Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

FEMALE PRESIDENTS


Also see Chronological List of Female Presidents,
Woman Heads of State and Government
and Woman Premier Ministers


06.04.1940-11.10.1944 Head of State Khertek Anchimaa-Toka, People's Republic of Tannu Tuva

As Chairperson of the Presidium of the Parliament, the Little Hüral, Khertek Amyrbitovna was the Head of the state which became Independent in 1921, a People's Republic in 1926, was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1944. She had held various jobs in local administration and the party administration, Chairperson of the Women Department of the Central Committee of  the Tuvinian People's Revolutionary Party 1938-1940. Married to the First Secretary of the TPRP, Salchak Kalbakkhorekovich Toka in 1940, Deputy Chairperson of Oblast Executive Committee 1944-1961 and Deputy Chairperson of the Council of Ministers of Tuva 1961-1972. She lived (1912-2008).


Sühbaataryn Nemendeyen  Yanjmaa

23.09.1953-07.07.1954 Acting Head of State Sühbaataryn Yanjmaa, Mongolia 

Member of the Politburo of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) 1940-54, Secretary of the Central Committee of the MPRP 1941-47, member of the Presidium of the Little Hüral 1940-50 and of the People's Great Hüral 1950-62. She was the widow of the great national hero Damdiny Sühbaatar (1893-1923) and as 1. Deputy Chair of the Great Hüral since 1950, she took over during a vacancy on the post of Head of State and Chairperson of the Hüral. Born as Nemendeyen Yanjmaa and lived (1893-1963).


31.10.1968-24.02.1972 Acting Head of State Song Qingling, China
06.07.1976-05.03.78 Joint Acting Head of State
1979-1980 "Honorary President"

Born into a rich Christian family, she was educated in the USA. In 1927-29 Member of Government Council, 1929-49 Leader of Opposition against her brother-in-Law President Chiang Kai-chek and 1948 Honorary Chairperson of the Kuomintang, 1949-54 Deputy Premier Minister, 1954-59 Vice-Chairperson of The Peoples' Republic (Deputy Head of State), 1954-76 and 1975-78 Vice-Chairperson of the National People’s Congress, Vice-Chairperson of China People’s Consultative Consultative Conference, CPPCC. In 1968-74 the Post of Chair of the Republic was vacant and she and the other Vice-Chairperson, Dong Bow shared the Presidential Powers. In 1976 the Chairman of the NPC died and the 21 vice-chairmen, including Song, acted as collective heads of state until 1978 when a replacement was elected. 1980 she was Chairperson of the 3rd Session of the National People’s Congress. Soong Qingling was widow of Sun Yat-Sen, Provisoric President of China in 1911. Her sister Soong May-ling (b. 1897) played a crucial role as wife of Chiang Kai-chek, President of China till 1945 and of Taiwan 1945-75. And her brother, T. V. Soong, was Premier Minister in Taiwan. A third sister was a business magnate. She lived (1893-1981).


01.07.1974- 24.03.1976 Executive President Maria Estella Martínez de Perón, Argentina 

Isabel Peron was Vice-President and President of the Senate 1973-74. As Executive President she was also head of the Cabinet. Chairperson of Partido Justicial, The Peronist party 1974-85, removed by a coup d'état and in Prison 1976-78, Exile in Spain 1981-93. She was married to General Juan Peron, who was President two times. (b. 1931-).

17.11.1979-18.07.1980 Interim Executive President Lydia Gueiler Tejada, Bolivia 

As President she was also Head of the Cabinet. Lidia Gueiler was member of Parliament 1956-64 and afterwards in exile for 15 years. Circa 1978 Subsecretary for Agriculture, 1978 President of Camera de Diputados. Acting President of the Congress and acting Deputy Head of State 1978-79.She was President of Partido Revolucionario de los Izquierda Nazional Gueiler 1979-94, Exile in France 1980-82, Ambassador in Embassy to West Germany 1982-83, and to Venezuela 1983-86 and since 1993 She was deposed by the 129th Coup d'état in the history of Bolivia, shortly before elections was due. She lived (1921-2011).


01.08.1980-01.08.1996 President Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, Iceland 

In 1972-80 Director of Iceland’s National Theatre was the world’s first democratically elected female President. Since 1996 she has been involved in a wide range of international humanitarian and cultural organizations. She was a divorcee and mother of an adopted a daughter. (b.1930-).


01.04-01.10.1981 Captain Regent Maria Lea Pedini Angelini, San Marino 

Every 6th month The Consiglio Grande e Generale elects two Captain Regents, who acts as heads of State and Government and as Chairmen of the Consiglio Grande e Generale. From circa 1991 she has been Director in Ministry of Government and Foreign Affairs, since 1995 Ambassador in the Ministry to Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland etc. (b. 1954- ).


15.02.1982-15.02.1987 President Agatha Barbara, Malta 
Labour M.P 1947-82 and for long periods the only woman in Parliament. Minister of Education and Culture 1955-58 and 1971-74 Labour, Welfare and Culture (Third in Cabinet) 1974-81. In the last period she was Acting Prime Minister on various brief occasions. She resigned as President 2 years ahead of time because Labour lost the 1987-elections. She lived (1923-2002).  

01.04.1984-01.10.1984 and 01.10.1989-01.04.90 Captain Regent Gloriana Ranocchini, San Marino 

Member of the Parliament. (b. 1957-).


14.05-16.05.1984 Acting Head of State Carmen Pereira, Guinea Bissau 
Has been Member of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) since 1962 and later Political Commissioner for the Southern Front, and only female member of the 24 members Committee Executivo da Luta (CEL). In 1973-84 Deputy President of Assembléia Nacional Popular, 1975-80 President of the Parliament of Cap Verde (which was in union with Guinea Bissau at the time) 1981-83 Minister of Health and Social Affairs 1984-89 President of Assembléia Nacional Popular, 1989-94 Member the Council of State and 1990-91 Minister of State (Deputy Premier) for Social Affairs. She acted as head of state after João Bernardo Viera, Head of state since 1980, was elected President in 1984. In 1999 he was deposed after a military coup d'état. (b. 1937-).

25.2.1986-30.06.1992 Executive President Maria Corazón Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino, The Philippines  
Cory Aquino became leader of the opposition after the murder of her husband Ninoi Aquino in 1986, and was brought to power by the so-called "People Power", which protested about President Marcos's attempts to remain in power. She was also Head of the Cabinet. 1998 among the senior advisors of the new President Estrada. During her term in office she fought off 8 attempted coup d'états. Constitutionally barred from running for re-election. Mother of 4 children. She lived (1933-2009).

13.03.1990-07.02.1991 Acting President Ertha Pascal-Trouillot, Haiti 

She was the first female High Court Judge 1986-90, and became acting President during the turbulent political situation in Haiti in a period where one Coup d'état followed the other. She was held hostage on one occasion by soldiers attempting a coup. (b. 1943-).

05.04.1990-02.10.1990 Acting Head of State Dr. Sabine Bergmann-Pohl, East-Germany 

As President of the People's Chamber she was acting as the last Head of State of the German Democratic Republic, DDR/GDR before the reunification. After the reunification she was Federal Minister without Portfolio for the New Bundesstates 1990-91, Parliamentary State Secretary of Health 1991-98 and member of the Bundestag 1998-2002. Mother of two children.  (b. 1946-).


25.04.1990-10.01.1997 Executive President Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, Nicaragua
In 1979 Doña Violeta was member of the Ruling Junta after the overthrow of the Somoza-dictatorship but left because of disagreement with the Sandinistas. Between 1979-90 Publisher of the opposition newspaper La Prensa after the murder of her husband, opposition leader Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal. As Executive President she was also Head of the Cabinet and Minister of Defence. She did not run for re-election. (b. 1929- ).

03.12.1990-12.09.1997 President Mary Robinson, Ireland 

In 1969 she was appointed Professor of Law, 1970-90 she was Labour-senator. She did not run for re-election. From 1997 she has been Assistant Secretary General and United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights. Mother of two children. (b. 1944-).

01.10.1991-01.04.1992 Captain Regent Edda Ceccoli, San Marino 
Member of the leadership of Partito Democratico Cristano Sammarinese.

01.04.1993-01.10.1993 Captain Regent Patrizia Busignani, San Marino 

1983-90 President of Partito Socialista Unitario. From around 1997 she was Chief of the Parliamentary Group of Socialisti per le Riforme. In March 2006 she was candidate for the post for the period starting in April 2006.


27.10.1993-05.02.1994 Acting Head of State Sylvie Kinigi, Burundi 

By the time of her appointment as Premier she was Head of the Economic Planning Office in the President’s Office. During the Civil War the President was killed and as the highest ranking remaining official, she became Acting President (27.10.93-5.2.94). After her resignation, she left politics and joined the Burundi’s Commercial Bank. (b. 1952-).


14.11.1994-19.11.2005 Executive President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, Sri Lanka 

Vice-President 1984-86 and President of Sri Lanka Maha Jana Party 1984-86, Leader of United Socialist Alliance 1988 and since 1993 Leader of People’s Alliance and Deputy Leader of Sri Lanka Freedom Party, 1993-94 Chief Minister of the Colombo Province and in a few months in 1994 Prime Minister. As Executive President she was also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and held the Portfolio of Defence and Finance and Planning 1994-2001 and was Minister of Defence, Information and Interior from November 2003. She is the first person in the world to be daughter of two premier ministers, Solomon and Sirivamo Bandaranaike and the first to have appointed her mother to the post of Prime Minister. Her husband politician Vijaya K. was assassinated 1988, and during the Presidential campaign in 2000 she survived an assassination-attempt but lost vision in one eye. She was not allowed to stand for re-election in 2005. She is mother of 2 children. (b. 1945-).


03.09.1996-02.08.1997 Chairman of the Council of State Ruth Sando Perry, Liberia 

1985-96 senator. Appointed to chair the Council of State preparing the transfer to democracy after many years of civil war. From 1999 Ruth Perry was 1. Vice-Chairperson of the Organization for African Unity. (b. 1939-).


09.02.1997-11.02.1997 Acting Executive President Rosalia Arteaga Serrano de Fernández de Córdova, Ecuador

A former minister, she was Vice-President 1994-98 and Presidential Candidate in 1998. She was inaugurated as Acting President after her predecessor was removed from office but two days after the Congress nominated someone else. As Executive President she was also Head of the Cabinet. Presidential Candidate in 1997. (b. 1953-).


11.11.1997-11.11.2011 President Mary McAleese, Ireland 

Professor of Law and 1993-97 Pro-chancellor of University of Belfast, the first person from Northern Ireland to be elected President of Ireland. During the 1997-elections 5 candidates were female and there was only one token male candidates finishing a distant last. 2004 she was returned unopposed for a second term. (b. 1951-).


19.12.1997-11.08.99 Executive President Janet Jagan, Guyana 

Her country's first white and first female President and was executive President but worked together with the Prime Minister. 1950-90 she held leading posts in the Progressive People's Party, PPP, 1953 Deputy President of the National Assembly, 1954 imprisoned by the British authorities for her activities for independence 1957-61. Minister of Labour, Health and Housing, 1963-64 Minister of Home Affairs (Senator), 1973-97 Editor-in-Chief of The Mirror, 1993 Acting Permanent Representative to the United Nations. In 1997 her husband, President Dr. Cheddi Bharat Jagan, died, and she was chosen to replace the Premier, who had become President. Janet was chosen as her party's candidate in the following Presidential elections. She was in office until July 1999 when she suffered a mild hart attack and chose to resign from her post 3 years ahead of time. Born as Janet Rosenberg in Chicago, mother of two children and lived (1920-2009).


01.01.1999-31.12.1999 President of the Confederation Ruth Dreifuss, Switzerland 
A former trade union-leader, she was Councillor of Interior in 1992-2002 and Vice-President 1998-99. (b. 1939-).

01.04.1999-01.10.1999 and 01.04.2008-01.10.2008 Captain Regent Rosa Zafferani, San Marino 

Director in the Department of Finance, Budget and Programs before she was elected to the Consiglio Grande e Generale in 1998. Secretary of State of Health, Social Security and Provision 2002-04, Secretary of State of Public Education, University and Cultural Institutions from 2004 and 2005-06 also in charge of Internal Affairs. (b. 1960 in USA).


08.07.1999-08.07.2007 President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Latvia

Born in Latvia and grew up in refugee camps in Germany, went to school in French Morocco, University studies in Canada. Retired from the Universite de Montreal in 1998, after being a professor of psychology there since 1965 and involved in various scientific and administrative committees, among others as Vice-Chairperson of the Science Council of Canada. She moved to Latvia as Director of the newly created Latvian Institute in Riga. Candidate for the Post of Secretary General of the United Nations in 2006. Married to her fellow countryman, Imants Freibergs, also exiled in Canada, who moved to Latvia in October 1999. Mother of a son and a daughter. (b. 1937-).


01.09.1999-01.09.2004 Executive President Mireya Moscoso Rodrígez, Panama 

Since 1991 President of the Arnolfist Party (now Panameñista), 1994 Presidential Candidate. As Executive President she is also head of the Cabinet, and she is the first female President to have officially appointed a First Lady - her sister, Ruby Moscoso de Young. She was constitutionally barred from running for re-election. Mireya was first married to President Arnulfo Arias Madrid (1901-88) who was President of Panama 1940-41, 1949-51 and 1968. Married to Mr. Gruber 1991-97 and mother of an adopted a child. (b. 1946-).


01.03.2000-01.03.2012 President Tarja Halonen, Finland 

Member of Parliament 1979-2000, 1984-87 Chairperson of the Social Affairs Committee and Member of the Presidium of the Parliament, 1987-1990 Second Minister of Health and Social Affairs (Health Minister) and 1989-1991 Minister of Nordic Co-operation, 1989-91 Co-leader of Soumen Sosialidemokraattinen Pulolue, The Social Democrats. 1990-1991 Minister of Justice 1995-2000 Minister of Foreign Affairs. The position as President is very powerful - especially concerning foreign politics. Mother of one daughter. In August 2000 she married her partner trough a decade, Pentti Arajärvi. They did not live together before they moved into the Presidential palace. Mother of one daughter. (b. 1943-).


01.04.2000-01.10.2000 Capitano Reggente Maria Domenica Michelotti, San Marino 

Former lecturer at San Marino University and Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale since 1998.  She is widow and her married name was Casadei Michelotti. Mother of two girls (b. 1952-).


20.01.2001-30.06.2010 Executive President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, The Philippines 

As executive GMA is also Head of the Cabinet. 1987-1989 she was Assistant Secretary and 1989-92 Undersecretary of Trade and Industry and Senator 1992-98. Secretary of Social Development and Welfare 1998-2000 and The President charged her with the leadership of the Cabinet Meetings. In 2000 she resigned from her cabinet-post after President Estrada was accused of accusations. In January 2001 he was forced to vacate the presidency and she succeeded him. 2002 and 2003 also Minister of Foreign Affairs and 2003 and 2006-07 Minister of Defence. 2004 she was re-elected to the post of President. In 2011 she was arrested on charges for electoral fraud. Daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal and Dr. Evangeline Macaraeg-Macapagal, mother of two sons and a daughter (b. 1947-).  


23.07.2001-20.10.2004 Executive President Megawati Sukarnoputri, Indonesia

When Megawati Setyawati Soekarnoputri became leader of the Democratic Party in 1993, she triggered the opposition against President Quarto. In 1999 her party won the most seats in the Parliament, but Abdulrahman Wahid was elected President. This caused serious riots all over the country and she was elected vice-President the following day. In August 2000 the ailing President Wahid charged her with the running of the daily business of the government and state and she chaired the cabinet meetings. At the 23rd of July he was ousted and she inaugurated as President. In 2004 she lost her bid for re-election. Ibu Mega, as she is known, is daughter of Indonesia's founding father Sukarno, is married for the 3rd time and mother of 3 children. (b. 1946-).


30.12.2002-04.02.2004 Acting President Natasa Micic, Serbia 

As President of the Assembly since 2001, she became Acting President since the attempt to elect a President failed twice. She continued her duties as Chairperson of the Parliament.  (b.1965-).


  

01.10.2003-31.03.2004 Capitano Reggente Valeria Ciavatta, San Marino
01.04.2014-10.10.2014 Capitano Reggente

Member of the Grand and General Council for the Alianza Populare since 1993 and Chairperson of the Council Group 2002-05, Party President 2006, Minister of Minister of Internal Affairs and Civil Protection and Accomplishment of the Programme 2006-12. As Captain Regent, she was joint head of a state with a man, and also President of the Parliament and Head of Government. Mother of twins. (b. 1959-).


 

23.11.2003-25.01.2004 Acting Executive President Nino Burjanadze, Georgia
25.11.2007-20.01.2008 Acting Executive President

As Chairperson of the Parliament 2001-08 she took over after former President Eduard Shevardnadze was forced to resign as result of a "velvet revolution" after he rigged the parliamentary elections and in 2007 she aced as President again as the incumbent, Mikheil Saakashvili, resigned to run in the January 2008-elections. President of Burjanadze-Democrats 2003-08 and of Democratic Movement - United Georgia since 2008 and Presidential Candidate in 2013. Her full name is Nino Anzoris asuli Burjanadze, and her surname is also transcribed as Burdzhanadze. Mother of two children. (b. 1964-).


06.07.2004-08.07.2004 Acting Joint Head of State Barbara Prammer, Austria

As Vice-President of the National Assembly she assumed the Presidential duties together with the two other members of the Presidium, when the outgoing President died two days before his successor was to take office in July. She is a former Federal Minister and leading member of the Social Democrats of Austria, SPÖ. From 2006 President of the Nationalrat. (b. 1954-).


  

01.04.2005-01.10.2005 Capitano Reggente Fausta Simona Morganti, San Marino

In 1974 she was one of the first three women elected to the Consiglio Grande e Generale. 1978-83 and 1988-92 Minister of State of Culture, Education and Justice, In the late 1990s Leader in Partito Progressista Democartico Sammarinese and Chief of the Parliamentary Group from around 1997 to 2002 and then again later in 2002 and Secretary of State of Public Education, Universities, Cultural Institutions and Social Affairs in 2002. (b. 1944-).


16.01.2006- Executive President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Liberia

1972-73 and 1977-79 Secretary of State of Finance, 1979-80 Minister of Finance, 1980 President of the National Bank, 1980-85 worked for the World Bank, 1985-86 in house arrest after her return, 1990-92 Leading member of exile-government of Amos Sawyer in United States of America, 1992-97 African Director of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program). From 1997 Leader of the Unity Party. Presidential Candidate in 1997, Candidate for the Chairmanship of the National Transitional Government in 2003 and finally won the presidential elections in November 2005. She is divorced, mother of a number of children, and grandmother. (b. 1938-).


11.03.2006-11.03.2010 Executive President Michelle Bachelet Jeria, Chile
11.03.2014- Executive President

2000-02 Minister of Health and 2002-04 Minister of Defence. Her father, a general, was killed by the Pinochet dictatorship. Her boyfriend was also detained, tortured and disappeared. She and her mother were also detained and tortured and afterwards lived in exile in Australia and East Germany. She returned to Chile in 1979 and worked for various NGOs helping children of the tortured and disappeared. She had two children with her first husband and a daughter with her former partner. (b. 1952-).


01.01.2007-31.12.2007 President of the Confederation Micheline Calmy-Rey, Switzerland
01.01.2011-31.12.2011 President of the Consideration
Former President of the Socialist Party of Génève, she was President of the Grand Conseil of Génève 1993, Councillor of Finance 1997-2002, Vice-President of the Cantonal Government 2000-01 and President of the Cantonal Government 2001-02. Federal Foreign Minister 2003-11 and Vice-President in 2006 and 2010. Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf was elected Vice-President for 2011, the first time two women would fill the two highest post in the country. (b. 1945-).

Dalia Itzik

 

25.01.2007-01.07.2007 Acting President Dalia Itzik, Israel
01.08.2007-15.07.2007 Interim President

Former Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem in charge of Education, Labour Member of the Knesset 1992-2005, Minister of Environment 1999-2001, Minister of Trade and Industry 2001-02, Group Chairperson of Labour 2003-05 and Minister of Communication in 2005. She joined Kadima, a new party formed by Ariel Sharon in 2006 and Speaker of the Knesset 2006-09. She became Acting President when the President Moshe Katsaw on his own request was temporary suspended after the Attorney General announced that he would charge the president with offences including rape, obstruction of justice and fraud, on 1. July he resigned and she became Interim President until his successor took office. Chairperson of the Kadima Knesset Group 2009-13 and Presidential Candidate in 2014. (b. 1952-).


25.07.2007-25.07.2012 President Pratibha Patil, India
Member of the Government of Maharashtra 1967-78 and 1982-85 as Deputy Minister, Public Health, Prohibition, Tourism, Housing and Parliamentary Affairs 1967-72, Minister of Social Welfare 1972-74, Minister of Public Health and Social Welfare 1974-75, Minister of Prohibition, Rehabilitation and Cultural Affairs 1975-76, Minister of Education 1977-78, Minister of Urban Development and Housing 1982-83 and Minister of Civil Supplies and Social Welfare 1983-85, Congress Leader and Leader of the Opposition 1979-80. Deputy Chairperson of the Union Upper House, the Rajya Sabha 1986-88 and Acting Chairperson  in 1987, when the incumbent was elected President, Governor of Rajasthan 2004-07. Married to Devisingh Shekhawat, a former Mayor of Amravati. (b. 1934-).

10.12.2007- Executive President Cristina Fernández  de Kirchner, Argentina

Won the first round of the presidential elections in October 2007 as candidate for Partido Justicalista. She was Member of the Assembly of Santa Cruz 1989-95 and 1. Vice-President of the Assembly in 1990, National Senator 1995-97 and again since 2001, National Deputy 1997-2001. President of the Senate Committee of Contitutional Affairs since 2001. Her late husband Néstor Carlos Kirchner (1950-2010) was President of Argentina 2003-07 and held a number of other posts. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1953-).


25.09.2008 Acting President Dr. Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri, South Africa

Premier of the Free State 1996-99, Federal Minister of Communication 1999-2009. Acting President on one or two occations in 2003 and Member of the Pool of Possible Acting Presidents from 2005 and Acting Executive after the resignation of the President until a successor was elected and sworn in. She lived (1937-2009).


01.10.2008-31.03.2009 Capitano Reggente Assunta Meloni, San Marino

Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for Alianza Populare from 2006. Married to Fabrizio Stacchini and mother of 2 sons. (b. 1951-).


10.06.2009-16.10.2009 Interim President Rose Francine Rogombé, Gabon

Secretary of State for the Advancement of Women and Human Rights during the 1980s. As President of the Senate from 2008 she is Deputy Head of State and became Interim President when President Bongo died until his successor was elected (his son). (b. 1942-).


12.07.2009- President Dalia Grybauskaitė, Lithuania
1994-1995 Extraordinary Envoy and Plenipotentiary Minister at the Lithuanian Mission to the EU and Deputy Head Negotiator for the Europe Agreement with EU, 1996-1999 Plenipotentiary Minister at the Embassy in USA, 1999-2000 Vice-Minister of Finance and 2000-01 Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Head of the EU Accession negotiations, 2001-04 Minister of Finance and 2004 EU-Commissioner of Financial Programming and Budget 2004-09. Won 69% of the votes in the presidential elections. Unmarried and no children. (b. 1956-).

01.01.2010- 31.12.2010 President of the Confederation Doris Leuthard, Switzerland

Member of the Assembly in Aargau 1997-2000, Vice-President of Christian Democratic Party, CVP 2001-04,  President of CVP Schweiz 2004-06 and Federal Councillor of Economic Affairs 2006-10 and Federal Councillor of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication and Vice-President in 2009. (b. 1963-).

07.04.2010-19.05.2010 Head of the Interim Government
19.05.2010- 01.12.2011 President Roza Otunbayeva, Kyrgyzstan
Other versions of her surname are Otunbaeva or Otunbajewa. 1983-86 Secretary of the Municipal Communist Central Committee of Frunze, 1986-89 Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister in the Kyrgyz SSR, 1991 Ambassador of the USSR to Malaysia, 1992 Kyrgyz Deputy Premier Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1992-93 Ambassador to USA and Canada and 1994 to Turkey, Foreign Minister 1994-96, Ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain 1996-2003, Deputy Head of the United Nations special mission to Georgia 2002-04, Acting Foreign Minister 2007, Parliamentary Leader of the Social Democrats 20009-10 and Interim Head of State and Government from April 2010 after the former President was ousted. In May she was appointed President for the term ending in December 2011. (b. 1950-).

08.05.10.2010-08.05.2014pres President Laura Chinchilla Miranda, Costa Rica
Vice-Minister of Security 1994-96, Minister of Public Security, Interior and Police 1996-98, 1. Vice-President and Minister of Justice 2006-08 and Acting Minister of Security in 2008. Resigned to become Liberal Party Presidential Candidate for the 2010-elections which she won.(b. 1959-).

01.01.2011- President Dilma Vana Linhares Rousseff, Brazil
Dilma Rousseff is a former student leader who fought Brazil's military dictatorship as a guerrilla during the early 1970s and an economist. Secretary of Mines, Energy and Communication of Rio Grande do Sul 1993-94 and 1999-2002, Minister of Mines and Energy 2003-05 and Minister and Secretary General of the Presidential Staff (Cabinet Chief) 2005-10. (b. 1947-).

01.04.2011-01.10.2011 Capitano Reggente Maria Luisa Berti, San Marino

Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for Noi Sammarinesi since 2008. In 2011 she was also joint president of the parliament. (b. 1971-)


07.04.2011- President Atifete Jahjaga, Kosovo

She was Deputy Chief of Police of Kosovo with rank of Major General at the time of her election. Married to Astrit Kuçi. (b. 1975-)


01.01.2012 President of the Confederation Eveline Widmer-Sclumpf, Switzerland

Councillor of Finance and Military of Graubünden 1998-2007, Vice-President of the Government 2000 and 2004 and President of the Government 2001 and 2005, Federal Councillor of Justice and Police 2008-10 and Councillor of Finance from 2010 and Vice-President in 2011. (b. 1956-).


31.03.2012-21.07.2012 Acting President Monique Ohsan-Bellepeau, Mauritius
1995-2000 Junior Minister of Urban- and Rural Development and Président of the parti travailliste 2007-2010 and as Vice-President since 2010, she took over in an acting capacity after the resignation of her predecessor.

05.04.2012-31.05.2012 Acting President Slavica Đukić-Dejanović, Serbia
Dukic-Dejanovic is Vice-President of the Socijalističke partije Srbije, and as President of the Skupština 2008-12, she took over as Head of State when her predecessor resigned. (b. 1951-)

07.04.2012-31.05.2014 President Joyce Banda, Malawi
2004-06 Minister of Women, Child Welfare and Community Service, 2006-09 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 2009-12 Vice-President, Founder and leader of the People's Party in 2011 after she fell out with the President who did not include her in the Cabinet, though she remained Vice-President according to the constitution, and as such she took over as head of state after the death of her predecessor. Finished third in the 2014-eledtions. (b. 1950-)

01.10.2012-31.10.2013 Capitano Reggente Denise Bronzetti, San Marino
Held various positions within the Politica del Partito Socialista Sammarinese and Partito dei Socialisti e dei Democratici and member of the Consiglio Grande Generale since 2006. (b. 1972-)

25.02.2013- President Park Geun-hye, South Korea
MP 1998-2012, Chairperson of the Grand National Party 2004-06, Candidate in the party primaries for presidential candidate in 2008, Leader of Saenuri (Renamed GNP) 2011-12. (b. 1952-)

01.04.2013-01.10.2013 Capitano Reggente Antonella Mularoni, San Marino
Member of the General Grand Council 1993-2001 and again from 2008, and Judge of the European Court of Human Rights 2001-08, Leader of the Government, Secretary of State of Foreign and Political Affairs, Telecommunication and Transport 2008-12. (b. 1961-).

01.10.2013-01.04.2014 Capitano Reggente Anna Maria Muccioli, San Marino
Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for the Partito Democratico Cristiano since 2008. (b. 1964-).

23.01.2014- Acting Head of State Catherine Samba-Panza, Central African Republic
Businesswoman and corporate lawyer. Appointed Mayor of the capital Bangui in 2013 by the former interim government before she was elected Interim President. (b. 1954-).

04.04.2014- President Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca, Malta
Labour MP 1998-2014 and Minister of Family and Social Solidarity 2013-14. (b. 1958-).

Last update 12.06.14

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