Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

 WOMEN IN POWER 
1740-1770

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


Maria Theresia of Austria

1740-80 Empress Maria Theresia, By the Grace of God, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess Moravia and Schlesia, Queen of Croatia and Dalmatia, Princess of Transylvania and Grand Duchess of Siebenbürgen, Duchess of Burgundy, Steyer, Kärnten and Crain, Gelders, Limburg, Jülich, Luxembourg, Brabant, Quilon, Bar and Franche-Comté, Auschwitz and Zator, Princess of Schwaben, Margravine of Higher-Elsass, Breisgau, Lower-Elsass and Antwerpen, Princely Countess of Habsburg, Flanders, Hainault, Kyburg, Görz, Countess d'Artois, Boulonge,  Namur, Ponthieu, Picardie, d'Eu, Vermandôis, Charolais, Macon, Montbeliard, Zutphen, Nevers and Rethel  and Baroness d'Ilês, Bar-sur-Seine etc.

She was ruler of most of Central Europe, large parts of the Balkans and Belgium and Luxembourg. Her father, Emperor Karl VI, drew up an agreement, the Pragmatic Sanction; in order ensure the succession for Maria Theresia and her husband. Not educated in statecraft, and married to a weak but much beloved husband, Franz Stephan of Lorraine, she succeeded her father in 1740. She fought the war of succession against Friedrich II of Prussia, France, Spain and Bavaria. Between 1737 and 1756 she gave birth to sixteen children. She was healthy and strong and would appear at the opera a few hours before the birth of a child, then be driving through the streets a few hours afterwards. She loved dancing, skating and horse riding, supervised the education of her children and planned internal reforms for her countries. After 1748 Maria Theresia was given time to implement internal reforms. Justice and taxation were centralized, nobles' privileges abolished and indirect taxation introduced. The reorganized army would later enable Austria to survive the Seven Years' War. She lived (1717-80)


Anna Leopoldovna of Russia 

1740-41 Regent Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia

Daughter of Catherina Ivanovna of Russia and Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. When her son, Ivan VI (1740-64), was chosen as successor of her aunt, Tsaritsa Anna, she was given the title of Grand Duchess and was named regent for him until he was deposed by Elisabeth after a year. She died during childbirth, and her younger children lived in seclusion in the provincial town of Horsens in Denmark, where her sister in-law, Juliane-Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel was Queen and De-facto In Charge of the Government 1772-84. Anna lived (1718-46).


 

1740-97 Kpojito Hwanjile of Abomey (Benin)

Also known as Naye Wandjele, she was the reign mate of King Tegbesu, whom she helped gain power after Agaja's death after a civil war with the designated heir. She - and possibly a successor trough positional succession - was actively involved in Abomey politics for at least 60 years. She was highly skilled in the supernatural, and she is believed to have been responsible for drastically changing the religious life of the kingdom. She enhanced the position of the king, by controlling the people via vodun (woodoo) and establishing a couple of creator gods - and they thereby set up a joint monarchy, which controlled both the spirits and the earthly sphere. In 1797 she was involved in the murder of king Agonglo and she was buried alive.


1740-91 Administrator Rani Bhawani of the Natore Rajbari Zamindari (Bangladesh)

In charge of the huge estate after the death of her husband and some aspects of local administration. The landed estate of Natore was formed in the early 18th century through grants from Nawab Murshid Quli Khan, the near-independent diwan of Bengal.


Queen Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Preussia and Hohenzollern

1740-86 "Ceremonial Centre of the Court" Queen Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Prussia and Hohenzollern (Germany)
Her husband, Freiderich II the Great (1712-40-86), preferred to live in his own residence in Potsdam with his circle of male company, and left her in charge of the official court. She received foreign guests; new ambassadors were always officially presented to her and her husband only attended official events from time to time. When he was absent from Berlin for 6 years in a row during the Seven Years War, she accepted real responsibility for the royal family and court, and when the capital was twice occupied, she made the decision to evacuate the court to Magdeburg. She has been become known as the "neglected wife", and in her own life time she inspired pity rather than respect even though she took upon her the task of maintaining the official face of the court. She did not have any children, and lived (1715-97).

1740-84 Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska II von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)

Elected as successor of Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid as the fifth and last consecutive sovereign of that Family in the Reichstift Elten (Chapter of the Realm). 1742 she banned excessive funerals and weddings and the following year she banned private schools.


Elisabeth Petrovna

1741-62 Imperatitsa Regnant Elisabeth Petrovna of Russia, Empress and Autocrat of All the Russians, Tsarisa of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, Astrakhan, Poland, Siberia, the Chersonnese Taurics, and Georgia, Lady of Pskov, Grand Duchess of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia and Finland, Princess of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigallia, Samogitia, Bielostock, Carelia, Tver, Yongoria, Perm, Vlatks, Bolgaria, and of other lands, Lady and Grand Duchess of Lower Novgorod, Tchernigov, Riasan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslav, Belosero, Oudoria, Obdoria, Condia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all the Northern Region, Lady and Sovereign of the lands of Iveria, Cartalinia, Kabardinia and the Provinces of Armenia, Lady of the Circassian and Mountain princes, Lady of Turkestan, Supreme Defender and Guardian of the Dogmas of the (Russian Orthodox) Church

Yelisabeth was daughter of Emperor Peter the Great, and born on before her father's official marriage to Catherina I. On the night of November 25, 1741, Elizaveta went to the barracks of the Preobrazhenskii regiment and persuaded the soldiers to follow her. The Braunschweig clan and a number of senior officials were arrested and the 32-year-old Elizaveta was proclaimed Empress Regnant. On April 25, 1742, Elizaveta was crowned in the Dormition Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. During her reign, significant advances were made economically and culturally. She took the country into the War of Austrian succession (1740 - 1748) and the Seven Years War (1756-63). Her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local government while shortening their terms of service to the state. She also spent exorbitant sums of money on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, particularly in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. The Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral remain the chief monuments of her reign in St Petersburg. Generally, she was one of the most loved Russian monarchs, because she didn't allow Germans in the government and not a single person was executed during her reign. She was succeeded by her sister's son, Peter zu Holstein-Gottorp, and lived (1709-62).


 

1741-56 Queen Regnant Ana II of N'Dongo and Matamba (Ngola and Mbundu)
Known as Ana the Second since Queen Njinga was known as Ana I as the Matamba accepted the Christian names of former rulers and their dynasty. She faced a Portuguese invasion in 1744, one of their largest military operations in the eighteenth century. In the course of their attack, Matamba's army inflicted a serious defeat on the Portuguese, but in spite of this, a remnant of the army managed to reach the capital of Matamba. In order to avoid a long war and to get them to withdraw, she signed a treaty of vassalage with Portugal which renewed points conceded by her predecssor, Verónica in 1683. While the treaty allowed Portugal to claim Matamba as a vassal, and opened up Matamba to Portuguese trade, it had little effect on the real sovereignty of Matmaba, or indeed in the conduct of trade. Like Verónica I before her, she was interested in developing Matamba as a Christian country, routinely sending letters to the Capuchin prefect of Congo and Angola or the Portuguese authorities requesting missionaries come and establish permanent bases in her country. While the country was visited by missionaries from Cahenda and also from the Barefoot Carmelites, a permanent mission was not established. (d. 1741).

Unnamed Volga Kalmykian

1741 Regent Dowager Princess Gan of The Volga Kalmuks (Lower Volga Area) (Russia)

In charge of the government during the whole reign of Kandul. She later converted to Christianity and took the name Vera. Originally the Kalmyks lived in Central Mongolia. Reaching the Volga region in 1630. Since the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism has been the Kalmyk’s religion, and they are the only European Buddhist people, living to the northwest of the Caspian area. They live on the northwest shores of the Caspian Sea in the lower regions of the soviet Dagestan. Kalmyks are of the Turkic language group. 


1741-51 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Sophie Charlotte von Brandenburg-Schwedt of Sangerhausen in Sachsen-Eisenach (Germany)

Second wife of Duke Wilhelm Heinrich von Sachsen-Eisenach–Jena (1691–1741) who did not have any children with either of his wifes. She was daughter of Margrave Albrecht Friedrich von Brandenburg–Schwedt (1672–1731) and Marie Dorothea von Kurland (1684–1743). She lived (1706-51).


1742-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Karolina von Königsegg-Rothenfels of Buchau, Dame of Strassberg (Germany)

Also used the name, Maria Charlotte, and was daughter of Count Carl Friedel Desiderius von Königsegg-Rothenfels and Maximiliane von Althann. One of her sisters, Anna Wilhelmine, was Abbess of Sankt Ursula in Köln. Like the election of her predecessor, it took place without the participation of the bishop of Konstanz. She lived (1707-74).


 

1742-73 Princess-Abbess Maria Alydis Zech of Heggbach (Germany)

According to tradition she swore an oath of allegiance to Pope Benedict XIV in the presence of the representative of the Paternal Abbey of Salem. Prioress Marie Anne Assam claimed that Alydis' election had not been fair, but resigned from her post after half a year after having asked for forgiveness. She defended her rights as ruler in various - expensive - court cases against the inhabitants of the territory and neighbouring lords. After centuries of disputes with the clerical superiors, the Abbots of Salem, the last mentioned had agreed with the pope to leave the responsibility to another Abbey, much to the disdain and chock to her and the Abbesses of among others Baindt, Gutenzell, Rottenmünster and Wald, who all protested in a joint statement. Because of illness she was not present at the College of the Swabian Prelates (Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium) in 1767. The College had one collective vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet. The Princess-Abbesses of Baindt, Gutenzell and Rottenmünster were present. She lived (1713-73).


 

1742-53 Reigning Abbess Louise-Claire de Montmorin de Saint-Hérem of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Her family belonged to a cadet branch of a noble family of Auvergne.


1742-45 Reigning Abbess-General Lucía de Mioño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Abbess she was head of the dependent Parishes of Bercial and Lorilla.


 

1742... Reigning Abbess Marie-Charlotte de Béthune of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Elected as successor to her aunt, Madeleine-Eugenie de Béthune des Placques.


 

1742-50 Feudal Duchess Giovanna Maria Teresa Doria del Carreto of Tursi, Principessa di Avella (Italy)

Daughter of Don Giovanni Andrea II, 3rd Duca di Tursi, Principe di Avella, Grande de Espana of 1st Class 8.4.1712, (1663-1742) and Donna Livia, daughter of Don Marcantonio Grillo, Marchese di Clarafuentes e Signore di Capriata. First married to Don Giovanni Andrea IV Doria Pamphili Landi, until the marriage was annulled in 1741 and secondly with Lazzaro Maria Doria, Marchese di Tizzano, Patrizio Genovese (d. 1753) and mother of Maria Giovanna Doria, who succeeded her. She lived (1710-50).


Hedwig Freiderike von Württemberg-Weiltingen, Fürstin zu Anhalt-Zerbst 

1742-52 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Hedwig Friederike von Württemberg-Weiltingen of the Administrative Offices and Castles of Roßlau and Coswig in Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)

During her childhood she spend 1693-95 by her mother's sister in Oels because her family had to flee for the French troops. 1703 the family fled to Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the next year they stayed in Windsbach near Ansbach. 1705 her father died and since her mother had already been mentally unstable since 1696, she was placed under the guardianship of an uncle, but still lived at the large castle of Weiltingen an der Wörnitz until she again fled for the French in 1707. In 1715 she met Fürst Johann August von Anhalt-Zerbst and her sister, Juliana Sibylla Charlotte (1690-1735), who had been married to Karl Friedrich von Württemberg-Öls (1690-1761) since 1709, gave the permission to the marriage in the name of their mother.


1742-60 Politically Influential Princess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of the Pfalz (Germany)
1761-94 "Reigning" Lady of Oggersheim
1777-94 "Mother of the Realm" of the Kurpfalz (Palatine)

Oldest daughter and heir of Pfalzgraf Joseph Karl Emanuel when married cousin Carl Theodor in a double-marriage with her sister, Maria Anna, who married Duke Klemens von Bayern. Since her brother's had died, she was the prime heiress to the lines of Sulzbach and Neuburg, and after their marriage her husband was elected Kurfürst von Pfalz. She is described as a lively and happy person who engaged in various erotic adventures, and on the political arena she was able to promote her political ideas in the Kurpfalz. Especially in the first years of the Seven Year War she was the centre of the court and was able to promote her interests in the duchies of Jülich and Berg. In the first years of their marriage her husband was described as weak, ill, melancholic and unable to stand up to her, but in 1760 he started to take the affairs of state into his own hands. Her only son died the day after his birth in June 1761, and because of her husband's numerous affairs, she withdrew to the Schloss Oggersheim in 1768, where she founded her own court and pursued artistic interests and also became well loved among the population as a benefactress. Her husband inherited Bayern in 1777 from the husband of her sister, Maria Anna (see 1745) but they only saw each other for a few times for the rest of their lives. After her husband had moved to München she became Landesmutter (Mother of the Realm) in Kurpfalz, and he concentrated on the upbringing of children of her sister, Maria Franziska and Friedrich Michael von Pfalz-Zweibrücken. The Pfalz remained neutral in the revolutionary wars, but later it was drawn into the fightings and she escaped to Mannheim, her castle was looted and burned down. She lived (1721-94).

Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen

1743-74 In charge of the Government Landgravine Henriette Karoline von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld of Hessen-Darmstadt (Germany)

Managed the affairs of state during her husband, Ludwig IX's involvement in various wars. After their marriage in 1741 she spend a couple of years with her husband at the Prussian Garrison Prenzlau, and of the 32 years of marriage they only spend 14 together but they kept in close contact trough an extensive correspondence, and she used this to exercise a considerable political influence, and became known as "Die Grosse Landgräfin", the Great Landgravine. She was an efficient administrator and made Darmstadt the cultural centre of the time. Henriette Karoline Christiane Louise was mother of 6 children and lived (1721-74). 

 

1743-57 Princess-Abbess Therese Wilhelmine von Pollheim-Winkelhausen of Lindau (Germany)

Her family was in charge of the Lordship of Ottenschlag that became the centre of the Low-Austrian Protestantism in 16th and 17th century.


 

1743-74 Princess-Abbess Ursule Antoinette van Berlo de Francdouaire of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a French-Belgian noble family, also known as de Berlo de Franc-Douaire.


 

1743-59 Abbess Nullius Irene Margaritonte of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

The ancient tradition of the clergy paying public homage to newly elected and inagurated Abbesses was abolished in 1750.


 

After 1743 Princess Abbess Marie-Anne de Béringhen of Faremoutiers (France)

At a not known time she was succceded by Claude de Durfort, a member of the family of the Dukes de Duras.


Anna-Maria von Habsburg

1744 Governor and Stadholder Anna-Maria von Habsburg of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium and Luxembourg) (January-December)

Sister of Empress Maria-Theresa and married to her brother-in-law, Prince Karl von Lothringen, who continued as Governor-General after her death until 1746 and again 1749-80. She died in childbed and lived (1718-44)


 

1744-46 Titular Queen Regnant Thamar II Bagration of Kartli (Georgia)

7 years after the death of her father, of king Vakhtang VI, she had herself proclaimed ruler jointly with her husband, king Teimuraz II of Kakheti. Their son, Irakli II, became King of Kakheti and Kartli, uniting the realms into the kingdom of Georgia in 1762. Her mother was Rusudani of Circassia, and she lived (1697-1746).


 

1744-60 Administratrice Hélène de Cléron of Remiremont (France)

Dame Doyenne and Second in Command since ca. 1717 she took over the role of Acting Princess-Abbess after Anne Charlotte I de Lorraine left the territory to take up residence by her brother, Karl von Lothringen, Governor-General of the Low Countries in 1744, and was never to return to her chapter. (d. 1760).


 

1745-48 Regent Dowager Duchess Karoline von Erbach-Fürstenau of Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Germany)

Also known as Caroline Amalie von Erbach, she took over the regency of the small duchy with high debts after the death of her husband, Ernst Friedrich II (1707-45), for their son, Ernst Friedrich III (1727-45-80). She took measures against the "wandering gypsies and begging people", in which even the death penalty was possible. Also restructured the Code of Criminal Procedure and banned the sale of a fief, allodial title or real estate without authorization by the sovereign. In a case before the High Court against the Duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen she was awarded the district of Sonnenfeld. She was daughter of Count Philipp Karl von Erbach zu Fürstenau und Michelstadt, Lord zu Breuberg and Countess Charlotte Amalie von Kunowitz, mother of 3 sons and 1 daughter and lived (1677–1758).


 

1745-47 Overseer of the Crown Lands Elżbieta Lubomirska of Barcice and Rytro (Poland)

Through the era of the joint state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795, referred to the crown lands (królewszczyzna) administered by the official known as starosta or starościna (for women), who would receive the office from the king and would keep it for life. It usually provided a significant income for the starosta. Married to Prince Ignacy Potocki, Marshal of the Permanent Council 1778-82, Grand Clerk of Lithuania from 1773, Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1783, Grand Marshal of Lithuania 1791-94, and daughter of Sanisław Lubomirski and Elżbieta Czartoryska, and lived (1755–1783)


1745-90 Politically Influential Duchess Maria Anna von der Pfalz-Sulzbach von Bayern (Germany)

As a leading member of the Anti-Austrian Patriotic Group at the Court of Munich, she played a leading role in the continued existence of the Electorate Bavaria as an unified state. Her husband, Herzog Clemens Franz de Paula, was the nephew of Elector and Emperor Karl Albrecht VII. After the death of the emperor in 1745 Maria Anna entered the political scene. She managed to persuade the new Elector, Maximillian III Joseph, to adopt a policy of neutrality. During the 7 year war, (1756–1763), during which Bavaria sided with France-Austria, she took up contact with Friedrich II von Preußen, and they engaged in a heavy correspondence. After Elector Max III Joseph died in 1777, the Bavarian throne was inherited by the husband of her sister, Elisabeth Auguste (see 1742), Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz. He seemed to be inclined to accept Emperor Joseph II's claims on parts of the state, but Maria Anna advocated for a continued united Bavaria, and found an ally in Friedrich II, who took part in the succession-war in 1778-79. She was also one of the leading forces of a the Bavarian-Dutch movement for exchange of lands in 1784/85, and she therefore supported Friedrich IIs "Prince-Union Project" of 1785 and was able to secure the continued existence of the united Electorate of Bavaria. She lived (1722-90).


1745-90 Politically influential Marquise Jeanne Antoinette Poisson Le Normant d'Étioles de Pompadour in France      

Madame de Pompadour was the mistress of King Louis XV of France for about 5 years after 1745, and remained his confidante until her death. Of middle-class origin, she owed her success mainly to her intelligence and capabilities. She urged the appointment of the duc de Choiseul and other Ministers and encouraged the French alliance with Austria, which involved France in the Seven Years War. She favoured Voltaire and other writers of the Encyclopédie. She employed many artists to decorate her residences, and encouraged the manufacture of Sèvres ware. She lived (1721-64).


Uzbek Lady

1746-70 Sovereign Princess Irdana Bi Erdeni of Khokanda/Khugand or Farghana (Uzbekistan)

Succeeded  'Abd al-Karim Khan (1736-46) and succeeded by Sulaiman who reigned for less than a year as Prince of Khokanda, which is a city near Tashkent, now located in a far eastern part of Uzbekistan. Founded in 1732, it stands on the site of the ancient city of Khavakend, obliterated by the Mongols in the 3rd century. It was ruled by the Dzungarian Kalmyks (Kalmucks) until 1758, when it became part of China.


 

1746-77 Joint Sovereign Countess Maria Friederike Sophia Charlotte von Hessen-Homburg of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim
1774-77 Reigning Countess of the Lordship of Limpurg-Sontheim-Gröningen (Germany)

The only surviving daughter of Christiane Magdalena zu Limpurg-Sontheim (1683-1746) and Ludwig Georg von Hessen-Homburg (1693-1728), the inheritance of her mother and 7 other female heirs which had been in dispute since 1713, was not settled until 1774 and she came in possesion of the Lordship of Limpurg-Sontheim-Gröningen. At the age of 13 she was married to Karl-Philipp-Franz von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (1702-63), who was was judge of the Chamber Court, one of the highest offices in the realm, and was created a Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstin. According to her her granddaughter, Sophie, she was not very happy about her inheritance of the Castle and Lordship of Gröningen, but would have preferred Obersontheim, where she was born. But she soon started modernizing the castle, and in 1776 she took up residence here. As she was catholic she took over the Chapel of the Castle and build a new evangelical church for the inhabitants of the village, and was succeeded by the oldest of her 4 sons, Ludwig Leopold (1777-98-99), and and lived (1714-77).


Maria-Amalia von Sachsen-Poland

1746-60 (†) Councillor of State Queen Maria-Amalia von Sachsen-Poland of The Two Sicilies (Italy)

Became a member of the Council of State after the birth of her first son, after 9 years of marriage. Her older son Carlos became son of Spain, the younger, Fernando, King of Napoli. She lived (1724-60).


Barbara Bragança

1746-58 De-facto Ruler Queen Bárbara Bragança of Spain and the Indies

Very powerful during the reign of her weak husband, Fernando IV of Spain (1713-46-59), who depended completely upon her and like her mother-in-law, Elisabeth Farnese before her, she excluded him from policy making and kept him out of public affairs. She strongly supported the diplomacy of neutrality. The new conjuncture of peace, reform and good luck placed unprecedented revenue the royal couple's disposal. She spent much of her time in a state of neurosis. Like her husband, she went about daily in fear of sudden death, which her asthmatic tendency may have encouraged. After her death, her husband relapsed into a manic depression and died shortly after.
The daughter of King João V of Portugal and Maria Ana de Áustria, who was regent of Portugal (1642-50), she was heiress presumptive for the first two years of her life and second-in-line trough out much of her life (1711-58).


 

1746 Sultan Mwana Mimi Hadiga of Patta-Pate and Witu (Kenya)

There were 4 sultans that year. Pate is an island of the coast of Kenya.


Co-Regierende Gräfin Amöne Sophia II zu Limpurg-Sontheim

1746-79 Joint Sovereign Countess Amöne Sophia II zu Löwenstein-Wertheim of 2/6th of Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)

Daughter of Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and married to Bertrand-Philipp von Gronsfeld-Diepenbroick, Lord of Wijngaarden and Ruigbroek, Drost of Muiden and president of the Admiralty of Amsterdam and started the first porcelain factory in the Netherlands. She was succeeded by son, Johann Bertrand, though the succession was not undisputed until a final agreement between all the co-heirs in 1775. He was married to Friederike Charlotte, Gräfin von Erbach-Erbach.  She lived (1718-79).


 

1746-98 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline Christiane zu Löwenstein-Wertheim zu Virneburg of a Part Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany) 

Also known as Caroline Christiane, she was the youngest daughter of Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and married to Karl Christian Wilhelm von Pückler (d. 1786) establishing the line of Limpurg-Pückler. She was succeeded by daughter, Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline and two sons. Karoline Christiane lived (1719-93).


 

1746-57 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophie Henriette Frderike von Schönburg-Waldenburg of Amt Sontheim-Gaildorf within the Country of Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmiedenfeld-Speckfeld (Germany)

Known as Countess von Rechteren Limpurg, she was the daughter of Friederike Auguste zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and first married to her cousin Johann Philipp von Löwenstein-Wertheim, owner of 1/6th of Obersontheim, who was son of her mother, Friederike Auguste's sister, Amöne Sophia I. Secondly married to her relative Friedrich Ernst von Weltz, the son of Albertine von Limburg-Speckfeld, and owner of 1/3rd of Speckfeld. Sophie was succeeded by daughter, Friederike-Amöne, and lived (1718-57).


1746-75 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of Langensalza in Sachsen-Weißenfels (Germany)

Widow of Johann Adolf II. von Sachsen-Weißenfels (1685-1746). In Bad Langensalza she buit a small castle in Roccoco Style with orangerie and intrigate garden. She was mother of 4 sons who died as infants and one daughter who died at the age of 10 in 1751. The daughter of Duke Friedrich II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalena Augusta von Anhalt-Zerbst, she lived (1715-75).


1746-47 Rebellion Participant Flora MacDonald in Scotland (United Kingdom)

After the defeat of the Jacobite uprising, and its leader "Bonnie" Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender) at the battle of Culloden in 1746, Charles was forced into hiding and Flora MacDonald helped him escape. Disguised as a woman, Charles Stuart was smuggled off the Isle of Ulst by Flora and Neil MacDonald (another supporter). There were several close calls during the escape; news arrived that General Campbell had landed on the island to search for the fleeing prince. Soon after his escape, she was labelled as a traitor, tracked down and arrested, and imprisoned briefly in the tower of London.  She later married her fiancé, Allan, and mothered a family of seven children. She immigrated to North Carolina in the 1770s, but they later moved to Nova Scotia after they lost everything supporting the British in the War of Independence. Several years later she returned home to the Britain, where she lived until her death. She lived (1722-90). 


 

1747-ca.60 Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lele Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Rambut Panjang, Dato' Undang of Luak Johol (Malaysia)

Succeeded by another woman -  Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lela Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Putri Setiawan II, Dato' Undang of Luak Johol (1760-90). 


1747-52 Regent Dowager Duchess Johanna Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Christian August (160-42-47), she was regent for son, Friedrich-August, who was Duke of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duke of Sachsen, Angaria and Westphalia, Count of Ascania, Lord of Bernburg, Zerbst, Jever and Knyphausen. Her daughter later became Catharina II of Russia, and inherited Jever after the death of her brother in 1793. Johanna Elisabeth lived (1712-60). 


Mary Cousaponkeesa Musgrove Bosomworth

1747-63 Princess Mary Cousaponkeesa Musgrove Bosomworth of Ossaba, Sapelo and Saint Catherine Islands (Creek Indian) (USA)

Mary Musgrove was the daughter of a white South Carolina trader and an Indian Princess - a sister of the "old Brim or Bream," Emperor of the Creeks. In 1716 she married John Musgrove, and they established a trading post at Yamacraw Bluff in 1732 and   Savannah was founded on this site a year later. The arrival of Oglethorpe and the settlement of Georgia presented an unprecedented opportunity for Mary to advance her fortunes both socially and financially. After her husband's death in 1734 she married Jacob Matthews, who died in 1742 Three years after she married Thomas Bosomworth and together they secured a grant of Saint Catherine, Sapelo, and Ossaba Islands from the Creeks in addition to a tract of land lying between Savannah and Pipe maker's Creek. She acted as interpreter between the whites and Indians and was also involved in the Indian wars. She lived (1700-63).


 

1747-59 Princess-Abbess Franziska von Gall of Gutenzell (Germany)

In 1753 the Chapter (Stift) came under the protection of von Kaisheim with the approval of the Abbot-General Trouvé.  During 1755-57 Dominikus Zimmermann finished the renovation of the Chapter Church in Baroque style. His daughter, Alexandra, became Princess-Abbess in 1759.


 

1748-50/53 Sultan Ratu Sarifah Fatima of Bantam (Bali) (Indonesia)

Appointed sultan after her husband, Mangkubumi was arrested after an uprising against the Dutch occupiers. She was later deposed and banned from the state by the same Dutch regents.  


 

1748 Regent The Dowager Rani of Chamba (India)

Known as "The Jammu Princess", she was widow of Paramanabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Ugra Singh who was deposed in 1734 and died the following year. When her son, Paramanabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Umed Singh Varma Deva succeede (1725-48-64) a cousin, she was in charge of the government. 


Mughal Queen

1748-54 De facto co-ruler Queen Udham Bai of the Mughal Empire (India)

Became powerful after the death of her husband, Muhammad Shah (Rawshan Akhtar) (1719-48), who lost the province of Kabul to Persia and during whose reign other provinces became practically independent. Her son, Ahmad Shah Badahur, was no stronger, and she dominated him completely. When The Marathas in Punjab rebelled, her son chose to flee, abandoning her and the other women at court. He was captured, blinded, and deposed and died in confinement in 1775.


 

1748-51 and 1754-56 Reigning Abbess-General Josefa Carrillo y Ocampo of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Re-elected to the post of Abbess of the Abbey.

Princess Louise Sophie Friederike af Danmark, Heiress to Norway, Duchess to Slesvig-Holsten, Glücksborg, Stormarn and Ditmarsken.

1748-82 Abbess Louise Sophie Friederike af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)

As all members of her family she used the titles: "Heiress to Norway, Duchess to Schleswig-Holstein, Glücksburg, Stormarn and Ditmarsken". She processed both secular and ecclesiastical authority in the whole territory of the Lutheran chapter for unmarried noble ladies, though the founder, Dowager Queen Sofie Magdalene had secured herself the right of veto for life.  Louise Sophie was daughter of Duke Philipp Ernst of Holstein-Glücksburg and his first wife Christiane of Sachsen-Eisenberg, she was succeeded by her niece, Sophie Magdalene, and lived (1709-82).

 

After 1749 Titular Senior Rani Uthradam Tirunal of Attingal in Travancore (India)

Adopted into the Royal House of Travancore in 1749, held the Principality of Attingal as her dowry jointly with sister, and married a Kochi Koil Tampuran of Tattara Kovil. Mother of two sons.


 

After 1749 Titular Junior Rani of Attingal in Travancore (India)

Together with her sisters, she was adopted into the Royal House of Travancore. She married a Kochi Koil Tampuran of Edathara Matam. Mother of one son and one daughter.


 

Around 1750 Queen Kapango of Mbunza (Namibia)

Sister of the Uukwangali Queen Mate I. She ruled around 1750 and settled in the Mbunza area of the Kavango. This resulted in the establishment of the two kingdoms in the western Kavango, the Uukwangali Kingdom and the Mbunza Kingdom.


 

Around 1750 Hompa Mate I of Uukwangali (Namibia)

In the Kavango, the earliest recorded Uukwangali Queen was Mate I. She ruled around 1750. She left the Mashi area and settled in present-day Kavango, west of Nkurenkuru in today's Angola. Her sister, Kapango, settled in the Mbunza area of the Kavango. This resulted in the establishment of the two kingdoms in the western Kavango, the Uukwangali Kingdom and the Mbunza Kingdom. The possible successor of Hompa Mate I was Queen Nankali (between 1750 and 1775).


 

1750-75 Hompa Nankali of Uukwangali (Namibia)

The possible successor of Mate I was Nakali.


 

Before 1750 Queen Masamba Omubitokati of Bunyoro-Kitara (Uganda)

Olimi III was king (1710-30) and Duhaga I Cwa reigned (1731-82).


Hawaiian Queen

Until 1750 Queen Regnant Ululani of Hilo (Hawai'i)

Daughter of Mokulani, 6th Alii of Hilo, she first married The Hon. Keawe-a-Heulu. Her second husband Keawemauhili became joint chief of Hilo, an island of Hawai'i.


Queen Bety

1750-54 Queen Regnant Bety of Betsimisaraka of Tamatave or Betsimisaraka at the Île de Sainte-Marie (Madagascar)

In the end of the 17th and the beginning 18th centuries, the Island of Saint Marie was frequented by numerous pirates, who had good relations with the local population. Ratsimilaho was son of the English pirate, Thomas Tew White and a daughter of a local chief, set up his own kingdom. After a rule of 30 years he was succeeded by his daughter, Bety or Betty, who married the French pirate Jean Onésime Filet - known as Zanahary. In 1754 her mother, Mamadion, had the French administrator Gosse killed and the rest of the French massacred, because he had profaned the grave of her husband. Bety was blamed, and sent in exile at the Ile de France (Mauritius), where she died. Her husband remained in  power until 1767. She (d. 1872),


 

1750 Regent Dowager Countess Karoline Friederike zu Salm-Grumbach of Salm-Dhaun (Germany) 

After the death of her husband, Johann Friedrich zu Salm-Dhaun (1727-50), she assumed the regency for her son Karl Leopold Ludwig on 27 January and when he died 23 Februray for her second son, Friedrich Wilhelm until his death on 10  June 6, maximum months old. Thereafter the County became part of Salm-Grumbach. Married Karl Friedrich von Wartensleben (d. 1776) in 1756. She was born as Wild- und Rheingräfin in Grumbach, and lived (1733-83).


 

Until 1750 Chieftainess Hoho of The Khoikhoi (South Africa)

1713 a smallpox epidemic had decimated the Khoikhoi (previously known as Hottentot) and in 1750 she was defeated by the Xhosa, and the tribe was assimilated into the Xhosa, and the only trace of them today is the click-sound in the Xhosa language.


Unnamed Baule lady

Ca. 1750-60 Queen Awura Danse Poukou of Baule (The Ivory Coast)

Successor of Asak Poku, who reigned from the beginning of the century, and was succeeded by a niece, whose name is not known.


Zofia Lubomirska

1750-90 Sovereign Duchess Zofia Lubomirska of Opole and Medyka in Lubelszczyzna (Poland)
1754-90 Ruler of Przeworsk and Dobromil 
1754-90 Politically Influential in Poland

Daughter of Aleksander Krasiński and Salomea Trzcińska. Until 1750 she was married to Voivode Jan Tarło of Sandomierz. Since 1754 she was married to Voivode Antoni Lubomirski of Lublin. I 1768-1772 she supported The Confederation of Bar - a military union of nobility, which fought against the Russian domination in Poland and the political reforms of king Stanisław August Poniatowski. In 1788-1792 she supported actively the political reforms of king Stanisław August Poniatowski and the Great Sejm. During the debate of the Great Sejm she supported the Patriotic Party. She wrote the political books about the reforms in Poland, and lived (1718-1790).


1750-64 Princess-Abbess Hedwig Sophie Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Herford (Germany)
Concurrently Pöpstin in Quedlinburg in a personal-union, but resided in Herford, When she took office, she confirmed Johann Moritz v. Oeynhausen zur Grevenburg as tenant of a number of estats of the chapter, using the titulature: "Hedwig Sophia Augusta Herzogin zu Schleswig-Holstein, Äbtissin des Stifts Herford", and in 1753 Freiderich Ulrich von Oeynhausen took over. She was daughter of Duke Christian August of Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp and Albertine Friederike zu Baden-Durlach. Her sister, Friederike Amalie (1708-32) was a canoness at Quedlinburg. She lived (1705- 1764).

 

1750-74 Princess-Abbess Marie Béatrice Breiten de Landenberg of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)

Also known as Maria Beatrix von Breitenlandenberg.


Unnamed Ashaner lady

1750-...  2nd Asantehemaa Nana Nkatia Ntem Abamoo of Asante (Ghana)

As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reign of king Kusi Obodom (1750-64), she was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all important decisions. She was de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She exercised a general supervisory authority over women but did not in fact represent the overall interest of the women. Nana Nkatia was succeeded by Kaua Afriye at a not known time.


 

1750-1832  Feudal Duchess Maria Giovanna Doria del Carretto of Tursi, 5. Principessa di Avella, Marchesa di Caravaggio (Italy)

Daughter of of Giovanna Maria Teresa Doria del Carretto, Duchessa di Tursi, Principessa di Avella, etc (1710-42-50) and her second husband, Lazzaro Maria Doria, Marchese di Tizzano, Patrizio Genovese (d. 1753), married to Don Andrea Doria, Marchese di Caravaggio, Conte di Loano, (1738-71) who was son of Bianca Maria von Sinzedorf, Marchesa di Caravaggio (1717.83) and grandson of Johann Wilhelm von Sinzedorf and  Bianca Maria Sforza, Marchesa di Caravaggio. Her only daughter, Donna Bianca Doria (1763-1829),  held the title of Duchess Tursi, a title inherited by her husband and son. She lived (1743-1832).


 

1751-66 Regent Dowager Landgravine Ulrike Louise von Solms-Braunfels of Hessen-Homburg (Germany)

Widow of Friedrich IV zu Hessen-Homburg (1724-46-51), she was confirmed by the Emperor as regent for son Friedrich V (1748-1820) even though Landgraf Ludwig VIII of Hessen-Darmstadt tried to annex the territory and had it occupied for a short while. This led to lenghtly legal battles over the soverignty by the Imperial Court and by the emperor, but she prevailed. She lived (1731-92).


Anne of Great Britain

1751-59 Governor Dowager Princess Anne of Great Britain of Friesland, Nassau and Oranje etc. (The Netherlands)

After the death of husband, Willem IV van Oranje-Nassau, she took over the government for her minor son. Her Dutch title as regent was Gouvernante der Nederlanden (Governess). In government affairs, she at first pleased by her quick actions and decisions; however, she was also tyrannical and unpredictable. Born as daughter of the future King George II of Great Britain, she was Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and from 1727 also Princess Royal. When she died after a long period of consumption, her mother-in-law, Marie-Louise von Hessen-Kassel, became regent for the second time. Anne lived (1709-59).


1751-71 Political Influential Queen-Consort Lovisa Ulrika von Preussen of Sweden

Engaged in an endless squabble with the Senate and Estates whose powers were unparalleled at the time during the reign of her weak husband, Adolf Frederik. Her goal was to restore royal powers and was in opposition to both the existing parties, the Hatt Partiet (The Hat Party) and the Cap party, which both wanted to maintain status quo. In 1756 she was involved in a failed coup d'état with the newly established Hovpartiet (Court Party). The plan was discovered, and the persons involved where executed or exiled and she received a strong note from the government. After her husband's death she became a patron of arts and science. The daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm of Preussen and Sofia Dorothea von Hannover, she was Co-Adjutrix (Deputy to the Princess-Abbess with the right of succession) 1740-44 before her marriage. Mother of three sons and a daughter, Sophia Albertina, who became Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg in 1787, and lived (1720-82).  


1751-58 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Wilhelmine zu Pappenheim of Alt-Leiningen (Germany)

After the her husband Georg Hermann (1679–1751) died after being run down by a heavy carriage, she ruled in the name of Christian Johann, Count zu Leiningen-Westerburg und Altleiningen (1730-51-70), She was born as Reichs-Erbmarschallin und Gräfin zu Pappenheim (Hereditary Marshall of the Realm and Countess), and lived (1708-92).


 

From 1751 Payung e-ri Luwu Petta Matinroe ri Kaluku Bodoe of Luwu (Indonesia)

Succeeded another female ruler, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin, as the fourth successive women on the throne of Luwu since 1713. It is not known how long her reign lasted.


 

1751-68 Princess-Abbess Cäcilia Seitz of Baindt (Germany)

In 1767 she was the last Abbess from the territory to personally participate in the Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium - which chose and send representatives to the Imperial Diet. The Princess-Abbess of Gutenzell and Rottenmünster were also present.


1751-78 Princess-Abbess Maria Henrica von Poppen of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of a family of Slesian Barons (Freiiherren), she was highly educated, gifted painter and promoter of arts and culture. At her seal she used the titulature: Marin Henrick Freyin v. Poppen, Äbtissin zu Göss.

1751-54 and 1759-62 Reigning Abbess-General María Bernarda de Hoces of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

A relative of hers, Angela, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1771-74.


 

After 1751-91 Politically Influential Princess Bibi Rajindar Kaur of Patiala (India)

Following the death of her husband, Chaudhari Tilok Chand, of Phagwara, she took charge and the charge of the family estate, consisting of over two hundred villages, fell to her. In 1778, Raja Amar Singh of Patiala, who was her first cousin, was defeated by Hari Singh of Sialba. She came to his rescue with three thousand soldiers marching through the territories of the chiefs who had fought on the side of Harl Singh. During the reign of the minor Raja Sahib Singh, Rajindar Kaur was again in Patiala to defend the town against Maratha onslaughts. At the head of a strong force she marched as far as Mathura where peace parleys were opened with the Marathas. She died at Patiala after a short illness, and lived (1739-1791).

Mask of a Queen Mother of Benin

Ca. 1752-? Iyoba Ohagha II of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Akengbua of Benin (1750-1804). As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 


 

1752-53 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Albertine von Sachsen-Hildburghausen of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)
1753-62 Reigning Dowager Lady of Mirow

Her son, Adolf Friederich IV (1738-94), succeeded his uncle Adolf Friederich III in December 1752 since her husband, Karl Ludwig Friederich zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz zu Mirow had died in June the same year, and she acted as regent for a year. As guardian for her younger children, she signed the "Succession-agreement" (andesgrundgesetzlichen Erbvergleich (LGGEV)) in 1755, which resulted in a new constitution in the Duchy which consolidated the powers of the nobility (Ritterschaft) and conserved the backward position of the area which lasted until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Her only daughter, Sophie Charlotte, was married to King Georges III of Great Britain. She lived (1713-61).


Unnamed Maharani

1753-56 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Savitri Bai Raje Sahiba of Dewar (Senior) (India)

After the death of her husband Tukaji Rao I Puar she ruled in the name of her adopted son, Krishnaji Rao I Puar (1753-89).


 

1753 Nominal Regent Princess Sanfa Rendi Kabafa'anu of the Maldive Islands

Reigned nominally in the name of her brother Hasan Manikufa'anu Sultan al-Ghazi al-Hasan 'Izz ud-din Baderi, but the de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassam Manik. She was daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II, who reigned (1721 -50).

 

1753-57 Nominal Regent Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu of the Maldive Islands
1757-59 Rani-Sultana

In 1752 her father, H.H. Sultan al-Mukarram Muhammad 'Imad ud-din III, was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied until it was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. Muleegey Dom Hassam Manik was still de facto in charge. Her father died in captivity in 1757 and she succeeded to the throne. Her sister Amina Kabafa’anu was regent in 1773.


 

1753-80 Princess-Abbess Johanna Dorothea von Syberg zu Schwerte of Keppel (Germany)

Joined the chapter in 1718 and was elected as successor of the Protestant Sophie Charlotte v. Bottlenberg gen. Kessel, who had died 1748. Johanna Dorothea Helene Margarethe Katharina von Syberg, who was also known as von Syberg, Freie aus der Hees, Sümmern und Schwerte, was a Catholic and member of an old noble family with branches in Germany, Livonia and Sweden.


1753-55 Princess-Abbess Maria Helena Francisca von Roggenbach of Säckingen (Germany)
Finished the restauration of the interior of the Chapter Church which was damamged by a fire in 1751. One of her relatives, Franz Joseph Sigismund, was Prince Bishop of Basel (1782-93). She was daughter of Johann Konrad Anton von Roggenbach, Steward of Birseck, and Maria Josepha Zint von Kenzingen.

 

1753-65 Reigning Abbess Marie-Louise de Timbrone de Valence of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Another version of her surname is de Thimbrune de Valence.


 

1754 and 1761 Governor-Regent Muglani Suraiya Bigum of Lahore (India)

In charge of the government in the name of Muhammad Amin Han, who lived 1751-54 and was governor for the Emperor of the Mongul-Afgan Empire of India in 1754.


1754 Princess-Abbess Sophie Johanna zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Münsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Chosen by the other Ladies of the Chapter (Stiftdamen) to suceed sister, Christine Eberhardine Friederike. They were daughters of Count Friedrich Wilhelm (1663-1735), and Louise von Sinzendorf. Sofie Johanna Friederike lived (1698-1754).

 

1754-1804 Joint Sovereign Countess Josine Elisabeth von Rechteren of Rechteren and Limpurg (Germany) 

Also known as Countess von Rechteren Limpurg. She was daugther of Iosina Elisabeth van Rechteren (d. 1738), the daughter of Frederik Rudolph van Rechteren, and Johan Everhard Adolph van Rechteren-Limpurg-Speckfeld (1714-54), son of  Joachim Heinrich Adlof van Rechteren (1687-1719) and Countess Amalia Alexandrina Friederike, Countess of Limpurg-Speckfeld, co-heir to a portion of the county, who lived (1689-1754) and was daughter of the last count of the whole county, Volllrath, who died 1712.  Josine Elisabeth was married to Prince August Wilhelm zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1720-60), and lived (1738-1804). In 1806 Rechteren was incorporated into Bavaria.


 

1754-1771 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Radziwiłłowa of Nowy Targ (Poland)

She lived (1729-1771).


 

1754-60 Reigning Lady Maria of Great Britain in the County of Hanau-Münzenberg
1760-64 Regent of Hanau  (Germany)

When her husband, Hereditary Prince Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel, converted to Catholism, she and her 3 sons were granted the County of Hanau by her father-in-law, Wilhelm VIII, who passed over his son for this part of the inheritance. When Friederich became Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel he made several attempts to reclaim Hanau, but did not succeed because of opposition from Great Britain and the protestant Estates of Hanau. Her marriage to Friederich was unhappy from the start. He was said to be "brutal" and "a boor". In late 1746, she made an extended trip to Britain to escape his maltreatment. 1754 she moved to Denmark to take care of the children children of her sister, Queen Louise, and brought her sons, who all married Danish princesses. She spend her last years in the Castle of Rupenheim. In 1785, her son became Landgrave Wilhelm I and from 1803 Kurfürst (Elector). Born as Princess Mary of Great Britain, Ireland and Hannover, she was daughter of King Georg II, and lived (1723 -72).


Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana

1754-56 Şehsuvar Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Mother of Osman III (1754-57). Of Russian origin, she lived (1682-1756).

 

1755-63 Regent Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Janaki Bai Sahib Bhonsle of Savantwadi (India)

After her husband, Shrimant Ramchandra Savant I Bhonsle Bahadur, Sir Desai of Savantwadi, was poisoned by one of his relatives, she ruled in the name of her son, Raja Shrimant Khem Savant III Bhonsle Bahadur.          


 

1755-56 Regent Countess Dowager Maria Franziska Esterházy von Galantha of Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg (Germany)

Reigned in the name of Siegmund zu Salm-Reifferscheidt zu Bedburg (1735-55-98) after the death of her husband, Count Karl Anton zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg. She lived (1702-78).


Unnamed Ethiopian Princess

1755-56 Politically Influential Princess Walatta Bersebeh of Ethiopia

Also known as Welete Bersabe, she was influential during the first year reign of her son, Emperor Iyoas or Joa I  (1755-69) after the death of husband, Emperor Jiasu II (Iyasu II) (1730-1755). She engaged in a power struggle with her mother-in-law Empress Mentewab. She was born as Woizero Wobit, daughter of Amitzo, of Kawallo, of the Edjaw clan of the Toluma Galla, but changed her name to Bersebeh, after her christening after the marriage. (d. 1756).


Nancy Nanye-hi Ward

1755-1822 Ghigua Nancy Ward of the Cherokee in Tennessee (USA)

Originally known as Nanye-hi, and in 1755 her husband, Kingfisher, was killed in battle and Nanye-hi filled his place in the battle. She took his rifle and rallied the warriors to victory. She was bestowed with the title of Ghigua - Beloved Woman of the Cherokee - and thereby became Head of the Council of Women and held a voting seat in the Council of Chiefs. The Ghigua was given the responsibility of prisoners and would decide their fate. She later married Bryant Ward, a white trader. Nancy Ward was a respected woman among the Cherokees and the white settlers. She was an outspoken supporter of peace, and participated in several treaty negotiations and even spoke at the Treaty of Hopewell in 1785 where she spoke about her hopes for a continued peace. But the numerous treaties that agreed to honour Cherokee land rights were broken, and in 1819 the Hiwassee Purchases forced Nancy to abandon her home in Chota and settle further south on the Ocoee River. She lived (1738-1822).


Fürstäbtissin Anna Amalia zu Quedlinburg, Princess zu Preussen

1755-87 Princess-Abbess Anna Amalia von Preussen of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her election as Coadjutrix (Coadjutorin) in 1744 was met with some secepticism as she was member of the reformed faith and the Chapter was Lutheran. During the first year of her reign, the territory suffered from passing armies and war-taxes to Austrian and French troops during the Seven Year War. She was interested in science and an able composer. She named able men to clerical positions and as teachers, reduced the number of holidays and allowed the members of the Reformed Church to hold a church service twice a year.
She had an affair with Freiherr Friedrich von der Trenck, an aide-de-champ of her brother, Friedrich the Great, who was imprisoned, later freed and spend the rest of his life travelling in Europe. After her brother's death they met in 1786, she was blind and very ill at the time and died shortly after. She lived most of her life in Berlin and did only rarely visit her territory. She was daughter of Wilhelm I of Preußen and Princess Sophie von Hannover, and lived (1723-87).


Fürstäbtissin Maria Anna von Hornstein-Göffingen of Säckingen 1755-1806 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Hornstein-Göffingen of Säckingen (Germany)
In 1785 her forceful intervention at the Imperial Court in Vienna had saved the Princely Ladies Chapter (Fürstliche Damenstift) from becoming a Worldly Ladies' Chapter under the sovreignty of the Austrian Government and without cannons during the ecclesiastical reforms of Emperor Joseph II. She modernized the financial management and the juridical system. 1793 Johanna Caroline von Oettingen-Spielberg was appointed Administrator. During the Peace of Pressburg (Bratislava) the Austrian "Vorlande" was separated between Baden and Württemberg, and the territory of Säckingen became part of Baden. In September 1806 the convent was abolished, but she remained there until her death. Among her possessions was a carriage with room for all of the 16 noble ladies who inhabited the convent. The last Fürstäbtissin was daughter of Freiherr Franz von Hornstein und Zumarschausen and Maria Anna Sophia Karoline von Sickingen, and lived (1723-1809).

1755-56 Princess-Abbess Maria Carolina von Leerodt von Born of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
A candidate for the post of Abbess in 1728. As Dechaness she had been in charge of the administration of the chapter in the absence of the Abbess from around 1747, but in spite of this, the representative of the Prince-Bishop of Liège tried to prevent her election and only 6 canonesses and 4 canons took part - with 5 abstentions. The disputes within the chapter continued but she died after only 17 months in office, and lived (ca. 1700-56).

 

1756-ca. 58 Queen Regnant Verónica II of N'Dongo and Matamba (Ngola and Mbundu)
Ascended to the throne after the death of Queen Ana II, but she was overthrown sometime after 1758.

 

1756-63 Rani Regnant Canna Virmmaji of Bednur (East and South Dekkan) (India)

Succeeded her husband and was succeeded by her adopted son. 


 

1756-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Wilhelmina von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Wurmbrand 
1778-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim

First inherited the parts of her mother, Marina Margarethe von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, the daughter fo Juliana Dorothea I.  received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the Lordship after the death of her father, Wilhelm Carl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim, but was in dispute over the inheritance with a relative, Johann Ernst Carl von Solms-Rödelheim. She married Fürst Friedrich Wilhelm zu Leiningen and was mother of 3 daughters and a son; Elisabeth Christiane Mariana zu Leiningen (1753-92) married to Karl Ludwig Wilhelm, wild-und rheingraf von Salm-Grumbach, Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen (1755-85) married to Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, Caroline Sophie Wilhelmine zu Leiningen (1757-1832) married to Friedrich Magnus I, Graf zu Solms-Laubach-Wildenfels and Emich Carl, Fürst zu Leiningen (1763-1814), who was married to Sophie Henriette Reuss-Ebersdorf and Viktoria von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld. She lived (1736-1803).


1756-71 Princess-Abbess Antonietta Regina Sofie Francisca von und zu Eltz-Kempenich of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
After the death of Fürstäbtissin Maria Carolina, she won the election to the position of Princess-Abbess against the Dechaness Sophia Helena von Stadion, who remained in opposition to the new head of the territory and allied herself with the Prince-Bishop of Liège, who still tried to assert his authority over the Princess-Abbess. After her election she had started rebuilding the residence of the Abbess that had been destroyed earlier. French troops passed through the territory in 1758 during the Seven Year War between France and Austria on one side and England and Preussia on the other. During the last year of her reign, she was seriously ill and had to hand over the adminsitrator to Sophia Helena. She was daughter of Karl Anton Count and Noble Lord (Graf und Edler Herr) von und zu Eltz-Kempenich, gennant Faust von Stromberg, who was created Reichsgraf and became Hereditary Marshal of Trier in 1733,  and Helene Katharina Freiin Wambolt von Umstadt, and lived (1700-71).

1756-59 Reigning Abbess-General Josefa Claudia de Verrio, The Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As ruler of the territory, she used the title of "Noble lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the said royal abbey, and of all the contents, churches, and hermitages of its filiations, of the villages and places under its jurisdiction, seigniory, and vassalage, in virtue of Bulls and Apostolical concessions, with plenary jurisdiction, privative, quasi-episcopal, nullius diacesis."


1756-70 Royal County Sheriff Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene zu Brandenburg-Kumblach of Denmark of Hørsholm Len, Denmark

After the death of her husband, Christian 6, she became administrator of the fief of Hørsholm, but the system of fiefholders (County Sheriffs or Lensmand) as local administrators had been abolished, and she was the last Dowager Queen to be given a dowry, which also included several other lands, including the County of Vallø, which she transformed into a chapter for noble ladies in 1735. She lived (1700-70).


 

1757-87 Regent Johanna von Hohenzollern-Berg of Bergh 's-Heerenberg, Boxmeer, Bergh, Diksmuide, Gendringen, Etten, Wisch, Pannerden and Millingen (Netherlands)
1781-81  Sovereign Countess and Lady

1785-87 Possible Regent of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Germany)

Also known as Also known as Maria Johanna Josepha Antonia Sophia van den Bergh-Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she took charge of the government of the county of lordship of her brother, Johan Baptist van Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1728-1781), who was imprisoned, and after his death she inherited the possessions. After the death of her husband and cousin, Karl Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she might have been the person who was regent for Prince and Count Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, (1762-85-1805-31), her 8th and first surviving son, until her own death. The regency continued for one more year. Also mother of 4 daughters of whom only one survived into adulthood. She lived (1727-87).


 

1757-65 Sovereign Countess Friederike Amöne von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg of Welz and Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmiedelfeld-Speckfeld (A Part of the Amt of Obersontheim) (Germany)

Also known as the Countess von Welz-Limpurg, Julienne Marie Friderike von Welz or Maria Frederike Amone von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg Gräfin von Limpurg-Sontheim-Gaildorf, she succeeded her mother, Sophia von Schönburg-Waldenburg, and married her cousin Friedrich von Pückler, who was son of her father's sister Karoline Christiane. He was Count and regent of Limpurg-Speckfeld 1793-1806, and co-ruler in Pückler with Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline, until her death in 1800.  Juliane Maria Friederike Amöne was succeeded was succeeded in the standesherrschaft (State County) by her daughter, Karoline Sophie Louise Maria Henriette Leopolde, and lived (1739-65).


 

1756-63 Rani Regnant Canna Virmmaji of Bednur (East and South Dekkan) (India)

Succeeded her husband and was succeeded by her adopted son. 


 

1757-74 Joint Sovereign Countess Dorothea Sophie Wilhelmine von Solms-Assenheim of 6/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Solms-Assenheimeische Antheil) (Germany)

Second daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she had received the provisorial homage as heir of her mother together with her 2 sisters and one brother. She was married to Josias von Waldeck-Bergheim (d. 1763), and succeeded by son and daughter, Karoline, she lived (1698-1774).


 

1757-78 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophie Luise Christiana von Solms-Assenheim of 6/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Also known as Gräfin Sophia Christiana Louisa, she was the third daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf and married to Friedrich Ludwig von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, co-heir of Sontheim. They had no children. She lived (1709-73).


 

1757-62 Joint Sovereign Countess Eleonore Friederike Juliane von Solms-Assenheim of 6/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Also known as Gräfin Eleonora Friderica Juliana von Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz, she was the fourth daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was married to Karl-Friedrich von Isenburg und Büdinge in Meerholtz, was succeeded by son and daughter, Christine, and lived (1703-62).


 

1757-72 Joint Sovereign Countess Charlotte Christina von Solms-Assenheim of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Youngest daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf. All the daughters took necessary steps to secure their inheritance together with  their brother, Wilhelm Carl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim, who inherited the lordship jointly. She was unmarried. [Might have died before 1757]


 

1757-66 Captain-Donatary Joana Tomásia da Câmara of São Miguel, The Azores (Portugal)

Succeeded  her father, José da Câmara Teles, 13. capitão do donatário, to  the title of the capitania and married to Guido Augusto da Câmara and they executed the office jointly until it was abolished by the king. Also Countess of da Ribeira Grande, mother of several children and lived (1730-?)


Fürstabtissin Maria Anna Margarethe von Lindau, geborene Freiin von Gemmingen

1757-71 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Margarethe von Gemmingen of Lindau (Germany)

Member of the freiherrliche family von Gemmingen, Lords of Burg Guttenberg abowe the Neckar for at least 300 years from around 1500. She lived (1711-71)

1757-68 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Katharina von Dücker-Hasslen-Urstein-Winkel of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the Freiherrliche family of von Dücker.

 

Around 1758 Queen Regnant Ana III of N'Dongo and Matamba (Ngola and Mbundu)
During the civil war  she came on the throne after Verónica II was deposed, but she was her self overthrown by Kalwete ka Mbandi, a military leader. Kalwete won the war, and was baptized as Francisco II upon taking the throne. However, two of her daughters, Kamana and Murili escaped the civil war, took refuge in the ancient capital of Ndongo on the Kindonga islands and successfully resisted Francisco II's attempts to oust them.

 

After 1758 Queen Regnant Kamana of N'Dongo (Ngola and Mbundu)
When her mother, Ana III was deposed, she created a rival kingdom, and in 1767 tried unsuccessfully to obtain Portuguese help against her rival. While the Portuguese governor of the time, Francisco Innocencio de Sousa Coutinho granted her asylum and instructed his officials to respect her and her position, he did not favor direct intervention in affairs in the eastern part of the Portuguese zone. her son and successor did manage to end the division of the country by successfully recovering the capital and being crowned as king of Matamba in around 1810.

Anna Amalia  zu Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach

1758-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Ernst August II. Constantin, she managed to secure the regency for her one-year-old son, Carl Augusts (1757-58-1828), even though she was only 19 and legally still a minor. 4 months later she gave birth to her second son, Friedrich Ferdinand Konstantin (1758-93). She began her reign with limiting expenditures to fight the consequences of the Seven Years War. She renovated the city, introduced social reforms, but her most important contribution was her promotion of art and science. She was a well known intellectual, composer, collected one of the largest book-collections of her time with around 100.000 volumes (Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek), opened a theatre and assembled the most important philosophers and writers at her court, among others Johann Wolfgang Goethe. She and lived (1739-1807).  


 

1758-82 Regent-in-Opposition H.H. Raniji Ba Shri Jijibai Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)

Her son, Maharana Sriraj Jaswantsinhji II, was named as Maharana Raj Sahib in opposition to his father, Maharana Sriraj Gajsinhji II, who ruled until his death in 1782. Her son succeeded him and  moved the capital to Dhrangadhra in 1783. He died 1801. She was daughter of  the Thakore Sahib of Varsoda.


 

Around 1758 Regent Donna....of Larantuka (Indonesia)

Reigned in the name of Raja Don Gaspar I DVG, the head of Roman Catholic dynasty (Dias Vierra Godinho). This principality was quite powerful with influence over parts of the islands of Lembata (Lomblem), Adonara, Solor, Flores, etc. and also with ruling pretensions over the principalities of Sikka, Nita, KanagaE (area), Lio-area and sometimes even claiming influence over the whole island of Flores until maybe Manggarai. The Dutch wanted her to marry a Dutch noble in order to make her a political allied against the Portugese, who were the actual "rulers" over Flores-East at that time.


 

1759-65 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Maria-Rebekka Josepha von Hohenems of Honhenems (Austria)
1759-66
and 1786-1806 Sovereign Countess of Lustenau

Inherited the lands of her family after the death of her father, Franz Wilhelm III, Reichgraf von Hohnenems, the last male member of the Hohenems-family. She was given the fief-rights over some of the lands of the family while other parts went to Austria - Emperor Karl I gave Hohnenems as a fief to his wife, Empress Maria-Theresia, who in 1765 had the imhabitants of Lustenau pay her homage as ruler. After a long civil process she managed to retain control over Lustenau in 1786, and in 1790 she signed a treaty with Austria and she continued as Reichsgräfin and the territory remained indpendent, though in close cooperation with Austria, and it kept it's position even after the German Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Mediatisation). Her only daughter by her husband, Graf Franz Xaver von Harrach-Rohrau-Kunewald  (d. 1781), Maria Waldburga von Harrach-Hohenems-Rohrau, and her husband, Klemens von Waldburg-Zeil, inherited the possessions after Maria Rebekka's death Lustanau continued as an independent entity within the County of Waldburg-Zeil-Lustenau Hohenems. Reichsgräfin Maria-Rebekka von Harrach-Hohenems lived (1742-1806).


 

1759-62 Datu Karaeng Bontoa of Sumbawa (Indonesia)

Succeeded her husband, Sultan Muhammad Kaharuddin I alias Mappasusu (Musa Larie Alesi), but was later deposed. Her first husband was Karaeng Bontolangkasa of Gowa, who died 1739. She lived (1705-62).


1759-76 Princess-Abbess Maria Alexandra Zimmermann of Gutenzell (Germany)

As part of her "dowry" her father, building master Dominikus Zimmermann, had finished the renovation of the Church of the Chapter, a work that he finished in 1757. 10 years later, she was the last Abbess from Gutenzell to personally participate in the Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium - which send representatives to the Imperial Diet. Also present were the Princess-Abbesses of Baindt and Rottenmünster. The Princess-Abbess of Heggbach was not present because she was ill. From 1768 the Fürstäbtissin exercised her right as Lady of the Court of her Office in the territory.


 

1759/63 Abbess Nullius Floralba Maurelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Among her privileges was those of selecting and approving confessors for the laity and authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.


Unnamed Baule lady

From 1760 Queen of Baule (Ashanti-Brong) (Cote d'Ivoire)

Succeeded her aunt, Awura Danse Poukou. Since then the kingdom has been ruled by kings, who inherit their position along matrilineal lines. There are various subchiefs in charge of the kings' local populations, and all the chiefs rely on political advisors who help in the decision making process. 


 

1760-90 Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lele Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Putri Setiawan II, Dato' Undang of Luak Johol (Malaysia)

Took over as ruler after the death of Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lela Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Rambut Panjang, who ascended the throne in 1747. The succession the state normally passed via the eldest sister of the previous titleholder.


Unnamed Indian Rani

1760-73 (†) Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Jiji Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)  

Jijibai ruled in the name of her adopted son, since her husband H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760) only had a posthumously born daughter with one of his seven wifes. He was Raja of Satara (with his mother as regent) and then of the newly created state, Kolhapur. She lived (1716-73).


 

1760-61 "Heiress" H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati ...Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)  

There was no female succession, but no other heir was appointed until after her death. She lived (1760-61). 


1760-73 Administratrice Hyacinthe Céleste de Briey de Landres of Remiremont (France)
Elected as successor of Hélène to the post of Dame Doyenne and Head of the Chapter for the absent Princesse Abbesse Anne Charlotte de Lorraine, who lived in Austria and Mons. Hyachinthe Céleste lived (1713-89).

1760-72 Politically Influential Princess Dowager Augusta zu Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha of Wales in United Kingdom of Great Britain 

When her husband, Prince Frederick of Wales, died in 1751 she was named 'Prospective Regent' and she exercised some influence over her son when he came to the throne 9 years later as King Georg III (1738-60-1820) among others trough her close friend, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and Georg's closest advisor and sometime Prime Minister. She was mother of 9 children, and lived (1719-72).


 

1761-79 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Gahena Bai Sahib of Dhar (India)

Reigned in the name of her son Raja Shrimant Khande Rao I Yeshwant Rao Puar (1758-82).


 

1761-83 Temporary Administrator Joanna von Stein zu Juttingen of Rzeszów (Poland)

In charge of the domain during the absence of her son, Franciszek Lubomirski. After the death of her husband, Jerzy Ignacy Lubomirski (1687-1753) she had become the favourite of minister Heinrich Bruehl. She joined the Bar Confederation - the association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against aggression by the Russian Empire and against King Stanisław August Poniatowski and Polish reformers who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's magnates. She lived (1723-1783).


1761-79 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Irmgard Reventlow von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Norborg and Plön (Germany/Denmark)

Since there were no male heirs the Duchies returned to the Danish king after the death of her husband, Frederik Carl (1706-61), but she remained in residence at the lands as her dowry. She was mother of four daughters. The only one to marry was Charlotte Amalie Vilhelmine (1744-70), who entered into matrimony with Prince Frederik Christian von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (1721-94). Another, Sophie Magdalene, became Abbess of the noble Chapter of Vallø from 1782. Christine Ermegaard lived (1711-79).


Catharina II

1762-96 Imperatitsa Catharina II the Great of Russia
1762-81 Queen of Siberia (Sibirskoye Tsartvo)
1763-73 Regent of Hostein-Gottorp (Germany)
1673-96 Countess of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (Germany)
1793-96 Princess of Jever (Germany)

Also known as Yekaterína II Alekséyevna or Екатерина II Алексеевна, she was born as Princess Sophia Augusta zu Anhalt-Zerbst. Her refinement and love of study contrasted with her husband, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp's vulgarity and intemperance; neglected by him, she ingratiated herself with some of the nobles. Her intrigues were discovered by Peter and, on ascending the throne in 1762, he threatened to repudiate her, whereupon she imprisoned him and had him strangled. The subsequent murder of Ivan, the next heir, left Catherine in undisputed possession of the throne. She supported progressive ideas, such as reforms in law, education, and provincial and municipal administration, but she ruled as an autocrat and suppressed Polish nationalists, which led to Poland's partition, and took the Crimea and parts of the Black Sea coast from Turkey. In 1762 Siberia was created a separate Kingdom in a Personal union with Russia until it was incorporated in the Empire. She was also famous for her long succession of young lovers. 1773 she exchanged the Russian claims to Holstein-Gottorp with the Counties of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and in 1793 she inherited Jever from brother and appointed her sister-in-law as administrator. Catharina lived (1729-96).


Unnamed empress

1762-71 Go-Sakuramachi Tennō of Japan
1771-80 Titular Empress-Regent
1780-89 The Guardian of the Young Lord

後桜町天皇 was the 117th imperial ruler of Japan. She was the second daughter of Emperor Sakuramachi, and ascended the throne by a special decree by her brother, Emperor Go-Momozono, as his son, Prince Hidehito, was only 5 years old at the time, but nine years later she abdicated in his favour, but remained empress-regent (without political power. When he died in 1779, she consulted with the senior courtiers and Imperial Guards and finally decided to adopt Prince Morohito, sixth son of Prince Kan'in-no-miya Sukehito, who then became Emperor Kōkaku. After the throne had switched to the new branch of the imperial line, she, in her role as Retired Emperor, came to be referred to as "the Guardian of the Young Lord". In this role, in 1789, during a scandal involving an honorary title, she admonished the Emperor. When she died, she left behind a book called Kinchū-nenjū no koto, roughly "Matters of Years in the Imperial Court", consisting of poems, imperial letters, imperial chronicles, and so forth, excelling in literary merit. Her personal name was Toshiko, and her original title was Isa-no-miya, later Ake-no-miya, and she lived (1740-1813).


Purea of Bora-Bora

1762-77 High Chiefess Purea Te-ha'apapa I Te-i'oa-tua Teri'i-tari'a of Bora-Bora (Porapora) (French Polynesia)       

First married Rohi-a-nu'u, High Chief of Huahine and after his death, married to his brother Mato Teri'i Tepoara'i, High Priest of Ra'iatea and Huahine. In 1768 she met Captain James Cook during one of his trips around the world.


 

1762-1802 Sovereign Countess Christine zu Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

After the death of her mother, Eleonora Friederika von Solms-Assenheim, she received homage as co-heir and co-regent of the County together with her brother. The County was divided among a number of heirs. She was married to Georg-Friedrich-Ludwig von Waldeck-Bergheim, and was succeeded by daughter, Countess Louise. Christine lived (1762-1802).


1762-65, 1768-71 and 1783-86 Reigning Abbess-General María Benita de Oñate of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Many members of her family were Governors in various parts of the New World (Southern America)


 

1762-1802 Reigning Lady Frederike Louise Amone von Castell-Remlingen of Breitenburg etc. (Germany)

Succeeded her brother, Christian Adolf Friederich Gottlieb (1736-62), who inherited the estates after their mother Friderieke Eleonore in 1760. She married Frederik Graf von Rantzau (1729-1806) and was succeeded by her son August Wilhelm Frantz von Rantzau-Breitenburg. She lived (1736-1802)

1763-68 Regent Dowager Electress Maria Antonia of Bavaria of Sachsen (Germany)

Her husband, Elector Friedrich Christian died 10 weeks after ascending to the throne and she became regent for their son, Kurfürst and later king Friedrich-August. She was in charge of the treasury and took part in the most important government decisions, and her brother-in-law was only regent concerning the "electoral affairs" (jura electoralia). She was a composer, poet and painter under the pseudonym ETPA (Ermelinda Talea Pastorella Arkadia- that was her secret name as member of the Roman Academy of the Arcadians. After her brother, Maximillian II Joseph died in 1777 she claimed the Bavarian Palatinate, but the title was inherited by a very remote relative. She was daughter of Elector Karl of Bayern who later became Emperor Karl VII. She lived (1724-80).


1763-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld, Herzogin-Regentin von Sachsen-Meiningen und Hildburghausen

1763-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld of Sachsen-Meiningen und Hildburghausen (Germany)
1769 Director of the Commission of Dephts
1775-79 Joint Regent of the Duchy

After the death of her husband, Anton Ulrich (1687-1743-63), she took over the reins in the name of her son, For August Friedrich (1754-63-82). The relatives in Gotha had hoped to get part of the Meissen-inheritance but the emperor installed her as Sole Regent and Chief Guardian of her children (Regentin und Obervormünderin). The duchy was totally bankrupt as she took over the regency. Both the failed harvests, the 7 years war and the many warfares of her husband's family had ruined the state.  She began financial reforms, reorganised the army, humanised the juridical system, introduced religious tolerance, created a modern school system, and promoted the cultural life. She appointed young and able Ministers and also reformed the administration. In 1769 Emperor Joseph II appointed her director of a Commission to handle the depths of the Saxon Duchies together with some other relatives. She also took care of her husband's 10 and her own 8 children, though most of them died in infancy. After her oldest son came of age, she continued officially as co-regent until the second came of age in 1779. She used the titulature; "Durchlauchtigsten Fürstin und Frau, Charlotten Amalien verwittibten Herzogin zu Sachsen, Jürlich, Clebe und Berg, auch Engern und Westphalen, Landgräfin in Thüringen, Markgräfin zu Meissen, gefürstete Gräfin zu Henneberg, Gräfin zu der Mark und Ravensberg, Frau zu Ravenstein zu der gebohrnen Landgräfin zu Hessen, Fürstin zu Hersfeld, Gräfin zu Catzenelnbogen, Diez, Ziegenhain, Nidda, Schaumburg und Hanau, auch Sayn und Witgenstein, Obervormünderin und Landesregentin", and lived (1730-1801).


1763-66 Regent Dowager Princess Christiane Henriette von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld of Waldeck-Pyrmont (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Karl August (1704-63) she was regent for son Friedrich I, Fürst zu Waldeck and Graf von Pyrmont (1743-63-1812). She was born as Pfalzgräfin von Birkenfeld, and lived (1725-1816).


 

1763-83 Princess of the Realm Maria Theresa Josepha van Hornes of Hornes and Overisque, Countess of Beaucignies (Belgium)

Her father, Prince Maximilian Emanuel d'Hornes, Count of Baucignies and Prince d'Hornes (1695-163) had named her as sole heiress of his principalities, counties, baronies, lands and manors situated in the Austrian and Dutch Brabant and in the Belgian Flanders and Artois provinces. Her sister, Princess Elisabeth Philippine Claude of Hornes and Dowager Princess of Stolberg-Gedern, had accepted the new will and testament in the presence of her sister and irrevocably transferred and relinquished by notorized document to the Serene Princes of Salm-kyrburg and Hornes, all rights to said claims. With this document and agreement the dispute over the paternal inheritance regarding properties, but not over the titles of nobility, was deemed to have been finalized. She lived (1725-83)


1763-96 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Anastasia von Eptingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
1782 she renovated the chapter and its church in Rococo style. She was daughter of the noble Konrad Anton von Eptingen and Katharina Jacobea von Ramschwag.

1763 De facto Acting Premierminister Maria Amalia von Brühl Mniszchowa of Sachsen (Germany)

Her father, Heinrich Graf von Brühl, intrusted her with the running of the government during his illness, which lead to his death on 28 October 1763. She was politically influential from 1752 and as the wife of the Polish Court Marshall Jerzy August Mniszech she also became an influential opponent of King Stanisław August Poniatowski of Poland from 1764.  She was well educated and known as a good politician and a good intriguer. In 1770 she created with Teresa Ossolińska a union called "quintumvirate". The members were their husbands and other very powerful polish aristocrates: Wessel, Radziwiłł and Zamoyski and they initiated the declaration of the act of interregnum in Poland. She lived (1736-1772).


 

1763 Rebellion Leader María Josefa Gabriela Cariño Silang in The Philippines

After her husband, Diego Silang, was assassinated, she took over the leadership of the revolt against the Spanish in Ilocos. In 1762, after the British invasion of the Philippines, her husband had been able to expel the Spanish provincial governor from Vigan and won some skirmishes. A strong force was sent against her. This time, she was forced to retreat to Abra. Riding a fast horse, Gabriela led her troops towards Vigan, but she was driven back. She fled again to Abra, where she was captured and executed together with about 100 followers. Lived (ca. 1730-63).


Anna Jablonowska

1764-1800 Sovereign Duchess Anna Jabłonowska of Siemiatycze, Kock, Wysock, Wołyń, Strzelin, Kukiz, Mariampol and Jezupol (Poland)
1764-1800 Politically Influential in Poland

Her husband, Voivode Jan Kajetan Jabłonowski of Bracław died in 1764 and 1768-72 she was important and unofficial member of leadership of The Confederation of Bar, the military union of nobility. In 1794 she supported active the insurrection of Tadeusz Kościuszko. After the third partition of Poland in 1795 she contacted with Central Assembly, patriotic organisation, who prepared the military fight against Russian domination in Poland. In her properties she implemented administrative and economic reforms. She was Daughter of Kazimierz Karol Sapieha and Karolina Radziwiłł, and lived (1728-1800).


Charlotte Murray, 8th Baroness of Strange of Knokin, Lady of Man and the Isles, Duchess of Athol

1764-65 Joint Sovereign Lady Charlotte Murray of Man and the Isles (British Crown Dependency)

Also 8th Baroness Strange of Knockyn, she descended from the Counts of Derby and was married to her first cousin, John Murray, and he should have been heir to the dukedom, but he was ineligible since his father had fought in the Jacobite Rising, but the House of Lords deemed John as the rightful heir to his uncle's title and he succeed him as 3rd Duke of Atholl, whereupon Charlotte became Duchess of Atholl. She alos inherited the sovereignty of the Isle of Man passed but she, quickly bowed to pressure to confirm sale of regalities of Island to English crown, an agreement that had been agreed to by her father, and in 1765 she sold regalities for 70,000 pounds but kept many other rights including that of nominating the Bishop. She was mother of 7 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (ca. 1731-1805).


 

1764-1805 Marchioness María del Pilar de Castejón y Silva of Lanzarote (Spain)

As the Marquesa de Lanzarote she was feudal lady of the island in the Canary Islands, where the feudal system lasted until 1812, though she lived in Madrid. She was also 4th marquesa de Velamazán, 8th Marquesa de Gramosa, 3rd Marquesa de Albaserrada, Condesa de Coruña, Vizcondesa de Torija, and de las Vegas de Matute. She was married to her uncle Martín Pedro de Castejón y Dávila, XVIII conde de Coruña, marqués de Beleña. conde de Paredes, vizconde de Torija. They did not have any children and she was succeeded by her cousin, María Luisa de Silva y González de Castejón, and lived (1750-1806).

 

1764-1785/88 Overseer of the Crown Lands Urszula Elżbieta Moszkowska of Barcice and Rytro (Poland)

Appointed by the king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.


Sophie Caroline von Braunschweig-Lüneburg

1764-1817 Reigning Dowager Lady Sophie Caroline von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Neustadt Erlangen in Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)

Second wife of Margrave Markgraf Friedrich and after his death she moved to the Castle of Erlangen, and funded a baroque court, and gave the small University Town the air of a Residential City for more than half a century. She did not have any children, and lived (1737-1817).


1764-1802 Princess-Abbess Friedrike Charlotte Leopoldine Luise zu Brandenburg-Schwedt of Herford (Germany)
The Royal Princess of Preusia had been Koadjutorin from 1755. When she took office, she confirmed Friderich Ulrich Grafen von Oeynhausen as tenant of a number of estates of the chapter, using the titulature of Friederica Charlotta Leopoldina Louise Prinzessin in Preußen und Markgräfin zu Brandenburg, Äbtissin zu Herford. She was the last sovereign ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory which was incorporated into Prussia in 1802 as part of the rearrangement of the German Realm after the Napolionic wars. She remained in the Chapter until shortly before she died after years of ilness. She was daughter of Margrave Friedrich Heinrich von Preußen of Brandeburg-Schwedt and Leopoldine zu Anhalt-Dessau. Her grandmother, Johanna Charlotta von Anhalt-Dessau had been Princess-Abbess of Herford (1729-50) before her marriage. lived (1745-1808).      

 

1765-95 Rani Ahalaya Bay of Maratha (or Marathen) (India)

Her son, Mali Rao succeeded his grandfather, Malhar Rao Molkar, but died after 9 months, where after she succeeded him.


 

1765-67and 1777-91 Regent Dowager Rani Sagvanabai Aisaheb of Phaltan (India)

Aisaheb reigned alone after the death of Naik Mudhojirao Nimbalkar III in 1765 until Naik Sayajirao Nimbalkar came on the throne in 1767. He was succeeded by Malojirao Nimbalkar II and when he died in 1777 she became regent for Naik Janrao Nimbalkar II (1777-1827).


Carolina of Oranje-Nassau

1765-66 Governess Princess Carolina of Oranje-Nassau of Friesland (The Netherlands)

Her parents' third, but first surviving child, and in 1747 it was decreed that females could inherit the position of Stadholder (and she was granted the title opvolgster in het erfstadhouderschap), however her brother, the future Willem V, was born the following year. Her brother became Stadholder in 1755, aged three, first with their mother, Anna of Hanover and then with their grandmother, Marijke Meu as regents. After the death of the grandmother, Carolina became regent in the Northern Provinces. She had 15 children with her husband, Prince Karl of Nassau, Count of Saarbrücken and Saarwerden, Herr of Lahr, Mahlberg, Wiesbaden and Idstein. She lived (1743-87).


Gräfin Franzisca Josepha von Freudenberg

1765-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Josepha von Freudenberg of Obermünster Regensburg (Germany)

As Princess of the Holy Roman Realm, she was member of the Bench of Swabian Prelates in the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag), who was able to cast a collective vote - a so-called curiate (Kuriatstimme). The same was the case for the Westphalian counts in the College of Princes (Fürstenkolleg), where only the major Princes had their own votes. The Princess-Abbesses normally voted via representatives (by proxy) as did many of the other princes.


Julie-Sophie-Gillette de Gondrin de Pardaillan d'Antin

1765-92 Reigning Abbess Julie Sophie Charlotte de Pardaillan d'Antin of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Julie-Sophie-Gillette de Gondrin de Pardaillan d'Antin was driven from her monastery by the Revolution; her fate is unknown. Towards the end of the eighteenth century there were 230 nuns and 60 monks at Fontevrault, and at the Revolution there were still 200 nuns, but the monks were few in number and only formed a community at the motherhouse. In the course of his preaching journeys through France, Robert d'Arbrissel had founded a great number of houses, and during the succeeding centuries others were given to the order. In the seventeenth century the Fontevrist priories numbered about sixty in all and were divided into the four provinces of France, Bretagne, Gascone, and Auvergne. The order never attained to any great importance outside France though there were a few houses in Spain and England. (d. 1797).


1765-68 Reigning Abbess-General Rosalía de Chaves of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Among the many dignities and high offices held by the abbess of Las Huelgas was that of the title of Abbess General of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile dating from 1189, which gave her the privilege of convoking a general chapter at Burgos each year.


 

1765-87 Sovereign Countess Karoline Sophie Luise Maria Henriette Leopolde von Pückler of Weltz and Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmiedelfeld-Speckfeld (A part of the Amt of Obersontheim)(Germany)

The unmarried daughter and successor of Friederike Amöne von Löwenstein-Wertheim. After her death, her half-brother, Friedrich (son of her father in his second marriage), inherited her part of the possessions. She lived (1765-87). 


 

1766-1806 Sovereign Lady Luise von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenberg of Broich (Germany)
1806-15 Lady of Broich

Unlike her father, she was interested in her possession in Broich, in and often stayed there. She was married to Georg-Wilhelm zu Hessen-Darmstadt(d. 1782), the brother of the Reigning Landgrave, Ludwig IX, and as he spend most of his time, she was in charge of the representation of the state in Darmstadt after the death of his wife in 1774. Her possessions were mediatised and she lost the sovereignty and immediate status, but kept some political and juridical rights, until the territories were finally annexed by Preussen in 1815. The daughter of Count Christian Karl Reinhard zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenberg und Hildesheim (169-1766) and Katharina Polyxena zu Solms-Rödelheim (1702-65), Maria Luise Albertine was mother of 9 children, and  lived (1729-1818).


1766-79 In charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Henriette Auguste von Lippe-Detmold of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Denmark and Germany)

Her son, Frederik Henrik Vilhelm of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg was 19 when he succeeded his father, Frederik of Glücksborg, and continued in Danish military service. She lived (1725-77).


1766-77 Princess-Abbess Therese Natalie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim  (Germany)

The attempt to have her married to an Austrian Archduke or French Prince stranded on the fact that she did not want to convert to Catholicism. Instead she became Canoness in Herford and in the last years of the 1740's she was designated as successor of Elisabeth Ernestine Antonie von Sachsen-Meiningen in Gandersheim, and after her death, she was elected. She spent a lot of time at the court in Braunschweig and the chapter fell apart. She was daughter of Ferdinand Albrecht of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Antoinette Amalie of Braunschweig-Blankenberg. Her sister was the de-facto regent Queen Juliane-Marie of Denmark (1729-72-84-96). Therese Natalie lived (1728-78).


Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen

1766-81 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theresian Noble Convent at the Hradschin in Prague (Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn))

Her mother, Empress Maria Theresia, had founded the convent in 1755. As abbess she enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income. The Archduchess was member of a number of Imperial Academies of Art and was interested in science and music. In 1781 she resigned and moved to Klagenfurt where she lived close to the he Elizabethan Convent the rest of her life. She lived (1738-89).


Marie Lesczinska

1766-68 Hereditary Duchess Marie Leszczyńska of Lorraine (France)

Daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski (1677-1766), who was King of Poland (1704-09) and 1733-36), Administrator of Zweibrücken (1709-16) and then resided at Wissembourg until he became Duke of Lorraine (1737-66). After the death, she inherited the Duchy which became included in the domains of her husband, King Louis XV. She was a very quiet, gentle, and extremely religious person, held her own court in her chambers, receiving guests and carrying out ceremonial function and did not become involved in court intrigues and lived a quiet, peaceful existence. She lived (1703-68). 


1767-95 Regent Dowager Maharani Ahalya Bai of Indore (Andaur) (India)

The daughter in-law of Malhar Rao Holkar (1694-1766), she became ruler after his death. She governed the state from a palace fort at Maheshwar on the northern bank of the Narmada river. She established several religious edifices remarkable in architecture. She died at Maheshwar where a large mausoleum stands in her memory. Her son Malle Rao Holkar became Maharaja after her death.    


 

1767-77 Sitti Saleh I of Tallo (Indonesia)

Born as Princess of Taeng she succeeded Abdul Kadir II. She (d. 1778).


 

1767-77 Dowager Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm Christine Wilhelmine von Löwenhaupt of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
1767-1803 Lady of Ober- und Niederbronn

Her husband Philipp Andreas von Ellroth, died after 18 months of marriage. He had bought part of the Lordship by the von Löwenhaupt-owners. But the Elector of Pfalz-Zweibrücken took possession of the territory. In 1777 she sold her part of the lordship to the Princess Karoline von Isenburg, the natural daughter of Elector Karl Theodor. In 1803 she, the "verwittweten Gräfin von Löwenhaupt", was granted 11.300 Gulden for her share in the Lordships of Ober- und Niederbronn at the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation) which distributed the German lands in to larger entities.


Erzherzogin Maria Elisabeth von Habsburg-Lothringen

1767-1805/08 Royal Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Royal Chapter in Innsbruck (Austria-Hungary)

The chapter was founded by her mother, Empress Maria Theresia of Austria-Hungary with the purpose of praying for her father Emperor Franz I Stefan, who died the same year. She had been hit by smallpox in 1767 and she became Abbess of the Worldly Chapter for noble ladies. She became the centre of the town-life because of her extrovert personality. In 1805 she fled the Napoleonic troops and three years later the convent was dissolved by Bavaria. She lived (1743-1808).


1767-70 Princess_Abbess Maria Augusta Josepha von Fürstenberg-Stühlingen of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Granted the right to become canoness in Buchau from 1741 but it is not known is she acctually took up the position. 1767 Empress Maria Theresia confirmed her election "Maria Theresia, Kömische Kayserin, Wittib“ bestätigt die „nach tödtlichem Hintritt der Anna Scholastica Paulerin von Hohenburg“ erfolgte Wahl der „Maria Josepha aus dem fürstlichen Hauß von Fürstenberg“ zur Aebtissin von St. Georg". She was daughter of Joesph Wilhelm Ernst von Fürstenberg and Maria Anna von Waldstein. (d. 1770).

Unnamed Jaipur Mahrarani

1768-78 Regent Dowager Rani Chandawatiji Maharani Sahiba of Janipur (India)

In charge of the government in the name of son H.H. Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Prithvi Singh II Bahadur, who lived (1763-78). He was married to several wifes, and was succeeded by brother. 


 

1768-83 Regent Dowager Baroness Marie Katharina van Tuyll van Serooskerken of Knyphausen (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Count Christian Frederik Bentinck (1734-1768) (Son of Charlotte-Sophie von Aldenburg und Knyphausen and Willem Bentinck, Count Bentinck from 1732), she was regent for their son, the sovereign baron, Wilhelm II Gustav van Bentinck (1762-35), who reigned 1768-1810, 1813 and 1818-35. The territory was annexed to the Netherlands in 1810 and occupied by Russia 1813-18. She lived (1743-98).


Marie-Thérèse-Louise de Savoie-Carignan, Duchesse de Rambouillet, Princesse de Lamballe

1768-92 Sovereign Duchess Marie-Thérèse-Louise de Savoie-Carignan of Rambouillet (France)

After the death of her husband, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, prince de Lamballe she was granted the Duchy for life, since they did not have any children. She was a devoted friend and favourite of Queen Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinette. She was extremely unpopular and was killed by a mob during the French Revolution in the September massacres (1792), and her head was displayed on a pike under the queen's windows. She lived (1749–92).


 

1768-1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Bernarda von Markdorf of Baindt (Germany)

In 1797 the convent reached its peak with 37 noble ladies, but in 1803 it was abolished. Maria Bernarda's family had been Lords of Markdorf, by the Bodensee, since the 11th century.


 

Until 1768 Reigning Abbess Françoise de Dion de Wandonne of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord of Wanndonne, Couplelle, Louvigny and La Viélville.


 

1768-90 Reigning Abbess Marie Hosephe Camille de Coupigny d'Hénu of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

The French Council of State confirmed the original provision, that the canonesses had to be of noble families from the Low Countries or Artois, who could trace back noble origin from both sides of their family for at least 4 quarters (generations). She wasaughter of the Lord of Hénu, Warlincourt and Marie Héricourt.


Maria-Caroline von Habsburg-Lorraine

1768-1806 De-facto ruler, Queen Consort Maria Caroline von Habsburg-Lorraine of The Two Sicilies (Italy)
1777-1806 Councillor of State

Daughter of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria and very influential during the reign of her husband, Ferdinando di Borbone who became King of Napoli when his father succeeded as king of Spain. When she gave birth to a male heir in 1777, she became a member of the Council of state.  Under Maria’s influence Ferdinando joined her brother in opposing the French Revolution, which resulted in the invasion of Naples. Ferdinando escaped to Sicily leaving his kingdom to become a Republic controlled by France. By June 1799 he had gathered his forces and returned to crush the opposition and regain his throne. In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother, Joseph, as King. This forced Ferdinando to abdicate and leave once more for Sicily. He returned to Naples again after Napoleon's downfall. In 1816 Naples and Sicily were united when the kingdom of the Two Sicilies was formed. By 1820, dissatisfaction with the monarchy resulted in an uprising, which Ferdinando quelled by reluctantly agreeing to a new constitution. However, in 1821 he called on Austrian forces to overthrow the reactionary government. She lived (1752-1814).

1769-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Febronia Elisabeth Speth von Zwyfalten of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her family were Freiherren - Barons - in Hohenzollern, and also known as von Speth-Zwyfalten.

1769-1802 Politically Influential Duchess Maria Amalia von Habsburg-Lorraine of Parma and Piacenza (Italy)

Daughter of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria and very influential during the reign of her husband, Fernando de Borbone, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, and showed her abilities as politician during the Napoleonic wars, which meant that Parma was occupied by France in 1796. After her husband's death in 1802, she moved to Prague. And though the marriage was very unhappy, she gave birth to four children, and lived (1746-1802).

1769-74  Politically Influential Countess Jeanne du Barry in France 

Her unpopularity contributed to the decline of the prestige of the crown in the early 1770s. She was born Marie-Jeanne Bécu, the illegitimate daughter of lower-class parents. After a convent education, she was a shop assistant in a fashion house in Paris. While there she became the mistress of Jean du Barry, who introduced her into Parisian high society, and her beauty captivated a succession of nobly born lovers before she attracted Louis XV's attention in 1768. Du Barry arranged a nominal marriage between Jeanne and his brother, Guillaume du Barry, and in April 1769 she joined Louis XV's court. She immediately joined the faction that brought about the downfall of Louis XV's Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Duke de Choiseul, in 1770; and she then supported the drastic judicial reforms instituted by her friend the chancellor René-Nicolas de Maupeou, in 1771. On the accession of Louis XVI, Madame du Barry was banished to a nunnery; from 1776 until the outbreak of the Revolution she lived on her estates with the Duke de Brissac. In 1792 she made several trips to London, probably to give financial aid to French émigrés. Condemned as a counter-revolutionary by the Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris in December 1793, she was guillotined, and lived (1743-93).


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