Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

  WOMEN IN POWER 
1840-1870

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


An unnamed Sikh Maharani

Until 1840 Rani Mehatab Kaur of Kanhaiya (India)

Her son, Sher Singh, was Maharaja of Lahore after deposing Maharani Chand Kaur in 1841, until his death 2 years later. She was also known as Mahitab Kaur.


 

1840 Regent H.H. Dowager Nawab Dadibu Begum Sahiba of Junagadh (India)

Reigned in the name of her son, H.H. Nawab Hamid Khanji II Sahib Bahadur.


1840-41 Reigning Maharani Mai Chand Kaur of Punjab (Lahore) (India)

Also known as Maharani Malika Makkadas, she was widow of Maharaj Kharak Singh and assumed ruling powers on the death of her only son, Nau Nihal Singh. An arrangement was arrived under which she was to act as regent for her expected grandson, while another pretender, Sher Singh, would function as vice-regent and head of the council of regency, and Dhian Singh as the principal Minister. But a few days later, Atar Singh and Ajit Singh, collaterals of the royal contenders for the throne, arrived in Lahore and took over control. On 2 December 1840, Chand Kaur was proclaimed the Maharani of the Punjab, with the title of Malika Muqaddasa, Empress Immaculate. Sher Singh and Dhian Singh Dogra left the capital, and she gained complete control of the administration together with her supporters. But Sher Singh still had the support of the army and in 1841 he arrived in Lahore with at the head of a considerable force and assured the safety of life and property to the citizens and offering pardon to those who would come over to him. The leading courtiers made their submission, she, however, chose to fight. For two days, Sher Singh's artillery shelled the fort, but with little effect. On the evening of 17 January 1841, Dhian Singh Dogra arrived and secured a ceasefire. She was persuaded to accept a jagir and relinquish her claim to the throne and retired to her late son's palace in Lahore and received a pension of 9,00,000 rupees. In 1841 she gave birth to a stillborn son ending any justification for a renewed claim to the regency. The following year she was killed by her female servants. She lived (1802-42).


 

1840 Regent H.H. Dowager Nawab Dadibu Begum Sahiba of Junagadh (India)

Ruled in the name of her son, H.H. Nawab Hamid Khanji II Sahib Bahadur.


 

Before 1840 Ras Zmama Worq of Shawa, Menz etc. (Ethiopia) 

Her son Ras Shale Selassie married Ras Bezebesh of Marra Biet in 1840.


 

1840-47 Politically Influential Empress Menen Liben Amede of Ethiopia
1840-47 Ruler of The Provinces North and West of the Tana Lake (Ethiopia)

Also known as Manam Liben-Amde, she helped bring her husband, Emperor Yohannes III, on the throne. He ruled 1840-41, 1845 and 1850-51 and was deposed by rival fractions. In 1845 Lij Kassa Hailu rebelled against her and her son Ras Ali II, who held the office of Viceroy, he invaded and pillaged Dembiya in October 1846, conquered Gondar in January 1847, defeated and captured her in June 1847 but released her again in August. She was the widow of Ras Alula Gugsa, Governor of Gojjam, and daughter of Imam Liban Amade Kolase, chief of the Wollo of Warra Himenu, and lived (ca. 1800-50s).


 

Ca. 1840-51 Governor MaMotshiame of the Central Province of the Bulozi Kingdom (Zambia)
1851-58 Regent Makololo Morêna of Bulozi (or Barotseland)

Her father, king Sibitwane, appointed her as governor of a central province. On his deathbed, he appointed her as his successor. She later abdicated in favour of brother, Sekeletu. She died (1888).


 

1840-42 Governor Queen Ka-hei-hei-malie Kalakaua [Hoapili-wahine] of Maui in Hawaii (USA)

Also known as Alii Kaheiheimalie Kalakaua, she was first married to H.R.H. Prince Kala'imamahu, Chief Priest of Io and Kane (d. after 1820) and after their divorce around 1795 to King Kamehameha the Great - who had also been married to her daughter, Miriam, who became Kuhina Nui in 1838. Her third husband was Uluma-hei-hei Hoapili-kane, Alii of Lahaina, Governor of Maui (d. 1840), she (d. 1842).


 

Before 1841 Ratu Agung Gusti Besar of Bangkalaan, Sampanahan and Menungul, Angeran Seria of Cengul, Cantung and Batu Licen (Indonesia)

Succeeded her brother Pangeran Nata. Another brother, Pang Mangku Gusti Ali, ruled in Sampanahan. She married Aji Raden of Pasir, and was succeeded by son Pang Aji Jawi in all the principalities until his death in 1841.


 

From 1841 Deshmukh Bhagirathi Bai of Jath (India)

Joint ruler with Amrit Rao (1841-92).


 

1841-53 Regent Dowager Rani Sahebjibai Baya Saheb of Phaltan (India)

Managed the affairs of state for Madhoji Rao Jan Rao Naik Nimbalkar, who was maharaja (1841-1916). Dowager Rani Mudhoji was regent of the State 1860-1916.


 

1841-54 Regent Dowager Maharani Larai Rani of Orchara  (India)

In charge of the government in the name of her son, Sunjan Singh II Mahendra.


1841-43 De facto Regent Sri Sri Sri Kancha Maharani Rajya Lakshmi Devi of Nepal
1843-46 Official Regent of the Kingdom

Also known as  Queen Rajyalaxmi Devi, she took over the supreme power of the state as first de-facto in charge of the government, after the Senior Queen left the country. The British resident, Brian H. Hodgson, obtained the permission of the Governor-General, Lord Lord Ellenblorong to have administration authority transferred to her, and her husband, King Rajendra Birkrama Shah (1813-16-47-81), surrendered his ruling powers to her in January 1843 and signed an instrument of abdication in favour of his son Surendra, in December 1844, which he annulled on a few weeks later after his return to Katmandu. After her favourite, Gagan Singh, who controlled seven regiments in the army, was murdered she assembled the entire military and administrative establishment of Kathmandu at the courtyard of the palace armoury (known as the Kot). She gave an emotional harangue, and demanding that the prime minister execute the Pande leader whom she suspected of the murder. Fighting broke out in the crowd, and many of the leading nobles were killed. The incident became known as "The Knot Massacre". Soon after she left Nepal together with husband and two sons and went in voluntary exile at Benare. The following year her husband was officially deposed in favour of his eldest son and imprisoned. She remained in Beares for the rest of her life. She was born in Gorakpur in India, and lived (Ca. 1814-before 1900).

1841-1847 Member of the House of Nobles High Chiefess Analea Keohokālole in Hawaii (USA)
1846-1847 Member of the King's Privy Council

The daughter of the Chiefess Kamaeokalani and the High Chief ʻAikanaka, she inherited vast tracts of land from her paternal grandmother, High Chiefess Keohohiwa and great uncle Naihe. She was married to her first cousin, Caesar Kapaʻakea, a chief of lesser rank and her first cousin, and among their more than 10 children were King David Kalākaua and Queen Lydia, who was deposed by the Americans. She lived (1816–1869).


H.R.H. Princess Laura Konia of Hawaii

1841-47 Member of the House of Nobles H.R.H. Princess Laura Konia of Hawai'i, Hawaii (USA)

Married to The Hon. Alii Abner Kuho'oheiheipahu Paki (ca. 1808-55), sometime Chamberlain to the King, Judge of the Supreme Court, and acting Governor of Hawaii Island. She died during the influenza epidemic (d. 1857).


Sultan Jumbe Fatimah

1842-67 and 1871-78 Sultan Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane of Mwali/Mohéli (Comoro Islands)

Djumbe Fatima scceeded her father, Ramanetaka, cousin of Radama I of Madagascar, who conquered Mwali. Also known as Reketaka Jombe Sudy or Djoumbé Soudi or Djoumbé Fatouma. Jumbe Fatimah was married two times and was deposed by the French Colonial powers in 1867 but was reinstalled and ruled until her death. She lived (1837-78).


 

1842-51 Regent Dowager Sultan Rovao of Mwali/Mohéli (Comoro Islands)

Reigned for daughter together with her second husband, Tsivandini.


 

1842-56 Regent H.H. Dowager Maharani Shri Kika Bai Sahiba of Kishangarh (India)

After the death of her husband, H.H. Umdai Rajahai Buland Makan Maharaja Shri Mokkam Singhji Sahib Bahadur, she was regent for her adopted son, H.H. Umdai Rajahai Buland Makan Diwan Maharaja Shri Prithvi Singhji Sahib Bahadur (1838-42-79). She was daughter of Maharaj Shri Amar Singhji Sahib Bahadur, of Udaipur.


 

1842-45 Possible Ruler Princess Inez Ana Frederick of The Mosquito Nation in Nicaragua

Also known as Agnes Ana, she is by some considered to have been Queen of the Miskito, a British Protectorate on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and Ecuador inhabited by Miskito Indians, by others as member of the council of regency during the minority of her brother, George Augustus Frederic II (1832-42-65). Anyhow, it was she who approved the cession of San Juan del Norte to Nicaragua against the wishes of her brother.  For a brief time in 1849, she was considered a possible heir to the Miskito throne. Married to. Michael Hodgson, Councillor of State to 1860, and of the General Council from 1860. They had no children, and the Mosquito throne was inherited by her sister's three sons in succession.


1842-44 Governor HRH Princess Anna Keahikuni-i-Kekauʻōnohi of Hawai'i of Maui in Hawai'i (USA)

Anna Keahikuni-i-Kekauonohi, sometimes called Miriam Kekauʻōnohi was the daughter of Prince Kinau Kahoanuku of Hawaii and Princess Kahakuha'akoi Wahini-pio of Maui, she was married to King Lihohilo Kamehameha II, Prince Keali'iahonui (whose first wife was Queen Elizabeth Ka'ahumanu, whose first husband was king Kamehameha the Great) and Levi Ha'alelea.  She was member of The House of Nobles from 1840 and inherited most of the land of her uncle William Pitt Kalanimoku, which she left to her last husband. Stephen Reynolds in his Journal noted at her death that she was "the last of the old stock of chiefs – one of the best of them – good natured, benevolent, liberal and generous." Princess Anna lived (1805-51).


Queen Kekauonohi

1842-45 Governor HRH Princess Kekauonohi of Kauai in Hawaii (USA)
1844-51 Member of the Privy Council of Hawai'i

Also known as Anna Keahikuni-i-Kekauʻōnohi or Miriam Kekauʻōnohi, she was daugher of Prince Kahōʻanokū Kīnaʻu of Hawaii and High Chiefess Kahakuhaʻakoi Wahinepio, was a Pincess of Maui and was Governor of Maui, Molkai and Lanai 1823-1826, and  one of the five wives of Kamehameha II and was present on the occasion of the famous meal at which the eating kapu was overturned and with it the entire kapu system in 1819. In 1828 she married Aaron Keliiahonui, son of Kaumualii the last King of Kauai, who 1849, and she married Levi Haalelea in 1850. She died in Honolulu in June 1851. Stephen Reynolds in his Journal (now in the Peabody Essex Museum) noted at her death that she was "the last of the old stock of chiefs – one of the best of them – good natured, benevolent, liberal and generous." The famous chiefs Boki and Kalauimoku were her uncles. (1805-1851). 


 

Ca. 1842-48 Exile-Leader Mawa of Zulu Political Refugees (South Africa)

During the reigns of her two nephews Shaka (ca. 1815-28) and Dingane (1828-40) she served as liaison in a British military town. In 1840 another nephew ousted Dingane and, in ca. 1842, had his brother assassinated. Mawa fled with several thousand followers to Natal, where she gathered additional supporters and eventually negotiated a treaty with the new British administration to settle permanently in Natal. She (d. 1848).


 

1843-44 Regent HH Dowager Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Raje Sahiba of Gwalior (India)

Ruled in the name of her adopted son, Maharaja Jayaji Rao Scindia. 


 

1843-49 Regent H.H. Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maji Keshri Bai Sahiba of Indore (India)

A potter woman who entered the harem of H.H. Jaswantrao Holkar VI Subadar Bahadur, Maharaja (1798- 1811), but never formally married him.  She was regent for her adopted grandson, H.H. Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Khanderao Holkar (1843-44), and his successor. She (d. 1849).


Jindan Kaur

1843-46 Regent HH Dowager Maharani Jindan Kaur Sahiba of Punjab (India)

After the death of her husband, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, she took over the regency for son, H.H. Maharajadhiraja Duleep Singh Bahadur (1838-93). She resisted the efforts of the British to annex Punjab for some time. She came out of Purdah and held durbar with the chiefs of the army, daily took counsel with the nobles, and conducted the State with uncommon common sense, in some of the most difficult situations facing the kingdom. After the defeat, she was removed from Shaikhupura Fort to a fort of Chunnar, in Uttar Pradesh. She managed to escape from jail and after an arduous journey to Nepal, she got asylum from the Prime Minister Jung Bahadur in spite of the objections of the British Resident in Nepal. She later joined her son in exile in England and lived (1817-63). 


 

1843-44 Regent HH Dowager Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Raje Sahiba of Gwalior (India)

Reigned in the name of her adopted son, Maharaja Jayaji Rao Scindia. 


Unnamed Burmese Queen

1843-4.. Ngwegunhmu Mi Thit of Pingtara (Myanmar-Burma)

Succeeded brother, Maung Shwe Min (1819-43), as Princess regnant and succeeded by sister sometime in the 1840s as leader of the Ethnic Shan-Thai state. 

184.. Ngwegunhmu Mi Sit of Pingtara (Myanmar-Burma)

Succeeded sister as Princess regnant. The Burmese name of the state was Pindara. 


Sikander Begum

1844-49 Regent Begum H.H. Sikander Begum Sahiba of Bhopal (India)
1859-68 Nawab Begum Regnant

Had been proclaimed Reigning Begum at the age of 15 months in 1819 under the regency of her mother, Begum Quisada, who resigned in 1844, and on a special Dunbar conveyed in Bhopal, the British Political Agent, J.D. Cunningham, read out a proclamation from the Governor-General that Sikander would be the sole regent and exercise full executive powers on behalf of her 9 year old daughter, Shahjehan. She was the most aggressive, dynamic and charismatic. She rode, played polo, went tiger hunting and was an expert swordswoman. She reorganized the army, whose commander she was. She backed the winning horse in the 1857 mutiny and became the star of several British Dunbars held for Indian rulers. She was a devout Muslim but did not take the veil, but was the first Indian ruler to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca. She had separated from her husband, Gahangir Muhammad, who had been titular ruler, after a short period. She lived (1818-68).


Jahan Begum

1844-59 H.H. Nawwab Sultan Shah Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)
1868-1901
Nawab Begum Regnant

Proclaimed by the British authorities as successor to her father and reigned under the Regency of her mother, Begum Sikander, who was recognised as the sole ruler of Bhopal from 1860 until her death. Instead she was installed as Heir Apparent. She threw off purdah on the death of her first husband first husband, General H.H. Nasir ud-Daula, Nawab Baqi Muhammad Khan Bahadur, in 1867 and finally succeeded on the death of her mother in 1868. Secondly married to H.H. Wala Jah, Amir ul-Mulk, Nawab Sayyid 'Abu'l-Taiyib Muhammad Saddiq Hasan Khan Bahadur, Nawab Consort of Bhopal (1832-90), who was Assistant Minister and 1871-74 and Chief Minister 1874-84, deprived of his titles and dismissed from all his official posts by order of the Viceroy 1884. She attended the Imperial Durbar at Delhi in 1877. She reorganised her army, administration and revenue collection along modern lines, introduced a modern judicial system, established a nominated parliament to represent different groups, built railways, founded a hospital, built dispensaries and schools, installed water works, and lit the capital with gaslight. During most of her reign, she was at odds with her daughter, Sultan Jahan, and died without them being reconciled. She lived (1838-1901).  


 

1844-93 Chief Mugalula I of Kiwele (Tanzania)

Succeeded her father, Nyungu-ya-Mawe, who had originally designated his sister’s son, Nzwala, as his successor, but he predeceased him. She committed suicide and was succeeded by Nzwala’s daughter Msavila. According to some sources she was Sultan Mugalula of Nyamwezi in 1893 – but Nyamwezi was the name of the ruling dynasty in Kiwele.


 

1844-1847 Opu Bonko Laloasa Daeng Sugina of Bontobangun / Bontobango (Indonesia)

Ruler of the biggest state at the Salei Islands under Celebes/Sulawesi, which was divided into minor landscapes, and was succeeded by the male ruler, Dorahamen Daeng Sirua.


Dorothea Biron von Kurland

1844-62 Sovereign Duchess Dorothea Biron von Kurland of Sagan and Representative of the Sovereign Dukes of Courland (Latvia/Poland/Germany)

Succeeded after her sister Pauline renounced the title in her favour and she bought Sagan from her nephew. The third sister, Johanna Catharine (1783-1876), who was divorced from Francesco Pignatelli Duca di Acerenza, also renounced her rights in favour of the youngest sister. Dorothea was married to Edmund de Talleyrand-Périgord, Duc de Dino et de Talleyrand, French Foreign Minister, and her sons got the title of Duke of Sagan in 1844, again the succession was conferred to males, and following their extinction to the nearest female was confirmed by the King of Prussia in 1845 and in 1846. She gave birth to 3 children, and lived (1793-1862).


1844-52 Princess-Abbess Maria Karolina von Habsburg of the Theressian Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin of Prague  (Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn))

As abbess the Archduchess enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income. Her sister, Maria Theresia, was abbess around 1834-35. Maria Karoline married her cousin, Archduke Rainer, and became known as "Aunt Marie Rainer", she had no children, and lived (1825-1915). 


1844-47 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa Bonifaz Bustamante of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


Emma von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

1845-52 Regent Dowager Princess Emma von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym of Waldeck-Pyrmont  (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Fürst Georg II (1813-45), she assumed the regency for son, Georg Viktor (1831-45-93). She was very popular and became known as "Fat Emma" (Dicke Emma). Grandmother of Queen Emma who was regent of the Netherlands 1890-98. Princess Emma lived (1802-58).  


 

1845-68 Regent Dowager Rani Parvathavardini of Ramnad (India)

The state is also known as Ramanathapura and is situated in present day's Tamil Nadu.


 

Ca. 1845-55 Regent Rani Srimati Gundicha Devi Sahib of Sonepur
(India)

Married Raja Sriman Prithvi Singh Deo in 1822 when he returned to Sonepur after 17 years of imprisonment and she served as regent during the last years of his life, and after his death she continued as regent for their son, Raja Sriman Niladhar Singh Deo Bahadur (1837-41-91), who was extremely loyal to the British and sided with them during the Indian Mutiny of 1857.


 

1845-53 President of the Council of Regency Dowager Shri Rani Khangarotji Sahiba of Shahpura (India)

Regent during the whole reign of her son, Svasti Shri Rajadhiraja Jagat Singhji Sahib Bahadur (1837-45-53), who succeeded her husband, Svasti Shri Rajadhiraja Madho Singhji Sahib Bahadur, who abdicated shortly before his death. 1853 her daughter-in-law, Rani Dadiji Sahiba Mertaniji Sahib, acted as regent for an adopted son until 1869.


 

1845-50 Sultan Regnant Bata-ri-Toja Sittie Aisya Karaeng Bontomasugi of Tallo (Indonesia)

Her ceremonial name was Tumenanga-ri-Bontomanai.


 

1845-1857 Makea Te Vaerua, 24th Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe (Cook Islands)

Succeeded her brother, Makea Davida, with the involvement of the missionaries and was married to the European missionary Tiberio who died 1901. She was daughter of Makea Pori and was succeeded by a younger brother, Makea Daniela. She lived (ca. 1825-57).


Sor Patrocinio

1845-1870 Politically Influential María de los Dolores Rafaela Quiroga in Spain

As a nun, she was known as Sor Patrocinio, she became famous in 1829 when she had visions and revelations, followed by the development of the stigmata. Her reputation spread and cloths stained with the blood of her wounds were in request as curative amulets. During the Carlist war, the clericals, who favoured Don Carlos, saw in her a useful instrument. She was made to prophesy the success of the Pretender and to furnish proof of the illegitimacy of the young Queen Isabel II. She returned to the convent, but a few years later she was back, and exercised a strong conservative influence on the Queen together with some rightwing clergymen and brother Manuel Quiroga. In 1849 she was held to have forced Isabel to dismiss the Duke of Valencia (Narvaez) and his cabinet. This was followed by what was known as the Ministerio Relámpago (Lightning Ministry), which held office for three hours on 19 October. Narvaez was recalled, and she had to leave the court, but was soon recalled. His successor, Bravo Murillo, sought to get a respite by persuading the Nuncio Brunelli to send her to Rome, but this availed little, for she soon returned, more powerful than ever, with the blessing of Pius IX. Under her guidance, during the remainder of Isabel's reign, she and her followers practically ruled the kingdom and precipitated the revolution of 1868, which, for a time, supplanted the monarchy with a republic. After the fall of Isabel she became Abbess of Guadalajara. María Rafaela Quiroga or Sor María Cipriana del Patrocinio de San José lived (Ca. 1809-91).


 

1845-ca. 50 Politically Influential Umugabekazi Queen Nyiramongi of Rwanda

Influential during the reign of her husband, Yuhi III, and and her son king Mutara II. She was murdered by her brother.


 

Around 1846 Ratu Intan II of Bangkalaan, Menungul and Cengul (Indonesia)

Married Aji Pati, the Pangeran Agung of Pasir, who was co-ruler until his death 1846. She then married Abdul Kadir of Kusan, who ruled 1845-61).


 

1846-52 Tenant Marie Allaire Collings of Jethou
1852-53 Dame and President of the Chief of Pleas of Sark (Crown Dependencies of the British Monarch)

In Jethou she followed her father, Jean Allaire (1822-46), who had grown wealthy through privateering. When she bought Sark in 1852 he States of Guernsey took over the Island. The previous Seigneur, Peter Carey Le Pelley, who had mortgaged the fief in order to finance the unsuccessful Sark Mining Company. La Dame du Serq, as she was also known, died within a year and her son the Reverend W.T. Collings became Seigneur. She lived (1791-1853).


 

Around 1847 Te Paoro Ariki, Rarotonga (Cook Islands)

That year she married James Maguire with the missionary Antoine Colombon as a witness.


 

1847-59 Opu Dorahamen Daeng Sirua of Bontobangun/Bontobango

Ascended the throne after the death of princess Bonko Laloasa, and became ruler of the biggest state at the Salei Islands under Celebes/Sulawesi, which was divided into minor landscapes.


 

1848-51/3 and 1870/75 Queen Regnant Iye Idolorusan of Warri (Nigeria)

When her father, Akengbuwa or João, died she became ruler of the Itsekiri peope in the Warri or Benue region. (d. 1870/75).


 

From 1848 Reigning Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene Nana Afrakoma Panin of Dwaben (Dwabehene or Dwabeii) (Ghana)

Succeeded mother, Ama Sewa, and was succeeded by daughter, Nana Akua Saponmaa, as holder of the dual offices of Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene (Queen Mother and King). 


 

After 1848 Reigning Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene Nana Akua Saponmaa of Dwaben (Dwabehene or Dwabeii) (Ghana)

Succeessor of her mother, Nana Afrakoma Panin, at a not known time.


1848-73 Politically Influential Maleka Jahan Khanum of Persia (Iran)

Her official name was H.M The Mahd-i-'Aliua, also spelled Mahd-e Olia, "Sublime Cradle", and se was one of the strongest women of the Qajar (Kadjar) Dynasty. Wielding her power from the Harem, once her son, Nasser-ed-Din Shah (1848-96), ascended the throne. She ensured the strengthening and survival of the Qajar nobility against the rivalries by commoners elevated to positions of prominence as a result of policies of successive Qajar (Kadjar) Shahs. She is characterized as an accomplished and cunning woman of some political gifts, strong personality, and characterized the undercurrent of matriarchy in the Qajar elite. She was granddaughter of Fath 'Ali Shah, who was shah (1797-1834), and married to her cousin Mohammad Shah (1834-48), and lived (1805-73). 


1848 Politically Influential Empress Maria Anna di Savoia-Sardinia of Austria-Hungary

Persuaded her husband, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria (King Ferdinand V of Ungarn (1793-1835-4875), to abdicate during the revolutionary movement and thereby avoided further bloodshed. Together with her sister-in-law, Sophia, she was also instrumental in securing that the emperor abdicated in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph, rather than his brother, Franz Karl. Ferdinand suffered from epilepsy, and they had no children. Maria Anna Karolina lived (1803-84).


1848-58 Politically Influential Queen Elisabeth Ludovika von Bayern of Preussen (Germany)

After the revolution of March 1848 her husband, king Friedrich Wilhelm IV, never really recovered, and she became his closest advisor. After he suffered several strokes, she arranged that her brother-in-law, Prince Wilhelm, became regent in 1858. He was a liberal and reformist politician and the party around General Leopold von Gerlach got the idea to name the Queen regent, but she refused. They had no children and when her husband died in 1861, Wilhelm became king. She concentrated on charity work and spent the rest of her life travelling through Europe, died during a visit to her twin-sister,  Queen Amalie von Sachsen. She lived (1801-73) (1801-73).


Grand Duchess Maria Antonia di Toscana

Ca. 1849-59 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Maria Antonia de Borbone-Napoli of Toscana (Italy)

The wife of Leopold II von Habsburg of Toscana, she advocated the close ties between Toscana and Austria and was opposed to the Italian nationalism, which led to the unification in 1859. The family went into exile, and her husband died 1870. Maria Antonia was daughter of Francesco I of Napoli Sicilia and lived (1814-98).


Tsarina Kurmandjan Datka of Alay

Around 1850 Reigning Tsarina Kurmandjan Datka of Alay (Kyrgyzstan)

The Queen of the South - Kurmanjan Datka or Datka Kurmanjan Mamatbai kysy - is sometimes known as "The Tsaritsa of Alai". Born into a nomad family of the Mongush clan in the Alai mountains, and broke with tradition - deciding to stay with her father in his yurt. In 1832, the feudal lord, Alimbek - who had taken the title Datka and ruled all the Kyrgyz of the Alai, freed her from the promise to marry a man, whom she did not like, and instead married her. Alimbek died after a palace coup in 1862, and she was recognized by the khans of Bukhara and Kokand, later marrying one of the batyrs (heroes). In 1876 the Alai region joined the Russian Empire. Two of her sons and two of her grandsons were accused of "contraband" and of murdering customs officials. When her favourite son was executed she refused the urging of some of her followers to effect a rescue, saying that she would not her private hopes and ambitions be the cause of suffering for her people. The others were then exiled to Siberia, and she retired from public life - giving away all her property and leading a hermit like existence in a village. She was survived by 2 sons, 2 daughters, 31 grandsons, 57 great grandsons and 6 great-great-grandsons. She is also thought to have been a poetess, and lived (1811-1907).


 

1850-62 Maradia Passelepa of Majene (Indonesia)

Her Brother, I Nyaring, was one of the Sub-rulers in Majene, Her father was also Maradia of Majene. One other female ruler of the state was I Sama to Buku, but it is not known when she reigned.


 

1850-63 Karaeng I-Patima Daeng Matin of Binamu (Indonesia)
1863-72 Nominal Regent

Deposed because of bad rule and obstructing the cooperation with the Dutch, but was allowed to continue as Regent of the Makassarese state in South Western Celebes under direct rule by the Dutch.


1850-63 Politically Influential Countess Louise Danner in Denmark

Louise Christine Rasmussen was a former ballet-dancer and later owner of a fashion-boutique. She had been the mistress of then Crown-Prince Frederik's best friend, Carl Berling, with whom she had a son that was given up for adoption but she kept touch with him for the rest of his life. After Frederik 7. (1808-48-63) Succeeded to the throne, she moved into the royal palace and the couple married two years later. She was very influential during the reign of her husband, who had a very difficult personality, and divorced his two first royal wifes. Louise was granted the title Lensgrevinde Danner (Fief-Countess) and lived (1815-74).


Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop

1850-84 Politically Influential Bernice Pauahi Bishop in Hawai'i (United States of America)

In spite of her parent's opposition she married an American named Charles Reed Bishop in 1850. He was a widely respected and successful businessman who through banking, real estate, and other investments, became one of the wealthiest men in the kingdom and an advisor to the monarchy. The Bishops became social and cultural leaders in Honolulu. Charles held various positions in government and founded a bank, and she managed the lands inherited from her parents and aunt 'Akahi. She and Charles travelled to the United States and Europe, where they were received by Queen Victoria in England and Pope Pius IX in Rome. In December of 1872, Kamehameha V lay dying, surrounded by the high chiefs and Chiefess, and declared that he wanted her to succeed him, but she declined. Her cousin, Chiefess Ke'elikolani died in May 1883 and left her with 350,000 acres of land, which she willed to the foundation of the Kamehameha Schools, which is the largest private landowner in the state of Hawai’i. She was daughter of the High Chiefs Abner Paki and Laura Konia (Member of the House of Nobles 1840-47) and lived (1831-1884).


 

1850-53 Reigning Abbess-General María Concepción Casilda de Rozas of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the privilege to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

Unnamed Amazone of Dahomey

1851 Army Leader Seh-Dong-Hong-Beh in Abomey (Benin)

Leader of the ”Amazons” under King Gezo, and led an army of 6.000 women against the Egba fortress of Abeokuta. Because the Amazons were armed with spears, bows and swords while the Egba had European cannons only about 1,200 survived the extended battle. In 1892 King Behanzin of Dahomey (now Benin) was at war with the French colonists over trading rights. He led his army of 12,000 troops, including 2.000 Amazons into battle. Despite the fact that the Dahomey army was armed only with rifles while the French had machine guns and cannons, the Amazons attacked when the French troops attempted a river crossing, inflicting heavy casualties. They engaged in hand to hand combat with the survivors eventually forcing the French army to retreat, but was later defeated, and the Amazons burned fields, villages and cities rather than let them fall to the French. 


Bronze Mask of a Queen Mother of Benin

1851-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Adolo of Benin (1848-88). As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 

 

1852-54 Ma'i-hara Te-ma-ri'i Ari'i-peu-vahine, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine (French Polynesia)

Deposed by her brother, Te-uru-ra'i Ari'i-mate, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine. Married to Paraupapaa Te-ra-tane Ari'i-peu-a-Hiro, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine, whithwhom she had 1 son and 2 daughters. She was Daughter of Ta'aroa-ari'i and Te-mata-fainu'u-vahine and lived (1822-77).


 

Until 1852 The 6th Tamaha Princess 'Amelia Fakahiku-'o-'uiha, Tamaha, Tonga

Daughter of Princess Nanasipau'u, Tu'i Tonga Fefine and Haveatungua. She married Finau Tuku'aho [Talai Tupou], 14th Tu'i Konokupolo, who was killed by Finau-'Ulukalala in 1799. In the Tongan social structure, women outranked their male relatives. The father’s eldest sister had the highest rank within the family, and was accorded fahu status. The fahu has been defined as the person (usually woman) with 'unlimited authority' over others within her blood kin. This meant in social terms that this woman and her children had the right to ask and expect goods and services from her brothers and mother’s brothers (fa’e tangata or male mother) and kin over whom she was fahu. However, she had no authority over them, and could not inherit land or title. But through the fahu system they were often quite powerful. She (d. 1852).


1852-1918 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Luise von Preussen of Baden (Germany)

Very influential through her involvement in the social reforms of the Grand duchy, where the wars and upheavals of the 19th century had caused extended poverty and hardship. She founded schools, hospitals and asylums, and she was engaged in the women's associations, the welfare of war veterans and her name became closely connected to the newly established Red Cross. Her husband, Friedrich I, was also very liberal and introduced vide ranging political reforms (for men). In 1870 she was given her own Secretariat in the Geheime Kabinet (Secret Cabinet or Privy Council) of the Granducal administration. She continued her activities after her son, Friedrich II, succeeded to the throne in 1907. After his abdication in 1918 the family had to flee Karlsruhe and moved to Neue Schloss in Baden-Baden, which had remained a private property of the family, but she continued her charitable activities even though she had turned blind because of an illness. Daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Preußen and Augusta of Sachsen-Weimar, and mother of three children, she lived (1838-1913).


 

 

1852-63 Guardian Dowager Princess Henriette von Auersperg of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Hohenlohe-Jagstberg  (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Ludwig von Hohenlohe-Bartenstein-Jagstberg in Pfedelbach, Meinhardt und Sindringen, she was guardian in one of the mediatized principalities, which had lost their immediate status in 1806 and instead came under the overlordship of one of the members of the Confederation of the Rhine, still possessing a number of important political privileges. She ruled in the name of her sons, Fürst Karl Ludwig von Hohnenlohe-Bartenstein (1837-77) and Albert von Hohenlohe-Jagstberg (1842-1969), who was created Prince in 1906. She lived (1815-1901)


1853-57 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Duchess Ektarina Chavchavadze of Mingrelia (Georgia)

Ekateriné Alexandres asuli Dadiani-Chavchavadze was regent for her son, Nikolaus, Duke of Dukes of Mingrelia (1847-53-67-1903). During the Crimean War, the Turks sent a considerable force to Mingrelia, occupying significant parts of the principality and forcing her to flee. She soon received a threatening letter from the commanding Turkish general Omar Pasha demanding her surrender, as well as the transfer of her son's principality to the Ottoman Empire. Refusing to dignify Pasha's letter with a response, She assumed control of the Mingrelian forces and organized successful counter-attacks that inflicted serious damage on the invading Turks. The Crimean War soon ended in 1856 with the Treaty of Paris and she attended the coronation of Emperor Alexander II of Russia. 1856 she left the principality to General George Dadiani and moved to live in Tsarskoe Selo, the residence of the Russian Imperial Family, where she became one of the "ladies of the court." In 1857 she was forced to return to because of the peasant uprising organized, forcing her to request help from Russia. Having already effectively annexed Eastern Georgia, Russia eagerly intervened, subdued the uprising, and asked her to move to Saint Petersburg on the pretext of facilitating her children's education and upbringing there. Her departure and the establishment of a "temporary" Russian military authority in Mingrelia marked the de facto abolition of the principality, and her son abdicated in 1867, and was created a Prince of the Russian Empire with the hereditary title of Prince of Mingrelia and was the Russian candidate for the throne of Bulgaria in 1886. She lived (1816-82).


 

1853-69 President of the Council of Regency Dowager Shri Rani Dadiji Sahiba Mertaniji Sahib of Shahpura (India)

As she was pregnant at the time of the death of her husband, Svasti Shri Rajadhiraja Jagat Singhji Sahib Bahadur, the succession was left in abeyance until the sex of her child was known. As it was his fourth girl, she adopted his 1 year old cousin vasti Shri Rajadhiraja Lakshman Singhji Sahib Bahadur, and acted as his regent for the rest of his life, just as her mother-in-law had been regent 1845-53. She lived (ca. 1832-1916).


Lakshmi Bhai

1853-57 Dowager Maharani Lakshmi Bhai of Jhansi (India)

Also known as Mani Karnika, she ruled in the name of her Stepson. In 1854 the British invaded the state, and she led the resistance against the British in the 1857-uprising. The Rani was active in defending her country against the British and was in charge of the eastern side of defence. However, she lost her life on the second day of fighting. A popular Indian ballad said that she was the most dangerous of all the rebel leaders. She lived (1827/35-57).


 

Until 1853 Sultan Mwana Mwema in Zanzibar (Tanzania)

Followed on the throne by Sultan Yusuf as ruler of the Wahadimu on the northern part of Zanzibar Island.


1853-1912 Chieftainess Mamie Kanda of Bagbwe  (Sierra Leone)
A Sowei-leader of a Mede Bodo society when the conolial administrators made her chief.

 

1853-57 Regent Princess We Tan-ri-Olle of Tanette (Indonesia)
1857-1910 Aru Regnant

Succeeded father, also known as Siti Aisyah We Tenri Olle, she was married to d La Sangaji Unru, until their divorce in 1853.


 

1853-57 Junior Rani Lakshmi Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)

Also known as Pooradam Tirunal, she was joint administrator of the principality of Attingal, which were given as appanage to the two senior Princesses of the Travancore royal family. Married to M.R.Ry. Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran. Mother of two sons, and lived (1829-57).


 

1853-56 Reigning Abbess-General María Joaquina Calderón of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the privilege to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

Luigia de Bourbon-Parma

1854-59 Regent Dowager Duchess Luigia de Borbone-Parma of Parma e Piacenza (Italy)

After the assassination of her husband Carlos III she acted as regent for their son, Roberto I di Borbone (1819-54-59-60-1907). In 1859 the territories of the duchies were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1859 and she made formal protestation of the annexation in 1860. She lived (1819-64).
 

1854-97 High Chiefess Ari’ioehau Ari'i Ta'ima'i of Papara (Tahiti)

Another version of her name was Terlirere i otu rau ma torai ariioehau Ariitamimai, and she succeeded her grandfather and was succeeded by son Chief Tari (1850-1918). She was secretary of Queen Pomare IV, and her daughter was Queen Johanna Marau-toaroa Tepa’o Salmon (1860-1934), who was very influential during the reign of her husband, King Pomare V, and by many the preferred throne-candidate after his abdication. Ta'ima'i lived (1821-97).  


 

 

1854-55 Regent Queen Mother Muanzirwazza of Buganda (Uganda)

One of King SUna II's 148 wifes, she was instrumental in having her son, Mukaabya Mitesa I (1837-84), who was among the youngest of the 61 competitors for the post, elected as king, and retained an eminent position throughout his reign. She lived (circa 1817-82).


 

1854 Rebellion Leader Lalla Fatma n'Soumer of the Djurdjura in Algeria

Her real name was Fatma Sid Ahmed. During a battle, led by Mohamed El Amdjed Ibn Abdelmalek (nicknamed Boubaghla), who almost gave the French troops the advantage, she, heading an army of men and women, took control and led her people to victory. Even after the fall of Azazga and the ferocious repression by Randon’s troops, she mobilized the population and led more battles. In 1857 during another fight she directed the fight and encouraged the volunteers who remained. The battle was lost and she was later imprisoned. She lived (1830-63).


 

1855-85 H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyayati Chiranjiva Vijaya Mohana Muktamba Bai Ammani Raje Sahiba Chhatrapati Maharaj, Princess of Tanjore (India)

Youngest daughter of Maharaja Shivaji Bhonsle Chhatrapati Mahar and recognized as his titular successor. Married to H.E. Vazratmoh Raja Shri Sakharamrao Sahib Chavan Mohite, Amirrao, Prince Consort of Tanjore, who was also married to one of her sisters. She lived (1846-86) and was succeeded by an adopted son, Shrimant Chiranjiva Shambhusinghjirao Sahib, who died in 1891.


1855-63 Kuhina Nui H.R.H. Princess  Victoria Kamāma Ka'ahumanu IV of Hawaii
1863 Acting Monarch of Hawaii

1832 she inherited the lands of Chiefess Ka'ahumau, and her brother, King Kamehameha IV, appointed her to the office of premier soon after he acended to the throne. As the daughter of Kīna'u, the second Kuhina Nui, and as the highest ranking female chief of the day, it had long been her destiny to assume the responsibilities of the office. She presided over the King’s Privy Council. On 30 October 1863, her brother, King Kamehameha IV, died without naming a successor and, as the Premier, she constitutionally assumed the office of Monarch until the successor was inaugurated, and until her death she was heir to her other brother, Kamehameha V. The office of Kuhina nui was abolished in 1866. She lived (1838-66).


1855-Ca. 1878 Governor of Hawaii H.R.H. Princess Ruth Luka Keanolani Kanahoahoa Ke'elikolani, Hawai’i (USA)

Princess Ruth as daughter of Prince Kahalaia Luanu'u and Kalani-Pauahi and born after her mother had re-married. She was adopted by Queen Ka’ahumanu. Married to The Hon. Alii William Pitt Leleiohoku and after his death to Isaac Young Davis. At her death she was immensely wealthy, having united the estates of several branches of the family. While she understood English and knew how to speak it with ease and grace, she refused to do so. She used the Hawaiian language exclusively throughout her life, requiring English-speakers to use a translator when speaking with her. She also refused to accept Christianity and continued to worship the traditional gods and various aumakua, or ancestral spirits. When Mauna Loa erupted in 1880, threatening the city of Hilo with a lava flow, her intercession with the goddess Pele was widely credited by traditional Hawaiians with saving the city. Mother of three children who died in infancy, and lived (1826-83).


 

1855-94 Rain Queen Modjadji II of Balobedu (South Africa)

Succeeded her mother Modjadji I. Like her mother she never married the father of her children, though she had a number of wifes, who were given to her as tribute, and who were then handed out to chiefs of the tribe. The Queen was practically inaccessible to her people, appearing only very seldom in public, and had the mystical power to transform clouds into rain. She committed ritual suicide in 1894 after having designated the daughter of her "sister" and great wife, Leakkali as her heir. 


The Pa Ariki

1855-95 Pa Ariki Pa Upoko Takau Ariki, 44th Pa Ariki of the Takitumu Tribe (Cook Islands)

Also known as Mother Pa or Mary Pa, she succeeded her father, Pa te Pou Ariki, becoming the second female chieftainess in Rarotonga. She married Opura, had no children and adopted Pa Maretu, son of a Rarotongan woman and a Frenchman.Originally the 3 Paramount Chiefesses: Makea Takau, Tinomana Ariki and herself, were the only members in the House of Ariki but around 1898 the legislature was expanded. (d. 1896).


 

Ca. 1855-ca. 1910 Queen Natélégé of the Mzalara (Central African Republic)

The first woman of her people to be acclaimed Chief in her own right.


 

Before 1855-after 1868 Duchess Uerkit of the Oromo Tribe  (Ethiopia)

Her tribe lives in the Province of Uello.


 

Before 1856 Sheha Mwana Khadija bint Nwale of Tumbatu (Tanzania)

She succeeded father, Ngwale ibn Kombo as ruler of the Island State. Her successor, Ali ibn Ngwale, reigned until 1856, when the state was conquered by Zanzibar.


 

1856-58 Reigning Abbess-General María Rosario Tagle of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Temporal and secular ruler of the territory, which belonged to the abbey.

 

1856-1933 General and Ulama Tengku Fakinah in Indonesia

During the early war against the Netherlands. As Ulama she was religious leader.


 

1857-63 Regent Dowager Rani rGyal-mo bKra-shis bu-khrid of Mustang (Nepal)

After the death of her husband, A-ham Kun-dga'-nor-bu, Lo rGyal-po (or Sri Sri Sri Raja Kunga Norbu, Raja of Mustang), she was regent for their son, A-ham 'Jam-dbyangs dbang-dus (1857-63), who was never installed or crowned and thus addressed in some local chronicles as rGyal-sras (prince). Her title rGyal-mo means Consort of the Ruling Prince or Rani. She was born as member of a noble Tibetan family.

Begum Hazarat Mahal Iftikharun-nisa

1857-58 Reigning Dowager Rani Begum Hazarat Mahal Iftikharun-nisa of Oudh (India)

Widow of Wajid Ali Shah, the last reigning king of Oudh, who had 40 sons and 32 daughters with his 260 wifes. She became regent for her ten-year-old son, Birjis Qadar, and for about ten months her revolutionary government held the city of Lucknow. She was the Supreme Commander, and under the seal of King Brijis Qadar, she issued proclamations to the people in general, and to the Zamindars and Taluqdars in particular, to unite under the banner of the new government to fight the English. On February 25, 1858, she appeared in the field on elephant back to supervise defence operation. While the English were busy in re-establishing their authority in Lucknow, she once again succeeded in stirring the rest of Oudh in rebellion. In 1858, there were sporadic outbursts in different area of Oudh where the English experience some of the toughest encounters. After Queen Victoria's Proclamation, the English wanted to win her over by offers of royal clemency and even a pension. She replied with a counter proclamation under the seal of King Brijis Qadar, warning the people of Oudh not to be misled by false promises. She was determined not to fall into the hands of the English. Leaving the fort of Baudi in December 1858, she wandered in the dense jungle of the sub-Himalayan terrain. Accompanied by a few faithful, "half-armed, half-fed and without artillery". She continued to elude the English. Ultimately she crossed over to Nepal (some time in the last quarter of 1859) where she was given refuge by the King of Nepal despite English protests. The Begum died in 1874 in Kathmandu.


Nawab Zeenat Mahal

1857-58 Joint Leader of the War of Independence Queen Nawab Zeenat Mahal of the Mughal Empire in India

Among the leaders of the First War of Independence (Sepoy Mutiny) with her 82-year-old husband, the Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, who had reigned since 1837. After the British victory the couple was taken to Rangoon in Burma, where Bahadur died in 1863. Shel was from the family of Nawab Quli Khan, and was the daughter of Nawab Shamsher Ud Daulah. (d. 1886).

 

1857-58 Joint Leader of the War of Independence Rani of Tulsipur in India

Considered a heroine of the War of Independence. After the British crushed the uprising, her estates in the principality on the boarder to Nepal, along with those of the Maharaja of Gonda, were confiscated, and conferred as rewards upon the maharajas of Balrampur and Ajodhya who had remained loyal to the British.

1857-1901 H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dharma Vardhini Raja Rajeshwari Maharani Setu Lakshmi Bai Attingal, The Senior Maharani of Travancore (India)

Like her younger sister, she was adopted into the royal family. She was married to Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran, who was inolved in a palace conspiracy sometime into the 1870s and was imprisoned and placed under house arrest at his family home after two years until his release in 1880. After the death of the oldest of her younger sisters and her daughter, Lakshimi adopted her nieces, the children of her youngest sister. In 1895 her elder niece, Ayilyam Nal Mahaprabha Thampuran gave birth to a daughter Sethu Lakshmi Bayi - the later Rani Regent - and the next year her younger niece, Thiruvadira Nal Kochukunji Thampuran gave birth to Sethu Parvathi Bayi, whose son would be the last Maharajah of Travancore, Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma. Pierre Loti during his visit to Travancore in the year 1900 described the "Maharanee" thus: “ The Queen holds her receptions in a room on the first floor... but she herself in national costume, looks like a charming personification of India. She has a regular profile, pure features and magnificent large eyes, in fact all the beauty of her race. In accordance with the tradition of the Nayar family her jet black hair is wound round her forehead. Enormous rings of diamonds and rubies hang from her earlobes and her naked arms, which are much bejeweled, are unconcealed by her velvet bodice..." She lived (1848-1901).


1857-93 H.H. Attingal Elaya Thampuran Parvati Bayi, the Junior Maharani of Travancore

Together with her elder sister, Bharani Tirunal Lakshimi she was adopted by their relative, the Maharaja of Travancore after the death of Rani of Travancore, HH Pooradam Thirunal Lakshmi Bayi, the niece of Maharajah Uthram Thirunal giving birth to a son, the later Maharajah Moolam Thirunal. She and her sister were daughters of Bharani Nal Amma Thampuran of Mavelikara. Her mother's family was a branch of the Kolathunad royal family which was directly related to the Travancore Royal Family, which followed the Marumakkathayam system of matrilineal succession and the death of the Rani threatened the perpetuation of the dynasty. Thus, as in the previous five such incidents, it was decided to adopt from the Kolathunad family. Since members of the family were resident within Travancore the choice was made from amongst them.  She had had four sons and one daughter, of whom only one son survived.

 

1857-60 Regent H.H. Panchai-tana I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara Sultana Um ul-Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa of Bone (Indonesia)
1860-... Datuk of Supa (Akataparang)

Also known as Basse Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseempa, she was widow of her cousin, H.H. La Parenringi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Saleh Muhi ud-din, and regent for her infant son La Pamadanuka until his death. She was daughter of her husband's uncle, La Tan-ri suki, Arung Kajuwara, by his wife, the Adatuwang of Sawito. She was formerly styled Arung Kajuwara and succeeded her mother's brother as reigning Datuk of Supa, where she was succeeded by the female ruler, Datuk Madallung, who reigned until 1902. 


 

Around 1857 Uleebalang Pocut Meuligo of Salamanga (Indonesia)

Also Advisor and General during the war in Salamanga against the Dutch.


Harriet Lane Johnston

1857-1861 Politically Influential First Lady Harriet Lane Johnston in United States of America

Niece of President James Buchanan who never married and had a decades long relationship with Senator William Rufus Devane King, and therefore acted as his First Lady. She was the most influential woman of her time and pushed legislation through Congress. She acted as lady of the house, hostess, and escort of James Buchanan enabled him to entertain as Senator, Ambassador, and President of the United States. She was a philanthropist and engaged in charity work. Both her parents had died and she grew up with her uncle. She married Henry Elliot Johnston during her uncle's presidency and they had two sons who both died in infancy. She lived (1830-1903).

 

1858-59 Arumponi Regnant Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abdel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseemba of Bone (Indonesia)
1859-81 Datu of Suppa

After the death of her husband, Arumpugie, she was regent of Bone for her minor son, La Pamadanukka, who died in 1860. She was then deposed as Arumpone of Bone because of her anti-Dutch behaviour. She was daughter of La Tenrisukki Arung Kajuwara, and she succeeded a relative, I Towakka Arung Kalibong, in Suppa, and succeeded here by daughter I Madellung Arung Kajuwara.


 

1858-59 Queen Basse Kajuwara Hai-de Abdel Haide Pelai-e’engie Paseempa of Celebes at the Moluccas (Indonesia)

Today the island is called Sulawesi Selatan. Among the many ethnic groups are the seafaring Bugis dominates the southern part, whereas the northern part is inhabited by the Torajas whose unique culture rivals that of Balinese. Famed for their seafaring heritage and Pinisi Schooners for centuries, the Bugis posses to the present day one of the last sailing fleets in the world. The Bugis vessels have sailed to as far as the Australian coast, leaving behind drawing of their ships on stone with words that have been integrated into the Aboriginal language of North Australia.


1858-69 Queen Falakila Seilala Lavelua of Uvéa (Wallis and Fortuna, French External Territory)

The first Lavelula of 'Uvea in succession to her brother, king Soane-Patita Vaimua Lavelua, who reigned 1826-29 and 1830-58. Falakika was succeeded by her niece, Queen Amelia.


 

1858-65 Regent The Rani of Samthar (India)

Reigned in the name of Hindupat Singh, who was mentally ill. After he was deposed, she reigned alone until his son Chhatar Singh Bahadur, was installed as ruler in 1865. She (d. 1880).


 

1858-1860-? Regent Princess Narova of Menabe (Madagascar)

In charge of the government during the minority of her nepew, Toera after the death of her brother, King Taragny Vignay. She signed a treaty with the French accepting the protectorate in 1860.


 

1858-89 Kpojito Zoïndi of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of her son, King Gélé, who had won a succession-struggle prince Wensu who had been supported by one of the highest-ranking women in court, the Tononu Yavedo. As mother of the heir she had lived in seclusion and was therefore out of touch with the situation at court, and therefore her political influence was small, and actually her brother became Gélé's closest advisor.


 

1858-61 Reigning Abbess-General María Antonia González Agüero of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her full title was "noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey". 

Caroline von Hessen-Homburg, Fürstinregentin in Reuss 

1859-67 Regent Dowager Princess Karoline zu Hessen-Homburg of Reuss zu Greiss  (Germany)

Also known as Caroline, she took over the reigns after the death of her husband, Heinrich XX in the name of her son, Heinrich XXII (1846-59-1902). Both her father, Gustav von Hessen-Homburg and her late husband had been Austrian officers, and she was a staunch anti-Prussian, which meant that the principality were occupied by Prussian troups in the German war in 1866. The forces only left after a payment of 100.000 talers. Reuss-Greiss and Reuss-Schleiz were the two smallest states of the German Confederation and later the same year she send an envoy to Berlin to negotiate the inclusion of the Principality in the North German Federal State (Norddeutschen Bundesstaat) - the foundation of the German Empire, and had to relinguish the regency before her son had reached the age of majority at 21. Mother of 2 daughters and 3 sons named Heinrich XXI, XXII and XXIII, and lived (1819-72).   


Empress Eugènie

1859, 1864 and 1870 Regent Empress Eugènie de Montijo of France

In charge of the government during her husband, Emperor Napoleon III Bonapartes' warfares against Prussia. In France often known by her family's countly title, but her real name was Eugenia Maria Ignacia Augustina Palafox de Guzmán Portocarrero y Kirkpatrick de la Platanaza and she was 10th Condesa de Moya de Ardalesy de Osera, Condesa de Teba, Abitas, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Vizcondesa de la Calzada etc. Her sister, Doña Paca, was 9th Condesa de Montijo, 11th Condesa de Penarañda etc. They succeeded their father, Don Cipriano de Guzman Lopez de Zuñiga Royas y Leiva, in 1839. Their mother was the American Mary Kirkpatrick. Since her son died young, her titles were inherited by her sister's children and the present holder of these and many other titles are the 18th Duquesa de Alba. Her husband was President of France (1848-52) and Emperor (1852-70). She lived (1825-1920).


 

Until 1859 Aru Patta Lacabalai of Alitta (Indonesia)

Successor of her brother, Muhamed Tahir, and was succeeded by her sister Aru Aniping. The 8th and 11th rulers were also women; Aru We Tasi Arung Ganrang and Aru We Mapalewa, but it was not known when they reigned.


 

1859-61 Aru Anipong of Alitta (Indonesia)

Also known as Nipo, she succeeded her sister, Aru Patta Lacabalai, and was succeeded by the granddaughter of her sister, We Tenripadarang.


Asantehemaa in 1880

1859-84 Asantehemaa Nana Afia Kobi Serwaa Ampen I of Asante (Ghana)

As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reigns of the kings Kwaku Dua I Panyin (1834-67), Kofi Kakari (1867-84), Mensa Bonsu Kumaa (1874-83) and Kwaku Dua II Kumaa (1884), she was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all important decisions. The de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She mother of the kings Nana Kofi Kaakari and Nana Mensa Bonsu, and was succeeded on the post by daughter Yaa Akyeaa. She lived (1765-1819). 


Maria Sofia in Bayern

1859-61 Politically Influential Queen Maria Sofia in Bayern of the Two Sicilies (Italy)

Married to King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies, who opposed the goal of Italian political unification as it was advocated by exponents in Turino. Sicily was attacked in 1860, but Francesco, who commanded Italy's strongest army, failed to respond, and the Savoyard troops eventually invaded the Kingdom's mainland territories, beginning with Calabria. Under the command of loyalist officers, the fortress of Messina held out for months, but Francesco, wishing to avoid a civilian slaughter like that that had taken place at Palermo, abandoned Naples in favour of the coastal stronghold at Gaeta to the north. Maria Sophia followed him, and during the siege in early 1861 earned the nickname "Heroine of Gaeta." A falsified referendum (showing a victory of 99 percent) confirmed Vittorio Emanuele II as King of Italy. The couple lived for a time in Rome, at Palazzo Farnese, a family home (now the French Embassy). There, in 1869, Maria Sophia gave birth to a daughter, Maria Cristina, who died after three months. Rome soon fell to troops of the new "Kingdom of Italy," and the couple departed for Paris. They lived apart for some years, though they often spent time together until his death in 1894. She was the sister of Empress Elisabeth of Austria, Mathilde of Two Sicilies (married to Francesco's half-brother), Helene of Thurn und Taxis etc. Marie Sophia lived (1840-1925).

1860-86 Dwabenhemaa Nana Akosua Afrakomaa II of Dwaben (Ghana)

A Queen who wielded much power and authority in Dwaben, a Core Member of the Kingdom of Asante. She reigned in conjunction with her father, Nana Asafo Agyei( who was a regent of the male stool of Dwaben). She was also very wealthy in her own right as attested to, by the following description of her, as she was seen in Cape Coast in 1876.
"According to Captain A.B. Ellis who saw the visitors, the Dwabenhemaa, Afrakumaa II, made the greatest impression on the spectators. The wealth of young, handsome queenmother was worthy of note: She was attired in a rich silk "country cloth" (kente) of great value, and her arms, from the wrist to the elbow, were covered with strings of gold ornaments and aggrey beads; gold anklets appeared on each leg, and her well-shaped neck was almost hidden by the mass of gold necklets which encircled it. 12 or 14 young girls, likewise bedecked with gold ornaments, attended her, bearing horse-tails with which to whisk away the impertinent flies.)"


 

1860s Regent Princess Meuk Se of Keka (Indonesia)

Regent for her mentally unstable brother, Loleh Malelak, who reigned (1844-73).

 

Around 1860 Regent Dowager Princess Dara Wali of Mario-ri-awa (Indonesia)

Mentioned as regent for her minor son I Mallé, the ruler of one of the two semi-independent vassal-states of Soppeng in North Mario-ri wawo.

 

186.. High Chiefess Te-ma-ri'i-a-te-uru-ra'i Ma'i-hara Te-uhe of Huahine (Tahiti in French Polynesia)

Proclaimed as High Chiefess Teuhe during an insurrection against the French. Her first husband was King Pomare V.  


1860-1873 High Chiefess Princess Te Ari’i maeva-rua II of Bora Bora (Porapora) (Tahiti)

Teriimaevarua II was crowned by The Reverend Platt, and married two times. The Kingdom was independent until 1888. She was daughter of Queen Aimata Pomare IV and Chief Tapoa II (dead 1860). She lived (1841-73).


 

1860-1916 Regent Dowager Rani Mudhoji of Phaltan (India)

Handled the affairs of state for Madhoji Rao Jan Rao Naik Nimbalkar, who was maharaja (1841-1916). 1841-53 he had been under the regency of Dowager Rani Sahebjibai Baya Saheb. 


 

1860-67 Regent HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Yamuna Bai Sahiba of Dewar (Senior) (India)

In charge of the government for adopted son. Granted the personal title of Maharani in 1905. Born as Princess of Baroda and lived (1829-1909).


1861-73 Co-Regent Dowager Empress Cixi of China 
1874-75 De-facto Co-Regent 
1875-81 Co-Regent 
1881-89 Empress Regent 
1898-1908 (†) Empress Regent (De-facto Reigning Empress)

Mother of the only surviving son of Emperor Xianfeng and when he died, she and the senior Dowager-Empress Cian (Xiaozhen) (1837-1881) outmanoeuvred their rivals and became joint regents for Cixi's son Zaichun (1862-75). By the age of 15 he was drinking heavily and consorting with male and female prostitutes, but died of smallpox. She choose her three-year old nephew, Guangxu, whom she dominated, but when he initiated his Hundred Days of Reform in 1898, he was deposed and Cixi was again in charge, wiping out his modernizing decrees. She supported the Boxer Rebellion against the westerners, who were seen as foreign devils, not totally human. But the foreign coalition forces attacked and Beijing was captured and looted, many Chinese people were tortured, raped, killed. Cixi fled north to the city of Sian and had to accept a humiliating settlement, which imposed heavy fines on China and amended trade treaties in favour of foreigners, and allowed foreign troops to stay in the country. In 1901 she returned to the Forbidden City and changed her policies radically and became in favour of railroads, modern schools and other Western innovations. Shortly before she died she appointed the three-year old Puyi (1908-12) as her successor. She lived (1834-1908).


Niuhuru Xiaozhen Dong Taihou

1861-73 and 1875-81 Co-Regent Dowager Empress Niuhuru Xiaozhen Dong Taihou of China

Entered the forbidden city in 1644 and in 1852 she was officially made an Empress Consort. 1861, the concubine Yi, with the help of Prince Gong, staged a palace coup known as the Xinyou Coup, had the opposing princes commit suicide and their leader the Manchu official Sushun beheaded, and succeeded in securing the power for herself and Niuhuru. She was made "Empress Mother Empress Dowager", a title giving her precedence over Cixi, and she was given the honorific name Ci'an. As she dwelled in the eastern part of the Forbidden City, she became popularly known as the East Empress Dowager, while Cixi, who dwelled in the western part of the Forbidden City became known as the West Empress Dowager. For the next twenty years until her death in 1881, Ci'an assumed the regency of the Empire of the Great Qing, along with co-regent Cixi, first during the minority of the Tongzhi emperor, then during the minority of the Guangxu Emperor after the premature death of Tongzhi in January 1875. Although in theory she had precedence over Cixi, she was in fact a self-effacing person and seldom intervened in politics, unlike Cixi, who was the actual master of China. Her only notable intervention in politics was in 1869, when she ordered that the Grand Eunuch An Dehai, was executed for misusing his powers. She died suddenly after a short ilness, had no children, and lived (1837-1881).


 

1861-1902 Adatuwang We Tan-ri-Paderang Bau Jella of Alitta (Indonesia)

Succeeded her grandmother Aru Anipong and abdicated in favour of her son, La Pangorisang. She was daughter of H.H. La Parenrengi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Saleh, Arumpone of Bone and I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara hadi Abel Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa, Datu of Supa - daughter of La Tan ri Suki, Arung of Kajuwara. We Tan-ri was married to H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Husain ibnu Sultan Muhammad Idris, Sultan of Gowa (1895-1906). In 1908 Alitta merged with Sawito and the rulers became district rulers of Alitta.


 

Around 1861 Queen Loi Vakamoa II of Neku Hiva (Marquesas Islands) (French Polynesia)

She was succeeded by Vaekehu I


 

1861-79 Princess Regnant I Madima Daeng Bau of Laikang (Indonesia)

Followed her father, Mohamed Daeng Riboko, and was succeeded by brother, I Tikula.


Unnamed Muslim Lady

1861-... Al Sitt Bader Amin al-Din of the Druze in Lebanon

Acting leader of the Druze Tribe after her husband; Said Beik Jumblatt had tried to re-establish the leadership of the Jumblatts, but was accused of fuelling sectarian conflict between the Druze and the Maronites by the Ottomans, who sentenced him to life in prison, where he died of tuberculosis. The leadership afterwards went to her son Nassib. Said's other son, Najib, who managed to win over the Ottomans, who gave him the esteemed title of Pasha and appointed him governor of the Shouf in 1884. 


 

1861-76 Pertevniyal Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, parts of the Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Mother of Abdül Aziz who went on an official visit to France, United Kingdom and Germany in 1867. The following year Empress Eugénie visited the sultan who took her to see his mother in the Dolmabahçe Sarayi, but she was outraged by the presence of a foreign woman in her harem, and she greeted the Empress with a sharp slap across the face almost provoking an international incident. Her name was also spelled Pertherhiyal or Partav-Nihal, and she lived (1812-1883).

 

1861 Chief Msanya of Marangu (Tanzania)

Widow of Chief Itoso, she succeeded son, Ndalio and was succeeded by two other sons, Mwingjie and Kinabo.

 

1861-64 and 1883-84 Reigning Abbess-General María Bernarda Ruiz Puente of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

During her second term in office she no longer held quasi episcopal powers, which had been revoked in 1873.

1861-88 Politically Influential Queen Augusta von Sachsen-Weimar of Preussen
1871-88 Empress of Germany

Exercised a strong influence on her husband, King-Emperor Wilhelm I and was a forceful opponent of Chancellor Bismarck and they had numerous fights. She used her personal fortune for social work after the various wars that Germany was involved in. She was mother of Emperor Friederich III, and lived (1811-90).


 

Before 1862 Chiefess 'Ahu-'ura of Tautira in Tahiti (French Polynesia)

Married to Pastor Mano and mother of Te-ari'i-na-vaho-roa, who married H.R.H. Prince Punuasi'i Teri'i-tapu-nui Pomare, Chief of Mahina and President of the High Court of Justice, the son of Queen Pomare IV, who died in 1888. 

An Ongandjera lady

1862 17th Queen Nakashwa of Ongandjera (Ouambo) (Namibia)

Head of one of the country's northern tribes.


 

1862-77 President of the Council of Regency Dowager Rani Bai Shri Hariba Kunverba Sahiba of Limbdi (India)

After the death of her husband, Maharana Shri Fatehsinhji Bhojraji Sahib she was regent for their son, Maharana Shri Sir Jaswantsinhji Fatehsinhji Sahib (1859-62-1907).


Eulalia Ares de Vildoza

1862 De-facto Acting Governor Eulalia Ares de Vildoza, Catamarque (Argentina)

Lead a revolt against the governor, deposed him, organised elections and was in charge of the government until the new governor was installed. She lived (1809-84).


1862-81 11th Titular Head Princess Sumiko of the Katsura-no-miya Imperial House (Japan)

Also known as Katsura-Miya Yoshiko or Katsura-no-miya Sumiko naishinnō, she was daughter of Emperor Ninko (1800-17-46) who had seven sons and eight daughters, among others her half-brother Komei Tennō (1831-46-67).  She was named as successor to the Headship of the Imperial House of Katsura after the death of Komei's infant son, Prince Misahiko. 1870 she was given an allowance of 1,015 koku, 1871 the property on which the Katsura Palace stands was granted to the house of Katsura. Two years later her allowance was terminated, and she was given a grant of 6.800 yen. She married Prince Yamasina Akira (1816-98), whose son by a concubine, Prince Yamashina Kikumaro (1873-1908) succeeded his father. The Katsura-no-miya title remained vacant until Emperor Akihito appointed his cousin, Prince Katsura, to the title. The prince is unmarried. Princes Sumiko lived (1829-81).


Eliza Alicia Lynch

1862–70 Politically Influential First Lady Eliza Alicia Lynch in Paraguay

Partner of Francisco Solano López who succeeded his father as Dictator-President of Paraguay in 1862, and became known as the uncrowned Queen of her adopted home. Born in Ireland, she was very politically influential, and according to Margaret Nicholas in "The World's Wickedest "omen", she was also appointed Minister without Portfolio. Her aim was to create an empire in region of Rio de la Plata - including Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil - with Solano López as Emperor and her as Empress. At the height of her fortunes she was said to be the richest woman in the world. Both Eliza and her new homeland suffered disaster through the War of the Triple Alliance, in which Paraguay faced the combined forces of its neighbors Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Both her partner and son Francisco junior were killed in 1870. She settled in Paris, and lived thereafter in obscurity and poverty till her death. Mother of 7 children, and lived (1835-1886).


Rasoherina

1863-68 HM Rasoherina, by the grace of God and the will of the people, Queen of Madagascar

Born as Rabodozanakandriana, and also known as Rasoaherina or Rabuda, she was approached by the Council of Princes on the day after her husband and cousin, King Radama II (1861-63) was assassinated. They gave her the conditions under which she could succeed to the throne, including the suppression of trial by ordeal as well as the monarchy's defense of freedom of religion. The real power of the kingdom at the beginning of her reign was the prime minister Rainivoninahitriniony, who married her few weeks after the crowning. A year later, she appointed Rainilaiarivony as prime minister, who succeeded his half brother Rainivoninahitriniony as the real ruler of Madagascar and later also as her husband. She send Ambassadors to London and Paris and prohibited Sunday Markets. In 1865 she signed a Commercial Treaty with the British that ensured the influence of English. She lived (1814-63).


Queen Vahekhu Elisabeth

1863-1901 Queen Vahekhu of Neku Hiva (Marquesas Islands) (French Polynesia)

Also known as Vahekhu Elisabeth. According to "In The South Seas" by Robert Louis Stevenson her late husband, Temoana, was kidnapped or exiled from his native land, served as cook aboard a whaler, and was shown, for small charge, in English seaports and finally returned to the Marquesas, where he reigned jointly with the late Catholic bishop, extended his influence in the group. He describes his meeting with Vaekehu: "His widow remains in receipt of two pounds a month from the French Government. Queen she is usually called, but in the official almanac she figures as 'Madame Vaekehu, Grande Chefesse.' His son (natural or adoptive, I know not which), Stanislao Moanatini, chief of Akaui, serves in Tai-o-hae as a kind of Minister of Public Works; and the daughter of Stanislao is High Chiefess of the southern island of Tauata. Vahekhu lives at the other end of the town from the Residency, beyond the buildings of the mission. Her house is on the European plan: a table in the midst of the chief room; photographs and religious pictures on the wall. Her Majesty received us in a simple gown of print, and with no mark of royalty but the exquisite finish of her tattooed mittens, the elaboration of her manners, and the gentle falsetto in which all the highly refined among Marquesan ladies delight to sing their language. An adopted daughter interpreted, while we gave the news, and rehearsed by name our friends of Anaho." The island was annexed by France in 1893/98. She lived (ca. 1823-1901).


 

1863-68 Regent Dowager Rain rGyal-mo Tshe-mchog sGrol-mad of Mustang (Nepal)

First married to A-ham 'Jam-dbyangs dbang-dus (1857-63) and then to her brother-in-law, the Lama of Tsarang, and acted as his regent after he resigned as Lama and took over as Raja of Mustang under the name of A-ham dNgos-grub-dPal-'bar. The increasing centralisation under the Rana regime after 1846, together with mounting tensions between Nepal and Tibet, meant that the central government took increasing interest in exercising control. Nevertheless, Lo continued to manage its own affairs, retaining a large degree of local autonomy throughout the regime. She died suddenly. (d. 1871).

 

1863-79 Valida Pasha Khushiyar of Egypt

Also known as Hoshiar, she became the Khediva Mother upon the succession of her son Ismail Pasha as Khedive of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, of the Sudan, of Kordofan and of Darfur (1863-79) and often acting as his political mentor. During the marriage to Ibrahim Pasha, Former Governor of Egypt, Vali of Egypt in 1848, etc, she was known as H.H. Khushiyar Kadin Effendimiz. Her sister was H.M. Partav-Nihal, the Valida Sultana of Turkey (d. 1886).


 

1864-66 Regent Great Queen Dowager Kim Cho Sinjhong of Korea

Also known as Cheorin of Ch'ol-lin Wang-hu, she adopted a relative, who was named king and later became emperor Ko-jong (1864-1907) after the death of her husband, Sunjong (1831-49-64). She was raised to the posthumous title of Ch'ol-lin Wang-hu, and granted the honorifc of Eui-Hén in 1892. The daughter of H.E. Kim Mun-gun, of Andong, she lived  (1837-78).


 

1864-67, 1876-79 and 1884-87 Reigning Abbess-General María Bernarda Tagle de Quevedo of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

During her two last tenures, she did not hold quasi episcopal powers any longer.

1864-76 Princess Maria Vittoria Carlotta Enrichetta Dal Pozzo della Cisterna of Cisterna d’Asti, Marchsa di Garessio e Voghera, Contessa di Barbaresco, Bonvicino, Briga, Diano, Neive, Perno, Ponderano, Romagnano, Viverone, Baronessa di Salerano, Lady di Banchette, Camburzano, Ceretto, Cimena, Coggiola, Donelasco, Grinzane, Montecalvo, Olesi, Salussola, S. Germano, S. Marzano, Torrazza Coste, Vettigni, Consignore di Altessano, Boione, Borriana, Borzone, Castellengo, Gattieras, Magnano, Pralormo, Reano, Ruffia, Strambinello, Tronzano and Valdengo (Italy) 

Inherited the fiefs and titles from her father, Carlo Emanuele Dal Pozzo della Cisterna, Senator of the Kingdom of Sardinia 1848, who lived (1789-1864). Her mother was Countess Louise Caroline de Mérode-Westerloo (1819-68). She succeeded to the titles four years after Italy had become a Unitarian state, so she did not hold any political authority in her territories. She was married to Prince Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta, King of Spain (1870-73), who lived (1845-90). Maria Vittoria lived (1847-76). 


Unnamed Maori Lady

1864 Military Leader Heni Pore of Te Arawa, New Zealand

Fought against the British troops in support of the Kingitanga during the 1860s - she also fought in the battle of Gate Pa at Tauranga in 1864. Along with her husband, she managed a hotel at Maketu for a time and was later a staunch supporter and member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, becoming secretary of the Ohinemutu branch in 1896. She was also a licensed interpreter and was very involved in land and other social issues. 


Carlota of Mexico

1864-67 Politically Influential Empress Carlota of Mexico

Her husband, Archduke Maximilian von Habsburg of Austria, had been placed on the throne by Napoleon III. Maximilian and Carlota believed that they had the support of the Mexican people, but nationalism in Mexico was running high, and soon the Mexican people rejected foreign rule. When Maximilian refused to leave after the French troops pulled out, the Mexican forces arrested the imposed Emperor. She is credited with convincing her husband not to abdicate and then went to Europe to attempt to gain support for her husband, but during that time, she slipped into a serious depression. Maximilian was executed, and she lived in seclusion for the last nearly sixty years of her life in Belgium and Italy, never recovering her mental health. Born as Marie Charlotte Amelie she was daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium and Princess Marie of France. She lived (1840-1926).

 

 

1865/75-85 Khanum Qurban Gan Danca Alimgul of Alay Qaancasy  (Uzbekistan)

Widow of Sultan Said Han (1863-65 and 1865-66) of Huqand and she was given the area as a dowry and established a firm rule making it an independent principality, whose name meant: "The Khanate of the Alayan Ruleress".


 

1865-75 Regent Dowager Rani Gopi Rabai of Jawhar (India)

Reigned for her son, Raja Patang Shah (V (1855-65-1905), the adopted son of Naryan Rao Vikram Shan IV (1865). She (d. 1875). 


 

1865-86 Administrator Maharani Saratsundari Devi of The Panchani Estate of the Puthia Raj (Dighapatia Rajbari) (India)

At the age of 13, she assumed the responsibility of the Panchani estate after the death of her husband, Jogendra Narayana, through 9 years. She conducted its affairs with skill and reputation, promoted learning and public works. The government of  British India granted her the title of Rani in 1874 and of Maharani in 1877. 9 years after her death, her daughter-in-law, Rani Hemantakumari Devi, built a new castle in her honour - the Puthia Rajbari. The estate existed the abolition of the zamindari system in 1950. She lived (1849-86)


Queen Myongsong

1866-95 De-facto Ruler Queen Myongsong of Korea

Min Myongsong was her posthumos name. During her lifetime she was generally known as Queen Min - short for Min Hun Yo, Queen Wun-song. She was the de-facto ruler because of the weakness of her husband, King Kojong (1852-1919), who was King 1864-94 and Emperor 1897-1907. She opposed the Japanese domination, and was assassinated by Japanese soldiers. The daughter of Min Ch'irok, she was raised to the posthumous rank and title of Empress Myongsong two years after her death. She lived (1851-95).


 

1866-68 The Saohpa of Laihka (Myanmar-Burma)

Succeeded brother Hkun Hkawat and was succeeded by Sao Hkam Mawng, who had already reigned 1862-66. The ritual name of the Shan - or ethnic Thai state was Hansavadi and the ritual style of the ruler was Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunths Thiri Thudamaraza.


 

1866-79 Head of the Council of Regency H.H. The Begum Sahiba of Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

After her husband, Nawab Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan IV Abbasi Bahadur (1858-66) died from the effects of poison, she was regent for their son, H.H. Hafiz ul-Mulk, Rukn ud-Daula, Mukhlis ud-Daula, Nawab Amir Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV Abbasi Bahadur, Nusrat Jung, Nawab of Bahawalpur.


1866-69 Politically Influential Empress Elisabeth in Bayern of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire

Also known as Sisi, she was liberal and forward-minded and placed herself decisively on the Hungarian side in the nationality conflict thereby making an important contribution to the historic compromise of 1867. She persuaded her husband, Emperor Franz Joseph, to accept Hungary's gaining an equal footing with Austria also strengthened the liberal element in the monarchy as a whole. She newer accepted the stiff protocol of the Austrian Court. Her mother-in-law Archduchess Sophia, who was also her aunt, took control of the upbringing of her children and as a protest she started spending a great deal of time away from Vienna. She was widely regarded as one of the most beautiful women in Europe - it took three hours each morning just to dress her hair, she was compulsive about physical exercise, and her efforts to keep her waistline as small as possible, she frequently subjected herself to starvation diets. After her only son, Crown Prince Rudolf, committed suicide in 1889, her travels grew even more restless. She rarely stayed long in any given place and spent no more than a few weeks each year in Vienna. During an overnight stop in Geneva in 1898 Italian anarchist stabbed her with a sharpened file. Daughter of Duke Maximilian in Bayern and Princess Maria Ludowika of Bayern, daughter of the Bavarian king, she was mother of three daughters and one son, and lived (1873-98).


 

1867-70 Reigning Abbess-General María Benita Rodríguez of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Temporal and secular ruler of the territory that belonged to the chapter.

 

1867-late 1876/1877 Politically Influential Umugabekazi Queen Murorunkwere of Rwanda

Influential during the reigns of her husband king Mutara II and son king Kigeri Rwabugiri.


1868-83 Queen Ranavalona II, by the grace of God and the will of the people, Queen of Madagascar, and Protectrice of the laws of the Nation

Born as Ramoma, she was also known as Ranavalo Manjaka II after she followed Queen Rasoaherina on the throne. She married to Rainitaiarivoy who she named her Prime Minister. After being crowned she allowed Christianity in her States, and got baptized in 1869. She abolished slavery. Under her rule the British were really influential. In 1883 French commodore Pierre was sent to Madagascar because of a commercial matter and took Majunga post and bombarded Tamatave. She lived (1829-83).


 

1868-81 Regent The Soubhagyavati Maharani Sri of Mysore (India)

Reigned in the name of her adopted son, H.H. Maharaja Sri Sir Chamarajendra Wodeyar X Bahadur, Maharaja of Mysore (1863-94).


 

1868-75 Reigning Queen Mother The Ndlovukati Thandile Ndwandwe I Nxumalo of Swaziland
After 1875 Joint Head of State

Widow of King Mswati (1840-68) and until 1875 she reigned in the name of Ludvonga II, who afterwards became king, and she took over as joint head of state.  


Queen Amalie

1868-95 H.H. Queen Amalie Tonkagahahau Alili Lavelua of Uvéa (Wallis and Fortuna) (French External Territory)

Queen Aloisia Lavelua succeeded her aunt, Falakika Sailala Lavelua. In 1887 she requested French Protection and later the Pacific Island state was incorporated into France. Succeeded by son, H.H. Lavelua Vito Lavelua II (1895-1904).


1868-1888 Te-ha'apapa II, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine and Maia'o (French Polynesia)

Tehaapapa II was raised to the Chieftaincy on the deposition of her husband, Te-uru-ra'i Ari'i-mate, Ari'i-rahi of Huahine, and deposed on the annexation of Huahine by the French. She was daughter of Moe-'ore Teri'i Tino-rua Te-ari'i Noho-ra'i, Ari'i-rahi of Ra'iatea and Huahine and Mahuti Harua-po-a-te-varua-metua. Mother of 4 sons and 8 daughters. (d. 1891).


 

1868-69 Regent Maria Eutokia Toaputeitou of Mangareva (French Polynesia)

In charge of the government after the death of her husband, 'akariki Joseph Gregorio II (Ca. 1828-57-68). The island state had been a French protectorate since 1844 and was annexed to France in 1881 together with the rest of the Gambier Islands. The office of High Chief, 'Akariki, was vacant from 1868.


Queen Warqito Mastawat of Walo

1868-76 Regent Dowager Queen Warqito Mastawat of Walo (Ethiopia)

Mother of the young Imam Amede Beshir, one of the two claimants to the leadership of the Weresek (Mammadoch) clan of Wollo. Emperor Tewodros had seized Amede Beshir, had him baptized as his godson, and had fought the mother of the other claimant, the rival Queen Mestawat. Although bitter rivals, both Mestawat and Werqitu were foes of the Emperor. Werqitu was not initially eager to help the Shewan prince even though his father had been a close ally. She initially decided to send emissaries to the Emperor to inform him that the Shewans were in her camp, and that she would exchange them for her son. Tewodros however was extremely furious when he found out about the escape of the Shewans. Her son died during the siege, and her grief and anger knew no bounds. Until the very end, she never stopped attacking Tewodros' army, and never held back aid from anyone who rebelled against him. 


1868 De-facto Guardian Dowager Landgravine Marie von Württemberg of Hessen-Philippsthal (Germany)

Her husband, Landgraf Karl II (1803-49-68), died shortly after Hessen was occupied by Prussia, and Kurhessen became a Prussian province. Her husband had named her as guardian of their sons. The oldest, Landgraf Ernst (1846-1925) did not have either the political experience or the economic capability to enable him to stand up to the consequences of the annexation. In Philippsthal, she promoted trade, agriculture and artisans and thereby managed to create economic growth. During her husband's lifetime she had already started schools, kindergartens and asylums. She spend much of her time negotiating the financial settlements for her sons and other relatives of the Hessen-Philippsthal and Barchfeld-lines with the Prussian authorities who had confiscated the fortunes of the family and introduced heavy taxes on their remaining possessions. Not until 1883 a final arrangement was reached. Marie Alexandrine Auguste was daughter of Duke Eugen II. von Württemberg, Lord of Carlsruhe in Oberschlesien (1788-1857) and his first wife Mathilde von Waldeck-Pyrmont (1801-25), and lived (1818-88).


 

1869-79/80 Queen Regnant Safy Mozongo of Bemihisatra (Madagascar)

Youngest daughter of the Sakalava King Andriantsoly of Boina and cousin of the Queen Tsiomeko of Boina, she was succeeded by her elder daughter, Binao.  


1868-ca.69 Paramount Chief 'ariui henua Koreto Puakurunga of Papa Nui (Easter Island/Isla de Pascua) 

Married to Jean-Baptiste Dutrou-Bornier (died 1876) was a French mariner who settled on Easter Island in 1868, who purchased much of the island, removed many of the Rapanui and turned the island into a sheep ranch. He and his supporters ran the island for several years as "governor", appointing her as High Chief - or Queen. The title had no legitimacy behind it and is not recognized by the Rapanui or modern historians. They had the daughters Caroline, who was briefly installed as Chief, and Harriette. 


Ca. 1869-ca. 88 Paramount Chief 'ariui henua Carolina of Papa Nui (Easter Island/Isla de Pascua)

Daughter of Koreto Pauakurunga and Jean-Baptiste Dutrou-Bornier. In 1888 the island was annexed by Chile.


Unnamed ruling Malaysian princess

1869-72 Regent Tengku Intan binti Tengku Alang Husain, Tunku Ampuan of Negri Sembilan (Malaysia)

Ruled in the name of her son, H.H. Tuanku Antah ibni al-Marhum Raja Radin Sunnah, Yang di-Pertuan of Sri Menanti, who was elected as ruler on the death of his uncle in 1869. The state was originally established by Princes from Sumatra (the Empire of Srivijaya) in the 14th century, and in 1773 it was confederated into a loose association of nine local territories with the Sultanate rotating among the district rulers in precisely the same manner that the Malaysian Kingdom operates today. 1874 it became a British protectorate.


Unnamed Maori Lady

Around 1869 Maori Leader Rangi Topeora, New Zealand

Of Ngati Raukawa and Ngati Toa descent. She was a signatory to the Treaty of Waitangi, a powerful landowner, and a prolific composer of waiata. Her mother, Waitohi, was Te Rauparaha's sister, a leader in her own right and a known military strategist.


Last update 24.02.14

 

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