Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

  WOMEN IN POWER 
1800-1840

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


Korean Queen

1800-04 Senior Great Queen Regent Kim Jongsung of Korea

Widow of King Yi Yongjo (1724-76) Queen Kim Chong-sun Wang-hu was regent for her grandson and regent for grandson Yi Kwang (1800-34), and lived (1796-1805) as T'ae-wang T'ae-bi and was raised to the posthumous title of Chong-sun Wang-hu. During her reign western ships began to approach Korean shores after 1801, seeking trade and other contacts, but the government rejected all overtures from abroad. She was daughter of Kim Han-ku, Prince Ohung and lived (1745-1805).


1800-03 Regent Sri Sri Sri Maharani Subarna Prabha Devi of Nepal

Some time after the abdication of husband, Shamsher Jang Devanam Sada Samar Vijayinam in 1799, she took over the regency for stepson King Girunayuddha Birkrama Shah, who ruled (1799-1804 and 1805-16). Her husband became a mendicant under the name and title of Sri Parama Mahanirvana Ananda Swami. Returned to Nepal and seized the regency in 1804 and assumed the title of Mukhtiyar 1806. She was daughter of Subudhi Khadka Basniyat, of Gorakpur, and (b. 1779-1804).

 

1800-22 Regent Rani Sri Laxmipriya Devi of Sonepur (India)

Managed the administration of the state after her husband Raja Sriman Prithvi Singh Deo was captured and imprisoned by the Maratha Raja of Nagpur. She signed an agreement with the British Administration placing the state under British protection. With the defeat of the Marathas in the third Anglo-Maratha war on 1817, her husband returned to Sonepur in 1822.


 

1800-54 Rain Queen Modjadji I of Balobedu (South Africa)

Chief Mugodo was warned by the ancestral spirits of a plot by his sons to overthrow him. To fulfil the desires of the spirits he had all his sons killed and told his daughter that according to the wishes of the sprits he must marry her on his death.  By doing this he ensured that the new heir to his throne would be a Queen and thus a new dynasty of woman was founded. When the new Queen gave birth to a son that was fathered by her own father, he was strangled at birth.  Her second child was a girl, and she signalled the start of the female dynasty. This was the first Modjadji and ever since the Queen lives in complete seclusion deep in the forest where she practice the age-old secretive rituals to make rain. She committed ritual suicide in 1855.


Unnamed lady of the Nanas

1800/35-60s Chief Games of  Awa-Khoi - "The Red Nation" (Namibia)

Succeeded brother, Nanieb II, and was succeeded by nephew as chief of the Nanas or Hottentots in Hoachanas - Nanaqualand.


 

1800-18 Queen Mate II of Uukwangali (Namibia)

Followed Queen Simbara on the throne and was succeeded by king Siremo.


 

Circa 1800 Mfalme wa Kilwa wa Kilwa Sultan Fatima binti Sultan Muhammed Mkubwa of Kilwa (Tanzania)
The state was situated at the Island of Kilwa Kisiwani, a major trading center, which was later annexed by Zanzibar. She is known because of the letter she wrote in Arabic script to a Mombasan, Mwinyi Jumaa, who was based in Goa.


Maria Cristina di Sassonia-Curlandia, Reggente de Savoia-Carigan 

1800-16 Regent Dowager Princess Maria Christina von Sachsen of  Savoia-Carignan (Italy)

In Italian she was known as Maria Cristina Albertina di Sassonia-Curlandia. After the death of her husband, Carlo Emanuele di Savoia-Carignano (1770–1800), she was regent for their son, Carlo Alberto di Savoia (1798-1849), who succeeded his distant cousin as King of Piemont-Sardinia and Duke of Savoy in 1831. She married the French Prince Jules Maximilien Thibault de Montléart (1787–1865) and spend the rest of her life in Paris. The oldest daughter of Prince Karl Christian von Sachsen and Polen, Duke of Kurland and Semgallen and Countess Franziska von Corvin-Krasinski and also mother of Maria Elisabeth von Savoia-Carigan. She lived (1770–1851).


Wilhelmine Biron

1800-39 Sovereign Duchess Wilhelmine Biron von Kurland of Sagan, Representative of the Sovereign Dukes of Courland (Latvia/Poland/Germany)

The Duchy of Sagan was a fief of the Crown of Prussia, acquired from the Lobkowicz in 1786 by Duke Peter of Courland and confirmed for male line with succession to the nearest female on the death of the last male. The Biron von Courland line continued with Peter's brother, but on Peter’s death in 1800 Sagan passed to her as the eldest of four daughters. She was first married to Prince Jules de Rohan-Guéméné until they divorced in 1805. Her second husband was Prince Vassili Trubetzkoi (d.1841) whom she divorced in 1806. In 1818 she married Carl Rudolf Graf von der Schulenburg, but had no children and was succeeded by sister, Pauline. Katharina Friederike Wilhelmine lived (1781-1839). 


1800-06 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline Wilhelmine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim   (Germany)

Daughter of Wilhelmine Henriette von Pückler and co-regent in Limpurg until her and her sisters' part was incorporated into Bavaria in 1806. Married to Karl-Wilhelm-Ludwig Graf von Isenburg und Büdingen in Meerholtz (1763-1832). She sold her part to her relative Alexander von Pückler. In 1817 she petitioned for city and marked rights for the town of Meerholtz but that was not permitted. 3 of her 6 children died as infants, and she lived (1764-1833).


 

1800-06 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike Wilhelmine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim   (Germany)

Co-ruler in Limpurg with sisters, and married to Karl-Ludwig-Wilhelm-Theodor Graf von Salm, Wild- und Rheingraf von Grumbach and Co-heir von Sontheim (Karl von Salm-Grumbach) (d. 1799) and succeeded by son, Friedrich. She lived (1767-1849).


 

1800-06 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim  (Germany)

Ruled jointly with sisters, and married to Count and Prince Emil von Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1765-1837), was succeeded by three sons, and lived (1768-1828). 


 

1800-49 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmine Elisabeth Karoline Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)

Co-heir and co-regent in Limpurg and married to Friedrich zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg, and lived (1773-1856).


 

Around 1800 Princess Ka Mutabai of Nongstoin (India)

The Khasi and the Garo are agricultural peoples who live in hill districts in Meghalaya state in North-Eastern India. They practice wet rice (paddy) agriculture. As opposed to the Aryan Indians, the Khasis speak a Mon-Khmer language, and the Garos a Tibeto-Burman language. Both inheritance of property and succession to tribal office run through female line, passing from mother to youngest daughter. Among the Garo, one daughter, usually the youngest, is chosen as heiress. For the heiress, the husband is selected by her parents, and the groom ceremonially captured - the groom may even run away twice. The youngest son-in-law comes to live in his wife's parents' house and becomes his father-in-law's nokrom, or clan representative in the mother-in-law's family. If the father-in-law dies, the nokrom marries (and the marriage has to be consummated) the widowed mother-in-law, thus becoming the husband of both mother and daughter. The managerial head of the land of the Garo lineage is the husband of the 'matron'. Village council is formed by all the adult male members of the village. A Khasi clan mother is viewed as the worldly equivalent of the Primal Mother, Ka Blei. She is the most important person of the community, its chief and priestess, who administers the clan property. The high priestess of the village of Smit is the most powerful shaman in Northeast India, and she selects the dates of important ceremonies and appoints Khasi village chiefs. The government administration is solely the responsibility of Khasi men. Important questions and decisions are discussed among all clan members, and most Khasi men feel that their opinions are taken into consideration. 


 

Around 1800 The Omukama of Nshenyi (Uganda)

Her predecessor, Rukaari, reigned from 1752, and she was succeeded by Kabandwa at a not known time.


Unnamed Nigerian Queen

Around 1800 Queen Ebelejonu of Igala (Nigeria)

The Igala of old were part of an ethnic community known as Igala-Mela based in Nigeria. This clan primarily consisted of the Hausa, Igbo, Nupe and Igbira peoples. The Igala were mainly ruled by their ata or king traditionally named Ayeba.


 

18... Queen Mother MmaMane of baTlôkwa (South Africa)

In the early 1800s she fought to preserve her tribal lands during the wars between Shaka Zulu and Matiwane. She was succeeded by Kgôsi Mokotjo, who reigned until 1817.


18... Paramount Chieftainess of Gbo (Sierra Leone)

She was the successor of the first chief of the area, Momoh Babay Songha, but handed power to her husband, who was of the house of Nuyabo.


 

18… Chief Mashina of Mamba (Tanzania)

Widow of chief Mafaluke and succeeded chief Malamba.


 

18.. Chief Malamba of Mamba (Tanzania)

Succeeded Chief Mashina.


 

18.. Chief Mamka of Kibosho (Tanzania)

The chiefdom is situated near Kilimanjaro.


 

18… Queen (Askaya) Adama Yahimonzon of Kokoro (Niger)

Succeeded by Queen Kodyo.


 

18…  Queen (Askaya) Kodyo Yahimonzon of Kokoro (Niger)

Ascended to the throne after the death of Queen Adama. Her successor reigned until 1899.


Unnamed Royal Lady of Angola - Congo

18… Queen Tembo of Cokwe (Angola)

The principality is situated in the North Eastern part of Angola on the boarder to Congo.


 

18.. Leader Princess Mukaya of the Luba People (Congo-Brazzaville)

Led her warriors in battle against enemy tribes and rival factions towards the end of the 19th century. Initially she fought alongside her brother Kasongo Kalambo, after he was killed in battle she assumed sole control of the empire stretched along the rain forest from Zaire to northern Zambia.


 

18.. Mfahme Nyau wa Faume of Bambo (Comoro Islands)

Today Bambo is the capital of the Comoro Islands.


 

18.. Embun Serin, Undang Luak Inas of Inas (Malaysia)

The state which is also known as Jelai was one of nine minor states joined in the Negeri Sembilan Confederation.


 

18... Aru We Langrungi Puang Buttukanan of Batulappa (Indonesia)

Daughter of Aru Puang Baso, she was succeeded by son Conra Puang Maling as ruler of the Bugis state in the beginning of the 19th century. Her ceremonial name was Matinroe ri Sikkirana.


 

18... Aru Sitra of Maluwa (Indonesia)

Succeeded her brother, Aru Tandi, and was succceeded by another relative Aru Silassa as head of the Bugis state.


 

18... Princess Regnant Banu Lorok of Lakekun (Indonesia)

Married Tan Seran and later Nai, the Raja Besin of Dirma, who was succeeded by daughter Hoar Teti as ruler of the principality in the middle of Timor.


 

18.... Princess Regnant Hoar Teti of Lakekun (Indonesia)

Succeeded mother Banu Lorok and married to Lebo, the nephew of her father Teti Lorok. Her grandson, Tahu Leki, reigned until 1916.


 

18....Ruataupare of the Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare (New Zealand)

While the children of her and her husband, Tuwhakairiora, were growing up they were continually spoken about as being 'the noble offspring of Tuwhakairiora', bearing his name only, while her name was utterly disregarded and was never mentioned. She was offended and returned to her own area in Tokomaru Bay where she summoned all the tribes that were dwelling on her land to come and fight. They responded accordingly and war began. Ruataupare and her people were victorious and her name was loudly proclaimed, respected and feared throughout the district. So she established herself as Chieftainess of the Tokomaru Bay people and from her time to this day, the tribal group has been known as Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare.


 

18... Chieftainess Mahinarangi of Kahungunu (New Zealand)

A famous leader on the East Coast.


1801-03 Princess-Abbess Maria Helene von Freien-Seiboltsdorf of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The last ruler of the state, which was secularized in 1803 and became a part of Bavaria in 1815. Her family was first named as nobles of Seyboldsdorf in 740. The family became Free Lords and Counts of the Realm and also using the name of von Freyen-Seyboldsdorf.

 

1801-05 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca Montoya of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 villages and held her own courts.

 

1801-09 Abbess Nullius Aurora Accolti Gil of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

When the feudal system was abolished in 1806 during the French occupation, her quasi episcopal powers terminated and the chapter was incorporated into the diocese of Conversano. (d. 1809-).


 

1801-02 Politically Active Dowager Queen Mariam Tsitsishvili of Kakheti and Kakhet (The Kingdom of Georgia)

Widow of Giorgi XII (1798-1801) and one of the leaders of the fight against the Russian annexation. The Russian military detachment sent to put the annexation announced in 1801 into effect did not arrive in Tiflis until April 1802. At first the Russians faced considerable opposition, and she stabbed and killed the Russian Governor General Lazarev when he came in to persuade her to move to Moscow. Soon afterwards, Prince Davit, King Giorgi's Heir Apparent, and several members of the Royal Family were deported to Russia. Mother of 11 children, and lived (1768-1850).

1802-20 Regent Dowager Princess Pauline von Anhalt-Bernburg of Lippe (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Leopold II, Count 1782-89 and Prince 1789-1802, she reigned in the name of her son, Leopold III (1800-1802-51). Before her marriage in 1796, she had acted the secretary of her father, Prince Friederich Albrecht of Anhalt (1735-65-96) and taken part in the affairs of government.  She was both a progressive and reformist ruler. She initiated a number of social and political reforms during her reign. She steered the tiny county, which had a seat the bench of Counts of Westphalia at the Reichstag, through the turbulence of the Napoleonic period. She brought it into the Rheinbund in 1807 by the treaty of Warsaw, with the rank of a principality, and she brought it into the new German Confederation in 1815. When issuing laws and decrees she used the following German titualture: "Von Gottes Gnaden Wir Pauline Christine Wilhelmine, Souveraine Fürstin, Vormünderin und Regentin zur Lippe, Edle Frau und Gräfin zu Schwalenberg und Sternberg ec. Gebohrne Fürstin zu Anhalt, Herzogin zu Sachsen, Engern und Westphalen, Gräfin zu Ascanien". She lived (1769-1820).


Maria Amalia di Austria

1802 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Duchess Maria Amalia von Habsburg-Lorraine of Parma e Piacenza (Italy)

From October-November she was in charge of the government after the death of Grand Duke Ferdinando (1751-1802). November a French commissioner took charge. She lived (1746-1804).


 

1802-06 Sovereign Countess Luise zu Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz of a portion of the Amt of Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Also Countess of Waldeck-Bergheim and succeeded mother Christina von Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz as co-heir and co-regent in Limpurg until it was incorporated into Württemberg in 1806. Married to Alexander Graf von Pückler. She lived (1770-1826).


Wilhelmine Freiderikke von Württemberg 

1802-18 Regent Dowager Princess Wilhelmine Friederike von Württemberg of Oettingen-Oettingen und Oettingen-Wallerstein and the Lordships of Ober- and Unterwallbach and Eberstall (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Kraft Ernst (1748-1802), she was regent for son, Ludwig Kraft until the principality was mediatized, which changed its position as sovereign houses, but it kept important political privileges and juridical rights, and she reigned the territory until her death. Mother of 12 children: Ludwig Kraft (1791-1870), Karl Kraft Ludwig (1792-95), Friederich Kraft (1793-1842), Franz Ludwig Kraft (1795-1813), Karl Anselm (1796-1842), Sophie (1797-1880), Marie Charlotte Therese (1798-1804), Franz Joseph Karl (1799-1800) and Marie Therese (1799-1859), Louise (1801), Charlotte Wilhelmine Sophie (1802-93) and Marie Ernestine (1803-72) (born 9 months after the death of her father) and a step-daughter Friederike Sophie Therese Antonie (1776-1831). She lived (1764-1817).


 

From 1802 Sardarni Ram Kaur of the District of Hoshiarpur in Punjab (India)

Senior widow of Sardar Baghel Singh, she maintained her control over the district of Hoshiarpur which provided her a revenue of two lakh rupees. 


 

From 1802 Sardarni Rattan Kaur of Chhalondi in Punjab (India)

The junior widow of Sardar Baghel Singh, she kept Chhalondi in her possession, fetching her an annual revenue of three lakh rupees. She administered her territory efficiently. 


 

1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Xaveria Lohmiller of Baindt (Germany)

Shortly after she became leader of the territory, she married Abbey Caspar Oexlq and the position of Sovereign Reichsfürstin of the Ecclesiastical Territory was never filled again. In November the Count von Leyden occupied the territory, but a few months year later it was taken over by the count of Aspermont-Linden and was later incorporated into the Kingdom of Wurttemberg. Xaveria (d. 1836).


1802-16 Reigning Abbess Auguste Elisabeth von Seckendorff of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
When the Knight's Canton of Kraichau, the Imperial Immediate Noble Kraichgauian Chapter for Noble Ladies (Kaiserliche Reichsfreie Adeliche Kraichgauer Fräulein-Stift) was abolished in 1806, a Family Council consisting of members of the former Canton took over the administration. It still supports "Evangelical noble ladies in need", and still exists today.

Louise Eleonore von Hohenloe-Langenburg

1803-21 Regent Dowager Duchess Louise Eleonore von Hohenloe-Langenburg of Sachsen-Meiningen und Hildburghausen   (Germany)

Took over the regency for son Bernhard II. (1840-1803-82) after the death of her husband, Georg I. It was virtually impossible for her to continue the reform course of her husband because account of the numerous wars taking place at the time. Under Napoleon the country had been forced into the Confederation of the Rhine, compelling it to send troops into the Wars at Colberg, in Tirol, Spain and Russia. After the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig and the victory at Waterloo the state felt the effects for quite some time: Epidemics broke out, probably brought into the country by the French troops or by the injured, and there were price rises due to bad harvests. She did her best to alleviate the suffering, particularly in the poor mountainous areas, by donations and the purchase of foreign crops. It was not until 1819 that more peaceful and fruitful years led to a gradual improvement in the standard of living. Like her mother-in-law, Charlotte Amalie she, always seemed to find the right words to deal with the most precarious situations - and these were by no means rare during the Napoleonic Wars. After her son came of age, she began to travel to France, Italy, England or the Alps, where she climbed the steepest mountains with a minimum of attendants. The daughter of Christian Albrecht Ludwig zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Caroline zu Stolberg-Gedern, she was also mother of two daughters, the oldest, Adelheid was married to King William of England. Louise Eleonora lived (1763-1837).  


 

1803-07 Regent H.H. Dowager Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Lakshmi Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Savantvadi (India)

Widow of Raja Shrimant Khem Savant III Bhonsle Bahadur. She adopted Ramkhander II Sawant, who reigned 1805-07. He was succeeded by Phond II Sawant, who was the adopted son of her husband's second wife, Rani Durga. Born as Princess of Gwalior, and (d. 1808).


 

1803-11 Rani Regnant Sumitra Devi of Mayuirbhañj  (India)

Succeeded husband Damodar Bhañj.


Marie-Louise de Bourbon

1803-07 Regent Dowager Queen Marie-Louise de Bourbon of the Kingdom of Etruria (Toscana) 
1817-24 Duchess Regnant of Lucca (Italy)

Her husband, Ludovico I de Borbone-Parma, had been granted the Duchy of Toscana as a Kingdom by the peace of Luneville a part of the Spanish dominions. After his death in she was regent for son, Carlo Ludovico II, who was deposed by Napoleon. She tried to escape to England, but was captured and placed in a convent in Rome, until she was given the Duchy of Lucca by the Congress in Vienna. Her son succeeded her as Duke of Lucca, and in 1847 he inherited Parma from the French ex-Empress, Maria-Luigia von Habsburg. Born a Princess of Spain, she lived (1782-1824).


 

1803-06 Joint Sovereign Countess Auguste Franziska  von Salm-Grumbach of of  12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Franciske Auguste inherited the portion of the county belonging to her grandmother, Christiane Wilhelmina Luise zu Solms-Assenheim, as her mother, Elisabeth Christine, had died 1792. Her father was Karl-Ludwig von Salm-Grumbach. Married to Prince Wilhelm-Christian-Karl von Solms-Braunfels (1759-1837). Her son, Wilhelmine Caroline, inherited her portion of the county, though it had been incorporated in Württemberg. She lived (1771-1810).


 

1803-06 Sovereign Countess Karoline Sophie zu Leiningen-Hartenburg of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf [-Wormbrand] (Germany)

Succeeded her mother, Christiane Wilhelmina Luise zu Solms-Assenheim, as co-heir and co-regent in Limpurg until it was incorporated into Württemberg in 1806. Married to Friedrich-Magnus Graf von Solms-Wildenfels (1743-1801). She lived (1757-1832).


 

1803-06 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise zu Erbach-Erbach of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Daughter of Christiane Wilhelmina Luise zu Solms-Assenheim's daughter, Luise Charlotte, and Franz von Erbach, she was married to Alexander von Pückler, who bought part of the Limburg-Possessions of their relative, Karoline Wilhelmine von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein. Upon her death, Luise was succeeded by daughter, Luise von Pückler, who married to August von Röder and sold her part of the County to Waldeck. She (d. 1826).


1803 Dowager Landgravine Wilhelmine Luise Christine von Sachsen-Meiningen of Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Adolf von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1743-61-1803), she claimed the regency for their son, Karl (1782-1803-54), on the basis of their marriage contract. She lived (1752-1805).


 

Until 1803 Princess-Abbess Maximiliana Franziska de Paula zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten (Germany)

King Friederich Wilhelm III von Preussen incorporated the chapter in his lands in 1802.  This made it possible for protestants to live in the town, which had not been allowed before. The territory lost it's independent status as an Imperial Immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and shortly before the French occupation the Minister of State Count von Schulenburg, withdrew all special rights that belonged to the town through centuries of reign by the Abbess. The lands of the chapter were annexed by the French in 1811, but the ladies of the chapter were given a pension for life. She was daughter of Prince Siegmund zu Salm-Reifferscheid and Countess Eleonora von Walburg zu Zeil und Wurzbach, she lived (1765-1805).


 

1803 Rebellion Leader Lorenza Avemanay in Ecuador

An Indian, she was leader of the fight against the Spanish in Guamote.


 

1804-14 Regent Dowager Duchess Makrina of Guria (Georgia)

The widow of Svimeon II Gurieli, she acted as regent during the minority of her son, Duke Mamia V (1789-1803-23) after her brother-in-law was disposed. He was an officer in the Russian army and 1811 he accepted Russian protectorate. She was born as Princess of Satseretelo. Guria is situated on the western Georgia at the Black Sea-side, on the Kolkheti Valley near mountainous zone, and came into existence after the Georgian Kingdom collapsed after being attacked from various sides.   

1804-11 Head of the Council of Regency Dowager Duchess Nino Bagrationi of Mingreli (Georgia)

Became ruler after the sudden death of her husband, Duke of Dukes Gregori VI Dadiani of Mingrelia, who reigned 1788-91, 1794-1802 and 1802-04. Her son, Levanti V Dadiani (1793-1804 -40), had been imprisoned at Anaklia by Kelesh-Ahmad Bey Shirvashidze of Abkhazia in 1802 and was not released from imprisonment until after Russian intervention in April 1805, and accepted a protectorate the following year. During the Russo-Turkish war of 1806–12, she took command of the Mingrelian troops which joined the Russians in capturing the Black Sea fortress of Poti from the Ottoman forces in 1809. In 1810, she sent 1.000 soldiers to the aid of her Abkhazian protégé, Sefer Ali-Bey Shervashidze, who deposed his pro-Ottoman brother, Prince Aslan-Bey, and brought Abkhazia under the Russian protectorat. She was daughter of King Giorgi XII of Georgia and Princess Elena Abamelek, and lived (1772-1847).


Regentin und Fürstin Elisabetha Alexandrina zu Fürstenberg 

1804-06 Regent Dowager Princess Elisabetha Alexandrina von Thurn und Taxis of Fürstenberg (Germany)
1806-circa 14 Guardian of Fürstenberg

When her son, Karl Egon II (1796-1804-54) succeeded his cousin as Reichsfürst of Fürstenberg, she was in charge of the government, as her husband, Prince Karl Joseph Aloys (1760-99), had already died. In 1806 the principality was incorporated into Württemberg but the family kept it's title and possessions. Of her 4 daughters, only the oldest survived infancy. She later married Joseph Freiherr von Lasaberg (d. 1855). The daughter of Alexander Ferdinand, Fürst von Thurn Hereditary General Postmaster of the Empire, the Netherlands and Burgundy, Hereditary Marshal of Hainault, etc (1704-73) and his third wife, Maria Henriette zu Fürstenberg (1732-72), she lived (1767-1822).


 

From 1804 Acting Governor Marie Louise Ferrand, Hispaniola (Las Isla Espanola) (Dominican Republic)

Probably the wife of Jean Louis Ferrand, who was the Spanish governor of the islands (1804 –1809) which today houses two countries: Haiti and the Domenican Republic. Marie Louise lived (1753-1811).


Royal Wedding in Haiti

1804-06 Politically Influential Empress Marie-Claire of Haïti

Influential during the reign of her husband, Jean Jacques Dessalines. He had previously been provincial governor in Haïti and led the uprising against the French. After the independence was declared in 1804, he became Governor-General and later the same year he was declared Emperor Jacques I. She was crowned with her husband and, styled Princess Dowager after 1806. Born as Marie-Claire-Heureuse Felicite Bonheur, she lived (1758-1858).


Madeléine-Sophie Blanchard

1804 Chief Air Minister of Ballooning 
1814-19 Official Aeronaut of the Restoration Madeléine-Sophie Blanchard, France

The most famous female aeronaut of her day, became the star of France, and was a favourite of Napoleon Bonaparte. She carried on the tradition of her husband Jean-Pierre, who passed on in 1809. She was killed when her hydrogen balloon caught fire as she watched a fireworks display. She was the first woman to lose her life while flying, and lived (1778-1819).


Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte

1805-14 Sovereign Princess Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte of Elba e Lucca-Piobino (Italy)
1809-14 Governor General and Titular Grand Duchess of Toscana 

Eldest of Napoleon's sisters. Elisa-Anne-Maria married Felix Baciocchi, a former officer of the Royal Corsican regiment, on 1 May 1797. On 18 March 1805, Napoleon handed over the principality of Piombino to her to which that of Lucca was added three months afterwards. She proved to be extremely serious in her duties as sovereign, taking an interest not only in improving the roadways and opening a school and an academy, but also showing knowledge of military affairs. In 1809 she was made Governor General with courtesy title of Grand Duchess. After the fall of Napoleon, she lived in various places, including Moravia, Trieste, and Bologna, where she was known by the name of the Countess Compignano. She lived (1777-1820).


Luise von Hessen Darmstadt, Herzogin zu Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach

1805-06 In charge of the Government Duchess Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (Germany)

While her husband, Karl August (1757-1828), was in Preussian war service during the Napoleonic Wars, she handled the affairs of state, and after the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt, the victorious French troops assembled in the residential city of Weimar and met with Napoleon Bonarparte and persuaded him to stop the plundering of the city, which gave her the posititon as "saviour of the nation" (Retterin des Vaterlandes). After the end of the wars, her husband was raised to the position of Grand-Duke. Of her 7 children, 3 survived into adulthood. She lived (1757-1830).


1805-15 Reigning Abbess-General Bernarda de Orense of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Because of the French Invasion she had to abandon the Community 1812-15 as the first Abbess ever.


Laetitia Murat, Princess-Abbess of Elten

1805-11 Titular Princess-Abbess Laetitia Murat of Elten (Germany)

Also known as Princess Marie Letizia Josephine Annonciade Murat. The territory had originally been abolished in 1803 and incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Berg, but the new Grand Duke of Berg, Joachm Murat got permission by Napoleon I to name her to the position of Princess-Abbess. The chapter was abolished when he became King of Napoli in 1811. She married Guido Taddeo, Marchese Pepoli, Conte di Castiglione (1789-1852), had several children, and lived (1802-59).


 

1805 Army Leader Mai Sukhan in Punjab (India)

The widow of Gulab Singh Bhangi, chief of one of the Sikh Clans, she strongly defended the town of Amritsar against Ranjit Singh for some time. 


 

Around 1805 Defence Leader Dharam Kaur of Akalgarh in Punjab (India)

After the imprisonment of her husband, Dal Singhby Ranjit Singh, she mounted guns on the walls of her fort and fought against the Durbar forces. She was a brave and a wise Lady who was able, for some time, to foil the designs of the Lahore ruler on her territory.


Pauline Bonaparte

1806 Sovereign Princess and Duchess Pauline Bonaparte of Gaustalla (Italy) 

Napoleon’s favourite sister. A woman of great beauty, she was the subject of considerable scandal. She accompanied her husband, General Leclerc, on the expedition to Haiti. After Leclerc’s death Napoleon arranged her marriage (1803) to Camillo Borghese, a member of the Roman nobility. They soon separated, however. Pauline, made Princess of Gaustalla in 1806, fell into temporary disfavour with her brother because of her hostility to Empress Marie Louise, but when Napoleon’s fortune failed, Pauline showed herself more loyal than any of his other sisters and brothers. After her resignation as Princess she retained the title of Duchess. She lived (1780-1825).

Maharani Lalit Tipura Sundari Devi

1806-32 Regent Dowager Sri Sri Sri Maharani Lalit Tipura Sundari Devi of Nepal

Also known as Lalitatripurasundari, she was regent for King Girunayuddha Birkrama Shah (1799-1804 and 1805-16) and then for Rajendra Bikram Shah Deva (1813-16-81) until her own death. She was daughter of a Thapa, and lived (1794-1832).

Maria Waldburga, Erbgräfin von Harrach-Hohenems-Rohrau-Kunewald, Gräfin von Waldburg-Zeail

1806-13 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Maria Walburga von Harrach-Hohenems of Lustenau (Germany)

Her mother, Reichsgräfin Maria Rebekka von Hohenems inherited Hohenems and Lustenau in 1759, but later lost Hohenems in Austria. Maria Waldburga inherited the County 18 April and received the customary homage from the inhabitants a few days later. When the Holy Roman Empire was abolished
6 August 1806, the remaining immediate states, Lustenau and Liechtenstein became totally independent, but 1 September it was annexed Bavaria, but the next year she able to enforce her rights, and after Bavaria tried to annex her estates in Lustenau and Hohenems 2 years later, she made a treaty with Austria wich recognized er rights and 2 years later she sold her possessions to her husband, Hereditary
Seneschal
of the Realm and Count - Reichserbtruchsess Graf Clemens Alois Waldburg-Zeil, who added Lustenau-Hohenems to his name and contnued the fight for the independence of the territories. The couple became estranged and she took up residence in the Harrach-family residence at the castle of Kunwald or Kunín in Moravia where she founded an educational institute. 3 of their children died in infancy and the oldest son at the age of 18 and therefore they adopted the nephew of her husband, Maximilian von Waldburg zu Zeil und Trauchburg, who inherited her husband's possessions when he died in 1817.  Maximilian was first under the guardianship of his father Maximilian von Waldburg zu Zeil-Trauchburg and from 1818 of his older brother, Fürst Franz von Waldburg-Zeil. The follwoing year, Bavaria handed the territories back to Austria, who continued the annexation. The loss of substantial  tax and revenues, meant that Maximilian von Waldburg-Zeil-Lustenau-Hohenems gave up his rights to the Austrian Emperor in 1830, and 5 years later he was paid a compensation as Austria's only mediated state. The personal estates remained a Fideikommis until Austria abolised this institution in 1932. Maria Walburga lived (1762-1828).


Queen Luise of Preussen

1806-10 Politically Active Queen Luise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz of Preussen (Germany)

Married to the rather weak and hesitant king Friedrich Wilhelm III, and she showed both courage and intelligence in a difficult situation for the country. In 1806 she and a group of followers realized that reforms were needed in order to revitalize the kingdom, and she used the crisis for a new start. As the politicians and military leaders did not know what to do, she personally met Napoleon I in Tilsit in 1807, and tried to limit the consequences of the Prussian defeat to the Napoleonic forces. She became a European myth of female beauty, charisma and warmth of her heart. Mother of 7 children, she died of a pneumonia, and lived (1776-1810).


 

1807-08 and 1812-19 Regent H.H. Dowager Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Durga Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Savantvadi (India)

Second widow of Raja Shrimant Khem Savant III Bhonsle Bahadur. She adopted Phond II Sawant, who succeeded the adopted son of her husband's first wife, who was in charge of the government 1803-05. The third widow, Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Savitri Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle, was Joint Regent 1819-22.


Karoline Luise von Hessen-Homburg

1807-14 Regent Dowager Princess Caroline Luise von Hessen-Homburg of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Germany)
1814-54  De facto in Charge of the Government

After the death of her husband, Ludwig Friedrich, she was regent for son Friedrich Günther (1793-1807-67). In the first year of her reign, the Principality joined the Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund), which meant that it stood under the protection of Napoleon until 1813 and 2 years later, the state joined the German Federation (Deutschen Bund). As he did not show any interest in the government, she remained de-facto in charge of the government until her death. He Günther was succeeded by his younger brother Albert (1798-1867-69). She was also known as Caroline Louise Ulrike, and lived (1771-1854).


 

1807-10 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Maina Bai Sahib of Dhar (India)

In charge of the government during the minority of her son, Ramchand Rao I Anand, who was born 5 months after his father's death.


 

1807-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Obanosa of Benin (1804-16), his successor Ogbebo reigned for less than a year. As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 


Unnamed Punjabi Maharani

1807 Army Leader Rattan Kaur (Punjab in India)

Widow of Tara Singh Ghaiba, Chief of the Dallevali Clan (1717-1807) and kept the Lahore Durbar forces at bay for a sufficient time till the Lahore army bribed the gatekeepers. 


Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana

1807-08 De facto co-regent Ayşe Seniyeperver Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Also known as Daulatlu Ismatlu Aisha Sina Parvar Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari. When Selim III was deposed as a result of the Janissary revolt led by Kabakçı Mustafa against his military reforms on May 29, 1807, Mustafa IV became the new Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and A'ishā Sinā Pervar Kadın Sultân had acquired the title of Valide Sultan being the mother of the new Sultan. She performed Valide Sultan's obligations as de facto co-regent of the Ottoman Sultan for fourteen months from 29 May 1807 until 28 July 1808 during the reign of her stepson Mustafa IV. Her regency culminated by the deposition of Mustafa IV as a result of an insurrection led by Alemdar Mustafa Pasha on 28 July 1808. She lived more than twenty years after the execution of Mustafa IV by order of the next Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II. She lived (1761-1828).

 

1807-51 Reigning Abbess Maria Josefa von Würz à Rudenz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter which had been part of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen since 1806 was finally incorporated into Preussia in 1848.


Pirate Queen Ching Shih

1807-09 Commander of the Red Flag Fleet and Leader of the Pirate Confederation Ching Shih, China

Also known as Cheng I Sao, she took over as leader of the enormous pirate fleet which included between 1.500 and 1.800 ships and 80.000 male and female pirates when her husband, Cheng I, was killed in a typhoon in 1807. He had created a powerful confederation controlling the sea-lanes from Hong Kong to the Vietnamese border. Born into a family practicing piracy for many generations, he fought with rebel forces in Vietnam. When he returned to China in 1801, he made himself leader of the pirates in the Kwang-tung Province, and by 1806, virtually every Chinese vessel passing the coast paid protection money. Although Cheng's corsairs avoided large European vessels, they captured foreign sailors and held them for ransom. After Cheng Shih became leader of the pirates she issued a code of laws that added even more power to the pirate confederation. The code was short and severe. Anyone caught giving commands on his own or disobeying those of a superior was to be decapitated. It was a capital offence to pilfer from the common treasury or steal from the villagers who regularly supplied the pirates. Desertion or absence without leave resulted in a man's ear being cut off and his being paraded through his squadron. Raping female captives was also a capital offence, and if there was fornication by mutual consent, the pirate was to be beheaded and the female captive cast overboard with a weight on her legs. The pirate confederation was so strong that for years it held power over the Chinese military along the coast, and they made an alliance with the western powers and in 1809 the pirates were defeated. Nothing is known about what happened to her afterwards.


 

1808-circa 22 Queen Regnant Tsimalomo of Boina (Madagascar)

Opposed by Princess Maka Andrianaresy in 1808. Boina became tributary to Madagascar around 1820.


 

1808 Queen Regnant Maka Andrianaresy of Boina (Madagascar)

Reigned in opposition to Queen Tsimalomo.

 

1808-17 Regent H.H. Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tulsi Bai Sahiba of Indore (India)

Governed in the name of her husband, Jaswant Rao Holkar, who after the defeat of Scindia of Gwalior in 1803, took on the British forces and defeated Col. William Monson and besieged Delhi. He was however, defeated by Gen. Gerard (Lord) Lake at Dig and Farrukhabad in November of 1804, and was compelled to make peace a year later. Soon after, he became insane and died in 1811. Afterwards she was regent for Malhar Rao III Holkar (1801- 1833), until she was deposed and beheaded on the banks of the Sipra and her remains thrown into the river, 20th December 1817. The new regent was Rani Krishnabai. She was daughter of Ajiba, a priest of the Manbhoo sect.


 

1808-circa 20 President of the Cuncil of Regency Dowager Rani Sarada Sahiba of Chamba (India)

The widow of Paramanabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Jit Singh Varma De (1775-93-1808) , she was regent for her son, Raja Sri Charat Singh (1802-08-43)


1808-15 Regent Queen Caroline Bonaparte of Napoli (Italy)

Actual leader of the government during her husband, Joachim Murat's participation in the fighting in France. They were Duke and Duchess of Berg 1806-08. She lived (1782-1839).


Contemporary picture of Nakshidil

1808-17 Politically Influential Nakşidil Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

An apocryphal story has it that she was originally Marie Martha Aimée Dubuc de Rivéry - cousin of Empress Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie of France. She was supposed to have been captured by pirates and sold to the slave marked of Istanbul and presented to Abdülhamid and acted as his advisor 1733-73. After his death his brother, Sultan Selim III asked her to remain at the Seraglio harem with her son, Mahmud his nephew. She acted as his advisor and apparently taught him French; and for the first time, a permanent ambassador was sent from Istanbul to Paris. Selim was assassinated in 1807 by religious fanatics who disapproved of his liberalism. The assassins also sought to kill Mahmud, but Nakshedil saved her son by concealing him inside a fumace. Thus Mahmud became the next Sultan, accomplishing significant reforms in the empire that are, for the most part, attributed to the influence of his mother. She lived (1768-1817).

 

1808-39 Politically Influential Princess Esma Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Became very influential when her brother, Mahmud II, came to the throne after a period of revolts by the Janissaries and a succession of Sultans within few years. During her marriage to Kaptan-ı Derya Küçük Hüseyin Pasha, a close friend of Sultan Selim III, she held quite important influence over the society. He died in 1803 and she never married again. She was daughter of Sultan Abdulhamid I and Kadın Efendi Ayşe Seniyeperver Sultan, and lived (1778-1848).


 

1809-11 Rani Regnant Devammaji of Coorg (India)

Her father, Vira Raja, left her as his successor. Her uncle, Linga Raja, however, after acting as regent in her name, announced in 1811, his own assumption of the government. He died in 1820, and was succeeded by his son Vira Raja, a youth of twenty, and a monster of sensuality and cruelty. Among his victims were all the members of the families of his predecessors, including Devammaji, and in 1834 the British deposed him. Coorg or Kodagu was an ancient kingdom in present day's Karnataka, and the area is inhabited by many ethnic minorities.


 

1809-26 Payung e-ri Luwu We Tenriawaru of Luwu (Indonesia)

Succeeded Abdullah La Tenripappang, and married Adatuang La Paonrowang of Soppeng (1782-1820).


 Juana Azurduy de Padilla

Circa 1809-25 Presidentessa of the  Republiqueta Juana Azurduy de Padilla of the Eastern Region (Bolivia)

Together with her husband, Manuel Ascencio Padilla (1774-1816), she was co-ruler of the Eastern Bolivian area on the boarder to Argentina that was established during the wars for independence. When Bolivia declared its independence in 1809, her husband and she raised a small army to fight for an independent republic. Her husband was killed early into the war, but she continued to fight against royalist forces until Bolivia became an independent republic in 1826 when Spanish forces were finally overthrown. Juana Azurduy had managed to form a small "republiqueta" (little republic) with the territory her small army held. This republiqueta was basically under siege from 1810 until 1825 when other republican armies under Simon Bolivar were able to join her remote forces. She lived (1781-1862). 


1809-circa 19 5th Asantehemaa Nana Adoma Akosua of Asante (Ghana)
1814 Regent

As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reign of Osei Tutu Kwame Asiba (1804-24), she was left in charge of the government while the king went to the coast to visit his troops on the battlefield there. In the period, Adoma Akosua received a Dutch embassy with which she discussed trade. Succeeded on the post by cousin, Ama Sewaa, and lived (1765-1819). 


 

1809-25 Reigning Lady Maria Margaretha von Humbracht of Styrum (Germany)

She inherited the former immediate lordship in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of her brother-in-law, Ernst Maria zu Limburg-Bronkhorst in Styrum und Oberstein etc. (Ernst zu Limburg-Styrum-Styrum), who was on journey to Frankfurt to marry her after the death of her sister, Sofie Charlotte von Humbracht (1762- 1805).. She was Cannoness in the Kronstädtischen Stift zu Frankfurt. He had willed her the etates of the Lordship and the pension of 12.200 florin he got since the state refom in 1803 as compensation for the loss of the lorship of Oberstein. She sold it in 1825, and lived (1755-1827)


1809-18 Leader of the Gustavian Party Queen Charlotta von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden

In 1809 her husband, Karl XIII became king after his nephew, Gustav IV Adolf, had been deposed. Karl had been regent for Gustav Adolf during his minority 1792-96. She became leader of the Gustavian Party, and worked for the declaration Gustav Adolf's son, prince Gustav as king, with her husband as regent. She was politically influential also because her husband had a stroke shortly after ascending to the throne. The following year, Prince Christian August of Augustenborg was elected as heir to the throne and assumed the name Karl August. He died the same year and subsequently Jean Baptiste Bernadotte was elected heir and adopted by her and her husband, but they never had a close relationship since she still preferred prince Gustaf as heir. Hedwig Elisabeth Charlotta was mother of one son who died one week old, and died 6 months after her husband, having lived (1759-1818).


Rani Gouri Parvati Bai

1810-53 Junior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchi Dharma Dyumani Raja Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Parvati Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)
1815-29 Regent of Travancore

When her elder sister Regent Maharani Gowri Lakshmi Bayi died after childbirth in 1815 she was only thirteen years of age and being the only female left in the family, besides her deceased sister's little daughter, she became Regent Maharani on behalf of her nephew, the heir, Maharajah Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma. She was on her accession actively counselled by her brother in law, Raja Raja Varma of the Changanssery Royal family as well as her husband, Raghava Varma, who belonged to the Royal family of Kilimanoor. Her first act was to appoint a new Dewan, and she continued the reforms of her older sister. Christians got more freedom and some of the restrictions put on some of the lower castes were removed, she also introduced health reforms. er mother, Princes Atham of the Travancore, was the Senior Rani of Attingal. Her first husband was Raghava Varma of the Kilimanoor Royal family and after his death she married his brother After his death in 1824, she married again, but did not have any children. She lived (1802-53).


 

1810-26 Regent Dowager Princess I Pancaitana Aru Pancana of Tanette (Indonesia)

After the death of her husband, La Maddusila Abdul Kadir Muhyuddin, she governed in the name of her son, La Patau Abdullah Saipu Aru Pancana.


 

1810-12 Deshmukh Regnant Renuka Bai of Jath (India)

Was succeeded by Deshmukh Regnant Sali Bai of Jath. 


1810 Regent Queen Hortense de Beauharnais of The Netherlands
1813-37 Titular Duchess of Saint-Leu

In 1810 her husband, Louis Bonaparte abdicated as king in favour of their second surviving son, Napoleon Louis (b. 1804) after four years on the throne, and appointed her as regent, before going into exile. The following year she gave birth to a fourth son who was put in the care of his paternal grandmother, Madame de Souza. After Napoleon I's surrender, she received the title of Duchesse de Saint-Leu, and lost the rank of Queen. Her husband only received the title of Count de Saint-Leu. In 1814 she and Louis Napoleon were divorced. Her third son Louis Napoleon was later first elected President and then became emperor Napoleon III of France. Hortense was daughter of Vicomte Alexander de Beauharnais and the later Empress Joséphine (see below), and she spend the years from five to 10 on Martinique when her parents separated. She lived (1783-1837).


Joséphine de Beauharnais

1810-14 Titular Duchess Joséphine de Beauharnais of Navarre (France)

After her divorce from Napoleon I Bonaparte, she was given the title of Duchess de Navarre after a castle in Normandy. Born as Marie-Josephe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie at Martinique, she lived (1763-1814).


1810 Guerrilla Leader Gertrudis Bocanegra Mendoza in Mexico

One of the leaders in the Mexican war of independence against the Spanish, she lived (1765-1817).


Ekaterina Pavlovna Romanova

1810-19 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna Romanova in Russia

Took active part in the government during the reign of her brother, Alexander I of Russia. After their marriage in 1809 her husband, Georg von Oldenburg (1784-1812) was appointed Governor-General of Tver province and she took an active part in his reign. When Napoleon annexed the German territories on the Baltic, including her husband's Grand Duchy, her brother protested against what he considered a personal offence, and together with other events this resulted in the war between France and Russia. The Tsar adopted the reactionary ideas of a patriotic group, which she dominated, and during the Napoleonic Wars in 1812-15 she formed a special regiment of chasseurs. In 1812 some conspirators planned to deposed Tsar Alexander and put her on the throne. 1816 she married her cousin King Wilhelm of Wurttemberg and she dedicated her time on establishing charitable institution, education and culture. The daughter of Pavel I Petrovich Romanov, Tsar of Russia and Sophie Marie Dorothea von Württemberg, known as Tsarina Maria Fyodorovna, she was mother of two sons by her first husband, and two daughters by her second, and lived (1788-1819).


Juliane Louise Amelia of Hessen-Kassel

1810-60 Politically Influential Abbess Juliane Louise Amelia of Hessen-Kassel of Itzehoe in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

Because of her involvement in social charities, development of health facilities etc., she became very influential in the Northern state in Germany. Itzehoe was a Protestant Adeliches Damenstift (Noble Ladies' Chapter). It was never an independent ecclesiastical territory, but it was important as a major landowner. She was daughter of Landgrave Karl von Hessen-Kassel and Louise of Denmark, and lived (1773-1861).


 

1811 Ratu Kenchanawulan of Sepuh (Indonesia)  

The principality was situated in Mataram at Java.


Laskarina Bouboulina

1811-25 Naval Commander and Resistance Leader Laskarina Bouboulina in Greece

Dominated the naval operations of the War of Independence in 1821. After her husband, Bouboulis was killed during a battle with Algerian pirate ships in 1811; she took over his trading operations and the preparation for the revolution. She became a member of the “Filiki Etaireia”, the secret organization which was preparing the revolution all over Europe, and had the “Agamemnon”, her flagship, and three more war ships built at her own expenses. Finally, she boarded the “Agamemnon’ and personally took part in the sieges of Nafplion and Monemvasia by sea, as well as in the sacking of Tripolis by land. She took part in the battle of Argos and other battles of the Peloponese at the head of her own private army. The Daughter of the Hydriot captain Stavrianos Pinotsis, she was born in the prison of Constantinople, and she murdered during a family feud. She lived (1771-1825).


 

1812-23 Deshmukh Sali Bai of Jath (India)

Succeeded Renuka Bai (1810-12) and was succeeded by Maharanja Ram Rao, who reigned until 1827.


Unnamed Maharani

1812-13 Regent Sri Rani Aus Kaur Sahiba of Patiala (India)
1813-15 Regent Dowager Rani Prapataph Sinha Bajaji

First took over the regency during the illness of her husband, Maharaja Karam Singh (1781-1813-45), after his death, she administered the state during the minority of her son, later retiring to her estate at Sanaur, about 7 km south of Patiala, where she spent the last years of her life. She was daughter of Sardar Gurdus Singh Chattah, and lived (1772-1821).


 

1812-19 Dowager Tengku Puteri Raja Hamidah binti Raja Haji of Johor (Malaysia)

Her husband, H.H. Sultan Mahmud III Shah Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan 'Abdu'l Jalil Shah, Sultan of Johor and Pahang Dar ul-'Alam, died without naming a heir in 1811. It seems that Hamidah was one of the actors in the succession struggle, which resulted in her stepson, H.H. Sultan Husain Mu'azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Shah Alam, Sultan of Johor and Pahang Dar ul-'Alam, ascending the throne in 1819. She was daughter of Raja Haji bin Raja Chelak, 4th Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau, and (d. 1844).


Marie-Louise von Habsburg-Lothringen

1812-13 Regent Empress Marie-Louise von Habsburg-Lothringen of France
1814-47 Sovereign Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Gaustalla (Italy)

In charge of the government during her husband, Napoleon Is war in Russia. After Napoleon's abdication she and her son, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (King of Rome and later Duke of Reichstadt), fled Paris to Blois and then to Vienna where she remained until granted the duchies in Italy by her family. In 1821, four months after Napoleon's death, she married, morganatically, her lover, Count Adam-Adalbert von Neipperg (1775-1829). They already had two children Albertine (1817-67) and Wilhelm Albrecht, Count and later Prince of Montenuovo (1819-95) and in 1822 they had Mathilde. In 1834 Marie-Louise married her grand chamberlain, Charles-René, Count of Bombelles (1785-1856). She was born Marie Louise Leopoldine Franziska Theresia Josepha Lucia, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia as the daughter of Emperor Franz I of Austria and his second wife, Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies, and lived (1791-1847).

Princess Dorothea von Lieven, née Baroness von Benckendorff

1812-34 Politically Influential Princess Dorothea von Lieven in England and Russia

Arrived in London in 1812 with her husband, the Russian ambassador, Fürst Christoph von Lieven (1777-1839). She supported him loyally and, having made a position for herself in English society, began to render him invaluable service in furthering Russian foreign policy. She identified those political figures that could be of use and applied herself to persuading or manipulating them. Her choice of lovers was dictated entirely by her perception of Russia’s interests, and included Metternich, Wellington, Aberdeen, Canning, Grey and Guizot. She was the spider at the heart of a fine and complex web. In the 1820s the sessions of the Congress of Verona actually took place in her drawing room, and she acted as a conduit between diplomats and brought together ministers who misunderstood or distrusted each other. Among others she had a significant role in ending Britain’s isolation under Canning and in avoiding a European crisis over the Greek question in the mid-1820s. She was intimate with George IV and badgered prime ministers and influenced the shape of their cabinets. The Russian interests she served had broadly coincided with British ones to begin with, but they began to diverge, and the crises of 1830 over the revolutions in France, Belgium and Poland revealed just how far removed absolutist Russia’s policies were from the liberal instincts of British society. By the time of her husband’s recall in 1834, Dorothea’s position had become untenable. "There never figured on the Courtly stage, a female intriguer more restless, more arrogant, more mischievous, more (politically, and therefore we mean it not offensively) odious than this supercilious Ambassadress," ran a scorching valediction in The Times. She was employed at the Russian court until 1837 when she moved to France to live with her new lover, the French statesman François Guizot, with whom she remained for the next 20 years. She was born into the Baltic baronial family von Benckendorff, mother of 6 children (none of whom married) and lived (1785-1857).


 Hermine von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, Gräfin von Schaumburg und Holzappel

1812-17 Titular Countess Hermine zu Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym of the former Sovereign Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel (Germany)

Inherited the territories after the death of her father, Viktor II Karl Friederich.  1815 she married Archduke Joseph Anton Johann von Habsburg-Lothringen (1776–1847), the brother of Emperor Franz, as his second wife, but died giving birth to twins, Hermine von Habsburg-Lothringen, who was Princess-Abbess of the Theressian Royal and Imperial Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin in Prague (1817-35-42) and Stefan Franz Viktor (1817-67), who was Governor of Bohemia and Platine of Hungary until he withdrew to his possessions in Nassau (The counties of Holzappel and Schaumburg) in 1850 because of political disagreements with the Austrian government. Here he died unmarried. She lived (1797-1817).


 

1812-41 Reigning Dowager Countess Amalie Charlotte von Nassau-Weilburg of the former Sovereign Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Viktor II Karl Friederich von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1767-1806-12), the former sovereign territories were first inherited by their daughter, Hermine (1797-1817) and then by her son, Stefan Franz Viktor von Habsburg-Lothringen. Amaile's three younger daughters also died young: Adelheid (1800-20), married to Hereditary Prince August von Oldenburg, Emma (1802-45) married to Georg von Waldeck-Pyrmont and Ida (1804-28), also married to August von Oldenburg. She lived (1778-1841).


 

1813-14 (†) Acting Rani Sobrahi of Jind (India)

Raja Bhag Singh suffered a severe paralytic attack in March 1813 and wished to appoint his son, Prince Pratap Singh, as his regent. But the British government to whom the anti-British bearing of the prince was known stood in his way and got Rani Sobrahi appointed instead. Paratap Singh raised the standard of revolt. He being a popular figure the state forces also revolted and joined him forth with. With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.    


 

Circa 1813-circa 21 Regent Dowager Ratu Donna Lorenza Gonsalvi of Larantuka (Indonesia)

Also known as Gonzali led Njore Djawa or Nyora Djawa which means woman from Java, she was probably regent for her minor son Don Lorenzo I (b. circa 1803). She was the 2nd wife of Raja Don Andre I (Pandai I) Diaz Viera Gondinho, who had succeeded his brother Raja Dom Manuel (Kaka Dower Ama) in 1812. They were the grandsons of Raja Adobala/Olle Adeballa (8th ruler of Larantoeka/Larantuka), who became Roman Catholic in 1645 and changed his name to Raja Don Francisco Dias Viera Godinho. Lorenza's son might have been declared king already in 1812. He ruled for sure in 1831-1838 and died 1849. In the Portuguese time his title was colonel-rei. He was also called Raja Buga.


Queen Josefina

1813-14 Titular Duchess Joséphine von Leuchtenberg of Galliera (Italy)

Daughter of Emperor Napoleon I's stepson, Eugene de Beauharnais, Prince of France, Viceroy of Italy etc. and Josephine of Bavaria, Fürstin of Leuchtenberg, she was created Princess di Bologna in 1807.  She married King Oscar I of Sweden and became known as Queen Josefina. She lived (1806-51).

Marie Sofie Frederikke zu Hessen-Kassel

1814-15 Regent Queen Marie Sofie Frederikke zu Hessen-Kassel of Denmark

Queen Marie was left in charge of the government during the participation of her husband, Frederik 6 in the Congress of Vienna after the Napoleonic wars. She was mother of 8 children, but only two daughters survived and her husband was therefore succeeded by nephew in 1839. She lived (1767-1852).


 

1814-24 H.H Karaeng Bontomasugi Sultana Siti Saleh II of Tallo (Indonesia)

Succeeded her father H.H. I-Mappainga Karaeng Lempangang Paduka Sri Sultan Safi ud-din and married to La Potto, Datu Baringang and Prince of Bone. Her ceremonial name was Tumenanga-ri-Kanatojenna.


Begum of Oudh

1814-37 Politically Influential Badshah Begum of Oudh (Avadh) (India)

Her husband, Ghazi-ud-din Haider, preferred death for his son, Nasir-ud-din Haider, rather that his succession to the throne. Badshah Begum was childless. She therefore, matched her husband's whim by having Nasir's mother killed (another wife of Ghazi-ud-din). She adopted him, and later took up arms against her husband. Badshah Begum had armed her women to the teeth, who, overpowered the King and sabotaged all his stratagems. The outcome was that Nasir-ud-din, did become the King of Avadh. When he later in his turn wanted to disinherit his son, Farid-un-Bakht, she took him under her wings, and refused to be threatened. Nasir sent a brigade of women soldiers into the royal zenana to have her removed. The women of the zenana were no less armed so that a fierce battle took place with volleys of musket ammunition flying through Lucknow. The old Begum may have lost some fifteen or sixteen of her retainers, but the final victory was hers. She left the palace with a British guarantee that neither her life nor the life of the infant Farid would ever be endangered again. In 1837 King Nasir died of poisoning. The British Resident had already drafted a paper ready for the signature of the next King of Avadh, but Badshah Begum wanted Farid to be king, and she marched at the head of some two hundred heavily armed men towards the Palace. Her troops removed the incumbent ruler and his relations. Her troops could hardly contain their zeal, or ignore the fiery leadership of their heavily covered Begum. The following day the British opened fire and most of the Begum's men were killed or wounded, and she were sent to the fort of Chunar which was in British territory, where both she Farid died in captivity. (d. 1846).

1814-16 Guardian Dowager Duchess Louise-Augusta af Danmark of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (Denmark/Germany)

After the death of her husband, Friederich Christian II (1765-94-1814), she became guardian for her 16 year old son, Duke Christian. Officially she was daughter of the insane King Christian 7 of Denmark and Caroline-Mathilde of United Kingdom, but her father was probably Count Johann Friedrich Struensee, her mother's lover. At some point she was the closest heir to the Danish throne. Mother of two sons and a daughter, Caroline-Amalie, who married the later. King Christian 8 of Denmark. She lived (1771-1843).

 

1815-ca 56 Sultan Dewa Agung Isteri Kaina of Klungkung (Indonesia)
1849-circa 56 Susuhuna (Empress) of Bali and Lombok

Ruled jointly with Dewa Agung Gede Putra II until 1851 and with Dewa Agung Putra III (1851-1903). 1849 The Dutch colonial powers granted them the title of Emperor and Empress. The region is known as the "Land of thousand ditches". This name pictures that most of the areas consist of wetland, rives streams and swamps. And small ditches, plotting the coconut plantation land which is the vegetation of the local people. Inhil community in general is of Malay culture. Nevertheless, there are also outsiders in this area from Banjar and Bugis ethnics. These outsiders then settling one generation to another, and producing a cultural form, which is the combination of Riau Malay culture and Banjar and Bugis culture.


Victoria of Kent

1815-18 Regent Dowager Princess Viktoria of Sachsen-Saafeld-Coburg of Leiningen (Germany)
1830 Named Possible Regent in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

After the death of her first husband, Fürst Emich Carl zu Leiningen (1763-1814), she was regent for her son, Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Emich zu Leiningen (1804-56) until her marriage to Prince Edward of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767-1820). After his death, she became guardian to the heir to the throne, Victoria. In 1830, the Regency Act named the Duchess of Kent as regent in the case that Victoria should be a minor when called to the throne, but Victoria ascended to the throne shortly after her 18th birthday. For a number of years mother and daughter were at odds, but they became reconciled in the end. Her brother, Leopold, was first married to the heiress, Charlotte, who died in childbed in 1819 and then became king of Belgium. Viktoria also had a daughter, Feodora zu Leiningen (1807–1872), who was married to Fürst Ernst I. zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1794–1860). She lived (1786-1861).


 

1815-16 The Ndlovukati Lakubheka Mndzebele of Swaziland

The Queen Mother was the widow of Ndvungunye (1780-1815) and after his death she adopted Sobhuza I and named him king. She then became Joint Head of State.


Ndlorukazi Nandi

1815-27 Queen Mother Ndlorukazi Nandi of the Zulu Kingdom (South Africa)

Mother of Shaka Zulu. At some point they were forced into exile, but she managed to maintain her son's position.


 

1815-? Senior Rani Gowri Rukmini Bayi of Attingal in Travancore (India)

succeeded to the title of Senior Rani of Attingal after the death of her mother, the Queen Regent, Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai. Apart from her aunt, who was regent 1815-29, she only female in the matriarchal Travancore Royal Family, she married Rama Varma Koil Thampuran of Thiruvalla Royal Family in 1819 and had seven children, five sons and two daughters. One of these daughters died soon while the other married and had two sons, including Moolam Thirunal Sir Rama Varma. In 1888 two princesses were adopted from the Mavelikara Royal family into Travancore. (b. 1809-?).


 

1815-1827 Regent Sri Guleri Raniji Sahiba of Sirmur (India)

When the Governor-General of India appointed her son, Sri Raja Fateh Prakash Bahadur, as ruler in preference to his father, Sri Raja Karan Prakash II Bahadur (1793-1803), who had  greatly expanded his kingdom,  lost it to the Nepalese who annexed it when he asked for their help against a rebellion led by his younger brother in 1803. Thereafter he lived in exile at Buria in Punjab until his death in 1826.


1815-18 and 1827-30 Reigning Abbess-General María Lorenza de Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the right to grant dismissorial letters for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


1817 Rebellion Leader Martha Christina Tiahahu in Aceh (Indonesia)

Together with her husband, Paulus Tiahahu, she fought against the Dutch rule and seized Fort Beverwijk.


Mask of Queen Mother of Benin

Circa 1816-? Iyoba Omozogie of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Osemwede of Benin (1815-48). She is said to have been very wealthy and to have assisted her son's conquests of outlying areas. 


1816-56 Reigning Lady Elena Sebastiana Benítez de Lugo of Fuerteventura (Spain)

Her full name was Her full name was Fuerteventura Elena Sebastiana Antonia Francisca Benítez de Lugo Arias de Saavedra y Urtus-Áustegui Interian de Ayala Herrera Sarmiento Peraza y Muxica, and she reigned the island in the Canary Islands. Married to Luis Gerónimo Agustín Benítez Pereyra Calderón de Lugo y del Hoyo, VII Marqués de la Florida and mother of 6 children. She lived (1816-56).


 Queen Katharina von Württemberg

1816-19 Politically Influential Queen Katharina Pawlowna of Württemberg (Germany)

Married her cousin, Wilhelm von Württemberg, shortly after he became King. In her only three years as Queen, she had brought an unusually modern social structure to the state. She founded the first Württemberg savings bank, created schools with modern curricula, hospitals, children's homes and institutions for feeding the poor, which she paid for partially from her immense Russian dowry. As the Russian Grand Duchess she was a member of the Russian-Orthodox Church and remained so. Her first husband, Herzog Georg von Oldenburg died in 1812. She was daughter of Tsar Paul I and Maria Fjodorovna (Sophie Dorothea Augusta von Württemberg), and lived (1789-1819).


 

1817-24 Queen Mother Monyale a Mothaba of baTlôkwa (South Africa)

Later she was called MmaNtatise Sia Mosayane and was succeeded by king Sekonyela a Mokotjo.


 

1817-26 The 24th Okyehene and the Ohemaa Nana Afia Dokuaa of Okyeman (Akyem Abuakwa)  (Ghana)

The first and only woman to hold the office of ruler as well as that of Ohemaa (Queen mother) in the history of Akyem Abuakwa, and ascended the Ofori stool in 1817 in lieu of a male heir to her uncle, Kofi Asante (1811-1816). She maintained the tradition of resistance to Asante overlordship and joined an anti-Asante alliance of coastal chiefs and the British Administration on the coast. She personally fought at the head of the Akyem Abuakwa contingent at the battle of Katamanso in 1826. It was the allied victory at Datamanso and the ensuing Treaty of 1831 that liberated Akyem Abuakwa and the Southern states from Asante’s claims to suzerainty over them. Nana Dokua was also a first class administrator. She set up towns and villages into the present divisions for the purposes of war and administration, as well as preventing break-ups or revolts in her kingdom. She married Barima Twum Ampofo of the Oyoko clan of Barekeseso in Ashanti, whom she made the Asiakwahene. She had two male twins, who successively became kings after her death.


 

1817-18 Regent Rani Krishnabai Holkar of Indore (India)

Followed Rani Tulsabai as regent for Malhar Rao III Holkar (1801-11-1833). The City of Indore became the capital of the Indore princely state in 1818 after the British forces under Sir John Malcolm defeated the Holkar forces under her command. She signed the treaty of Mandsaur by which the control of Indore went in the hand of the East India Company.


1817 Rebellion Leader Martha Christina Tiahahu in Aceh (Indonesia)

Together with her husband, Paulus Tiahahu, she fought against the Dutch rule and seized Fort Beverwijk.


Unnamed Ladies of the Court of Abomey

1818-58 Kpojito Agontime of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of King Gezo (1818-58). She had been involved in the coup d'etat against king Agonglo in 1797 and was sold as a slave overseas. according to tradition that she established a number of Abomeyan deities in the new world. Tradition also relates that Gezo sent a delegation to Brazil to locate her and bring her back home. 

 

1818-92 Chief Political Advisor Mariam of Kano (Nigeria)

The most trusted advisor of her husband, Emir Ibrahim (1818-46) and his successor Muhammad Bello (1883-92). According to Kano tradition her title was "Emir's wife" and her full name was Mariam bint Shehu Usman'dan Fodio. 

1818-21 Reigning Abbess-General María Manuela de Lizana of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Probably related to Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont (17501811). Bishop of Mexico and Vice-Roy of New Spain.


Ka’ahumau of Hawai'i

1819-32 Kuhina Nui Queen Elizabeth Ka'ahumanu I of Hawaiian Islands (USA)
1823-24 Sole Regent of the Kingdom
1824-32 Regent of the Kingdom

First married to Kamehameha I, whom her father had served as Councillor. She supported him in his efforts to unite the islands of the archipelago under his central authority and shared largely in their governance. After her husband's death in 1819, she became Kuhina nui (premier) to his successor, Liholiho Kamehameha II, and instigated many reforms. She worked in particular to overcome the taboos placed on women in the islanders' traditional religion and scored a major victory in persuading Kamehameha II to eat publicly with women. When Liholiho went to England in 1823 she was appointed regent until Kaukeouali Kamehameha III should come of age. To ensure the Kamehameha line, she married the two leading contenders for the throne, King Kuamalii of Kauai and his son. She worked closely with the Christian missionaries and was baptized in 1825. She travelled much among the islands, promoting the evangelizing and educational work of the missionaries, until her death. She lived (1772-1832).


 

1819-28 De facto Ruler Duchess Sopio of Guria (Georgia)
1828-29 Regent

Also known as Sophia Giorgevna, she was wife of Mamia V Guriel i(1789-1804-23) since 1814, she acted as de-facto regent when he was away in Russian military service. After he died, she ruled in the name of their son, Duke Davit (1815-23-29-39). She sided with the Turks in the Russo-Turkish War and fled to Trebizond in 1829, where she died the same year. She was daughter of Prince Giorgi Tzulukidze, and also mother of three daughters who were all taken to Moscow. In 1830 the state was annexed by Russia.


 

1819-38 Rani Mariambe Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Succeeded her mother, Junumabe Adi-Raja Bibi II. In 1824 she made a formal written recognition of the suzerainty of the East India Company over the Island of Minicoy, which her mother had been forced to transfer in 1790. She and her successors, however, continued the tributary arrangement. Mariabe was succeeded by daughter, Rani Hayashabe, who was first succeeded by son and in 1907 her daughter, Imbichi, ascended to the throne.


Qusida Begum Sahiba

1819-44 Regent Dowager Begum Kudsiyya Begum of Bhopal (India)

HH Qusida Begum Sahiba, Gohar Begum or Princess Qudsia took as ruler after the assassination of her husband, Mawab Nazar Mohammad Khan. Although she was illiterate, she was brave and refused to follow the purdah tradition. She declared that her 2 year old daughter Sikander will follow her as the ruler. None of the male family members dared to challenge her decision. She had a difficult relationship with the British, recognizing the importance of maintaining good relations with them, but the other hand she resented their inference in her government. Resigned in favour of daughter, and lived (1801-81).


Unnamed Jaipur Maharani

1819-34 Regent H.H. Maji Sahiba Shri Batianji II Maharani Sahiba of Jaipur (India)

Reigned in the name of her son H.H. Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Jai Singh II Bahadur, Maharaja of Jaipur, who was born after his father's death. (d. 1834).


 

1819-22 Joint Regent Dowager Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Savitri Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Savantvadi (India)

Third widow of Raja Shrimant Khem Savant III Bhonsle Bahadur to be regent of the state after Durga Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle.


 

Circa 1819-24/33 6th Asantehemaa Nana Ama Sewaa of Asante (Ghana)

As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reigns of Osei Tutu Kwame Asiba (1804-24) and perhaps also trough that of Osei Yaw Akoto (1824-34), she acted as counsel, political acumen, historical perspective, and detailed knowledge of royal genealogy. She also helped to maintain the delicate balance of power between the elite and the powerful chiefs of the federated states. She was mother of King Nana Kwaku Dua I and Asanthemaa Nana Afia Sarpong, and lived (1763-1824/33).  


 

Around 1820 Politically Influential Julia da Silva Cardoso in Guinea Bissau

The wife of Governor Joaquim Antonio de Matros of Guinea Buissau, she held high status in the local society, deriving a special status from her Bijago roots, and she could also claim authority from her Bissau background in relation to the neighbouring Pepel, on one occasion, when the Pepel threatened to attach the Bissau settlement: “Governor’s wife was sent to the Papels, the conferences which she held with king Joseph.” On another occation the sources said: “The donation of the island of Gallinhas to the Portuguese Crown in 1830 was greatly influenced by De Mattos’ partner, descendant from the Bijago and with whom he had children, a highly respected person, Julia da Silva Cardoso.” Not only was she instrumental in negotiating the granting of settlements rights to the island of Gallinhas, she had also performed the same service two years earlier with respect to the island of Bolama. The two treaties were both made with an olono (king) of Kanabak (Roxa), Damiao, who actually “donated” the island to De Mattes. She was the aunt of the Reigning Okinka Aurelia Correia of the island of Orango Grande (circa 1830-1874/1879).


Unnamed Tongan Princess

Around 1820 Princess Fatafehi Ha'apai, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

The last of four sisters on the post of Tu'i Tonga Fefine and the last holder of the title all together. As Tu'i Tonga Fefine she held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers. She was considered to be abowe marriage, but could take the lovers she wanted.


 

After 1820 Princess Fatafehi Latufuipeka, Tamaha, Tonga

Daughter of Princess Nanasipau'u, Tu'i Tonga Fefine and, Latunipulu'i-teafua. She first married H.H.Tupou Lahisi', 10th Tu'i Konokupolo, son of Tu'ihalafata'i, 9th Tu'i Konokupolo. Her second husband was Kahomovailahi, 3rd Tu'ita and the third was Kiuve'etaha Tu'alau. She had three sons and two daughters by her second husband and one daughter by her third. Succeeded as Tamaha by half-sister Princess 'Amelia Fakahiku-'o-'uiha, Tamaha. As Tamaha, the highest spiritual dignity in the country, to whom her mother, the Tu'i Tonga Fefine, and grandfather, the Tu'i Tonga, paid homage.


 

1820-28 Datuk Regnant Wa Tan-ri-a-Wani Aru Lapajung  of Soppeng  (Indonesia)

Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri-Barunga. Succeeded by the male ruler, Datuk Patiro.


Bezebesh of Marra Biet

1820-1855 Ras Regnant Bezebesh of Marra Biet (Ethiopia)

Married to Ras Shale Selassi of Shawa in 1840 and became his advisor until they were both deposed. The state was conquered by Emperor Tewodro II.


Carlota Joaquima de Parma

1820-24 Opposition Leader Queen Carlota Joaquima de Borbón y Borbón of Portugal in Brazil

In 1808, she tried to become Regent of Spain after her father, Carlos IV, abdicated after the Napoleonic forces invaded the country. In Brazil she was leader of the absolutist opposition together with son, Dom Miguel, during her husband, Emperor João VIs stay in Portugal. In a convent 1824-26 until her son became regent for Maria II da Gloria. Carlota Joaquima lived (1775-1830).


1821-27 Regent Dowager Queen Teri'i Tari'a II Ari'i-paea-vahine, Ari'i-rahi of Tahiti (French Polynesia)
Until 1852 Ari‘irahi of Huahine and Pare-Arue

Member of the Concil of Regency during the whole reign of her stepson Pomare III after the death of her husband, Pomare II. She was daughter of Tamatoa IV, Ari'i-rahi of Ra'iatea and Tu-ra'i-Ari'i E-he-vahine, the eldest eldest daughter of Mato Teri'i-te Po Are'i, High Priest of Ra'iatea and Huahine. Her second husband was Ari'i-paea. Succeeded by her sister, Ma'i-hara Te-ma-ri'i Ari'i-peu-vahine, and lived (1790-1858).


Teri’to’-o-terai Tere-moe-moe Pomare-vahine

1821-27 Regent Dowager Queen Teri’to’-o-terai Tere-moe-moe Pomare-vahine of Tahiti (French Polynesia)

After the death of her husband, Pomare II, she was member of a Council of Regency for her son, Pomare III. She was daughter of Tamatoa IV, Ari‘irahi of Ra’iatea and Tu-ra’i-ari‘i E-he-vahine, eldest daughter of Mato Teri’i Tepoara’i, High Priest of Ra’iatea and Huahine, and lived (b. 1793-after 1827).


1821-24 Member of the Council of State Queen Maria Teresa d'Asburgo-Este of Sardegna and Piemont (Italy)

In 1788 she married the later King Vittorio Emanuele I de Savoia of Sardinia (1759-1824), who succeeded his brother, who abdicated in 1802. During the Napoleonic Wars the family lost much of their territories. In 1821 a riot broke out and she became a member of the Inner Council, and accepted to act as regent if needed. Two years later her husband abdicated in favour of his younger brother, she moved to her son-in-law in Modena, where she died. She was daughter of Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton von Habsburg and Maria Beatrix d'Este, Duchess of Modena, Massa e Carrara, mother of a son, who died young, and four daughters, and lived (1773-1832).


1821-24 Reigning Abbess-General María Francisca Benita de los Ríos of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Among the many dignities and high offices held by the abbess of Las Huelgas was that of the title of Abbess General of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile dating from 1189, wich gave her the privilege of convoking a general chapter at Burgos each year.


Leopoldine of Brazil

1822 Regent Empress Leopoldine of Habsburg of Brazil

In charge of the government during her husband, Dom Pedro de Braganza's, stay in Portugal and presided over the Council of Ministers, which declared the country independent, and her husband became Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. He was king of Portugal for a few months in 1826 until he abdicated in favour of their daughter, Maria II da Gloria. Their son, Pedro, succeeded him as emperor in 1834. Leopoldine was daughter of Emperor Franz I of Austria and her sister, Marie-Louise was married to Napoleon I of France. She lived (1797-1826).


Domitília de Castro Couto e Mello, Marchioness de Santos

1822-29 Politically Influential Domitília de Castro Couto e Mello in Brazil

Very influential during the reign of her lover, Emperor Pedro I (1798-1834). Her interference in the government was one of the factors that contributed to the unpopularity of the Emperor, which eventually led to his downfall. She was married to Felício Pinto Coelho de Mendonça (1789-1833) at the age of 16 and mother of a son and a daughter but in 1822 she met the emperor and was employed at court and in 1824 she was created Baroness de Santos, 1825 Viscountess de Santos and 1826 Marquesa de Santos. The couple had five children: A still-born baby in 1823, Isabel Maria de Alcântara Brasileira, Duchess de Goiás (1824), Pedro de Alcântara Brasileiro (1825-1826), Maria Isabel de Alcântara Brasileira, Duchess do Ceará (1827), Maria Isabel II de Alcântara Brasileira, Countess of Iguaçu (1830/1896), The three daughters were educated with the imperial children. Leopoldina, the empress, died in 1826 due to complications caused by an abortion. The public opinion held the marchioness responsible for the grievances and humiliations that the Empress had to endure, and Pedro was forced to find a suitable wife. In 1829 he married Princess Amelie of Leuchtemberg, she left court, and married Rafael Tobias de Aguiar (1794-1857) with whom she had four sons. Her sister was another of Pedro's many mistresses; she was named Baroness of Sorocaba and had a child with him. They were daughters of Viscount João de Castro Canto e Mello and Escolástica Bonifácio de Toledo Ribas. Domitília lived (1797-1867).


 

1823-35 H.H. -Manéng Paduka Sri Ratu Sultana Salima Rajiat ud-din, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Data before her accession. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Kassi, she was unmarried and succeeded by brother, La Mapaseling Sultan Adam Nazim ud-din.


 

1823-26 Member of the Council of Regency Radin Ajeng Sepuh of Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

After the death of her husband, Sultan Amangku Buwana IV, her son, Sultan Amangku Buwana V, reigned under Council of Regency until he was deposed. He was later restored after the death of his grandfather, Sultan Amangku Buwana II, in 1828. Another Regency Council reigned until he came of age in 1836. She was daughter of Radin Adipati Dhanuraja II, Patih of Surakarta and Princess Kanjeng Ratu Anga Yogyakarta, the daughter of Sultan Amangku Buwana II. She later got the titles of Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Kinchana and in 1826 Gusti Kanjeng Ratu.

 

1823-26 Member of the Council of Regency Radin Ayu Adipati Anum of Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

The widow of Sultan Amangku Buwana III, she was member of the council of regency for grandson, Sultan Amangku Buwana V. She was daughter of Kanjeng Radin Temenggong Sasra di-ning Rat I, Bupati Wedana of Madium and Princess Bandara Radin Ayu Sasra di-ning Rat of Yogyakarta, the daughter of Sultan Amangku Buwana I. In 1794 she was given the title Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Ibu Suri, 1814 she was created Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Kinchana and in 1822 she became Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Agung.

 

Circa 1823-1834 Reigning Princess Bahu Bike of Avaristan (Russia)

Also known as Huh, and appears to have been involved in the murder of her brother the Nutsal Gebek Janku ibn Mohammed (1801-02). He was succeeded as Nutsal (khan) by their father Mohammed ibn Umma and then by Sultan Ahmed Khan. The Caucasian Avars are an ethnic group living in southern Dagestan. The territory was under Russian domination 1802-43. She was succeeded by Hadji Murat (1834-36).

Kahakuhaakoi Wahinepio

1823-26 Governor Kahakuhaʻakoi Wahinepio of Maui, Molokai and Lanai in Hawaii (USA)

A member of the Royal House of Maui, she married several times, among others King Kamehameha I of Hawai'i. She opposed the christian faith and promoted the ancient Hawaiian belifes, and even though she might eventually have converted, she remained sceptical. Her daughter Anna Keahikuni-i-Kekauʻōnohi, sometimes called Miriam Kekauʻōnohi, was governor of Kauai 1842-45. She (d. 1826)

Unnamed Marori Chiefess

Until 1823-35 Paramount Chieftainess Hinematioro of the Ngati Pirou (New Zealand)

The Ngati Pirou is a Maori group of some forty tribes. Hinematioro's mana was recognized from Poverty Bay to Hicks Bay.


1823-39 Donatária Leonor de Almeida Portugal de Lorena e Lencastre of Assumar (Portugal)

Apart from being the 6th Donataria (Tenant) she was the 7th condessa de Assumar, 4th Marquesa de Alorna in succession to her brother Pedro, In Austria she was Countess Oyenhausen-Granvensburg and 5th Administradora of the Morgadio de Vale de Nabais. Also Lady in Waiting to Queen Carlota Joaquina, the Regent Infanta Isabel Maria and Queen Maria II de Portugal. Also a famous poet, she was daughter of João of Almeida Portugal and Leonor de Lorena and Távora, and lived (1750-1839)


 

1823-53 Titular Duchess Maria Francesca Crispo of Naxos et de L'Archipel [Greece]

Also Patrizia (Noble) of Venetia. As her father, Marco Crispo, Hereditary Titular Duke di Nasso e dell’Arcipelago, had died 1813, she succeeded her grandfather, Jacopo, as Duchessa Titolare di Nasso e dell’Arcipelago. She was married to the Maltese noble, Saverio Coronelle and her descendants still claims the Duchy of Naxos Island and its dependencies. (d. 1853-).

 

1824-35 Regent HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Bhawani Bai Sahiba of Dewas (Senior) (India)

After the death of her husband, Tukaji Rao II Puar (1789-1824) she reigned in the name of her adopted son, Rukmangad Krishnaji Rao II Puar, who was also known as Khasi Sahib (1824-60). She (d. 1865).


 

1824 and 1825-27 Datuk Regnant Daeng Tanisanga of Tanette (Indonesia)

Replaced her brother, Abdullah Saipu Aru Pancana La Patua, who reigned 1807-24, 1824-25 and again 1827-40. She abdicated in 1827.


 

Around 1824 Adatuwang Regnant Fatima Daeng Matene of Sawito   (Indonesia)

Daughter of Adatuang La Kuning Ahmad, who was also Datu of Suppa, and married to La Badella Arung Batupute. She was succeeded by her brother, Adatuang La Cebu, who ruled before 1831-1870. Another brother, La Tenri alias La Bampe was Datu of Suppa until 1830, and a brother and sister were Arungs of Alitta - perhaps the sister was La Patta Cabalai.


1824-29 Governor Lydia Namahana Pi'ia, Oahu (Hawai'i)
She was the fifth wife of King Kamehama the Great until their divorce in 1818, and she then married Peleioholani La'anui Gideon. She was Daughter of Keeaumoku, an advisor of King Kamehameha, and Namah, widow of the king of Maui. Her older sister was Queen Elizabeth Kaahumanu I, and she lived (after 1768-1824).

 

1824/33-1835 7th  Asantehemaa Yaa Dufie of Asante (Ghana)

Queen mother, during the reigns of Osei Yaw Akoto (1824-34), and Kwaku Dua I Panyin (circa 1797-1834-67). She was succeeded on the post by her cousin, Nana Afia Sarpong, and lived (1770-1835).  


 

1824-27 and 1830-33 Reigning Abbess-General María Tomasa Orense Rábago of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Temporal and secular ruler of vast territories in northern Spain.

Mary III and II, Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina di Savoia

1824-40 Head of the Sovereign Family, Titular Queen Mary III and II of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith

Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina di Savoia was the eldest daughter of Don Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia, Duke of Aosta, later king of Sardinia and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este. 1812 Mary Beatrice married her uncle, Archduke Francis of Austria, Duke of Modena, with special dispensation for the marriage from the Holy See. After her father's death she was recognized by the Jacobites as "Queen Mary III and II". She was called "Queen Mary II" by those Jacobites who do not number Mary Stuart as Mary II of England. She lived (1792-1840).


 

1825 Toifale, Tui ‘Uvea of Uvea (Wallis and Fortuna, French External Territory)

1825 was the year of many rulers in the principality at the Island of Wallis. King Muliakaaka was succeeded by Uhila moafa, who was again succeeded by Queen Toifale. She was succeeded by king Mulitoto, who reigned until 1826.


Unnamed Indian Rani

1825-37 Regent Dowager Nawab Sardar Bibi Sahiba of Radhanpur (India)

After the death of her husband, H.H. Nawab Sher Khan Sahib Bahadur (1794-1813-25), she managed the affairs of state in the name of her infant stepson, H.H. Nawab Muhammad Zorawar Khan Sahib Bahadurn (1822-25-74).


 

1825-27 Regent Dowager Nawab Musharraf Begum Sahiba of Jaora (India)

After the death of her husband, Nawab 'Abdu'l Ghafur Muhammad Khan Bahadur, she was regent her step-son, Nawab Ghaus Muhammad Khan Bahadur (1823-25-65), who was then placed under a series of regents and guardians until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 1842. She was daughter of Nawab Akhund Muhammad Ayaz Khan and her sister was the wife of Emperor Bahadur Shah of Delhi (d. 1865).


 

1825 Guerrilla Leader Ana Monterrosso de Lavalleja in Uruguay

Leader of the "Thirty-three Orientales", a guerrilla force that fought the Spanish in Uruguay. 


1825 Rebellion Leader Nyi Ageng Serang in Java (Indonesia)

Joined Prince Diponegoro in the Java War in 1825 and was entrusted with leading a force against the Dutch invaders. She lived (1752-1828)


 

1826-28 and 1832-53 The Most High, Serene and Potent Lady Dona Maria II, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and above and below the Seas of Africa, Lord of Guinea, of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and the Indies, Most Faithful Queen, 18th Duchess de Bragança, 10th de Barcelos and 1st de Porto, 19th Countess de Arraiolos, 25th de Barcelos, 22nd de Neiva and 17th de Ourém

Queen Maria II da Gloria's father Pedro abdicated the throne in her favour and made the provision that she should marry her uncle Miguel, who should accept the Liberal Constitution and act as a regent until she came of age, but when he arrived to Portugal he deposed her and proclaimed himself absolutist King. During his reign of terror, and she travelled for many European courts, including her grandfather's, Vienna, London, and Paris and 1828-32 she reigned from the Azores. Her father abdicated the Brazilian throne in 1831 and, from his base in the Azores he attacked Miguel, forcing him to abdicate in 1834. She was thereupon restored to the throne, and obtained an annulment of her marriage and the following year she married, at the age of 15, Charles Auguste Eugène Napoléon de Beauharnais, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg, who died after two months. In 1836 she married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha who ruled with her as King Consort, a title he received, in accordance with Portuguese custom, when their first child, a heir to the throne, was born. Her reign saw a revolutionary insurrection in 1846, but this was crushed by royalist troops in 1847, and Portugal otherwise avoided the European upheavals of 1848. Her reign was also notable for a public health act aimed at curbing the spread of cholera throughout the country. She also pursued policies aimed at increasing the levels of education throughout the country. She died giving birth to her 12th child, was succeeded by the oldest, Pedro V, under the regency of her husband. Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga was the daughter of the future King Pedro IV and his first wife, Archduchess Maria Leopoldine Josepha Caroline, and lived (1819-53).


 

1826-28 President of the Council of Regency Infanta Isabel Maria de Bragança of Portugal and the Algarve

Her father, King João VI of Portugal and Brazil, had nominated her as regent until "the legitimate heir returned to the Kingdom", without specifying whom the legitimate heir was: Her oldest brother Pedro, the liberal Emperor of Brazil, or the younger, Prince Miguel who had been exiled after numerous absolutist uprisings. Pedro then abdicated as king of Portugal in favour of his daughter, Maria II da Gloria, and Isabel Maria continued as regent until she was deposed by Miguel. Her full title was H.H. The Serene Princess and Senhora Infanta Dona Isabel Maria da Conceição Joanna Gualberta Anna Francisca d'Assis Xavier de Paula e de Alcántara Antónia Raphaela Michaela Gabriela Joaquina Gonzaga de Bragança Bragança e Bourbon Bourbon, she newer married and lived (1801-76).


 

1826-35 H.H. Maharani Sri Maji Sahiba Gangawaue Miraj Kaur of Bharatpur (Delhi) (India)

Widow of  H.H. Maharaja Shri Brijendra Sawai Baldeo Singhji Bahadur Jung (1823-25), and regent for son until she was deposed.


1826-40 Queen Alikali Fatima Brima Kema Alikali of Konya-Temne / Maforki (Sierra Leone)
Fought with her predecessor, Kindo, she had strong ties to the British administrators in Freetown.

Dorothea Luise von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg, Regentin in Lichtenberg

1826-32 Reigning Princess Dorothea Luise von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of Lichtenberg (Germany)

After her divorce from Herzog Ernst I von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld she was granted the principalty, an enclave in Sachsen, and the inhabitants saw her as their "landesmutter" - mother of the state - in exchange for her giving up her claims to Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of which she had become sole heir in 1826 after the death of her uncle. She newer saw her two sons, Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha and Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria of United Kingdom, again. 1826 she married Maximilian Graf von Pölzig und Beiersdorf and died of cancer in Paris, after having lived (1800-31).


Maria Teresa da Braganza

1826-34 Politically Influential Infanta Maria Teresa de Braganza of Portugal
1833-55 Politically Influential in Spain

Very conservative, she was an ally of her younger brother Miguel I, during the civil war against their cousin, Queen Maria II da Gloria.  In the last years of the reign of her uncle, Ferdinand VII of Spain, she lived in Madrid and plotted to strengthen her uncle and brother-in-law Don Carlos' position in succession. She participated the First Carlist War (1833-39), being a leading supporter of Carlism, church and reactionary interests against her relative Queen Isabel II from 1834. 1837, the Cortes of Spain excluded her, her son (until 1859) and brother from the Spanish succession. Her sister Francisca had died in 1834 and 4 years later she married her Don Carlos (1788-1855) and took care of her stepsons and nephews. They soon had to leave Spain, because of unsuccess in the civil war, and never returned. The daughter of João VI and Carlota Joaquina of Spain, she had been Heir to the Portugese Throne and Princess of Beira 1793-95 and had first been married to her cousin Infante Pedro Carlos, Prince of Spain and Portugal who died 1812 shortly before she gave birth to a posthumous son, Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain (1813-75). Maria Teresa Francisca de Assis Antónia Carlota Joana Josefa Xavier de Paula Miguela Rafaela Isabel Gonzaga lived (1793–1874).


Sophia von Bayern

1826-72 Politically Influential Archduchess Sophia von Bayern of Austria-Hungary

Influential during the reign of her father-in-law, emperor Franz (1804-35), brother-in-law Ferdinand (1835-48). And she persuaded her husband to stand back and let their son, Franz Joseph I (1848-1916), become Emperor in 1848, and she continued to be influential during his reign. She lived (1809-72). 


Pomare IV

1827-77 Queen Ari'i rahi 'Aimata Pomare IV Vahine-o-Punuateraitua, By the Grace of God, Queen of Tahiti, Moorea and its dependencies
1847-77 Queen of the Society Islands and their Dependencies (French Polynesia)

1836 she expelled the catholic missionaries, but France sent a warship to Tahiti to demand a guarantee that Frenchmen would thereafter be treated as the "most favoured foreigners" in Tahiti. Queen Pomare politely agreed, but as soon as the warship left Papeete, she sent a letter to Queen Victoria, asking for British protection. Britain declined to interfere, which opened the door for a Frenchman to trick several Tahitian chiefs into signing a document requesting that Tahiti be made a protectorate of France. The French were in fact interested in a South Pacific port, and when word of the document reached Paris, a ship was dispatched to Papeete. Tahiti became a French protectorate in 1842. Unaware of the document she continued to resist. Her subjects launched an armed rebellion against the French troops, who surrounded her Papeete palace and forced her to retreat to Raiatea. The fighting continued until 1846, when the last Tahitian stronghold was captured and the remnants of their guerrilla bands retreated to Tahiti Iti, the island's eastern peninsula. Giving up the struggle in 1847, the she returned to the capital and ruled as a figurehead until her death 30 years later. She succeeded half brother, Pomare III, and lived (1812-77).


 

1827-33 Regent HH Dowager Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Baiza Bai Raje Sahiba of Gwalior (India)

Ruled in the name of her adopted son, Jankoji Rao II Scindia, until she was expelled from the kingdom in 1833. Daughter of Meherban Shrimant Rajamanya Rajashri Tuljoji Rao Ghatge, Sarje Rao, Chief of Kagal (d. 1862).


 

1828-43-? Chief Mali I of Khaha (South Africa)

After she became chief, she modelled the state after the President set by the rain-Queen of Lovedu, who remained unwed. Mali was succeeded by son.


Ranavalona I

1828-61 Queen Ranavalona I Rabodoandrianampoinimerina (Ramavo) of Madagascar

Also known as Ranavalo-Manjka I or Ranavalona I. She was married when she was almost a child to Radama, king of the "Hovas" and was accused of poisoning her husband in agreement with the protestant English missionaries. Radama left no descendants so English missionaries made their way to help her to gain the throne. After she became Queen, Ranavalona soon had most of her family relatives assassinated; she expelled foreigners and extended her rule all over the Island, with her 20.000 men Army. She died hated home and outside. She had her lover Rainitaiarivoy (1828-96) named Prime Minister. She was mother of King Radama II, and lived (1782/92-1861).


 

1828-29 Regent Princess Oantitsy of Boina (Madagascar)
1838-36 Queen Regnant

Andriantsoly was king (1822-32) until he was deposed and permanently replaced by her. She was succeeded by Queen Tsiomeko. 


South African Queen

1828-... Regent Princess Mnkabayi of the Zulu Kingdom (South Africa)

When her brother young Digane succeeded to the throne she was the doyenne of the royal house and monarchy and acted as regent until he came of age. She assumed the role of the "spiritual" leader of the Zulu army, impi. She addressed the impi as part of the kingdom's ritual before it engaged itself with the enemy. Political power represented ancestral spirits of the kingdom. Mythology held that King Dingane's ancestors such as Malandela and Senzangakhona, were the highest ranking. Both Dingane and Mnkabayi were the earthly representatives of the ancestors, and the king could not exercise his patriarchal power without invoking his sister's spiritual powers. 


Unnamed Zanzibar Lady

Around 1828 Chief Sheha Mwana wa Mwana of Tumbatu (North Zanzibar)

Also known as Khadija bint Nwale, she succeeded father as Sheik of the state in North Zanzibar. Married to Hassan II of Zanzibar who reigned before 1828 until 1845.


 

After 1828 Sheha Fatima bint Ali  of Tumbatu (Tanzania)

Sheha is a version of Sheik. She succeeded her father, 'Ali ibn al-Hasan, who had succeeded Mwana wa Mwana at a not known time.


Francisca Zubiaga y Bernales

1829-33 Politically Influential Francisca Zubiaga y Bernales in Peru

Also known as 'La Mariscala', she was so influential during the tenure of her husband, Mariscal Agustín Gamarra, that she became known as La Presidenta. She was his primary advisor and co-worker and intervened actively in situations of crisis. She lived (1802-35).


 

Before 1829 Rani Regnant U Ka Mtabai of Nobo Sohphok Khasi  (India)

Head of a tribal state in the mountains at the foot of the Himalayas in Assam.


1829-31 Governor Kuini Liliha of Oahu, Hawaii (USA)

When her third husband, The Hon Alii Boki (Poki Kama'ule'ule), went off to the New Hebrides to harvest sandalwood, he entrusted her with the administration. One of her new responsibilities was to become legal guardian and sole trustee of the properties of Kamehameha III, who became king as a child. This was opposed by the Regent, Queen Kaahumanu. When her husband and his entourage of chiefs were lost at sea and pronounced dead, she was left permanently in administration as royal governor. Her second husband had been Prince Kahalaia Luanu'u. She (d. 1839).


 

Circa 1830-1874/1879 Reigning Okinka Aurelia Correia of the Island of Orango Grande (Guinea-Bissau)

Her kinship relations with ruling Bijago lineages and her supposedly “queenly” status led contemporary chroniclers to put her in league of her own. The sources refer to her as "Queen", but the position of Monarch was reserved for men. But it seems that she reigned in the absence of as a male ruler by the virtue of her office as Okina, the Priestess charged with the protection of the ancestral spirits, and as such she was supported in her reign by a Council of Elders. Some have suggested that she was of Pepel descent, captured in a Bijago raid and raised on Orango. A colonial reference suggests that her mother was an Okinka from Orango and her father was a Cape Verdean trader.  She married Governor Caetano Jose Nozolin.

 

Pine Leaf

Circa 1830-51 Member of the Council of Chiefs Woman Chief Pine Leaf of the Crow Tribe (USA)

Born in the Gros Ventre tribe, she was captured by the Crow about the age of 10 and adopted by a man who had lost his sons to conflicts with the Blackfoot. She achieved the status of warrior when she single-handedly turned a Blackfoot ambush in order to protect a fort that was sheltering both Crow and white families. Her victories were many, and were counted by her growing herd of horses and the scalp locks she collected. She was made a part of the Council of Chiefs and became known as Woman Chief. So powerful was she that she was ranked third in a band of 160 lodges.  She acquired four women who took care of her home, her holdings, and performed the womanly duties she had no taste for. White men who crossed Pine Leaf's path along the fur trade route were totally confounded by her. Since there was nothing in their own cultures they could compare to Pine Leaf, she became known as the Absaroka Amazon among the white traders. Following the Treaty of Laramie in 1851, Pine Leaf gave up her warrior ways to became active in peacemaking with the tribes of the upper Missouri and often visited her own people, the Gros Ventre. While there was an uneasy peace, which lasted for several years, Pine Leaf was ambushed and killed by her own blood - the Gros Ventre. She lived (circa 1806-58).


Adelheid zu Sachsen-Coburg-Meiningen

1830 Regent Queen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen of United Kingdom and Ireland

Apparently regent shortly after her husband, William IV succeeded to the throne in 1830. She was mother of two daughters, Charlotte (1819) and Elizabeth (1820-21) and three stillborn children. She focused on charity work, cared for widows and orphans, the poor and the sick, and she also introduced the German Christmas to England. She was born as Adelheid zu Sachsen-Meiningen, as daughter of Louise Eleonora, who was regent (1803-21), and lived (1792-1849).


Unnamed Ethiopian Princess

1831-40 Regent Princess Menem Leben Amande of Yejje (Ethiopia)

For son Ras Ali Aula. In 1840 she married Yohannes II and became Empress of Ethiopia. She must have become very powerful, because in 1842 he launched a rebellion against her. Menem was beaten by Melenik II in 1847.


 

1831-41 Regent Nawab Yamuna Bibi Sahiba of Balasinor (India)

After the death of her husband, Nawab Shri Jalal [Edul Khan] Sahib Bahadur, she reigned in the name of her son Nawab Shri Zorawar Khan Sahib Bahadur.


 

1831-41 (†) Regent H.H. Dowager Rani Ba Shri Rupaliba Kunverba Sahiba of Porbandar (India)

After the death of her husband, H.H. Maharaja Rana Shri Khimojiraj Haloji Sahib, she was in charge of the government for her son, H.H. Maharaja Rana Shri Vikramatji Khimojiraj Sahib, Rana Sahib of Porbandar. (1819-31-1900), whose ancestors had arrived in Western India over 2.000 years ago and ruled the same area for most of the time. She was daughter of Thakore Shri Hathisinhji Gajsinhji Sahib, Thakore Sahib of Chuda. (d. 1841).


 

1831 Head of Diplomatic Missions Akyaawaa Oyiakwan for Asante (Ghana)

A daughter of the the Asante King, Asantehene Osei Kwadwo (1764-77), she headed two different diplomatic missions that successfully negotiated the Maclean Treaty in April 1831 with the British and with the Danes at Christiansborg Castle in August of the same year. (b. circa 1774).


Before 1831-39 Prophetess Lady Hestor Stahorpe, The
Druze in Lebanon

Left England in 1810, travelled in the Levant, adopting Eastern male dress and a religion that was a composite of Christianity and Islam. She finally settled among the Druze of the Lebanon Mountains in an abandoned convent that she rebuilt and fortified. The indigenous population regarded her as a prophetess, as, in time, she came to regard herself; she incited them to resist an Egyptian invasion of Syria in 1831. European travellers, including A. M. L. de Lamartine and A. W. Kinglake, wrote accounts of their visits to her. She lived (1776–1839).


 

1831-45 Magistrate of Ka'u and South Kona H.H. Princess Kapi'olani of Hilo (USA)

Daughter of Chiefess Kekikipaa married several husbands, including Kamehameha I and her half-brother, The Hon. Naihe (d. 1831). She lived (circa 1781-1841). 


Ka'ahumanu II

1832-39 Kuhina Nui H.R.H. Princess Kalani-Ahumanu-i-Kaliko-o-Iwi-Kauhipua-o-Kina'u Ka'ahumanu II
1832-33 Regent of the Kingdom

Kīna'u was first married to her half-brother Lihohilo Kamehameha II, King of the Hawaiian Islands (1797-1824), secondly her cousin, Prince Kahalaia Luanu'u, Prince Mataio Kekuanao'a, who was Governor of Oahu 1834-1868 and Premier from 1863 until the promulgation of the new constitution in 1864. She was regent for half brother Kamehameha III Kauikeaouli (1814-1824-54). Their children included both Kamehameha IV and Kamehameha V. Following the death of her aunt, Kaohumareu in 1832, she assumed the position of Kuhina Nui, and her term of office was marked by discord as the young King Kamehameha III, her half-brother, struggled with her and the chiefs for political power. She was responsible for enforcing Hawai‘i’s first penal code, proclaimed by the King in 1835. She became a Christian in 1830, and was involved in the persecution of Hawaiian Catholics and attempts to expel French priests. This contributed to a diplomatic confrontation with France that threatened Hawaiian sovereignty. Mother of five sons and one daughter, and lived  (1805/07-39).


1832 Coup Leader Duchess Marie Caroline Ferdinande Louise de Borbone de Berry in France

Went into exile from France after the overthrow of King Charles X, her father-in-law. Returning secretly in 1832, she organized a small, unsuccessful uprising in an attempt to win the throne her son Henri, later known as the Comte de Chambord, who was born almost eight months after the assassination of her husband, the French prince, Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry. For these activities she was imprisoned. However, when it became obvious that the Duchesse was pregnant, she was forced to reveal her secret second marriage to an Italian count. This marriage alienated her royalist supporters, and the French government released her from prison, but she was sent into exile again. She was daughter of Francisco I of the Two Sicilies, and lived (1798-1870).


1833-37 Her Catholic Majesty Isabel II de Borbón y Borbón, by the Grace of God, Queen of Spain and the Indies, Queen of Castile, León, Aragón, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarra, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Mallorca, Menorca, Sevilla, Cardeña, Córdoba, Córcega, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarve, Algerias, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the East and West Indies, and the Oceanic Colonies, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Burgundy, Brabant and Milano, Countess of Habsburg, Flanders, Tirol and Barcelona, Lady of Vizcaya and Molina etc., etc.
1837-70 By the Grace of God and the Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, Queen of the Spains

Isabella succeeded to the Spanish throne on the death of her father, Ferdinand VII, when Salic Law was set aside, but her uncle, Don Carlos, disputed her rights. This led to the First Carlist War, 1833-1839, while her mother, and then General Baldomero Espartero, served as regents. Her reign was one long succession of palace intrigues, back-stairs and antechamber influences; barrack conspiracies, military revlots to further the ends of the political parties and 60 different governments. She often interfered in politics in a wayward, unscrupulous manner that made her very unpopular. She showed most favour to her reactionary generals and statesmen, to the Church and religious orders, and was constantly the tool of corrupt and profligate courtiers and favourites who gave her court a bad name. She went into exile at the end of September 1868, after her generals had made a slight show of resistance that was crushed at the battle of Alcolea by Marshals Serrano and Prim. Other events of her reign were a war against Morocco, which ended in an advantageous treaty for Spain and some Moroccan cession of territory; some progress in public works, especially railways and a slight improvement in commerce and finance. She was rumoured to have chosen her Bourbon cousin, Francisco de Asis, titular king, as husband because he was impotent, and they largely lived apart, though they did have children. She abdicated in 1870 in favour of her son, Alfonso XII, who ruled from 1874. Even though she eventually returned to Spain, she never again exerted much political power or influence. She was mother of around 14 children of whom only her son, Alfonso XII, and four daughters survived. She lived (1830-1904).


1833-40 Regent Dowager Queen Maria Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias y Orléans of Spain and the Indies

Widow of Fernando VII, she was in charge of the regency for daughter Isabel II. She liberalized the constitution and sanctioned certain anticlerical measures. In 1833 she secretly married Fernando Muñoz, which made her highly unpopular when discovered. The following year Don Carlos instigated the first Carlist War. He was defeated in 1837, but the war was not officially concluded until 1839. In the meantime María Cristina was pressured into appointing a Progressionist minister and accepting a new compromise constitution. In 1840 the Progressionist leader, General Baldomero Esparto revolted, forcing her to resign and leave the country. Esparto then took over as regent. She later made an attempt to return, but failed, and retired in exile to France in 1854. She lived (1806-78).


 

1833-43 Rani Regnant Chira Devi of Nilgiri (India)

Succeeded Raja Govind Chandra Mardraj Harichandan as ruler of the state in the South of India.


 

1833-40 Ruler 'Aisha of Tuggurt (Algeria)

Also known as Aichouch, she succeeded Sultan 'Ali IV bin al-Kabir as ruler of a Berber state in the south of the country. Succeeded by 'Abd ar-Rahman.


 

1833-36 and 1838-44 Reigning Abbess-General María Benita Rascón of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

In virtue of her office, she held quasi-episcopal authority of the territory.

1834-41 and 1849-52 Great Queen Regent Kim Sun-wo Wang-ho of Korea

After the death of her husband, Great King Sun-jo (1790-1800-34), Queen Sunwo first reigned in the name of her grandson, Hon-jong (1827-34-41) and then became regent for another relative, Chol-jung, who died 1864. She was given the title of T'ae-wang T'ae-bi and received the posthumous title of Sun-won Wang-hu. When News of the Opium War in China (1839-42) reached Korea during her reign, she tried to shut the doors against Western "barbarians". She was daughter of the catholic convert, Kim Cho-sun, of Andong, who was regent 1839-1846 and Secretary to King Chong-jo. She lived (1789-1857).


 

1834.... Regent Dowager Sultana Guisti Fatima of Harrar (Ethiopia)

Reigned in the name of her son, Amir Ahmad III ibn 'Abu Bakar (1834-52), after the death of her husband, Amir 'Abu Bakar II ibn 'Abdu'l Munan, who had succeeded her father 'Abdu'l Karim as Amir of Harrar in 1829.


 

Around 1834 Regent Queen Mother Bobjwale of BaNgwato
Until 1842 Ruler of the Chobe-Hwange Area (Botswana)

Second wife of Kgosi Kgari who was killed in a battle against the BaKalanga-BaNyayi at Matopos, she was appointed regent in the political vacuum following the death of her son, Khama II. Kgosi Kgari's other son, Sekgoma I broke away with a strong following, refusing to recognize her reign. Her forces was defeated in the following civil war. Most of the tribe then defected to Sekgoma I, forcing her to flee with her children and a small following to the BaKwena state where Sechele welcomed them. Subsequently, Sechele married her daughter, Mokgokong. Other sources indicate that later, Bobjwale with her supports moved to the Chobe-Hwange region where it is said that she ruled the scattered pockets of subordinate groups under BaNgwato rule until 1842.


1834-55 De-facto In-Charge of the Government Duchess Friedrike zu Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck of Anhalt-Bernburg (Germany)
1855-63 Joint Regent of the Duchy

Her husband, Alexander IV (1815-68), was mentally instable and when he was diagnosed with Schizophrenia and in October 1855 she was officially appointed co-regent (Mit-regentin) with the accept of Duke Leopold Friedrich von Anhalt-Dessau. After Alexander's death the Duchy became part of Anhalt-Dessau. She was sister of Christian IX of Denmark, and until her death she lived at Ballerstedt Castle in Anhalt-Bernburg. Friedrike Caroline Juliane did not have any children, and lived (1811-1902).


1834-35 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Habsburg of the Theressian Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin of Prague (Austria-Hungary)

Resigned as Abbess of the Royal Chapter in order to marry king Fernando II of Two Sicilies in 1835. In 1859 her stepson became king, but only one year later he had to resign as a result of the unification of Italy. She was daughter of Archduke Karl and Henriette von Nassau-Weilburg, the mother of two daughters and lived (1816-67).


Circa 1834-65 Head of the Royal Family Princess Gowramma of Coorg (India)

Went with her father, father Maharajah Virarakendra Wodeyar, to England when he was deposed by the British in 1834. She was christened in 1852 with Queen Victoria as sponsor. She married an English officer and had a child with him. They both disappeared after her death. Another member of the family declared herself ruler in 1857 and lead an unsuccessful uprising against the British. Princess Victoria Gowramma lived (1822-65).


The picture shows a Cambodian Queen from 1880

1835-1841 and 1844-1845 Her Majesty Samdech Preah Maha Rajini Ang Mey of Cambodia

Also known as Queen Ba-cong-chua or Ksat Trey, she was proclaimed Queen Regnant on the death of her father by the Vietnamese faction at court with the title of My-lam-quan-chua in January 1835. Deposed August 1840. Reinstated 1844, and again deposed by the Vietnamese and taken to the Imperial Capital Hué in Vietnam, with her sisters, 1845. Allowed to return to Oudong after the cession of hostilities in 1847. She later married a unknown man, and lived (1815-74) 


 

1835-29 Regent H.H. Maji Sahiba Shri Chandrawatji Maharani of Jaipur (India)

In charge of the government for son, H.H. Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Sir Ram Singh II Bahadur, Maharaja of Jaipur. She (d. 1858). 


 

1835 Regent Queen Mother Muranthatisi of the Sotho (Lesotho)

Ruled in the name of son. She lived (circa 1781-1835). 


1835-42 Princess-Abbess Hermine von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theressian Royal and Imperial Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin in Prague (Austria-Hungary)

Daughter of Josef Anton von Habsburg-Lothringen and Princess Hermine von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, Countess of the former Sovereign Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel from 1812, who died at the age of 20, after having given birth to Hermine and her twin brother, Stefan Viktor. As abbess she enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank. She dedicated here life to charity but died at the age of only 25, after having lived (1817-42).


 

1835-1859 8th Asantehemaa Nana Afia Sapong of Asante (Ghana)

The daughter of king Osei Kwame (Around 1777-98), she was the second Queen Mother during the reign of Kwaku Dua I Panyin (circa 1797-1834-67), and was succeeded as Asantehemaa by her only child, Aufa Kobi Serwaa Ampen I, who was in office (1859-1884). Afia Sapon lived (1790-1859).  


 

1836-40 Reigning The Ndlovukati Lojiba Simelane of Swaziland

The Queen Mother was widow of Sobhuza I (1816-36) and in 1840 she named her husband's son with her sister and co-wife Somnjalose, Mswati II as king and became Joint Head of State. 


 

1836-40 Queen Regnant Tsiomeko of Boina (Madagascar)

In 1839 she sought refuge in Nosy, which was part the Sakalava kingdom of Boina, during the time of the domination of the Merina (Madagascar). Tsiomeko then requested protection from France and the following year, the Admiral de Hell and the Sakalava Kings signed a protectorate. The Kingdom was incorporated into Madagascar in 1840. She lived (1828-43)

 

1836-75 Aru Tenripada Siti Aisa of Barru (Indonesia)

The fourth female ruler of Barru. Matinroe ri Gamecana was the 11th Aru and I Limpo Daeng Manak the 12th. The third ruler was I Rakia Karaeng Agangjene who ruled in Sidenreng as We Rakkia Karaeng Kanjenne she was Adatuang. The dates of their reign are not known. Tenripada Siti Aisa succeeded her father To Patarai, Matinroe ri Masigina (Arung Alakku) and reigned under a council of regency until 1854. She married I Malingkaang Idris, who ruled 1893-1895 as Sultan/Karaeng/Somba of Gowa and was succeeded by oldest daughter, I Batari Toja. Also known as Basse Barru, her ceremonial name was Matinroe ri Gowa


1836-38 and 1847-50 Reigning Abbess-General María Manuela Montoya of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 lordships and villages and held her own courts.


Queen Amalie zu Oldenburg of Greece

1836-62 Politically Influential Queen Amalie zu Oldenburg of Greece

Apart from her important role in reviving the Greek traditional culture and creating a national costume and the development of agriculture, she was involved in politics during the reign of her husband King Otto (1815-67) as his Bavarian advisers became more enmeshed in political struggles with Greek political forces and became the target of harsh attacks. She also remained a Roman Catholic, in an almost universally Orthodox country, throughout her reign. In 1861 she survived an assassination attempt, but the following year they left the country after an uprising and spend the rest of their life in exile in Bavaria. She was the daughter of Grand Duke Paul of Oldenburg and Princess Adelheid zu Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, had no children and lived (1818-75).

1837-1901 H.M. Victoria, By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith and Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland (20.6.1837 - 22.01.1901)
1876-1901 Empress of India (28.04.1876-22.01.1901)

Her titles included the role of Sovereign of The Channel Islands and Lord of Mann. Also Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg. It was during her reign that the modern idea of the constitutional monarch, whose role was to remain above political parties, began to evolve. But Victoria herself was not always non-partisan and she took the opportunity to give her opinions - sometimes very forcefully - in private. After the death of her husband, Albert of Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, in 1861, she sank into depression. She was persuaded to open Parliament in person in 1866 and 1867, but she was widely criticised for living in seclusion and quite a strong republican movement developed. (Seven attempts were made on Victoria's life, between 1840 and 1882) With time, the private urgings of her family and the flattering attention of the Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. During Victoria's long reign, direct political power moved away from the sovereign, but she showed that a monarch who had a high level of prestige and who was prepared to master the details of political life could exert an important influence. The mother of nine children, she lived (1818-1901).


Rani Gouri Rukmani Bai as a child with her mother Rani Gouri Lakshmi

Until 1837 Senior Rani Gouri Rukmani Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)

The younger daughter of the Queen Regent Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai (1810-15), she succeeded her sister, Gouri Lakshmi Bai, as Senior Rani of Attingal. Two of her sons became Maharajas, she was mother of a total of eight children, and lived (1809-37).


 

1837-53 Senior Rani Parvati Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)

Also known as Chathayam Tirunal, she succeeded Gouri Rukmani Bai as joint administrator of the principality of Attingal, which were given as appanage to the two senior Princesses of the Travancore royal family, which follows matrilineal inheritance, according to male primogeniture. She was unmarried and (d. 1853).


 

1838-57 Regent HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Sai Bai II of Kolhapur (India)

Also known as Dewan Sahib Maharaj, she was regent for son until she was removed from office from her part in the Indian Mutiny against the British of 1857. She (d. 1861).


 

1838-52 Rani Hayashabe Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Succeeded mother, Rani Mariambe, and first succeeded by son. In 1907 her daughter, Imbichi, ascended to the throne of the Muslim Kingdom centred around the city of Cannanore - now known as Kannur - in the State of Kerala.


 

1838-1847 Joint Reigning Khanum Ummu Gulsum Bike of Ghazi-Ghumuq (in Daghestan, Russia)

First reigned together with Mahmud Beg (1841-43), Gadji Yahya (1843 and finally with Abd ap-Rahman Beg (1843-47).


1838-48 The Dwabenhene Ama Sewa of Dwaben (Dwabehene or Dwabeii) (Ghana)
1843-48 Reigning Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene

Took over as chief and led her people back to Asante from exile in Akyem Abuakwa in the south east of the Gold Coast after the death of her two sons in succession. Indeed, her daughter, Nana Afrakoma Panin and her granddaughter Nana Akua Saponmaa both held the dual offices of Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene (Queen Mother and King) concurrently. 


 

Until 1838 Rani Regnant Singhasari Cokorda of Karang Asem Singhasari (Indonesia) 

Until 1827 she reigned jointly with Gusti Gede Jelantik Sasak, 1827-35 with Gusti Ngurah Made Karang Asem and finally with Gusti Ngurah Bagus Pañji Karang Asem until 1838.


Kekauluohi Ka'ahumanu III of Hawai'i

1839-45 Kuhina Nui H.R.H. Princess Miriam Auhea-Kalani-Kui-Kawekiu-o-Kekauluohi-Keali'iuhiwaihanau-o-Kalani-Makahonua-Ahilapalapa-Kai-wikapu-o-Kaleilei-a- Kalakaua Ka'ahumanu III of Hawaii (USA)
1841-45 Member of the House of Nobles

When Kekāuluohi succeeded her half-sister, Kina'u, she declared: "…The authority hitherto possessed by my mother Ka‘ahumanu II. Until her decease is now transferred to my other mother (Miriam Kekāuluohi) though Victoria Kamehamalu II is her superior, but still under my direction." Initially, she was considered something of a "place-holder" for Kīna‘u’s infant daughter Victoria Kamāmalu, who would later assume the office. As Kuhina nui she signed, with the king, all official documents; conducted all executive business affecting the Crown; received and transferred government lands; and served as special Councillor to the king, with exclusive veto power over his decisions. She was a co-signer with Kamehameha III of the country's first Constitution in 1840, which provided for an elected representative body, a first step toward the common people gaining political power. The constitution also codified for the first time, the responsibilities and authority of the Kuhina Nui. As a child she was betrothed to a prince of the Pomare line of Tahiti, but because of the prince's early death, the union never took place. In 1809 she married the first of her seven husbands, her uncle Kamehameha, as a companion in his final years, until his death in 1819. She then married her cousin, King Lihohilo Kamehameha II (1797-1824) and later to Kana'ina and one of her two children, William Charles Lunalilo, later became king of Hawai'i. . She was daughter of Alii Kalaimamahu and Alii Kaheiheimalie Kalakaua, both Governors of Maui, and died from influenza, after having lived (1794-1845).


 

1839-1842 Governess Emelia Keaweamahi of Kauai in Hawaii (USA)

Succeeded her husband, Kaikioewa, in the office after his death.


Maharani Sam Rajya Lakshmi Devi 

1839-41 De facto Regent Senior Maharani Sam Rajya Lakshmi Devi of Nepal

The Senior Queen, Samrajyalaxmi Devi, has been working to bring to been about the downfall of General Bhimsen Thapa since 1837 as he was accused of having poisoned her infant son, Devendra Bikram Shah. He was therefore arrested and out on irons. Her husband, king Rajendra Birkrama Shah (1816-47), was unable to rule himself, and she took the reigns. She made several appointments of senior state managers and miltary commanders. When Pushkar Shah was dismissed from the office of Mukhtiyar she expressed her desire to pass the rest of her life in Banaras and left in the beginning of 1842. Her husband followed her in an attempt to persuade her to return. The East India Company Government did not permit her to enter India territory and she then came back to Kathmandu and suggested that her husband become should abdicate so that she carry on the administration as Regent with Prince Surendra Bikram Shah on the throne. But since he did not agree to this proposal she then again left fro the Tarai. This time King Rajendra did not follow her. Soon after she returned to Kathmandu because she was suffering from malaria. No physician was ready to treat her at risk of his life. The result was that she died in October 1842.


Unnamed Ethiopian Noble Lady

1839-51 (†) Governor Weyzero Elleni of Hamasen (Eritrea)

Murdered together with grandsons in the fighting with the Emperor of Ethiopia.


Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana

1839-53 Bezmiâlem Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, parts of the Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Her husband, Mahmut II died of alcoholism and she persuaded her son, Abdülmecid I (1839-61), to destroy his father's wine cellars. Apparently born in Georgia, she was also known as Daulatlu Ismatlu Bazim-i Alam Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, and lived (1807-53).

Pauline Biron von Kurland

1839-44 Sovereign Duchess Pauline Biron von Kurland of Sagan and Representative of the Sovereign Dukes of Courland (Latvia/Poland/Germany)

Succeeded sister, Wilhelmine, to the Duchy in Schlesia. Married to Prince Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Hechingen, who died 1838. She ceded the title to her son, Constantin, Fürst von und zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1801-1869) in 1842. But since he had no children with his wife Princess Eugènie de Beauharnais von Leuchtenberg, she sold to her sister Dorothea all her portion of the allodia estates of the Duchy. Constantin continued negotiations with his aunt, which was concluded on 16 Oct 1843 with the sale of the title and all claims, subject to actual possession by Dorothea being delayed until 1844. Pauline lived (1782-1845).


Last update 24.02.14

 

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