Women with power 1870-1900

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


Until 1870 Rani Regnant U Ka Sar of Nobo Sohphok Khasi  (India)

Ruler of the Matriarchal and Matrilineal Khasi Hill tribal people in Assam in the North of India.


1870-86 Adatuwang Regnant Pasule Daeng Bulaeng of Sawito, Datu of Suppa (Indonesia)

Daughter of La Pancaitana, Adatuang of Sawito, Arung of Rappang and Datu of Suppa; she married La Tan-ri Suki, Arung Kajaura, and Prince of Bone. Her daughter I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara Hadi Abel Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa was regent for her infant son, the Sultan of Bone, before succeeding Pasule's brother as Datu of Supa in 1860. Pasule was succeeded in Sawito by the male ruler Palagau Aru Patojo, who reigned until 1902.


1870s-1889 Tononu Visesgan of Abomey (Benin)

In 1863 she was an assistant to Yavedo and by the 1870s she had emerged as the most influential woman in the palace. She "commanded" all the women of the court and was the richest woman at because of her successful trade endeavours. She was engaged in various succession-struggles, and emerged as a powerful spokesperson for accommodation with the French, in opposition with the heir, Behanzin, who seized her property in revenge after becoming king. Local court records from the early 1900s attests to her attempts to maintain control over women who had been granted to her by Gélé. 


1870-76 and 1879-83 Reigning Abbess-General María Pilar Ugarte of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The last abbess anywhere to hold quasi-episcopal powers, when her right of jurisdiction was abolished in 1873. All institutes were to be put under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which the houses were situated; this corresponds to the main point of the Concordat arranged between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon I, and which was still in force.


1870-88 Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain The Baroness Willoughby de Eresby of the kingdom of Great Britain 
Clementina Elizabeth Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, succeeded to the title of 24th Baroness Willoughby after the death of her brother. She was daughter of  Peter Robert Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby and Sarah Clementina Drummond, married to Sir Gilbert John Heathcote, 1st Baron Aveland (1795-1867), and mother of one surviving son, Sir Gilbert Henry Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 1st Earl of Ancaster (1830-1910). She her held the office jointly with her sister, Charlotte Augusta, Lady Carrington, and after her death in 1879 with her heirs, and with William Cholmondeley, 3rd Marquess of Cholmondeley. The lord great chamberlain has charge of the palace of Westminster, especially of the House of Lords, and when the sovereign opens parliament in person he is responsible for the arrangements, and walks himself in the procession on the right of the sword of state, a little before it and next to the sovereign. She lived (1809-88)


1870-79 Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain Hon. Charlotte Augusta Annabella Drummond-Willoughby, Dowager Baroness Carrington of Upton of the kingdom of Great Britain 
Together with her sister, The Baroness Willoughby, and another joint holder, who continued in office together with Charlotte Augusta's heirs after her death. She was married to Robert John Carrington, 2nd Baron Carrington of Upton. Mother mother of 5 children and lived (1815-79).

Princess-Imperial Isabel da Bragança e Borbon

1871-72, 1876-77 and 1887-88 The Princess Imperial Regent Isabel da Bragança e Borbon of Brazil
1889-1921 Titular Empress and Head of the Imperial Family of Brazil

Officially declared Heir to the Throne on 10.8.1850 and was regent during her father, Dom Pedro II's stays abroad. During her last regency she signed the abolition of the slavery. In 1889 her father abdicated and Brazil became a republic, and she went in exile in France, living at her husband's estate in Eu. She died on the boat on the way to Brazil in 1921 and was succeeded by her grandson, Pedro Henriques d'Orléans e Bragança (1909-81), who was later succeeded by his son Luiz. She lived (1846-1921).  

Makea Nui, Paramount Chiefess of the Cook Islands 

1871-1911 Makea Takau Ariki, 27th Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Roatonga and Aurua
1874-1911 Queen/Supreme High Chieftainess of Cook Islands
1888-1900 Leader of the Council of Chiefs
1891-1901 President of the Executive Council
of the Cook Islands Federation (5.6-11.6)
France's armed takeover of Tahiti and the Society Islands in 1843 caused considerable apprehension among the Cook Islands' Ariki (chiefs) and led to requests from them to the British for protection in the event of French attack. This nervousness continued for many years and the call for protection was repeated in 1865. During the 1870s the Cooks enjoyed prosperity and peace under her authority. A wily negotiator, she secured good prices for exports and cut the debts, which had piled up before she became Ariki. By 1882 four of the five Ariki of Rarotonga were women. In 1888 Makea formally petitioned the British to set up a Protectorate to head off what she believed to be imminent invasion by the French. The British wanted to pass the Cooks over to New Zealand, but she die not favour this, but after much manoeuvring and politicking, the Cook Islands was formally annexed by New Zealand on October 7 1900 when a deed of cession was signed by five Ariki and seven lesser chiefs. Her father, Makea Davida, was Chief 1839-49 and succeeded by sister, Te Vaerua and two other brothers, the latest Makea Abela was in office until 1871. She was  193 centimetres tall, married Ngamaru Rongotini Ariki (d. 1903), one of the three chiefs of Atiu, succeeded by her son, Rangi Makea Ariki, and lived ca (1845-1911).


1871-95 H.H. I-Banri Gau Paduka Sri Sultana Siti Fatima, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Timurung and Datu Chitta before she succeeded her father, Ahmad Singkarru Rukka Arung Palakka. She married I-Magulaga Karaeng Popo, Prince of Gowa (d. 1902), whose mother was I-Tenri Pada Sultana Siti Aisha [Besse-Barru], Arung of Barru, daughter of To' Patarai Sumanga Rukka, Arung of Barru. Her ceremonial name was Matinroé-ri Bola Mapare, and her half-brother succeeded her. Her ceremonial name was Matinroé-'na Bola Mapare, and she was mother of a son and a daughter, and (d. 1895).


1871-76 Mulena Mukwai Kaiko of Nololo, Chief of the Southern Part of Bulozi and Regent Princess of Barotseland (Zambia)

Married to Induna Njekwa (d. 1874), sometime Ngambela to Litunga Sipopa 1864-1872. She was daughter of King Lutangu Sipopa Mulumbwa, Litunga of the Lozi (1864-76). The tile of Mulena Mukwai of Nololo translates into Chief Princess or The Princess Royal, an other version of her title is Litunga la Mboela: 'earth of the south', and she is the ruler of the southern part of Bulozi and simultaneously Regent Princess of Barotseland.


1871 "Queen" María Uicab of Tulum (Mexico)

A Mayan woman living on the Yucután Peninsula, who was known as the patron saint of Tulum, and was given the title of Queen. In 1871 the sacred Mayan ruins of the city of Tulum became an Indian shrine where a  "talking cross" was set up, and placed in the care of Maria.

 Bartolina Sisa

1871-82 Military Leader Bartolina Sisa Vargas in Bolivia

When the indigenous insurgency Aymara-Quishwa of 1781 broke out, her husband, Tupaj Katari (Julian Apaza), was proclaimed Viceroy of the Inca, she was proclaimed vicereine in her own right. During the Siege of La Paz, the hierarchical level of management was shared between Tupaj Katari and Bartolina Sisa in equal conditions. In this way Bartolina was widely accepted and recognized by the immediate, intermediate, and superior leadership levels. She was executed when the insurgency was put down after 11 years. (She lived 1850/53-82).

Herzogin Helene in Bayern, Erbprinzessin von Thurn und Taxis

1871-83 and 1885-88 Guardian Dowager Hereditary Princess Helene in Bayern of Thurn und Taxis (Germany)

The widow of Hereditary Prince Maximilian, who died 1867, she was guardian and administrator of the estates of her sons, Maximilian (1862-71-85) - who succeeded his grandfather, Maximilian Karl - and Albert (1867-1952). One of her sisters was Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary (Sisi) another, Elisabeth, married the King of Bavaria. Helene was born as Herzogin in Bayern and lived (1834-90). 


1872-73 and 187..-18.. Sultan Singa Madi Jimba Aicha of M'Bude (Comoro Islands)

In 1873 she was taken as a captive to Itsandra. As she was however treated well and even married Mussafubu it is possible that she has continued to be Sultan in Name. In this case her successor, Jumbe Boina Fumu, was possibly only a kind of governor. In 1880 she submitted to Saidi Ali of the Comoros. She was succeeded by Jema Niema bint Jumbe Fumu at a not known date.

Sophia von Nassau, Queen of Sweden 

1872-1909 Politically Infuential Queen Sophia von Nassau of Sweden

As wife of Oscar II, she did have some political influence, and inspired her husbands preference for Germany and conservative ideas, though she was never as stern in her conservatism as her daughter-in-law Victoria of Baden, whose militant aggressiveness she disliked. She was deeply religious and very active in charity, especially health care and medicine; in 1884, she established the first school for education of nurses, after a visit to London where she was inspired by Florence Nightingale, and in 1887, she founded the hospital Sophiahemmet. She was popular in Norway, where she spent all her summers between 1892 and 1904, and she is often given credit for using her influence to prevent war between Sweden and Norway when the union broke in 1905. Her brother, Adolf, became the first inDuke of Luxembourg 1890 She was mother of 4 sons, and lived (1836-1913).

Teri'i-Maevarua of Bora Bora

1873-88 High Chiefess H.R.H. Princess Teari'i-maeva-rua III of Bora Bora (Thaiti/French Polynesia)

Teriimaevarua III was daughter of King Pomare V, she succeeded her aunt as Chiefess of Bora Bora Porapora. She was deposed by the French, and married her first cousin, H.R.H. Prince Teri'i-Hinoi-a-tua Pomare (1869- 1916), and lived  (1871-1934).


1873-84 Maharani Regent H.H. Sidh Sri Patialawala Maharani Sateha Devi Bhawa Sahiba of Dholpur (India)

Her husband, Raja Shri Kulendra Singh Jai Deo Bahadur, Yuvraj Sahib of Dholpur, died the same year as his father, and she became regent for her 10 year old son, Maharajadhiraja Sri Sawai Maharaj Rana Nihal Singh (1863-73-1901). She was born as Maharajkumari Bibiji Basant Kaur Sahiba as daughter of Maharaja Sir Narendra Singh Mahendra Bahadur of Patiala, GCSI, and lived (1845-88).

1873-1908 Uleebalang Cut Nyak Dien of VI Mukim of the Sagi XXV Military District in Aceh (Indonesia)

Also General in Aceh Barat. Her father, Teuku Nanta Setia was Commander of VI Mukim of the Sagi XXV Military District and decendant of Sultanah Tajjul Alam, an Achehnese ambassador for the Pagaruyung Sultanate in West Sumatra.

Tjoet Njak Dien with some of her men

1873-1901 Guerrilla Leader "Ibu Perbu" Tjoet Njak Dien in Aceh (Indonesia)

"Ibu Perbu" means Queen, and in 1862 she married Teuku Ibrahim Lamnga. In 1873 Her father and husband joined the fight against the Dutch, and she followed them into the jungle. After both her father and husband was killed and the Indonesian forces defeated by the Dutch, she took over both her late husband’s and father’s army commands and led them in guerrilla warfare Her second husband was Teuku Umar, who was another relative. They led the two armies into a series of successful assault missions. In 1899 her husband was killed in battle, and she was again left to lead the rebel army alone, and retreated further into the jungle. She continued to lead the fight until the army was destroyed in 1901. One of her followers, Pang Laot Ali, felt sorry for her condition, hoped that the Dutch might give medical treatment for her. He deserted to the Dutch and bought the Dutch army into her camp in Beutong Le Sageu. They were completely caught by surprise and fought to the last man and woman except for Gambang and herself. It was only due to her blindness that she was captured and even then she held a rencong (a traditional Acehnese dagger) in her hand trying to fight the enemy. Her daughter, Gambang, however escaped deep into the jungle, where it is known that she continued the resistance until her death, which is believed to have taken place in 1910. Dien spend the rest of her life teaching the Koran in Sumedang, West Java. She lived (1848-1908). In 1964 she was declared a National Hero.

1874 Candidate for the Throne Dowager Queen Emma Kaleleonalani of Hawaii

Born as Chiefess Emma Kekelaokalani Young Nae’a, and married king Kamehameha IV, and after his death she was one of the candidates to succeed him in the vote held by the parliament. Their only son had died in1862 at the age of 4. She lived (1836-85).


1875-83 Arung Raja Daeng Mangkau of Pengatan and Kusan (Indonesia) 

Acted as de-facto regent for her 2nd son, Raja Arung Abdurakhim Andi Sallo (circa 1867-1908), who succeeded her older son,  Raja Arung Abdul Jabar, who was also a minor when he reigned in succession to her childless brother, Raja Arung Abdul Karim, (1855-1871). The daughter of Arung Palewan Abdul Rakhim (1838-1855) was married to Pangeran Muda Mohammad Arifillah Aji Samarang of Cengal, Menungul and Bangkalaan. After her death the Prime minister was regent until he was murdered in 1885. Daeng Mahmud, the husband of her daughter, Andi Tangkung, became regent of the Buginese principality in South Eastern-Borneo/Kalimantan, which originated from South Western Celebes/Sulawesi until 1892.


1875-1908 Aru I Batari Toja of Barru (Indonesia) 

The Dutch officially recognized her succession after the death of her mother, Tenripada Siti Aisa, in 1876. She abdicated in favour of her son, I Jonjo Karaeng Limbangparang, who ruled until 1955).

Queen Nenzima

1875-1926 Chief Advisor Queen Nenzima of Mangbetu (Congo)

Chief advisor of four kings, among others her husband, Chief Okondo of Mangbetu, who ruled the territory in Northern Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) until 1915. Nenzima lived (circa 1840-1926). 

1875 Chief Rosana Chouteau of the Osage Beaver Band (USA) 

Elected chief after the death of her uncle.

Mary IV and III

1875-1919 Head of the Sovereign Family, Titular Queen Mary IV and III of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith

Marie Therese von Habsburg-Lothringen, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary-Bohemia and Modena, succeeded her uncle as claimant of the Jacobite throne of Scotland and England. Her grandmother was Mary III and II Beatrice of Modena (1824-40). Marie Therese descended from a sister of the last Stuart-kings of England and Scotland. She was married to Ludwig, King of Bavaria (1913-1918). Her grandson, Francis II, Duke of Bavaria has been claimant since 1996. His brother, Max Emanuel is heir and his oldest daughter, the Hereditary Princess Sophia von und zu Liechtenstein, is next in line for the succession. One of Marie Theresa's half-sisters by her mother's second marriage, Queen Maria-Cristina of Spain was regent for her son (1885-1902). Marie Therese had five children and lived (1849-1919).  

1876-92 Ari'i Temaeva IV of Rimatara (French Polynesia)

Succeeded Chief Temaeva III and succeeded by Chiefess Temaeva V. (d. 1892).


1873-1900 Mangau Tawaeli Yangge Bodu Tome Tanggu of Tawaeli (Indonesia)

Also known as Magau Pangga she ruled the principality as succesor of her brother Their mother was Impangipi - also called Dae Pangipi/Mardika Beli) - ratu of Biromaru, who married Raja Latonda of Sausu Magau Nurdin/Sopalemba (died circa 1874), and who was again daughter of the female Magau Daemesia Pure Kurukire, who was the 3th magau of Tawaeli at a not known time, possibly in the mid 1900-century. Around 1878 her son, Crown Prince Tumpalembe was the actual ruler possibly because she was then alerady old. She was succeeded by her nephew Daelengkara Mangge Dompo (1900-05), son of her sister  Daemaru. 

1876 Şevkefza Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, parts of the Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Mother of Murat V, who appointed her chief ally, Damat Nuri Pasha, as Lord Pasha. The two then confiscated all the gold coins and jewellery that Abdül Aziz and his mother the former Valide, Pertevniyal, had hidden away in the harem of Dolmabahçe Sarayi. Murat was deposed after a few months because of his deep alcoholism.

Perestü Valide Sultan

1876-87 Perestü Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, parts of the Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Fourth wife of Abdülmecit I (1839-61) and is described as intelligent and fascinating. She had no children of her own but became the foster-mother Abdülhamid II (1876-1909) whose mother had died of tuberculosis when he was a child. When he succeeded to the throne he appointed her Queen Mother, and she was able to steer through the unhappy years of his reign by keeping her distance from the political scene. She received Empress Augusta of Germany in the Harem during a state visit. Ramine Perestü, was the last Valide Sultan and theoretical joint ruler, and lived (circa 1830-1904).

Queen Jeanne Marau Taaroa

1877-80 De-facto Ruler Queen Jeanne Marau Taaroa of Tahiti (French Polynesia)

Her supporters tried to have her named successor to her mother-in-law Pomare IV, but the French insisted that her husband, Pomare V became king. He abdicated in 1880 and they divorced in 1888, but she remained very influential until her death. She lived (1846-1934).

1877-84 Guardian Dowager Princess Leopoldine von Sternberg of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein und Jagstberg (Germany)

Rosa Karoline Leopoldine or Leopoldine Rosa Von Sternberka Serovic was in charge of the principality in the name of her son, Johannes (1863-1921), after the death of her husband, Karl (1837-77). She She later married Leopold, prince von Croÿ, and lived (1836-1918).

1877-1914 Politically Influential Queen Elisabeth von Wied of Romania

Influential during the reign of her husband, Carol I of Romania (Karl von Hohenzollern), whom she married at the age of 16 in 1869. At the time the Principality was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Following the War of Independence of 1877 and the Treaty of Berlin the following year, Romania was declared a Kingdom in 1881 and she became the first Queen of Romania. During the 1877 War she organised hospitals, ambulance and nursing services and obtained medicine for the wounded. She was very active in the patronage of Arts and of Charitable society, through which she encouraged the ladies of the high society to take an active role in fund-raising and the administration of charities. In the absence of a welfare system, the Queen's own Societatea Regina Elisabeta founded in 1893, treated free of charge 17,000 patients a year, distributed free medicine and monitored the welfare of needy families. She lived (1843-1916).

1877-1907 Head of the Sovereign Family Princess Carola Frederika of Vasa-Gottorp-Sweden

The Princess of Vasa was only daughter of the former Crown Prince Gustav of Sweden, who took the title Prince of Vasa when his father was deposed as king. Karola's marriage to King Albert of Sachsen was childless and her position as head of the Holstein-Gottorp-Vasa-Family was inherited by her cousin, Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden (1857-1907-1918-28), son of her aunt Princess Sophia Wilhelmine of Vasa. When Friedrich died, the Headship was inherited by his sister Victoria - later Queen Consort of Sweden. Carola Frederikka lived (1833-1907).

Madam Yoko of Kpaa Mende

1878-1908 Queen Madam Yoko of Kpaa Mende and Seneghum, (Sierra Leone)

Known as Mammy Yoko, she was a brilliant and ambitious woman who used her friendship with the British to gain control of Kpaa Mende. As a child, she was called Soma but acquired the name Yoko at her Sande initiation where she attracted admiration for her beauty and graceful dancing. After an unsuccessful first marriage, she became the wife of Gbenjei, Chief of Taiama; and although she had no children, he made her his head wife. When Gbenjei died, Yoko married Gbanya Lango, a powerful war-chief at Senehun. In 1875, she saved her him from a long imprisonment under the British by making a personal appeal to the Governor. Afterwards, Gbanya used her in diplomatic missions to the British and to other chiefs.
After the deaths of his she became the "Queen of Senehun". Within a few years, she had brought all of the Kpaa Mende region (now fourteen chiefdoms) under her nominal control through alliances, warfare, and her ability to call on the support of friendly British troops. She established a famous Sande bush in Senehun where she trained girls from throughout Kpaa Mende, sometimes giving the most beautiful in marriage to sergeants of the Frontier Police or to important chiefs. When the British declared their Protectorate in 1898, she commanded her people to pay the new tax — but her sub-chiefs rebelled. They held a secret meeting, blaming Yoko for "spoiling the country" by supporting the British police, taxes, and forced labour. She took refuge in the police barracks that withstood several attacks by her own subjects, and she was later awarded a silver medal for her loyalty by Queen Victoria. She ruled as a Paramount Chief in the new British Protectorate until 1906, when it appears that she committed suicide at the age of fifty-five. She lived (circa 1849-1908).  

Queen Supayalat

1878-85 De-facto ruler Queen Supayalat of Burma 

The daughter of King Mindon Min, she was married to her half-brother, Thibaw. In 1882 she assumed full control over the government of Upper Burma, and her rule was described as "sharp as a razor." Thibaw was young, inexperienced, and effete. According to one of Supayalat’s maids of honour, "No one could stand against her when she was angry … It were better to face a tigress. Every one bent and shivered before her, and whatever orders she gave were carried out. The King was but a foolish school-boy before her." She is believed to have initiated the murder of around 100 members of the royal family. The situation was difficult with internal warfare and in 1885 Britain invaded the country and forced the king and Queen in exile in India. She had three daughters and lived (1859-1925).


Circa 1878-circa 1900 Queen Natélégé of the Kingdom of Bangassou (Nzakara-Bandia Kingdom) (Central African Republic)

Belonged to the Bandia ruling family and married her cousin Sultan Bangassou. The first woman of her people to be acclaimed Chief. She lived (circa 1855-circa 1900).


Until 1878 Raja of Togean (Indonesia)

The principality is situated in an island group. Her name is unknown.

Princess Regent and Ruler of the South

1878-84 and 1884-1934 Mulena Mukwai Matauka of Nololo, Chief of the Southern Part of Bulozi and Regent Princess of Barotseland (Zambia)

Deposed, expelled at the same time as her brother, Her brother, Lubosi I, who was king (1878-84) and 1885-1916). But she was reinstated already later the same years. Married 10 husbands and mother of a son and a daughter. She lived (1837-1934)

Princess Miriam Kapili Likelike Kekaukuohi of Hawaii

1878-80 Governor of Hawaii HRH Princess Miriam Kapili Likelike Kekaukuohi of Hawaii (USA)

Sister of King David La'amea Kamanakapu'u Mahnulani Nalaiaehu-o-kalani Lumialani Kalakaua I and Queen Lydia Kamakaeha Liliu-o-Kalani. She was mistress of 'Āinahau, the 40.000 square kilometre big royal estate. Granted the title of HRH Princess in 1874 and was mother of Crown-Princess Victoria Kauilani Kalaninuiahilakalapa Kawekiu-i-Lunalilo' (1875-95) who was heiress to the throne from 1891. Princess Miriam lived (1851-87).

1878... Regent Warquito Mastawat of Gera Walo (Ethiopia)

Ruled in the name of chief Muhammad Ala, who became Ras Mika'el in 1878. The boarder state was incorporated into Ethiopia in 1896.


1878-91 Proprietor Malia Jennings of Swain Island (American Samoa)

Took over as managing owner after the death of her husband Eli Hutchinson Jennings (1814-56-78) in the name of her son, Eli Hutchinson Jennings Jr. (1863-1920). The 3.25 square kilometre ring of land surrounding a brackish lagoon never recognized by the international community, that behaved as an independent state until 1925, when annexed by the USA. Culturally and geographically it belongs to the Tokelau Islands, but today it is part of American Samoa, and is still owned by the Jennings family. She (d. 1891). 

Ethiopian female ruler

Until circa 1879 Queen Regnant Moh' of Guma (Ethiopia)

One of the boarder states, that were independent or under Ethiopian suzerainty before being incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire. Guma was part of the group of Giba States.


1879 Regent Princess Ivaki of Igunda (Tanzania)

Reigned in the name of her son, Chief Ikviaki, who succeeded her father. 


1879-99 Ratu Petronella da Costa of Djenilu (Indonesia)

Also known as Djeniloe it was a principality in the northern part of Belu-area, which is an area in the middle of the island of Timor, bordering East-Timor. She married Raja Rinoe Misek also known as Alexander da Costa (1880-1900) of nearby lying principality of Lidak, who was succeeded by their daughter, who was also named Ratu Petronella da Costa.

Queen Liliu'okalani

1881 and 1890-91 Crown Princess Regent Lydia Kamakaeha Liliu'okalani of the Hawaiian Islands
1891-95 H.M. Liliu’okalani, By the grace of God, Queen of the Hawaiian Islands
1895-1917 Head of the Sovereign Family

Before succeeding to the throne she acted as regent for 10 months during her brothers trip to Europe. After the American occupation Queen Liliu'okalani was Head of the Sovereign Family of Hawai'i. A strong nationalist, she tried to replace the Bayonet Constitution with one which would favour native Hawaiians, but was intimidated her into letting the old constitution stand. In January 1893, armed troops were sent ashore from a warship in Honolulu Harbour, and she was forced to surrender her throne. A provisional government took control of Hawaii. Crown Princess Kaiulani went to Washington to appeal for help. In 1894 the Republic of Hawaii was established with Sanford Dole as its President. In 1895 native Hawaiians, led by Robert Wilcox, revolted in an attempt to return the Queen to power. After 10 days of fighting, Wilcox and most of the other royalists were captured. They were sentenced to death, but saved by intervention of the U.S. government. Firearms were discovered buried in the Queen's flower garden, and she was arrested. For eight months she was held prisoner in one room of the Iolani Palace. Upon her release she went to Washington and was warmly welcomed by President Cleveland, who was unable to help her. Married to Lieutenant-General H.R.H. John Owen Dominus, Prince Consort of Hawaii (1832-91), but had no children and therefore her late sister's daughter, Princess Victoria, was heir 1891-1898 until her death. Liliu’okalani lived (1831-1917).

Queen Biano of Bemihisatra

1881-1923 Queen Regnant Binao of Bemihisatra (Madagascar)

Succeeded her mother Safy Mozongo of Bemihisatra (1869-79/80). In 1883, the French began a war of punitive expedition against the Merina, the fortresses of Anorontsanga and Ambodiladiro were bombed and destroyed, and Majunga was taken in turn with the help of her fighters. In 1895, the French launched yet another war of annexations and colonial conquest against Merina again with her the assistance and the following year General Galliéni was appointed by the French Governor of Madagascar. She was succeeded by her brother, Amada I (1923-1963). She (d. 1923)


1880-83 Payung e-ri Luwu Datuk Opu Anrong Guru of Luwu (Indonesia)

Succeeded her nephew, Abdul Karim To Barue. The ceremonial name given to her after her death was MatinroE-ri-Tamalulu.


1880-1902 Princess Regnant Anna Elisabeth Aunoni of Amfoan (Indonesia)

Successor of Raja Usif Willem Aunoni, who was the father of her mother Lisi Aunoni. She was succeeded by her semi-adopted aide, Willem Tafin Talnoni.


1880-86 Queen Hompa Mpande of Uukwangali (Namibia)

In the Kavango, Uukwangali Queen Mpande succeeded King Mpasi who died in 1880. She was the 9th in the recorded genealogy of the Uukwangali kings and Queens. Succeeded by King Himarua who ruled until 1910.  

1880-84 Governor of Hawaii HRH Princess Victoria Kinoike Kekaulike of Hawaii (USA)

Daughter of HH Princess Kinoike Kekaulike and Alii Kuhio Kalaniana'ole, she was married to Alii David Kahalepouli Piikoi and mother of two sons. In 1891 the oldest, HRH Prince David La'amea Kahalepouli Kawananakoa, was appointed Heir Presumptive after HRH Princess Victoria Kauilani. After her death in 1899 he was second-in-line for the Hawaiian throne. He died in 1909 and therefore his son, Prince David succeeded Queen Lydia Kamakaeha Liliu-o-Kalani as head of the royal house in 1917. Princess Victoria lived (1843-84). 

1880-95 Governor of Kauai HRH Princess Virginia Kapo'oloku Po'omaikelani of Hawaii (USA)
1884-86 Govenor of Hawaii
1888-95 Guardian of the Royal Tombs 

Virginia Poomaikelani was daughter of HH Princess Kinoike Kekaulike and Alii Kuhio Kalaniana'ole and married to Hiram Kahanawai, a cousin of King Kalakaua. She lived (1839-95).

 Ululani Baker

1880-88 Governor Ululani Lewai Peleioholani Baker of Kauai in Hawaii (USA)
1886-circa 1888 Governor of Hawai'i

The office of governor was vacant until 1892 when her husband, John Tamatoa Baker (1852-1921) held the office for one year. She was daughter of the high chief, Ali'i Noah Peleioholani and lived (1858-1902).


1881-93 Regent Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Walet Kancha Maharani Lalit Rajeshwori Rajya Lakshmi Devi of Nepal

Also known as Tower Sri Panch or Crown Princess Lalit Rajyalaximi, she reigned in the name of her son H.H. Svasti Sri Giriraja Chakra Chudamani Narayanetyadi Vividha Virudavali Virajamana Manonnata Projjwala Nepal Tara Mahadhipati Shriman Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Bir Bikram Jang Bahadur Shah Bahadur Shamsher Jang Devanam Sada Samaja Vijayinam, Maharajadhiraja of Nepal, (1875-81-1911), who succeeded grandfather. Her husband General H.H. Crown Prince (Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Yuvarajadhiraj) Trailokya Bir Bikram Shah Deva had died in 1878. Maharani Lalita was the second daughter of the Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski, Sir Jang Bahadur Kunwar Ranaji, Prime Minister of Nepal 1846-56 and 1857-77 and sometime Commander-in-Chief of Nepal. She lived (1854-1917).


1881-1902 Datuk I-Madellung Karaeng Kajuwara, Datu of Supa (Ajataparang) (Indonesia)

Succeeded her mother, Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseemba, who ascended the throne in 1860, and was succeeded by nephew and husband of her daughter Besse Bulo, H.H. Haji Andi La Mappanjuki Karaeng Silayar Sri Sultan Ibrahim ibnu Sultan Husain, who was Arumpone of Bone in 1931-46 and 1950-60 trough his mother We Tan-ri Padarang, Princess of Alita, eldest daughter of H.H. La Parenrengi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad, Arumpone of Bone. Madellung (d. 1902).


1881-8.. Sultan Mouna Chamou bint Mugné Mku of Mitsamhuli  (Comoro Islands)

It might have been her second reign. She was succeeded by the male sultan,  Bwana Fumu, who reigned until 1888. 

1881-84 High Chiefess Rere-ao Te-hau-roa-ari'i of Ra'iatea and Taha'a (Tahiti in French Polynesia)

Rereao succeeded her father, Tahi toe II, and was crowned at Uturoa Church. Died unmarried.  

1881-1908 Tinomana Mereana Ariki, Tinomana Ariki of the Pauaikura Tribe in Rarotonga (Cook Islands)

Younger daughter of Tinomana Teariki Tapurangi or Setepano, and succeeded her brother, Tinomana Makea Tamuera, and married John Mortimer Salmon. They did not have any children and the title went to another line of the family.At the time 4 of the 5 high chiefs of Rarotonga were women. One of them was Makea Takau, who was Supreme High Chiefess, Leader of the Council of Chiefs and President of the Executive Council. She lived (1848 – 1908)


1881-91 Owner Emma Forsayth of Takuu (Mortlock) Island (Papua New Guinea)

Togeher with her first husband, James Forsayth, she settled in the Duke of York Islands in 1879 and founded a widespread trading "empire". She bought the Takuu islands the islands from the chief of the Mortlocks, for four axes and 10 lb of tobacco. Her brother-in-law, R.H. R. Parkinson, helped establish commercial coconut growing. Both Parkinson, and ethnographer Churchill who visited briefly in 1884, remarked on the many abandoned house sites there and on the number of 14-meter canoes, similarly abandoned and fallen into decay for lack of men to handle them. Emma's brother, William Coe, became the first resident trader on the atoll. He moved on to another of her stations after several years. In 1891 she gave the islands, as a wedding gift to one of her sisters and her husband, Joseph Highly. She was daghter of Jonas Myndersse Coe, a US Commercial Representative to American Samoa and Joana Talelatale, a Samoan belonging to the Malietoa dynasty. Her mother’s bloodline was related to the Moli tribe and Emma was recognized by the Malietoa as a princess. Later partner with James Farrell and married to Paul Kolbe in Germany, and lived (1850-1913)

Empress Dagmar/Maria Feodorovna

1881-94 Politically Influential Czarina Maria Feodorovna of Russia

Fulfilled her new role to perfection, bringing an enormous degree of elegance to the court. She also indirectly influenced her husband, Alexander III's deep suspicion of Bismarck and Hohenzollern Germany. She was Head of the Russian Red Cross and continued her charities and was constantly seen visiting hospitals and comforting wounded soldiers. It was during this time, when Russia's government seemed adrift, that the Dowager Empress lost complete faith in her daughter-in-law's involvement in governing the empire. After the revolution she spend her last years in exile in Hvidøre outside Copenhagen and never accepted the faith of her children and grandchildren. She was daughter of King Christian IX and Louise von Hessen-Kassel of Denmark. Her sister was Queen Alexandra of United Kingdom and her younger brother, Wilhelm, was elected king of Greece and took the name of Georg. Born as Princess Dagmar of Denmark, she was mother of five children, and lived (1847-1928). 

 Pasqua Favale

1882-86 Regent Queen Pasqua Favale of Tavolara (Italy)

In charge of the government in one of the smallest kingdoms in the world on the Island south of Sardinia of the same name during the illness of her husband, Paolo I (1845-1886). Her father in law, Giuseppe Bertoleoni, had been acknowledged as an independent sovereign monarch during a visit by King Carlos Alberto of Sardinia in 1836. Tavolara was not included in the Italian unification, and her husband actively sought and obtained recognition from Italy. During his reign, in 1861 the Italian government paid 12.000 lire for land at the northeast end of the island to build a lighthouse, which began operating in 1868. After his death, the island became a republic according to his wishes with a president and council of six elected every six years by a vote of the people, male and female. Its third president was elected in 1896, but the monarchy was reinstated in 1899.


1882 Politically Influential Duchess Woizero Bafena of Ethiopia

Married to Prince Menelik, and was widely regarded as a plotting ambitious arriviste, Bafena earned the resentment of almost all of Menelik's relatives and followers. At some point she used Menelik's seal to issue false decrees, seized the treasure of the House of Shewa with many arms and transferred them to the fortress at Tamo. She also transferred a royal prisoner, Dejazmatch Meshesha Seyfu, Menelik's cousin and rival claimant to Tamo as well. Her intention was to put her own son from a previous marriage on the throne, removing any threat from Meshesha Seyfu as well. However, Meshesha Seyfu was able to win the loyalty of the soldiers in Tamo, who turned on Bafena and ended her plot. It was suspected that Emperor Yohannis had a hand in encouraging these plots. Meshesha Seyfu and Menelik were reconciled and Bafena admitted her guilt, blaming her actions on jealousy aroused by Menelik's attentions to the lovely young Wolete Selassie who had become his mistress. Bafena, already widely hated at court was banished in disgrace. However, a temporary reconciliation between Menelik and his wife was arranged by her friends. This attempt at reconciliation failed, largely because Menelik recognized that he needed an heir, and that Bafena was too old to produce more offspring. They were formaly separated.

1883-97 H.M. Ranavalona III, by the grace of God and the will of the people, Queen of Madagascar, and Protectrice of the laws of the Nation
1897-1917/22 Head of the Sovereign Family

Her personal name was Razafindraheti and she reigned as Ranavalo Manyaka III or Ranavalona. First married to prince Ratrima. After her succession to the throne, she married Premier Rainitairarivoy, who had also been married to the Queens Rasoherina and Ranavalona II and was the real ruler of the country. She had the misfortune to be caught up in the endgame of the manoeuvring that had been going on between the British and French since the beginning of the century. In 1885, she signed a treaty with France giving them various rights and concessions, which were deemed sufficient excuse to declare a protectorate over the entire island, which was recognized by Britain in the Anglo-French agreement of 1890. In 1894, the Queen and her government refused to follow French orders, and in 1895 the French sent an expeditionary force, which occupied Antananarivo with very little resistance. Rainilaiarivony was sent into exile immediately and died the following year, but the Queen and much of her administration remained, even after the official declaration of Madagascar as a French colony in August 1896. An insurrection followed soon after, the Queen's court was accused of encouraging it, and General Gallieni abolished the monarchy in February 1897. Ranavalona was deposed and sent to the island of Réunion. She adopted two of her sisters' daughters Princess Ranalavola and Rasoherina, and lived (1861-1917).


Around 1884 Sultan Mzade Badgini binti Munké Mwembwani of Badgini (Bajini) (Comoro Islands)

Ascended to the throne after the death of Umam wa Dari, who reigned (1852-84) and was succeeded by Khadija.   

Sultana in the Comoro Islands

Circa 1884, 1884-8.. and 1887-ca.88 Sultan Khadija binti Mugné Mku of Badgini (Bajini) (Comoro Islands)

It is not clear what happened to her after Hachimu bin Mugne Mku seized power in 1885, After he had been driven out in 1887 she was first arrested but later reinstalled as Sultane by Saidi Ali of the Comoros and French. Later she is known to have been in exile in 1888 and to have joined Hachimu the following year. (d. 1889). 


1884 Mulena Mukwai Maibiba I of Nololo, Chief of the Southern Part of Bulozi and Regent Princess of Barotseland (Zambia)

Sister of Tatila Akufuna, who ruled (1884-85).


1884-1917 10th Asantehemaa Nana Yaa Akyeaa of Asante (Ghana)

Mother the kings Kwaku Dua (1860-84) the 12th Asantahene in 1884, of Premph I (1888) and grandmother of Premph II. She had through strategic political marriages built the military power to secure the Golden Stool for her son. The British authorities offered to take the Asante under their protection, but Prempeh refused each request. In 1896 the British authorities entered Kumase and arrested Prempeh and Yaa Akayaa as well as Prempeh's father, and they were all send in exile. Succeeded as 11th Asantehemaa by daughter, Konadu Yaadom II, who was in office until 1944. Yaa Akyaa lived (circa 1837-1917).

1885-86 Queen-Governor and Regent of the Realm H.M. Doña María Cristina de Austria y Austria-Este of Spain 
1886-1902 Queen Regent

Regent of Spain and its colonies, first during the vacancy of the throne and pending the gestation of a posthumous heir - her son Alfonso XIII (1886-1931-41), who was born 6 months after the death of her husband Alfonso XII. As President of the Council of State she was in close contact with the Premier and the other ministers. Politically the period was characterized, by constant switching of terms in office by the liberal and conservative political parties. Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico were lost to USA. During her term in office, a wavering policy was used for facing the problems in Morocco during the first war of Melilla, (1893). Also, by agreement with France, the borders of the Spanish Continental Guinea were established, (1900). The regent was always highly esteemed because of her great discretion and tact and, after her son came of age, she devoted herself exclusively to family life and charitable works. María Cristina was born as Her Imperial and Royal Highness Archduchess of Austria-Hungary, Princess of Este and had been Princess-Abbess of Prague 1875-79, and lived (1859-1929).

Infanta Maria de Mercedes de Borbon y Austria

1885 "Queen-in-Waiting" Infanta Maria de Mercedes de Borbon y Austria of Spain

Oldest daughter of King Alfonso XII and Queen María Cristina, she was possible heir to her father, and became Queen-in-waiting when he died, and until her mother gave birth to her younger brother. She married Prince Carlo Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Infante of Spain (1870-1949) who renounced his right of succession to the Throne of the Two Sicilies and was created Infante of Spain upon their marriage in 1901. She was Princess of Asturias and Heiress-Presumptive all her life (1880-1904).

1885-1902 Political Advisor Infanta Doña Isabel de Borbón y Borbón of Spain

After the death of her brother, Alfonso XII, she was the closest political advisor of her sister-in-law, the regent Maria Cristina, who in her will named her regent in the event should she die during the minority of her children. Isabel was heiress-presumptive, Princess of Asturias or second-in-line to the throne much of her life. Her husband, Prince Gaetano of the Two Sicilies, was created an Infante of Spain. They had no children, and Isabel lived (1851-1931).


1886-94 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Sakhya Bai Raje Sahib Scindia of Gwalior (India)

After the death of her husband, Maharaja Sir Jayaji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Shrinath (1835-43-86), she ruled for her son, Maharaja Sir Madho Rao Scindia Bahadur, Lashkar, (1876-86-1925). Maharani Sakhya Bai was also Colonel-in-Chief of the 1st Jivaji Gwalior Lancers and of the 1st Maharani Sakhya Raja's Own Gwalior Infantry, and lived (1862-1919).

1886-93 Princess-Abbess Margaretha Sophie von Habsburg-Lothringen of The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague (Austria-Hungary)

The chapter was founded by Empress Maria Theresia in 1755. As abbess she enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income. Daughter of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (1833-96) and Maria Annunziata of The Two Sicilies (1843-71). In 1893 she married Albrecht von Württemberg (1865-1939), mother of three sons and lived (1870-1902).

1886-1912 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Adelgunde von Bayern of Modena in Bayern (Germany)

From 1875, after the death of her husband Archduke Francesco V of Austria-Este, who had abdicated as reigning Duke of Modena in 1859 due to the Italian Unification, she mainly lived in Munich. From 1886 onwards she came to prominence when her brother Luitpold took over the Regency of Bavaria. They were referred to as 'Aunt Modena' and 'Poldi', and were an inseparable couple. Adelgunde had a great influence on her brother; together with Luitpold's daughter, Therese, she performed many social duties at Luitpold's side. Although regarded as plain and old-fashioned, she was nevertheless feared. Both the Bavarian ministers and the government in Berlin distrusted her as she was regarded to be the Habsburg influence in Munich. Mother of one child, Anna Beatrice, who lived (1848-49). Adelgunde lived (1823-1914).

Nana Yaa Asantewaa

1887-1900 Edwesohemaa Nana Yaa Asantewaa of Edweso (Ghana)
1896-1900 Regent of Edweso
1900 Leader of the Resistance

Appointed Queen Mother by her brother, Nana Akwasi Afrane Okpesé, the Edwesohene, as successor to Nana Ampobin I. When her brother died in about 1894, she used her prerogative as Queen Mother to nominate her own grandson, to succeed to the vacant office. When he was sent into exile in 1896 she became regent. After the British deported the king of the Asante, she became leader of the resistance supported by some male leaders. Eyewitness accounts from Edweso indicate that she herself did not physically take up arms to fight. Her role has been described as being mainly inspirational. She was known to have visited the soldiers in the battlefield to ascertain how they were faring. She also gave directions and advice as well as supplied gunpowder. In the end she was captured and sent to Seychelles islands off Africa's east coast, while most of the captured chiefs became prisoners-of-war. She lived (1850-1921).


Around 1887-after 1889 Queen Regent Zambili Tembe of Tongaland/Maputaland (South Africa)

In 1887 she asked for British protection over the entire area under her control, which she defined as stretching northwards from the Mkuze River to the Portuguese border and east of the Swazi border. A preliminary treaty was signed on 6 July 1887. The treaty acknowledged the request of the Mabudu to be British citizens without actually granting them that status. The treaty also stipulated that the Mabudu were not allowed to sign treaties or engage in correspondence with any other European powers, without British consent. In return Britain guaranteed ‘peace and friendship’. A British deputation, under C.R. Saunders visited Maputaland and officially signed the treaty at Emifihleni, the royal homestead, in October 1887. The Saunders treaty stipulated that ‘Thongaland’ included the entire area north of the Mkhuze River, between the Lubombo Mountains and the Indian Ocean. In 1888 Britain shifted the boundaries of ‘Thongaland’, marking Lake Sibayi, some distance north of the Mkhuze River as the northern boundary of Zululand. The Mabudu complained that the Mkhuze River had traditionally been the southern boundary of their chiefdom, and in April 1889 she sent a deputation to Pietermaritzburg to complain about the new boundary between Zululand and Thongaland (Maputaland). The deputation complained about the way in which Maputaland had been cut in half, and asked that the Mabudu be freed from their treaty with the British. The request was rejected. A similar deputation was sent to the Portuguese Government. The deputation arrived in Lisbon in May 1889, but met a similar fate.


1888-94 The Rani Regnant of Tekari  (India)

Succeeded her grandfather, Babu Ram Badur Singh, as ruler of the Sikh principality in Punjab.


1888-92 Head of the Council of Regency The Guleri Rani of Tehri Garhwal (India)

Initially her brother-in-law, Vikram Shah,  had headed the regency for her son Raja Sir Kirti Shah Sahib Bahadur (1874-87-1913) after the death of her husband Maharaja Pratap Shah Sahib Bahadur.

Sultan Ursule Salima Machamba bint Hamadi Makadara of Mwali

1888-1909 Sultan Salima Machamba bint Hamadi Makadara of Mwali (Mohéli) (Comoro Islands a French Protectorate)
1909-64 Head of the Royal Family  

She was daughter of Sultan Raketaka (Djoumbe Fatima) and Emile Fleuriot de Lange. Her mother was deposed in 18. Sultan Salima lived in France; she was married to Camille Paule (d. 1946), and never actually reigned. In 1909 was The French annexed the Island in 1909 and "deposed" her, where after the state was incorporated in the Comoro Islands. Also known as Ursule Salima, she lived (1874-1964). 

Comoran Princess

1888-89 Regent Princess Balia of Mwali (Mohéli) (Comoro Islands)

Member of a regency council for the absent Sultan Salima. 

1888-1906 Regent Rajah Putri of Maguindanao (The Philippines)

Rajah Putri sa Maguindnao bint Kudarat was daughter of Sultan Qudaratullah Muhammad Jamalul Azam or simply Sultan Untong, and maried Datu Utto or Sultan Anwaruddin Utto of Buayan, who also manoeuvred to be declared jointly as Sultan of Maguindanao. Openly, he was supporting the bid of his brother-in-law, Datu Mamaku, brother of Rajah Putri to become the new Sultan of Maguindanao. But the Spaniards opposed his inclination vehemently, and Rajah Putri became the ruler of the state. Maguindano was an Islamic sultanate set up by Malaccan noblemen fleeing the Portuguese conquest of Malacca. They settled in the southern part of the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. The sultanate is famous for its violent resistance to Spanish conquest. It was only subdued towards the end of the 19th century, just before the Spanish lost control over the islands to the United States.


1888-90 Te-mari'i-a-Teurura'i Ma'i-hara Te-uhe, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine (French Polynesia)

Teuhe I was proclaimed as Ari'i-rahi Te-uhe during an insurrection against the French, and fled to Tahiti to seek protection under her former husband, Pomare V 2 years later. Her second husband was Afai-au-Tatahi, from the Tuamotus. She was daughter of Te-ha'apapa II, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine and Te-uru-ra'i Ari'i-mate, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine and mother 1 daughter, who died young. (d. 1891).

Around 1888-1915 Chieftainess Eigamoiya of the Eamwit tribe (Nauru)

She was head of one of the most powerful of the at that time 14 tribes in the Island. She was married to King Aweida, who was hief of the tribe at Boe. She stopped the Nauruan civil war in 1888 just before the German warship Eber, Arrived. She stood magnificently in front of both sides, waving a piece of pabric, and immeediately all firing of bullits from both sides ceased. She lived (1860-1915).

Bronze Head of a Benin Queen Mother

1888-97-1914 Iyoba Iha II of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Also known as Iheya, she was the Mother of Oba Ovonramwen Nogbaisi of Benin (1888-97-1914). There is evidence that she remained in Benin after the British deposed her son.

1888 Politically Influential Empress Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland of the German Empire

The daughter of Queen Victoria, she was also Princess Royal of United Kingdom. She was a very liberal person, and her husband, Friedrich shared her views, but he was already terminally ill with cancer when he became German Emperor in 1888, and only reigned for 99 days, but during his reign, she was very influential. She was hostile to the imperial chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, and estranged from her son, Wilhelm III. After the death of her husband, she was generally known as "Kaiserin Friedrich", and lived (1840-1901).

1888-1902 Representative of the British and Judge Mary Slessor, Okoyongo District (Nigeria)

An ordinary Dundee mill worker who became a notable missionary in West Africa. With enormous strength of will she unflinchingly took on the authorities to bring genuine benefits to the natives, setting up many schools, hospitals and churches throughout the region. Called 'Great Mother' by the Nigerians, she provided healthcare and education and stamped out barbaric tribal practices such as human sacrifice, ritualistic rape and the murder of twins. She lived (1848-1915)

Njapdungke of Bamum

1889-95 Queen Mother Regnant Njapdungke of Bamum (Cameroon)

Also known as Setfon or Nazabidunke, she was the widow of Mfon Nsagou, 16th Mfon of Bamoun 1865-1889 who was beheaded in a conflict with the Nso, and his head carried off in 1889, and regent for her son, Ibrahum Njoya, who was Fon of Bamun 1888-1923, in 1918 he also became sultan of Fumban, he was deposed in 1923, and lived (1885-1933). She continued as his closest advisor after he took over the reigns himself. Bamun was under indirect colonial rule by the Germans. She (d. 1913).


1889-94 Reigning Queen Mother The Ndlovukati Tibati Nkambule 
of Swaziland
1894-99 Joint Head of State

Became ruler after the death of her husband, King Mbandzeni (1875-89). In 1894 her son, Ngwane II, became king. 


Circa 1889-96 I Merette of Cenrana (Indonesia)

Married to the 23rd ruler, Tandiwali, who ruled until 1889, but her reign is not certain until 1892. She was daughter of Jalangkara, who also ruled over Pambuang/Pembuang, and was succeeded by her son, La Galigu, who reigned until 1901.


1889 The Maradi Kavea of Sausu (Indonesia)

The government was in the hands of her husband, Rampabila, who was cousin of the previous Raja.


Before 1889 Ruler We Bangki of Rapang (Indonesia)

Inherited the principality after the death of her mother, We Madditana, and was succeeded by husband, La Pangoriseng, who ruled until 1889. Their son Sumanga Ruka ruled 1886-1904.

Unnamed Queen of Abomey

1889-94 Kpojito Kamlin of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of King Behanzin Behanzin (1841-1906), who chose the strategy of confrontation to resist French occupation of his kingdom. In 1889, King Glele and his son Behanzin, who considered the coastal areas of Porto Novo and others to be part of the kingdom of Dahomey, declared that the Fon people could no longer tolerate France's actions. In February 1890, the French occupied Coutounou and Behanzin prepared for war, which resulted in a treaty, with the French continuing to occupy Coutounou, for which Behanzin exacted an annuity. The peace lasted for two years. However, France was determined to annex Dahomey before the British or Germans did. Behanzin, knowing that he would have to defend his sovereignty, updated his army in the interim.  In 1894, Behanzin surrendered himself to Dodds, but a national surrender was never affected. Behanzin was exiled to the island of Martinique in the West Indies and later transferred to Algeria where he died in 1906.

1890 Regent Queen Emma zu Waldeck-Pyrmont of the Netherlands
1890-98 Dowager Queen Regent of the Netherlands 

First acted as regent for her terminally ill husband King Willem III of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (14.-23.11.1890), and after he died, for her only daughter who succeeded to the Throne at the age of 10. Luxembourg passed to another branch of the Nassau-family. Emma was an able administrator, remained her daughter's closest advisor, and became extremely popular. She lived (1858-1934).

1890-1948 H.M. Wilhelmina, By the Grace of God Queen of the Netherlands (23.11.1890-04.09.1948)

Also Princess of Oranje-Nassau etc, etc, etc. The Netherlands at the time included Oostindia (Indonesia), Dutch Guyana (Suriname) and The Nederlanse Antillen. Her mother, Emma zu Waldeck-Pyrmont, acted as regent 1890-98. Although a Queen in a constitutional monarchy she in fact had absolute veto power over any legislation, appointed each member of the Council of State, and could alone dissolve the States-General. Tactful, and careful to operate within the limitations of what was expected by the Dutch people and their elected representatives, a strong-willed Wilhelmina became a forceful personality who spoke and acted her mind. Her shrewd investments would make her the wealthiest woman in the world and the first woman to ever accumulate a net worth in excess of a billion dollars. In 1940 Germany invaded the Netherlands and Queen Wilhelmina and her family had to flee to England, where she took charge of the Dutch government, setting up a chain of command and immediately communicating a message to her people. She broadcast messages to the Dutch people over Radio Orange, which was eagerly awaited by her people who had to hide in order to illegally listen to them under penalty of death. During the war, the Queen was almost killed by a German bomb that took the life of several of her guards and severely damaged her country home near South Mimms, England. After the war she oversaw the reconstruction of the devastated country, but abdicated for health reasons in favour of her only child, Juliana.  Wilhelmina was married to Duke Heinrich zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Prince Hendrik of the Netherlands), and lived (1880-1964).

1890-97 Political Advisor Grand Duchess Sophie van Oranje-Nassau of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach in The Netherlands 

After the death of her brother, King Willem III of the Netherlands, her sister-in-law, Queen Emma became regent, and Sophie acted as her advisor and supporter. She was also first in line for the succession. She was married to Grand Duke Carl Alexander (1818-1901), was mother of two sons and two daughters, and lived (1824-97).


Circa 1890-1933 The Aru I Coma of Batulapa (Indonesia)

No other rulers of the principality are known.


Before 1891-1908 Ohamba Nekoto of Parts of Oukwanyama (Nambia) 

Mentioned in the writings of the German Lutheran missionaries that worked in Oukwanyama from 1891 to 1915. As a member of the royal family, she ruled over a large section of Oukwanyama where she took all relevant political decisions and sentenced in court. She was an aunt to kings Weyulu and Nande of Kwanyama and a great-aunt to the last Kwanyama king, Mandume, and exerted great influence over her nieces and nephews. Although she allocated the German missionaries a place to build their fourth Kwanyama mission station, Omatemba, in 1906, she was not at all interested in Christianity. According to the custom of the time, after the death of a female Ohamba her husband was to be killed to provide her company in the other world, but he was saved by the missionaries. Like any other female Ohamba, Nekoto enjoyed the prerogative to choose a spouse to her liking. When Nekoto married Haishi after the death of her first husband, Mombola, he had to leave his former wives, said to number five or six (as he was a wealthy man) in order to join her as her Oshitenya, or 'prince consort'. The role of the royal husband was to carry out and oversee all orders around the queen's area. However, he had no say in decision-making, although Haishi is said to have tried to act independently, too. It is not known when Nekoto was born but already in 1896 she was described as 'an old woman' (d. 1908).


1891-95 Tui Manu'a Matelita of Samoa

Paramount Chieftainess Matelita Young ruled the island that is now American Samoa but was head of the whole of Samoa. She was the 39th Tui Manu'a. Other female rulers before her was the 20th, 23rd and 27th office holders: Tuimanufil, Siliave and Seuea. She lived (circa 1872-95).


1891-1931 Owner Mrs. Highly Calder of the Takuu (Mortlock) Islands  (Papua New Guinea)

Given the islands by her sister, Emma Forsayth, after her marriage to Joseph Highly. After his death in 1894, she married a Mr. Calder, and stayed on in the Mortlocks for the next 20 years. After World War I, the Mortlocks, being part of the former German territory of New Guinea, was taken over by the Australian Expropriation Board. Both Mrs. Calder and her daughter, Frances Highly Kroening, claimed possession of the islands. The property was awarded to Mrs. Calder, who died in 1931 in the Mortlocks from injuries she received when dynamite she was handling for killing fish exploded. 

1891 Honorary Seneca Sachem Harriet Maxwell Converse of the Six Nations (USA) 

Her Indian name was Ga-is-wa-noh -The Watcher, and she became the first white woman to be named chief of an Indian Tribe. Converse became chief of the Six Nations Tribe at Tonawanda Reservation in New York. The Seneca tribe had adopted her 7 years earlier because of her efforts on behalf of the tribe. She lived (1836-1903).

Princess Pomare

1891-1961 Head of the Royal House, HRH Princess Teri’i-nui o-Tahiti Te-Vahine-taora-te-rito-ma-te-ra’I Teri’i-a’etua Pomare of Tahiti

Oldest daughter of King Pomare V (1877-80-91) and Queen Joanna Marau-Ta’aroa Te-Pao, she was married to Chief Opuhara Salmon of Papenoo. In 1929 she adopted her daughter’s daughter Genevieve Tita Salomon and gave her the title Princess Pomare. Princess Teri’i-nui was the mother of one son, Eric Pomare. 


1892-1901 Arii Temaeva V of Rimatara (French Polynesia)

Succeeded Chiefess Temaeva IV. (d. 1923).


Until 1892 Queen Sandemani Famata Bendu Sandmani of Garwula and Ruler of the Vai Tribe  (Liberia)

Succeeded her husband as Queen of the Tribe, now a District in the Cape Mount Province. Her second husband was King Al Hai of Gallinas. Mother of one son.

Emine Hanım

1892-1914 Valida Sultana Emine Hanım of Egypt

At the death of her husband, Mohammed Tewfik, khedive of Egypt she was Appointed Valida Sultana - or Valide Pasha, and became the most powerful woman in the realm, acting as political mentor for her son II. Abbas Hilmi Paşa (1874-92-1914-44), who was deposed following the declaration of a British protectorate over Egypt. She was known as "Umm al-Mu'hsinin" in recognition of her many charitable endowments, and was the first consort to be styled Khediva Effendimiz from 1873. She was born as HH Princess Emine-Nacibe Hanimefendi, as the oldest daughter of HIH Princess Münire Sultan, tenth daughter of HIM Sultan I. Abdulmecid, and her husband, who was created H.H. Damad Prince Ibrahim al-Hami Pasha upon their marriage. Also known as Amina Najiya Khanum Effendimiz, she died in exile in Istanbul, and lived (1858-1931).

1893-95 Teri'i-na-vaha-roa Teri'i Ta-tia Te-ha'apapa III, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine (French Polynesia)

Tehaapapa III was deposed when Huahine was annexed by the French. She was married to Teri'i-te-vae-a-ra'i-a-Mai, a descendant of the Mai family of Bora Bora. She had one son by her first husband and eleven other children through her union with Tinitua-a-Tu-Ari'i-hi-ona. Daughter of Marama Teri'i-fa'atau-a-Te-'uru-rai, Regent of Huahine and Te-tua-marama Te-ramana-Ari'i-a-Te-'uru-Ari'i, daughter of the Ari'i of Rurutu, and  (1879-1917).

 Makea Karika Takau Tuaraupoko Mokoroa ki Aitu

Circa 1893-1942, 25th Makea Karika Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga (Cook Islands)

Originally named Takau Tuaraupoko Mokoroa ki Aitu, she was member of the Rarotonga Island Council around 1923-1925. Mother of Pa George on 1 August 1893 at Avarua, Rarotonga, He married Ngapoko (also known as Ngaupoko) Ariki o Tangiia, who was said to be the daughter of a sea captain by the name of Wilson; she was also a descendant of the Piltz family of Kiel, Germany, and was in her own right a Kamoe Matiapo, a high-ranking title under Makea Nui. Makea Karika Ariki (d. 1942).


1893-94 Regent Queen Mother Ida of Ketu (Benin)

Also known as Kétou, it was one of the oldest Yoruba kingdoms in the country, and can be traced back to the fourteenth century. It is known for its colourful and beautiful woodcarving. In 1894 Queen appointed Oyengen king and he ruled until 1918.


1893-94 Sultan Mugalula of Nyamwezi at Zanzibar (Tanzania)

Abdicated as Sultan of Nyamwezi the same year. Abdicated as sultan and was succeeded by daughter Abd Msavila II in Nyamwezi, who also abdicated.  


1893-1924 Chiefess Msavila I of Kiwele (Tanzania)

Succeeded her aunt, Mugalula I in Kiwele and wad first succeeded by son and in 1929 by daughter Mulgalula II. 


1893 Politically Influential Saudatu of Sokoto (Nigeria)

Intervened in the power struggle and secured the succession of her son, Emir Aliyu, and remained politically influential during his reign. 

1893-94 Princess-Abbess Karoline Immaculata von Habsburg-Lothringen of The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague (Austria-Hungary)

Also known as Carolina, she was daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1839-92) and Maria Immacolata of The Two Sicilies (1844-99) and married to Prince August Leopold von Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1867-1922) and lived (1869-1945). 

1894-1918 Princess-Abbess Maria Annunziata von Habsburg-Lothringen of The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary)

Also was known as Miana, the Archduchess was the daughter of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria and his third wife, Maria Teresa da Bragança. She acted as "first Lady" at the court of her father's brother, Emperor Franz Joseph after his wife, Empress Elisabeth, was murdered in 1898. Her oldest brother, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was the Heir to the Throne until he was killed 1914, and her second brother's son was emperor Karl I (1887-1916-18-2). She was unmarried and lived (1876-1961). 


1894-19? Maharani Beni Prasad Kumari of Dumraon (India)

Succeeded father, Radha Prasad Singh (1841-81-94) as ruler of the principality in today's Bihar. 


1894-98 Myoza Ma Pu of Singaling Hkamti (Zingalein-Kanti) (Myanmar-Burma)

Successor of her father, Saw Hôn as ruler of one of the Shan-Thai principalities in the country. She was succeeded by Saw E, who had been regent since 1892 and ruled as prince until 1927.

Maharani Sri Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Kempa Nanja Ammani Avaru

1894-1902 Regent H.H. Soubhagyavati Maharani Sri Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Kempa Nanja Ammani Avaru of Mysore (India)

Also known as Maharani Empananjammanni of Vanivilasa Sanndihana or Kempa Nanjammani Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Avaru, she was in charge of the regency for her son, H.H. Maharaja Sri Sir Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV Bahadur, Maharaja of Mysore. She lived (1866-1934).

Royal Lady of Abomey

1894-1900 Kpojito Kanai of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of King Agoliagbo, the last reigning king of Abomey. At this time the office of Kpojito had become merely symbolic due to the European influence.


1895 Sultan Abd Msavila II of Nyamwezi (Tanzania)

Daughter of Sultana Mugalula, who reigned 1893-95 Msavila abdicated and was succeeded by Chief and sultan Katugamoto, who was deposed in 1898. 

Nyirauhi V Kanjogera of Rwanda

1895-96 Reigning Umugabekazi Nyirauhi V Kanjogera of Rwanda
1916 Regent
1916-31 Reigning Umugabekazi

Became Umugabekazi (Queen Mother) by the death of her husband King Kigeri IV Rwabigi and twice acted as regent for her son Yuhi V wa Musinga (1896-31). Rwanda was a Belgian colony at the time.

Khetoane Modjadji III

1895-1959 Rain Queen Khetoane Modjadji III of Balobedu (South Africa)

In 1894 her predecessor, Modjadji II, committed ritual suicide. She and her council had already designated the daughter of her "sister" and great wife, Khetoane, as heir. The Rain-Queens were, and still is seen as the embodiment of the divine order of the Lobedu Tribe, and one of their duties, and abilities, is to provide their tribe with rain.


1895-1940 Soledatu Siti Saenabe Aru Lapajung of Soppeng (Indonesia)

Succeeded a relative and married to La Pabeangi Aru Ganra, and succeeded by, son Andi Wanna (1940-59-61).


1896-1916 Regent Dowager Rani Laxmi Bai Raje Sahib of Akalot (India)

After the death of her husband, Raja Shahaji III, she was regent for adopted son Captain Meherban Shrimant Fatehsingh III Shahaji Raje Sahib Bhonsle (1894-96 - 1923), son of Meherban Shrimant Ganpatji Bhonsle.

1896-1944 Captain and Governor HRH Princess Beatrice of United Kingdom and Ireland of the Isle of Wright (United Kingdom)

Ninth child of Queen Victoria, she was private secretary of her mother 1874-1901. She married Prince Henry of Battenberg and after his death of malaria in Ghana, her mother appointed her as his successor as Governor and Captain of the Isle of Wight Governor, of the Castle of Carisbrooke and Steward and Sheriff of the Isle of Wight. Mother of three sons and a daughter, the later Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain. Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore lived (1857-1944).


1896-97 Rebellion Leader Mbuya Nehanda Charwe Nyakasikana of the MaShona Nation (Zimbabwe)

Also known as Ambuya Vehanda Shona, she was a famous Shona spirit medium, who must have had great authority even before the 1896-97 Rebellion and she was instrumental in organizing the nationwide resistance to colonial rule during the First Chimurenga. As far as the people were concerned she and other spirit mediai were the voices of the God a.k.a Mwari, whom they believed would turn the bullets of the white man into water. She was arrested about a year after the rebellion, and brought to trial for her part in the killing of Native Commissioner Pollard, and sentenced to death by hanging. Two unsuccessful attempts were made to hang her, and only after her tobacco pouch was removed from her belt, the third attempt was successful. She was considered to be the female incarnation of the oracle spirit Nyamhika Nehanda who lived 500 yeas earlier. She lived (circa 1862-1898).

The Queen Mother of Buganda

1897-1914 Joint Regent Queen Mother of Buganda (Uganda)

One of many wifes of king H.H. Danieri Basamula-Ekkeri Mwanga II Mukasa who was finally deposed in 1897, and though she seems to have been member of the regency-council for her one-year-old son, H.H. Kabaka Sir Daudi Chwa II (1896-97-1939), her name does not appear to be known.

1897-1916 HM Somdetch Phra Nang Chao Saovabha Phongsri Phra Baromma Rajini Nath Sri Bajarindra of Thailand

Born as HRH Princess Saovabha Phongrsi as daughter of King Mongkut (Rama IV). She and two other sisters married their half-brother, King Chulalongkorn (Rama V). In 1895 her son, Maha Vajiravudh became crown prince of Thailand and she was appointed Queen Regent (Rajini Nath) on 21 of March 1897, acting as regent on various occasions when the king was abroad. She had 9 children and lived (1864-1916).

1897-? Paramount Chieftess Nancy Tucker of Bagruwa (Sierra Leone)

A trader from Bonthe who had established prominence in the area. She arrived in the late 19th century, acting as a interloctur between local chiefs and the British. She built a shine kalled Kpangana and a large stone building as head quarter for her tradning activity. None of her decentants have managed to win the subsequent chiefly elections.


1897-1936 Aru I Buabara of Kassa (Indonesia)

Head of one of the Bugis states until she abdicated in favour of son Andi Coppo, who ruled until 1952.


1897 Magau I Djeni of Parigi (Indonesia)

Also known as Jeni or I Djengi, and succeeded brother, Bapa I Henta was Raja Malolo, or heir to the throne, which he had refused to occupy after another relative, fled the state. (b. 183..-?).


After 1897 Queen Bibiasa of Menabe (Madagascar)

Apparently took over the government when King Ampanjaka Toera was beheaded by the French.


1898-1935 Payung e-ri Luwu Andi We Kambo Opu Daeng Risompa of Luwu (Indonesia)

Succeeded father Iskandar Aru Larompang, and was the last traditionally installed ruler. Until around 1905 she was in opposition to the Dutch rule. The name given to her after her death was Matinroe/Matinrowe ri Limpomajang, and the last word indicates the place of her death. Her son, Andi Jemma Barue, was the last ruler of Luwu, Andi Jemma Barue (1936-46/49-59/60).


1898-circa 1900 and around 1905 Maradi Kavea Ta Saïnta of Sausu (Indonesia)

Also known as Tasa Inta, her residence was at Watunonju, and she succeeded her father, who had residence at Tomatonju. Neo-I-Sida was named as ruler around 1900.


1898-1900 Queen Madam Matolo of Nongowa and Panguma (Sierra Leone)

The Portuguese Colonial Powers appointed her Paramount Chiefess.
Married to King Faba Kpovowo of Pangum (d. 1889), who was
succeeded by son Nyagua, who died in 1898. She was succeeded by


1898-1909 Paramount Chief Sophia Neale-Caulker of Shenge in the Kagboro District (Sierra Leone)

AKnown as Yeni Bey - Madam Chief, she was appointed by the British to succeed Thomas Neale-Caulker, who was assassinated. During her rule, the population of Shenge increased to 200, but cannibalism became rampant along the Kagboro coast. This was embarrassing to the chief, and led to her ultimate deposition. She was generally described as, a very weak ruler, whose chiefdom was virtually run by the Domingo family. On December 22nd 1908, the governor declared that Kagboro District would be placed under the Paramount Chief of Plantain/Shenge. He also ruled that she was too old to be chief and should retire. (Records showed that she was morbidly obese, weighing 182 kg and could barely move). The ruling also stated that, at the time of her retirement, all her officers would be relieved of their power, and all of the section chiefs would be responsible for their own sections until another paramount chief could be crowned. She was the grand daughter of George Stephen I Caulker (Ba Charch), who was chief of the area from 1901 and married to chief Thomas Stephen Caulker’s son. and (d. circa 1915) 


Until 1898 Military Leader and Priestess Nehana of the MaShona Nation (Zimbabwe)

Became a military leader of her people when the British invaded her country. She led a number of successful attacks on the English but was eventually captured and executed. She lived (1862-1898). 


Around 1898 Queen Sarraounia of Azna (Niger)

Ruler of a animist group of Eastern Hausa. While some kingdoms readily collaborated with the French in the hope of finally subduing her and her kingdom, and others capitulated without a fight, she mobilized her people and resources, military as well as magical, to confront the French force which launched a fierce attack on her fortress capital of Lougou. Overwhelmed by the superior firepower of the French, she and her fighters retreated tactically from the fortress, and engaged the attackers in a protracted guerrilla battle which eventually forced the French to abandon their project of subduing her. Sarraounia means queen or chiefess, and among the Azna people of Lougou and surrounding Hausa towns and villages, the term refers to a lineage of female rulers who exercised both political and religious power.


Until 1898 Military Leader and Priestess Nehana of the MaShona Nation (Zimbabwe)

Became a military leader of her people when the British invaded her country. She led a number of successful attacks on the English but was eventually captured and executed. She lived (1862-1898). 

Labotsibeni Gwamile Ndluli

1899-1921 Regent Indlovukazi Labotsibeni Gwamile Ndluli laMvelase of Swaziland 
1921-25 Joint-Head of State

Reigned until the installation of her grand-son as king Shobuza II (1921-82). After the South African War the British established their colonial rule in Swaziland in August 1902, and she devoted her energy challenging the British colonial state on various issues ranging from land to legal jurisdiction over the emaSwati. She remained Deputy Head of State until her death. (Died 1925).


1899-1909 Regent Dowager Rani Parabati Bai Shiba of Miroj (India)

Managed the affairs of state for minor son.  


Circa 1899-1946 Paramount Chief 'ariui henua Eva Ko Uka'a Hei'a 'Arero of Papa Nui (Easter Island/Isla de Pascua) (Chile) 

The last native chief of the Easter Islands. (d. 17.3.46).


Around 1899 Crown Princess Opotina of Ponape or Pohnpei (The Federated States of Micronesia)

Renounced her succession-rights to become a Christian missionary. 

Last update 01.03.17

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