. Succeeded by daughter Mokope Modjadji V in 1981.


1959-70 Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Yadar Sadykovna Nariddinova, Uzbekistan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)

1952-59 Deputy Premier, Minister of Construction Industry in Uzbekistan, 1959-70 Vice-Chairperson of the Supreme Soviet before becoming "Head of State" of the Republic. 1970-74 she was President of the Federation Council of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. She lived (1920-2006).


Princess Regent and Ruler of the South 

1959- Mulena Mukwai  Makwibi Mwanawina, Chief of the Southern Part of Bulozi and Regent Princess of Barotseland (Zambia)

As Mulena Mukwai Mboanyikana of Libonda 1951-58, she was third-ranking in the hierarchy of the kingdom. She is daughter of Sir Mwanawina III, Litunga of the Lozi and Paramount Chief of Borotselan (1888-1948-68). Most of the year she is based at Nololo, the traditional capital of the south and second most important royal centre of Barotseland, but in the flood season, she proceeds in her own Nalikwanda barge to Muoyo on the eastern margin of the flood plain. (b. 1919-)


 

1959-68-? Manavara Upoko Tiao Campbell, The Cook Islands (New Zealand External Territory)

Inherited the title of Manavara in 1959. The mother of two daughters.
[Perhaps she is identical with Tangianau Upoko, who was born 1926 and was the Kavana and is Pava (High Chief) of Veitatei District and the Kairanga Nuku (Subchief) from 1950 and High Chief 1980-2000). Tangianau Upoko is married to Tuaere Utikere.


Sisovath Monivong Kossomak Nearieath Serey Cathana

1960-70 Ceremonial Head of State, Symbol, Incarnation and Representative of the Crown H.M. Queen Sisovath Monivong Kossomak Nearieath Serey Cathana of Cambodia (20.06-18.03)

In 1955 she was crowned with her husband King Norodom Suramit, who succeeded their son, Prince Norodom Sihanouk who had succeeded her father as king in 1941. After her husband’s death, After her husband’s death she was officially nominated as Queen Regnant in the Crown Council, but instead her son became Head of State after a referendum, and during the swearing-in ceremony in the National Assembly he declared that "The Queen Kossamak incarnate and represent the Cambodian Dynasty". She carried out the ceremonial duties and was in effect Queen Regnant without reigning. After her son was deposed in 1970 she spend the rest of her life in exile in Beijing. She lived (1904-75).  


1960-65, 1970-77 and 1994-2000 Prime Minister Hon. Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike, Sri Lanka

As Prime Minister, she also held the posts as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Defence, Finance etc. She was the world's first female Prime minister, and was born into an influential Sri Lankan family, many of whose members had been involved in politics. In 1940, in an arranged marriage, she wed the politician Solomon Bandaranaike, who was 17 years her senior. Her husband became Prime minister in 1951, but she did not take a prominent political role herself at this time. However, when a Buddhist extremist assassinated him in 1959, she campaigned to succeed him and won the ensuing election. During her second term of office her domestic policies of nationalization and social welfare proved popular with her Sinhalese compatriots, as did the creation of a Sri Lankan republic in 1972. Yet the attempt to make Sinhalese the island's official language - long a goal of her husband - alienated the Tamil minority population. Economic difficulties and charges of corruption caused her downfall in 1977. In 1980 she was convicted of abuse of power during her term as Prime minister and debarred from office for four years. 1988 Presidential Candidate and before her appointment to Prime Minister in 1994, she was Senior Minister without Portfolio (Second in Cabinet) in her daughter, Chandrika's Kumaratunge's cabinet. She was Chairperson 1960-93 and 1993-2000 President of Sri Lanka Freedom Party, 1965-70 and 1988-94 Leader of The Opposition and 1976 Chairperson of the Association of Non Aligned Nations. Two of her three children are also politicians. She lived (1916-2000).


 

1960-61 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Kapitalina Nikolayevna Kryukova, Kazakstan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)

Калима Аманкулов was Vice-Chairperson of the Presidium of the local Supreme Soviet and acting as it's chair, during a vacancy at the post, which were equivalent to that of Heads of State of the Soviet Republics, though power were vested in the First Secretary of the Communist Party.


Chief Alpha

1960-62 Chief Alphonsine Lafond, Muskeg Lake (Canada)

The first female chief of Muskeg Lake Reserve in Saskatchewan. She was Councillor 1958-60, before elected chief in an open democratic election. In 1960, the Department of Indian Affairs installed the first residential phone on the reserve in Alpha's home.  Her priorities as chief were to improve education, housing and roads. She retired in 1990, but was a member of the education and housing committees as an Elder until her death. She lived (1926-2000).


 

1960-62 Chief Mary Louise Bernard, of the Lennox-Island Confederacy of Indian Nations in Nova Scotia (Canada)

Throughout many years Chief of the Wagmatcook First Nation - or band, and involved in the Confederacy politics.


 

Until 1960s Sachem Elizabeth Sakaskantawe Brown of the he Quinnipiac in Totoket (Branford in Conneticut) (USA)

The last hereditary matriarch; and she was related to the last Sachems of Mioonkhtuck James Mah-wee-yeuh. Married three times and lived (1850s-1960s)


1960-93 Partner in Power Mama Cecilia Tamanda Kadzamia in Malawi

Functioned as secretary, partner and hostess of President Hastings K. Bandas (1896-1997) and very influential. From the late 1980s Bandas became unceasingly senile, and she is believed to have been the real person in power. From 1986 President of Malawi's Women's Organization.


1960-95 Head of the Princely Family H.H. Sikander Saulat Iftikhar ul-Mulk Haji Nawab Mehr Tai Sajida Sultan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)

Recognized by the Government of India as ruler of Bhopal, at the 13. of January 1961 with effect from 4. February 1960, as her older sister, Abaida Sultan had emmigrated to Pakistan. After her husband, Muhammed Iftikhar Ali Khan of Pataudi (1910-1917-52) was killed in a polo-accident, she was regent for her son Mansur Ali Khan (b. 1941), who was captain of the Indian Cricket team 1960-75. Under the name of Begum Sajida Sultan, she was member of the Indian Parliament for Bhopal 1957-62. Succeeded by grandson, and lived (1915-95).


Her Imperial Princess Tenagnework Haile Selassie

1961-74 Politically Influential H.I.H. Princess Tenagnework Haile Selassie of Ethiopia

After the death of her mother Empress Menen she became the most visible and foremost woman at the Imperial court. She played an ever-increasing advisory role. The Princess was one of the few people who were able to freely offer criticism of official policy to the Emperor, and was often a conduit of various points of view to the Emperor when those offering opinions were too intimidated by the Emperor to offer them themselves. A strong personality with conservative views, she was widely regarded as being a guardian of the institution of the monarchy, and was concerned that it be upheld in an era of rapid and often unpredictable change. She was perceived as a leader of the traditionalist element within the nobility that was very wary of demands for constitutional reform and land reform policies. After the revolution, the women of the Imperial House were imprisoned 1974-89, and one year later she left the country. She returned to Ethiopia in 1999. She was First married to Ras Desta Damtew, Governor of the Province of Sidamo. Secondly to Ato Abebe Retta, who later served in ambassadorial and other roles in the post-war Imperial government, and would eventually become President of the Imperial Senate after their separation and thirdly to Ras Andargatchew Messai, who had been representative for the underage Prince Makonnen in his Duchy of Harrar. He was appointed Governor-General of Beghemidir and Simien Province and in 1951 vice-roy of Ethiopia. Mother of seven children with her two first husbands, and lived (1912-2003).


1961- Head of the Princely Family H.H. Maharani Ushadevi Holkar of Indore (India)

Her full title is H.H. Maharanidhiraja Rani Rajeshwar Sawai Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur. She had been declared Heir-Apparent, in preference to her only brother, Prince Richard Holkars, whose mother was American, by special gazette of the Government of India, 1950. Like all the other royals she was deprived of her rank, titles and honours by the government in 1971. Married to the industrialist Shrimant Sardar Satish Chandra Malhotra and mother of 2 sons and 2 or 3 daughters. (b. 1933-).


1961-99 Paramount Chief Madam Honoraria Bailor Caulker of (Sierra Leone)

Member of the National Advisory Council and later of the National Reformation Council from 1961. President of the Women's Action for New Directions. This system of "politricks" was deeply rooted in Kagboro Chiefdom, and brought multiple disputes and enquiries between the Paramount Chief and the Chiefdom Speaker, the tribal councilors and the Temne of Plantain Island. In 1962, most of the Ghanaian fishermen moved from Shenge, but there seemed to be an insoluble cold war between the Temnes and those Ghanaians who had chosen to stay behind, and between the Members of Parliament and the Paramount Chief. Each had strong political backing. In the late 1970’s, Shenge was once again destroyed and several historic buildings, including her compound. During the Rebel War of 1990-2001, the she was forced into hiding in the bush, but was later able to flee to the United States, where she died in 1999.
Her death created another round of complete chaos within the
Caulker family. There was no semblance of unity.
Her grandmother Madam Sophia Neale-Caulker was Paramount Chief 1898-1909. Honoraria lived (1922-99)


1962-63 President of the Narodna Skubscina Vida Tomsic, Slovenia (Autonomous Republic in the Soviet Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)

In 1945-46 she was Minister for Social Politics and in the 1950s Member of the Executive Council and during her first tenure as President of the Parliament she was also "Head of State". During her second period as President of the Narodna Skubscina 1974-78, the President of the Presidency of the state filled this position. (b.1913-).


 

1962-69 Regent Princess Maria Molinas Bertoleoni of Tavolara (Italy)

Laid claim to the throne at a time when her cousin, King Carlos II, also claimed the crown. The same year a NATO station was installed at the Island, the effective end of Tavolaran sovereignty. She was daughter of the former regent, Princess Mariangela and Bachisio Molinas, and lived (1869-1969)


 

1963-83 Paramount Chief Madam Boi Sei Kenja III of Imperi (Sierra Leone)

Her chiefdom covered 93 Chiefs. She was succeeded by Chief Hawa Kpanabon Sokan IV


 

Around 1963 Paramount Chief Madam Kadiyatta Gata of Jong (Sierra Leone)

Head of 172 Chiefs.


 

Around 1963 Paramount Chief Madam Tiange Gbatekaka of Gaura (Sierra Leone)

Head of 195 chiefs.


 

Circa 1963-96 Paramount Chief Madam Benya of Small Bo (Sierra Leone)

She was head of 235 chiefs in the Blama District. Because of the civil war, and Mohamed Benya was not elected chief until 2003.


 

Circa 1963 Paramount Chief Madam Mammawa Sama of Tunkia (Sierra Leone)

Traced her lineage to the founder of the chiefdom, Amara Sama.


Claudia "Ladybird" Taylor Johnson

1963-69 Politically Influential First Lady Lady Bird Johnson, United States of America

Played a key role during the term of office of her husband, Lyndon Baines Johnson, who became President when John F Kennedy was assassinated. Despite her unassuming manner, she played a key part in her husband's ascension to the presidency; and her interest in social, political and environmental problems made her one of the most influential First Ladies since Eleanor Roosevelt. In 1968, she persuaded her husband not to run for a second term; his dramatic television announcement shocked the nation, and he died of another hart attack in 1973. She was a journalist and owned a radio and tv-station in Texas. Born Claudia Alta Taylor, whe was given the nickname of Lady Bird by a nursemaid. She was mother of 2 daughters and lived (1912-2007).


1964-68 Administrator Ruth Gill Van Cleve of the United Nations Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands [USA]

Director of the Office of the Territories in the United State Department of the Interior, which administered the Pacific Island Territory for the United Nation. The territory included The Commonwealth of the Federated States of the Northern Mariana Islands, which remains an US external Territory. 


 

1964-71 22nd Tenant Susan Summers Faed, Jetohou (Bailiwick of Guernsey, British Crown Dependency)

Together with her husband, Angus Faed, and their four children she inhabited Jethou, which is a part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey in The Channel Islands, which are British Islands, but not part of the United Kingdom; they are dependencies of the British Crown, lacking full sovereignty.


1964-69 Independence Leader, Head of the Shan State War Council Sao Nang Hearn Kham, the Mahadevi of Yawnghwe (Burma)
Given in marriage to Prince Shwe Thaike of Yawnghwe in 1937. The following year, she was recognized as Mahadevi (Chief Queen). Following independence in 1948, her husband became President of Burma  (1948-52). She was elected to Parliament in 1956. In 1961, Prince Shwe Thaike led talks to reform the Burmese constitution to accommodate distinct ethnic groups like the Shan and Karen. The next year, General Ne Win staged his second coup and Sao's husband died in jail. She then fled to the Thai border region where she headed the Shan State War Council until going into exile in Canada in 1969. She lived (1915-2005).

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela

1964-89 Anti-Apartheid Leader Nomzano Winnie Mandela in South Africa

During the imprisonment of her husband, Nelson Mandela (1964-89) she was known as "Mother of the Nation" and among the leaders of the Anti-Apartheid Movement and ANC. She also was President of the Women’s Wing of ANC, 1994-95 she was Deputy Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. In 1997 she withdrew her candidature for the post of vice-President of ANC (and of the Republic) after revelations of her involvement in killings during Apartheid.  Since the divorce from Nelson Mandela in 1995 she has been known as Madikizela-Mandela.  (b. 1934-).


1965-87 Partner in Power Imelda Ramúaldez Marcos in The Philippines

Very influential during her husband, Ferdinand Marcos's tenure as President and later dictator. In exile in Hawai'i after 1987, where her husband died. She was Governor of Manila 1975-86, Secretary of Resettlement 1978-84, Secretary of Ecology 1978-83, Member of Executive Council of Cabinet 1982-84, and Leader New Society Movement Party 1987-1993. She was Presidential candidate in 1992 and 1998, when she withdrew her candidature before the elections   but was elected to the House of Representatives. (b. 1927-).


1965- Temporary Rigsforstander HRH Princess Benedikte of Denmark

Became a member of the Council of State by the age of 21 and has acted as regent (Rigsforstander) first in the place of her father and then for her sister, Queen Margrethe 2, whey they were abroad - alternating with Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim of Denmark, since they came of age. Princess Benedikte is married to HH Prince Richard zu Sayn- Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives in Germany. Mother of 3 children. (b. 1944-).


1965- Temporary Regent H.M. Queen Halaevalu Mata’aho of Tonga
1998 (8.5-14.5) Queen Regnant
1999 (-30.4-) Queen Regnant

Has acted as regent on several occasions trough the reign of her husband king Taf’ahau Toupu IV (1918-65-2006), on occations when he was aboard. Born as Princess Halaevalu Mata'aho Ahomee. (b. 1926-).


 

1965- Titular Queen Ampanjaka Soazara of Boina (Madagascar)

Great-granddaughter of Queen Tsiomeko (1836-40) and head of the Kamany-Dynasty that still rules the Menabe. And she governs the Boina population at the Northern tip of the Sakalava territory. She still retains an important place in the tradition and respect of customs and habits. And despite modernisation and the exodus of her subjects to the centre of the country, she maintains an important traditional authority, all the more so because the area is isolated.


 

1965 or 1985-circa 1990 Symbol of the Monarchy Andi Tenri Padang Opu Datu of Luwu (Indonesia)

Took the role after the death of her husband since 1944, Datu Andi Jemma Barue. She was daughter of Arumpone Andi Mappanyuki of Bone (d. 1967), who ruled in Suppa as Datu 1900-1905 and 1931-1946 and 1957-1960 as area chief. (d. circa 1990).


1966-77 and 1980-84 (†) Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, India

President 1959-60 and 1966-77 Leader of the Congress Party. She was Minister of Information 1964-66 and member of Rajya Sabha 1964-67 and of Lok Sabha 1967-77, 1978 and 1980-84. In 1975 she declared a stated of emergency and ruled as a dictator. As Prime Minister she held a number of other portfolios. She lost the 1977-elections and was imprisoned. She was remarkable for her ambition for personal power, her endurance and political tenacity. On a world front she insisted on India's independence, gradually loosening the ties with the USSR developed in the early 1970s when China seemed menacing, and was a forceful spokeswomen for the rights of poorer nations. Her ruthless and autocratic methods were often at variance with her democratic principles and she continued to face determined opposition in India, especially in 1983 and early 1984 when in response to disturbances among Sikhs in the Punjab she sent in government troops, who sacked the Golden Temple of Amritsar. She was assassinated in the garden of her official residence in New Delhi by two Sikh bodyguards, and India was plunged into sectarian violence, during which over 1000 people died. Her son Rajiv Gandhi was immediately sworn in as Prime Minister. She lived (1917-84).


1966-2006 The Maori Queen Te Ata-i Rangi-Kaahu Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau in New Zealand  

Also known as Te Arikinui Te Ātairangikaahu te Kuīni Māori or Te Arikinui Dame Te Atairangikaahu, she was usually addressed as Te Arikinui, or Dame Te Ata, and was Queen or Kingitanga of the Tainui and Ariki nui (Paramount Chief) of the other Maori Groups and Tribes. A direct descendant of the first Màori King, Pòtatau Te Wherowhero, and daughter of King Korokì V. Her role was only titular, but she was very influential and hosted many royal and diplomatic visitors to New Zealand, and she represented her people at state events overseas. She supported both traditional and contemporary Màori arts, and urged her people to pursue quality and excellence in everything they did, from sports to tribal enterprise and national management, and attended 28 Poukai (formal Maori assemblies) each year. She had expressed to the wish to be succeeded by her oldest child, Princess Heeni Katipa, but the tribes elected her third child and oldest son as king. Born as Piki Paki (nee Mahuta), she was mother of 5 daughters and 2 sons, and lived (1932-2006).


 

1966-72 Joint Regent HRH Queen Mother Nyamusinga Christine Mukirania of Rwenzururu (Uganda)

Member of the Advisory Committee of the King's Council from 2009. Rwenzururu was established in the 1962 as the result of a secessionist movement by the Bakonjo people in the mountainous region of western Uganda. The revolt was led by her husband Isaya Mukirane, who was recognized as the region's king. After his death, she was regent for her 13 year old son, Charles Mumbere, who was deposed in 1982 and spend 25 yeas as a nurse in USA before beening reinstated by the Ugandan Government.


Lady Ruth Khama

1966-80 Politically Influential Lady Ruth Williams Khama, Botswana

Influential during the tenure of her husband, Sir Seretse Khama as President. He had been Paramount Chief of Bamagwato (1949-56), but was not recognized by the British protectorate authority and lived i exile until he renounced his claims in 1956. He lived (1921-80). Their son, Seretse Khama Ian Khama, the Paramount Chief of the Bamangwato tribe vas Vice-President 1998-2008 and President from 2008. She lived (1924-2002).


1967-72 Governor The Hon. Dr. Dame Hilda Bynoe, The Associated States of Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique (British Dependency)     

A former doctor and Hospital Administrator she is so far the only woman to have been governor of one of the British Dependencies. She lived (1921-2013)


1967-68 and 1971 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Verkhovny Sovet Valentina Alekseyevna Klochkova, Belarus (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)

First Secretary of the District Party Committee Postavski 1970-78, Deputy Chairperson of the Supreme Soviet of USSA from 1974,  1. Vice Chairperson of the Soviet of Belarus 1978-1980. (b. 1924-).


1967-69 Premier Minister Savka Dabčević-Kúčar of Croatia (Yugoslavia)
1969-70 Leader of Communist Party in Croatia

Marshall Tito dismissed Dabcevic-Kucar as CP-leader because he considered her views too liberal, 1970-71 Co-Leader of the Croatian Spring- movement, from 1990 Chairperson of the Democratic Party and 1992 Presidential Candidate. She lived (1923-2009).


1967-89 (†) Partner in Power Dr. Elena Ceauşescu, Romania    

For many years she was de-facto second in command after her husband Nicolai Ceauşescu, who was Head of State and the Communist Party (1967-89), and as he got more and more ill throughout the 1980s she became de-facto leader of the country, and considered his most likely successor. She was Member of the Politburo 1973-89, Minister and Chairperson of the Academy of Science and first Vice-Chairperson of the Council of Ministers and 1979-89. They were both executed during the December-revolution of 1989. She lived  (1919-89).


Betty Mae Jumper

1967-71 Head of the Tribal Council Chief Betty Mae Jumper of the Seminole Nation (USA)

In the Seminole Nation the clans are perpetuated trough women. She was elected the first female chief and her main concern was to raise the living standards of her tribe trough education. (b. 1923-).


1967- "Princess Joan I Bates of Sealand"

In 1942 Britain constructed a base consisting of concrete and steel outside British territorial waters. The fort was abandoned after World War II, and on 2nd of September Roy I Bates created the Principality of Sealand, and proclamed himself and his wife as joint rulers. (b. 1929-).


31.10.1968-24.02.72 Acting Head of State Song Qingling, China
(06.07.1976-05.03.78 Acting Head of State)
1979-1980 "Honorary President"

Born into a rich Christian family, she was educated in the USA. In 1927-29 she was member of Government Council, 1929-49 Leader of Opposition against her brother-in-Law President Chiang Kai-chek and 1948 Honorary Chairperson of the Kuomintang, 1949-54 Deputy Premier Minister, 1954-59 Vice-Chairperson of The Peoples' Republic (Deputy Head of State), 1954-76 and 1975-78 Vice-Chairperson of the National People’s Congress, Vice-Chairperson of China People’s Consultative Consultative Conference, CPPCC. In 1968-74 the Post of Chair of the Republic was vacant and she and the other Vice-Chairperson, Dong Biw shared the Presidential Powers. In 1976 the Chairperson of the NPC died and the 21 vice-chairmen, including Song, acted as collective heads of state until 1978 when a replacement was elected. 1980 she was Chairperson of the 3rd Session of the National People’s Congress. Soong Qingling was widow of Sun Yat-Sen, Provisoric President of China in 1911. She lived (1893-1981).


Bozena Machacova-Dastalova

1968 De facto Acting Prime Minister Bozena Machácová-Dastálová, Czechoslovakia (circa 22.08-28.08)

When Soviet army invaded Czechoslovakia on Aug. 21st 1968, they captured, imprisoned and later deported to Moscow the Prime Minister Oldrich Cernik. All the Vice Premier Ministers escaped the captivity and were hiding themselves. National Assembly put her in charge of Cabinet meetings. She was not Premier Minister "de iure" (did not have official appointment by President - because he was also deported to Moscow), only "de facto". After the return of deported politicians on around August 28th all portfolios returned to pre-occupation period. She was Minister of Agricultural Production 1954 and minister of Minister of Consumer Industry until 1968. She lived (1903-73).


1968-72 Chief Secretary of the Communist Party Dr. Latinka Petrovic, Serbia (Yugoslavia)

President of the Commission for Ideological Work of the Yugoslav Central Committee 1965-66, and Secretary of the same Committee for re-organization 1966-68. Member of the Serbian Central Committee. Like her colleague in Croatia, Savka Dabcevic-Kúcar she was removed from office because Tito considered her views too liberal. (b. 1933-).


 

1968-75 Reigning Queen Mother Mankopodi of baPedi (South Africa)

Reigned during the minority of her son, but was deposed by the Royal Council, as a  result of a dispute. (d. late 1970's).


1969- Paramount Chief Theresa Vibbi III of Kandu Leppiama, Gbadu Levuma (Kenema District) (Sierra Leone)

Fled the chiefdom 1997-99 during the civil war.


1968-96 (†) Partner in Power Siti Hartinah, Indonesia

Also Known as Ibu Tien (Mother Tien), she was the most loyal aide and the closest and most influential advisor of her husband, President Suharto. She was known to express preferences as well as dislikes toward certain cabinet ministers, often connected with their personal lives. She was known as "Madame Ten Percent", because of her corruption. Born as Princess of Mangkunegara in Surakarta, Central Java, and lived (1923-96).


1969-74 Minister President Golda Meïr, Israel

1946-48 Acting head of the political department of the Jewish Agency, 1948-49 Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Minister of Labour and National Insurance 1949-56, Minister of Foreign Affairs 1956-66 when she became Secretary-General first of Mapai and then of the newly formed "Alignment" (made up of three Labour factions). Upon the death of Prime Minister Levi Eshkol in 1969, she was chosen to succeed him as the  "consensus candidate". In the October 1969 elections, she led her party to victory. Shortly after she took office, the War of Attrition - sporadic military actions along the Suez Canal, which escalated into full-scale war - ended in a cease-fire agreement with Egypt. Though the cease-fire was broken time and again by the advancement of Egyptian missiles on the Suez Canal front, it did bring a three-year period of tranquillity, shattered only in October 1973 by the Yom Kippur War. As Prime Minister, Golda Meir concentrated much of her energies on the diplomatic front - artfully mixing personal diplomacy with skilful use of the mass media. Armed with an iron will, a warm personality and grandmotherly image, simple but highly effective rhetoric and a "shopping list," she successfully solicited financial and military aid in unprecedented measure. She showed strong leadership during the surprise attack of the Yom Kippur War, securing an American airlift of arms while standing firm on the terms of disengagement-of-forces negotiations and rapid return of POWs. After she led her party to victory in the December 1973 elections, she resigned in mid-1974. She was born in Russia as Golda Mabovic and later immigrated to USA. Mother of two children and she lived (1898-1978).


1969-71 Administrator Elizabeth P. Farrington of the United Nations Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands [USA]

Director of the Office of the Territories in the United State Department of the Interior that administered the Pacific Island Territory for the United Nation.


1969-94 Dwabenhemaa Nana Akosua Akyaamaa II of Dwaben (Ghana)

Also known as Nana Akosua Domtie, she succeeded Nana Dwaben Serwaa II, who abdicated in that year. Her daughter, Nana Akosua Akyaamaa III, succeeded her on the Queenship throne of Dwaben and her son, Nana Otuo Serebour II, is the present King of Dwaben.


Last update 14.04.14

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