Women in power 1700-1740

   Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

Maria Anna zu Pfalz-Neuburg

1700-01 Leading Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Queen María Ana de Baviera-Neoburgo y Hessen-Darmstadt of Spain and the Indies

Considered herself to be the "principal minister" of her husband, Carlos II (1665-1700), after their marriage in 1691, and she was politically very influential. After her husband's death, she was member of The Governing Board from 1.-16. November. The Board had no formal chairman, but she had the "preferred vote".  In 1700 Felipe V of Bourbon became king - he was great-grandson of Felipe IV, who reigned (1621-65), and became king after a war of succession between the Habsburg and Bourbon heirs to the throne. She was confined to Toledo and from 1706 she lived in exile in France until she returned to Spain one year before she died. Born as Maria Anna von der Pfalz-Neuburg, she lived (1667-1740).

1700-33 Sovereign Princess Ippolita I Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Princess of Venosa, Countess of Conza and Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola and       Castelvetere (Italy)

Ippolita succeeded sister Olimpia as Principessa sovrana, and married to Gregorio II Boncompagni, Duke of Sora and Acre, Marquess of Vignola et cetera, who was co-prince until his death in 1707. She was daughter of Niccolò I and his third wife Costanza Pamphili, and was succeeded by the oldest of her six daughters, Maria Eleonora Boncompagni Ludovisi, who reigned 1733-45. Ippolita lived (1663-1724).

1700-07 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Sahib Maharaj of Satara (India)

Also known as Sita Bai Ali Sahib or or Tarabai. In 1714 her son, H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760), became ruler of Kolhapur. Tara Bai lived (1675-1761).

An unnamed Sikh Maharani

1700 Regent The Rajawat Maharani Sahiba of Bikander (in Punjab India)

Widow of Maharaja Sri Anup Singhji Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner and regent for son, who succeeded half-brother.


1700-17.. Sultan Aisa of Ma’yuta (Mayotte, today a French Possession)

At a not known date, she was succeeded by daughter, Sultan Monavo.  


Around 1700 Adatuang Adi We Rakkia Karaeng Kanjenne of Sidenreng (Indonesia)

Succeeded father, Adatuang La Mallewai as ruler of the Bugis state in South-Western Celebes/Sulawesi.


Circa 1700-07/41 Regent Princess Tara Bona of Marato (India)

Deposed by a rival Faction of the family but continued the fight until she was finally beaten in 1741.

Unnamed Asante Queen Mother

1700-circa 1750 1st Asantehemaa Nana Nyarko Kusi Amoa of Asante (Ghana)

There are different interpretations of the role of the Queen Mother of the Asante, but it seems that she held the important office of "ohemaa" - the second highest political position in the state. Theoretically an Ashanti Queen Mother was next to the king in the sense that she automatically took upon the king's responsibilities should a condition arise which made it later for the latter to administer. She was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all-important decisions. She was de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She exercised a general supervisory authority over women but did not in fact represent the overall interest of the women. Nyaaako was mother of king Opoku Ware I (1720-50) and the 4th Asantehemaa Konadu Yaadom I, who was in office (Ca.1778-1809).

1700-10 Regent Dowager Rani Tarabai of Kolhapur (India)

After the death of her husband, she assumed control of the government in the name of her son Shambhaji II. A truce was sought which was promptly rejected by the emperor. A new assault by the Marathas in Malwa and the ransacking of Hyderabad further frustrated the octogenarian emperor. Tarabai and the Marathas always aggravated Aurangzeb, which eventually drained all his strength and resolve. He had spent more than two decades pursuing an evasive and crafty enemy and his extreme old age left him frail and weak until his death in 1707.After the emperor’s death, her nephew, Shahuji Shivaji II was released by Emperor Bahadur Shah, and immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged her and her son Shambhaji II. A power struggle ensued and finally with the help of a skilful Brahmin, Balaji Vishwanath, Shahuji Shivaji II was able to consolidate his power. She lived (1675-1761).


Around 1700 Moäng Ratu Dona Ines Ximenes da Silva of Flores (Indonesia)

Followed her brother Moäng Ratu Don Simao (Samaoh) as ruler, and was later succeeded by the grandson of a brother of her mother Moäng Ratu Don Siku Koru as ruler of the Roman Catholic principality at the island of Flores. The Ximenes da Silva-dynasty ruled until 1952 and continued as civil rulers until 1960 over Sikka.


Circa 1700-40 Queen Alemba of Sambi (Angola)

Reigned jointly with Ului Nonudu. Sambi or Sambu was one of the large clusters of Ovimbundu States, which was founded at various times from around 1600.


1700-12 Princess-Abbess Maria Magdalena Sohler of Heggbach (Germany)

A forceful and energetic administrator and was engaged in various disputes with neighbouring nobles. The chapter was hit by heavy taxes during the War of the Spanish Succession and the continued passage thorough the territory of foreign troops. From around 1705 her epileptic attacks increased and she was unable to perform her duties.


1700-11 Princesse-Abbesse Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle de Lorraine of Remiremont (France)

Her father, Duke Léopold of Lorraine, tried to impose her as Coadjutrice with the right of succession. The Princess-Abbess Dorothée asked the Professors at Sorbonne for advice, but they didn’t answer before her death 2 years later, so King Louis XIV imposed Élisabeth as sovereign of the territory. She lived (1700-11).

Christina Piper Törnflycht

1700-52 Territorial Landowner Countess Christina Piper Törnflycht of the estates of Krageholm, Sturefors and Högestad in Skåne and Ängsö in Västmanland and Toppeladugård, Ugglarp, Björnstorp, Östra Torup, Assarstorp, Baldringe, Viggebyholm, Sturefors
1747-52 Owner of the fideicommis of Christinehovs with Andarums, Torups, Högestads and Baldringe säterier (Sweden)

Very influential locally and known as "Queen Christina at Christinehov". She was left in charge of the family's wast estates from the the time her husband, Royal Councillor Baron and Count (Friherre and greve), Carl Piper (1647 - 1716) went with King Karl XII at war in Skåne, Poland and Russia 1700. He was taken prisoner in 1709 and died 5 years later. In the beginning it included at least 20.000 and she expanded it. 1725 she bought the estate of Andrarums wich included an mine of the chemical compound of Alum and a factory with a total of 900 employees which she also expanded. It was in function until 1912. She founded the fideicommis of Sturefors with Viggbyholm in 1747 for her daughter-son Nils Adam Bielke, which included a large number of estates and farms in Hanekinds, Bankekinds, Åkerbo, Kinda and the shires of Hammarkinds in Östergötlands län. She also created 2 other fideicommis of Engsö for her son Carl Fredrik and Söderby with Gerstaberg for the family of Counts of Löwen. Of her 8 children 1 son and 4 daughters survived. She was daughter of the Mayor Stockholm, Olof Hansson Törnflycht (1640-1713), and lived (1673-1752).


1700-16 Throne Claimer Princess Pedi Wangmo of Sikkim (India)

Claimed the throne from her young half-brother, Muwong Chador Namgyal (b. 1686) because she was the oldest. Her mother was a Bhutanese and who invited a force from Bhutan to assassinate him, and he was carried off to Lhasa where he distinguished himself in Buddhist learning and Tibetan literature. Meanwhile, Bhutanese forces had captured the Rabdentse Palace and after eight years of occupation the Deb Raja of Bhutan eventually withdrew the Bhutanese expedition upon the mediation of the Tibetan Government. Chador Namgyal then returned and started to consolidate his kingdom, driving out the Bhutanese forces. Bhutan made another invasion and though many of the areas under Bhutanese occupation were cleared, what are today Kalimpong and Rhenock were lost. In 1716, while the king was at Ralung hot springs, she conspired with a Tibetan doctor to arrange bloodletting from a main artery and thus caused the king's death. The doctor was eventually executed at Namchi and she strangled to death with a silk scarf.

1700s Shin Rani Guwari of Gilgat (Dardistan)  (India)

Dardistan is a mountainous region in the Ladakh area in Northern India, inhabited by indigenous tribes. 


1700s Chieftainess Kaipkire of the Herero Tribe (Namibia)

Led her people in battles against British slave traders. There are records of Herero women fighting German soldiers as late as 1919.


1700s Rani Anubai of Ichalkarnji (India)

Reigned the principality which is situated in present day's Maharashtra.


17... Queen Regnant Ramananandrianjaka Rambolamasoandro of Ambohidratrimo (Madagascar)

Priviously known as Princess Ravorambato or Ravormbato, she deposed her uncle King Andrianbelanonona. Her granddaugther, Princess Rembolamasoandro was married to the king of Madagascar.


17... Sultan Nyau wa Faume of Ngazidja (Comoro Islands)

The island is also known as Grande Comore. 


17... Sultan Adji di Kurin-dana Malaka of Berau (Indonesia)

Berau is a scarcely populated area in the Island of Borneo.  


17... Ratu Mas of Tanah Bumbu (Indonesia)

Succeessor of her father, Pangeran Dipati Tuha, and married to Daeng Malewa, Pangeran Dipati who succeeded her. Their daughter Ratu Intan became Ratu of the Cantung and Batulicin statelettes and married Sultan Anom of Pasir, also known as Sultan Dipati Anom Alamsyah Aji Dipati (1768-99).


Circa 17... Amanyanabo Kambasa of Okolo-Ama (Nigeria)

Ruler of a city-state known to the Europeans as Bonny. The first ruler whose reign is dated reigned from 1759 some generations after Kambasa.


17... Inas Embun Serin of Undang Luak (Malaysia)

The state was one of nine minor states that joined in the Negeri Sembilan Confederation.


17... Queen Logenge of Bimba (Cameroon)

She succeeded father Mbimbi and her husband King Kwan of Duala was co-regent to 1792.

Unnamed Tongan Lady

17... Princess Nanasipau'u, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

Daughter of Fatafehi Tu'ipulatu-i-Langi Tu'oteau [Tu'ipulatu II], Tu'i Tonga (who died 1770) and his third wife, Latutama. Her oldest daughter became the Tamaha, the younger Tu'i Tonga Fefine. As Tu'i Tonga Fefine Princess Nanasipau'u held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers, and she was considered to be abowe marriage, but could take the lovers she wanted.

Unnamed Arab Lady

17... Amira Ghaliyy al-Whhabiyya in Saudi Arabia

A Hanibali from Tarba, she led a military resistance movement to defend Mecca against foreign take over in the beginning of the 18th century. She was given the title of Amira, the female equivalent of the title of Amir - military leader. 


17.../18... The Omukama of The Bashambo Dynasty in Mpororo (Uganda)

Queen Mother Regnant of the kingdom, which was founded circa 1650. It covered much of the Kigezi region of Uganda and what is now northern Rwanda.

Caterina de Braganza

1701 and 1704-05 Regent Infanta Caterina de Bragança of Portugal

Stepped in as leader of the government during the illness of her brother Dom Pedro II (1648-83-1706). had held the title of Princess da Beira 1653-62 (Hereditary Princess) until her marriage to Charles II of England, Scotland ind Ireland (1660-85)and remained in England, living at Somerset House, through the reign of her brother-in-law, James II and his deposement in the Glorious Revolution by Mary II and William III, but her position deteriorated as the practice of her religion led to misunderstandings and increasing isolation and she returned to Portugal in 1692. She had at least 2 miscarriages and lived (1638-1705).

A Duchess of Kurland

1701-02 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Sophia von Brandenburg of Livonia and Courland and Semgallen (Courland/Kurzeme) (Latvia)

Reigned in the name of her son, Friedrich Wilhelm (1692-98-1711), who had first been under regency of his uncle Ferdinand, who became Duke in 1711. The region is also known as Livland and Kurland or Kurzmene. Elisabeth Sophia lived (1674-1770).

Circa 1701-1754 Queen Alliquippa of the Seneca Tribe (USA)

Also known as Allequippa, or Allaquippa, she was a politician and a member of the Seneca tribe, one of the Iroquois Indian nations. The first records of her were her saying goodbye to William Penn in Delaware, New Jersey in 1701. She warned the Pennsylvania government officials in 1747 that the French were trying to take over the area as they came from Ohio. She found this out apparently as she was making a trip across the state. In 1753 as George Washington traveled through Logstown, he stopped to see her and gave her gifts of a watch coat. She was a key ally of the British during the French and Indian War. Together with her son Kanuksusy, and warriors from her band of Mingo Seneca, she traveled to Fort Necessity to assist George Washington but did not take an active part in the Battle of the Great Meadows on 3-4 July 1754. She lived (1680/85-1754).


1701-11 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Susana zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)

Received the Papal Nuntius, Vincenzo Bichi in the chapter in the last year of her reign. Two other members of her family were Fürstäbtissin of the territory, the first from 1664 and the second from 1735. She was daughter of Hans Wilhelm zu Rhein zu Mortzwiller and Beatrix Reich von Reichenstein.

Marie-Anne de la Trémoille, Princesse des Ursins

1701-14 Politically Influential Marie-Anne de la Trémoille, Princess des Ursins in Spain

Her first husband, Adrien Blaise de Talleyrand, Prince de Chalais fled to Spain after having involved in a duel in 1663 and died shortly after. She moved to Spain and married Flavio Orsini, duke of Bracciano in 1675. After his death in 1701 she sold his estates, assumed the title of Princesse des Ursins, a corruption of Orsini, and became Mistress of the Robes of Queen Maria Luisa de Savoia, who, together with her husband Felipe V of Spain (Philippe d'Anjou), was completely under her influence. She ensured that he dismissed his French advisors and relied on native Spanish aides. In 1704 her enemies at the French court secured her recall, but she still had the support of Madame de Maintenon. The following year she returned to Spain, with a free hand, and with what was practically the power to name her own ministry. During the worst times of the war of the Spanish Succession she was the real head of the Bourbon party, and was well aided by the spirited Queen. She did not hesitate to quarrel even with such powerful personages as the Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo, Portocarrero, when they proved hostile. After Maria Luisa's death, Felipe married Elisabetta Farnese who dismissed her. She spent the rest of her life in Rome. The daughter of the Duc de Noirmontier and Renée Julie Aubri, she lived (1642-1722).


1701-circa 17 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Fausta Domenga Sarmiento de Vallardares y Moctezuma, IV Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)

Followed her mother, Maria Jeronima Tesifon de Moctezuma as Head of the former Indian dynasty and was succeeded by her sister, Doña Melchora Juana, and lived (circa 1693-circa 1717).

1702-14 H.M. Anne Stuart, Queen of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland
1708 Lord High Admiral of England (United Kingdom)

Ascended the throne after the death of her brother-in-law, William, who had been joint ruler with her sister, Mary II and on 1 May 1707 she presided over the union of the Parliaments of Scotland and England, creating the parliament of Great Britain. She was married to Danish Prince Jørgen (George), she experienced 18 pregnancies between 1683 and 1700, but only five children were born alive and only one survived infancy - William, Duke of Gloucester, who died in 1700 at the age of 12. She refrained from politically antagonizing Parliament, but was compelled to attend most Cabinet meetings to keep her half-brother, James the Old Pretender, under heel. She was the last sovereign to veto an act of Parliament. The most significant constitutional act in her reign was the Act of Union in 1707, which created Great Britain by finally fully uniting England and Scotland. Her relative, Electress Sophia of Hanover was appointed heir in 1701, but she died a few months before Anne, and her son therefore became king Georg I. She died after a lifelong battle with the blood disease porphyria after having lived (1665-1714).

1702-08 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedvig Sofia of Sweden of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)

Married to Friedrich of Slesvig-Holstein-Gottorp (1671-1702) in 1698. She stayed in Gottorp for about one year and in 1700 her only child, Karl Friedrich (1700-39), was born, and two years later her husband was killed in battle. She was proclaimed regent while the guardianship was given to her brother, Karl. XII.  She was Hereditary Princess of Sweden until her death, and her son stayed in Sweden until 1718, and was generally considered to be heir to the throne - instead his aunt, Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was chosen as reigning Queen, after the death of her brother, Karl XII. Karl Friedrich's son Carl Peter Ulrich later became Czar Peter of Russia. Hedvig Sofia was daughter of Karl XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Older, and lived (1681-1708). 

1702 Governor, Lieutenant General and Administrator Queen Maria Luisa Gabriala de Saboya of Spain

Appointed regent during her husband, Felipe V's campaign in Italy. Mother of four sons, two of whom died in infancy and two others became the kings Luis I Felipe of Spain (1707-1724) and Fernando IV (1713-46-59). She was influential during his whole government together with The Princesse des Ursine, and the three conducted the government business together - as the "Council of Three". Her father, Duke Vittorio Amedeo II, was duke of Savoia and became King of Sicily in 1713, which he exchanged with Sardinia in 1718. She lived (1688-1714).

Amalia Regina von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf, Reichsgräfin zu Ortenburg

1702-06 Regent Dowager Countess Amalia Regina von Zinzendorff und Pottendorf of Ortenburg (Germany)

In  charge of the government during the ilness of husband, Georg Philipp von Ortenburg (1655-1702), and after his death, she took over the regency for their only surviving son, Johan George (1686-1725) with the approval of Emperor Leopod I. She reformed the school-system and introduced compulsory primary education for children aged 5-12, and managed to keep the county out of the upheaveals of the War of the Spanish Succession 1701-14, except from a minor incident in 1703, and she send her son to Great Britain for his education to keep him out of the Austrian army. She also promoted the Evangelican church of the state lived (1663-1709).


1702-09 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Eleonore Charlotte von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhage (Denmark and Germany)

Married Christian Adolf von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Franzhage in 1676. In 1668 King Frederik III had removed him from the duchy because his heavy dephts. She travelled to Copenhagen to try to persuade the king to hand back the territories, but instead they settled in Franzhagen. After her husband's death, she was in charge of the government because of her sons had married below their staus. Leopold Christian (d. 1707) and Ludwig Carl (d. 1708). She lived (1646-1709).

Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough

1702-11 Politically Influential The Duchess of Marlborough in Great Britain

Sarah Jennings was a childhood friend of Princess Anne. In 1677 she married John Churchill, later 1st duke of Marlborough. On Anne’s marriage in 1683 she was appointed Lady of the bedchamber and became a close confidante. Although temporarily out of favour (1692–94) owing to the political disgrace of her husband, Sarah maintained a close relationship with the Queen. No king's mistress had ever wielded the power granted to the duchess, but she became too confident in her position. She developed an overbearing demeanour towards Anne, and berated the Queen in public. Around 1705 they began to quarrel over Whig cabinet appointments. Until then Sarah had wielded considerable influence at court, but gradually Abigail Masham, a kinswoman both of Sarah herself and of the Tory leader Robert Harley, replaced her in Anne’s affections. Finally dismissed in 1711, she and her husband went abroad in 1713. After his death in 1722 she supervised completion of the building of Blenheim Palace, quarrelling bitterly with its architect, Sir John Vanbrugh, and with most of her relatives. She lived (1660–1744). 


1702-10 Administratrice Christine de Salm-Salm of Remiremont, Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)

In 1684 her sister, Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm, had her named as Second-in-Command against the ancient tradition that the Doyenne was the Deputy to the Abbess, and named Secréte, the third-in-command, after the death of Anne de Malain de Lux by the Pope, but never-the-less the ladies of the chapter elected Elisabeth-Gabrielle-Françoise Rouxel de Médavy to the post, but Christina von Salm continued as her sister's de-facto deputy, and she was Acting Princess-Abbess during the minority of Élisabeth-Charlotte. She lived (1653-?).


1703-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of king Ewuakpe of Benin (1700-12). His successor Ozuere only reigned for one year and did not appoint his mother Iyoba of Uselu since this traditionally happened after three years of reign by the king.

Dorothea Kragh

1703-11 Postmistress General Dorothea Kragh in Denmark

In 1694 she married the 63-year-old gehejmestatsminister (Minister of State) and chief of the Admiralty, baron Jens Juel til Juelinge (d. 1700). Her second husband was the king's natural son, Count Christian Gyldenløve of Samsø, whom she followed toItaly, where he was in command of a battalion, and gave birth to their first son, Christian Danneskiold-Samsøe there. The second son, Frederik, was born in 1703, four month's after Christian's death. Already while pregnant she negotiated with Frederik 4. about taking over the income from the Danish postal service, which her husband had had since 1689. She was appointed Generalpostmester, and much to the surprise of most people, she took over the management herself with the help of a number of representatives. 1705 she made new and detailed instructions to the local postmasters, and when her contract ended in 1711 the post service was a good business with a surplus. In 1715 she married, gehejmeråd (Privy Councillor), Count Hans Adolf Ahlefeldt, and lived (1675-1754).

Therese Kunigunde Sobieska

1704-05 Regent Princess Palatine Therese Kunigunde Sobieska of Bavaria (Germany)

1695 she became the second wife of Kurfürst Maximilian II Emmanuel (1662-1726). In 1683 he aided the Holy Roman Emperor at Vienna in the battle against the Turks. In 1691 he became governor of the Spanish Netherlands. And apparently she was in charge of the government in a period when he was away from the Electorate. Among their children was Karl VII Albert elector of Bavaria, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1742. Daughter of King Jan III of Poland Sobieski, and lived (1676-1730).

Gisela Agnes von Rath

1704-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Gisela Agnes von Rath of Anhalt-Köthen (Germany)
1715-40 Reigning
Dowager Lady of the  City, Land and Castle of Nienburg

Her husband, Emmanuel Albrecht (1671-1704), had designated her as heir for their son Leopold (1694-1704-28). She promoted the Lutheran faith and founded a Chapter for Noble ladies, das Adlige Damenstift Gisela-Agnes-Stift, and also promoted the composer Johan Sebastian Bach. Her family was of lower nobility and in 1694 Emperor Leopold I had named her Countess of the Realm, Reichsgräfin von Nienburg and 1699 her son handed over the City, Land and Castle of Nienburg (Saale) to her, and she reigned it as her dowry when she handed over the government to her son. She lived (1670-1740).


1704-08 Reigning Princess Tassi Hangbe of Abomey (Benin)

She does not appear in the official king's lists but it is generally agreed that she reigned after her brother Akaba (1685-1704) and was followed on the throne by another brother, Agaja, and became one of Abomey (or Dahomey)'s most important rulers, who reigned until 1740. 


1704 Regent Princess Fatima of the Maldive Islands

When the news of the possible drowning of her husband, Isdu King Siri Muthei Ranmani Loka/ Sultan Ibrahim Mudhiruddine who after his abdication was known as Isdu Ibrahim Bodu Kilegefan, while returning from the Hajj pilgrimage reached Malé in 1704, she attempted to usurp the throne in her own right. Her rival and brother-in-law, Admiral-in-chief Hussain was banished to Naifaru. She was however displaced from the Eterekoilu - the residence of the Sultans - by the Prime Minister Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan who was crowned as King Siri Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Sasthura - Sultan Mudzhaffar Mohamed Imaduddine II.

1704-06 Head of the Guardian Government Dowager Hereditary Princess Elisabeth Marie Sofie von Schleswig-Holstein-Nordburg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (Denmark and Germany)
1706-67 Reigning Dowager Lady of Ahrensbök

As her husband, Hereditary Prince Adolf August had died 4 days before his father, Duke, Hans Adolf von Holstein-Pløn, she became regent for 2 year old son, Leopold August, but he died at the age of 4 and an interregnum followed for a number of years, and she moved to her dowry in Ahrensbök. 1710 she married Duke August Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1662-1731) as his third wife, though he was gay and had no children in any of his marriages. Also known as erbprinzessin Elisabeth von Holsten-Nordborg, she lived (1683-1767).

1704-43 Princess of the Realm Ursula Katharina zu Altenbockum of Teschen (Poland)
1705-43 Dame of the Castle and City of Hoyerswerda (Germany)

After her divorce from Prince Georg Dominicus Lubomirski she became the maitresse of August the Strong of Sachsen, and gave birth to a son, Johann Georg, Chevalier de Saxe (1704-74), after which she was named Reichsfürstin. She was involved in the fall of the Saxon Chancellor Beichlingen. She later married Prince Friedrich Ludwig von Württemberg, who died 1734. Shortly before her death, she sold the Lordship of Hoyerswerda to August III. She was born in Lithuania and lived (1680-1743).

1704-36 Reigning Dowager Lady Luise Elisabeth von Württemberg-Bernstadt of the Castle of Jahnschen in Forst in Sachsen-Merseburg (Germany)

Her husband, Philipp Sachsen-Merseburg zu Lauchsätt (1657-90), was killed at Fleurus. During her residence, the city of Forst experienced its last feudal period of economic growth. All her 3 children died in infancy, and she lived (1673-1736).

Unnamed Spanish Abbess

1704-07 and 1711-14 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Josefa de Lanuza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of the chapter had the right to hold her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synod.

Abbess Louise-François de Rochechouart de Mortemart of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud

1704-42 Reigning Abbess Louise-Françoise de Rochechouart of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Succeeded her aunt Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart.

Marie Aurora von Königsmarck of Quedlingburg

1704-18 Acting Princess-Abbess Marie Aurora von Königsmarck of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her father, General Graf Konrad Christoph von Königsmarck, fell in battle and she went with her mother, the Swedish Baroness Maria Christina von Wrangel af Lindeberg, to Sweden. After her death in 1691 she lived with her sister in Hamburg. 1696-97 she was the mistress of Elector Friedrich August II of Sachsen. Afterwards she retired to Quedlinburg where she became second-in-command as Pröpstin, but lived in Berlin, Dresden and Hamburg. 1702 she went on a diplomatic mission to the Swedish army in Narwa. After the Peace of she retired to Quedlinburg and was the Acting Sovereign as no Princess-Abbess was elected. She was in dispute with the other ladies of the chapter, Dechaness Eleonora Sophie von Schwarzenburg and her sister Maria Magdalena and various attempts to reconciliate the three failed even though the King of Prussia and the Emperor intervened. She spoke various languages, was a virtuous player of Lute and Viola da Gamba, and composed various operas, lieder and cantata. She lived (1662-1728).

Queen Katarzyna Leszczynska

1704-09 and 1735-36 Politically Influential Queen Katarzyna Leszczyńska of Poland

Involved in politics during the reign of husband, king Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland and afterwards Duke of Lorraine and Bar. Her daughter, Maria Leszczyńska, was Queen of France and Duchess of Lorraine. Katarzyna lived (1680-1747).

1705-48 Sovereign Duchesse Elisabeth de Lorraine-Lillebonne of Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl (France)

Also known as Princess Elisabeth de Elboeuf she bought the Duchy in 1705 from Marie of Orleans sold it to Elizabeth of Lorraine-Lillebonne, widow of Louis de Melun, prince of Epinoy, and their daughter married the prince of Rohan-Soubise, who thus became count of St Pol. In 1724 she transferred it to her son Louis de Melun, prince of Epinoy, and when he died it was inherited by her daughter, the Princesse de Soubise.   She was daughter of François-Marie de Lorraine-Lillebon and Anne de Lorraine-Vaudemont and her sister, Beatrix de Lorraine-Lillebonne was Abbess at Retiremont. She lived (1664-1748).


1705-17 Joint Sovereign Countess Albertine Susanne zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of 1/3rd of Limpurg-Speckfeld (Germany)

Oldest daughter and heiress (erbtochter) of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, whose brother, Volrath zu Limpurg-Sponheim, left five daughters as co-heirs after his death in 1712, with whom she and her sisters and cousins co-reigned the territories from 1713. She was married to Friedrich von Welz, and succeeded by son, Friedrich Ernst. 


1705-65 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Caroline Henriette zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of 1/3rd of Limpurg-Speckfeld (Germany)

When the last male member of the family died in 1713, she and 9 other female heiresses (erbtöchter) took over the reign. She was second daughter of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, and had no children with her husband Victor-Sigismund von Grävenitz. She lived (1691-1765)


1705-54 Joint Sovereign Countess Amalia Friederike Alexandra zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of 1/rd of Limpurg-Speckfeld (Germany)

Together with her sisters and cousins she took over the reign in 1713. She was third daughter of daughter of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, she was first married to Johann Georg von Wolframsdorf and secondly to Count Joachim von Rechteren (d. 1715) and was succeeded first by oldest son Count Friedrich-Ludwig von Rechteren-Limburg, who again was succeeded by his son Adolf Friedrich who reigned until 1819, until he was succeeded by Amalia's youngest son, Friedrich-Reinhald. Amalia, whose daughter, Josine-Elisabeth (d. 1738) and granddaughter by the same name were also co-heiresses, lived (1689-1754).

Mauritia Febronia de La Tour-d'Auvergne, dite d'Evreux

1705-06 Sovereign Lady Dowager Duchess Mauricienne Fébronie de La Tour-d'Auvergne von Bayern of Schwabeck (Germany)

Also known as Mauritia Febronia, Princess d’Évreux, she was daughter of Frédéric Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, Duke de Bouillon (d. 1652) and Eleonore Katharina von Berg (d. 1657), she grew up under the protection of King Louis XIV, and married Duke Maximilian Philipp of Bayern, Landgraf von Leuchtenberg (1638-1705), who acted as regent 1679-80 for his nephew, making her the first Lady of the electorate. After her husband's death she reined the lordship. It was during the War of the Spanish Succession. Her husband had received Letters of Protection from both the Habsburg Emperor and the King of France to prevent the lordship from being looted, and she vehemently secured that the foreign soldiers lived up to the letters. She had no children, and lived (1652-1706)

1705-1711 Politically Influential Empress Wilhelmine Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of The Holy Roman Empire

During the reign of her husband Josef I von Habsburg, she sided with her mother-in-law, Eleonora Magdalena von der Pfalz-Neuburg, and they even founded their own little court party. After her husband's death, she was no longer involved with politics, except for the promotion of her two daughters. Her brother-in-law, Emperor Karl VI, proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which placed his own daughters before those of his deceased brother, Emperor Josef. At first she fought against this and counted on the support of their two sons-in-law, the Electors of Bavaria and Saxony, but gave up when the Austrian court did not support her. In 1740, after the sudden death of Emperor Karl VI, both her sons-in-law decided to claim the Imperial office. At first they had the support of Wilhelmine Amalie but, when the Bavarians started to prepare for war, she sided with her niece, Maria Teresa. She founded a convent, where she spent the rest of her life, having lived (1673-1742).  

Christine Wilhelmine Friederike von Grävenitz

1705-33 Politically Influential Wilhelmine von Grävenitz in Württemberg (Germany)

Known as "Die Grävenitz", she was the mistress and from 1706 the official Maitresse of Duke Eberhard Ludwig and she gained control of the whole administration and employed a "secret police" in order to maintain her position. She surrounded the Duke with her protégés and confidants, became the centre of a court party and sold court offices, and had her brother, Wilhelm Friederich, appointed as Prime Minister. In 1707 she had married Eberhard Ludwig married as his second wife in a morganatic marriage; but the marriage was dissolved because of pressure from the Emperor. She went in exile in Switzerland followed by the Duke until they both returned in 1710 after she had been married to the Landhofmeister Graf von Würben. When Eberhard Ludwig's only son died in 1731 he returned to his wife, Johanna Elisabeth von Baden-Durlach with the hope of producing a new heir, but he died of a stroke two years later. After his death she fled to Berlin and was prosecuted by his nephew and successor, but a compromise was reached. Christine Wilhelmine Friederike lived. (1686-1744).

Lady Abigail Masham

1705-14 Politically Influential Lady Abigail Masham in United Kingdom of Great Britain 

In 1704 she became Lady of the Bedchamber Queen Anne through the influence of her cousin Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. In 1707 she married Samuel Masham (later a baron), a groom to Anne’s husband, Prince Jørgen (George) of Denmark. Abigail Masham gradually supplanted the Duchess of Marlborough in the Queen’s affection and became the instrument through which Robert Harley, her kinsman, exerted his influence on Anne. In 1714, however, they quarrelled with and she, secured his dismissal as lord treasurer, and assured Viscount Bolingbroke (Henry St. John) of supreme political power. After Anne’s death (1714), she lived in retirement until her death in 1734.     

1706-54 Temporary in charge of the Government Princess Anna Louise Föse of Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)

Generally known as Annelise, she was married to Leopold I (1676-93-1747), who spend much of his reign away as officer in the army of Brandenburg, and she was left in charge of the government and reigned with insight and intelligence. She was daughter of a chemist and against the opposition of his mother, Henriëtte Catharina; they had married in 1698, when he took over the government after his mother's regency, which had lasted from 1693. In 1701 years she was given the rank of a Countess of the Realm (Reichsgräfin) legitimizing their children. When her son, Leopold II died in December 1751, his wife, Gisela Agnes von Anhalt-Köten had already died a few months earlier, and her younger son, Dietrich, took over for her 11 year old grandson, Leopold III, with her continuing to be in charge when Dietrich was away with the Preussian army where he was Field Marshal like his father and  brothers. The mother of 10 children, she lived (1677-1754).


1706-before 1723 Sovereign Lady Juana de Moura y Aragón of las Islas Terceras in the Azores (Portugal)

Succeeded her sister, Leonor as 5th Marchioness de Castelo Rodrigo, 4th Countess of Lumiares, 34rd Duchess of Nocera from 1675 and Governor of Sicily in 1677. She was daughter of Francisco de Moura y Melo and Anna María d’Aragona and married to Gilberto Pius, Prince of San Gregorio. The couple had four children the eldest of whom born in 1672 succeeded her as 6th Marquess.

1706-17 Princess-Abbess Anna Juliana Helene von Manderscheid-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1708-17 Princess-Abbess of Elten and Abbess of Vreden (Germany)

During her reigh the principality ended it's long lasting disputes with the Republic of the Netherlands with a treaty in 1715, which defined the rights of the abbey and the Staten Generaal - the Dutch parliament. In Elten she was succeeded by Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid.


1706-24 Princess-Abbess Marie Françoise Josephine de Glymes de Berghes of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Daughter of Philipp Franz de Glymes, Prince de Berghes, Count de Grimberghe etc, who was Governor of Hainault and later of Brussels and Marie Jacqueline de Lalaing, Baroness de Gaesbeek, and lived (1678-1724).

1706-37 Princess-Abbess Maria Mechtildis Berchtold of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of an Austrian Countly family.

1706-53 Princess and Abbess Marie Gertrude von Berlepsch of the Stift zu den Engeln in Prag (Chapel of Angels in Prague) in Austria-Hungary

After husband, Wilhelm Ludwig von Berlepsch (1639-76), died of the wounds he received by the siege of Philippsburg, she became responsible for her two sons, Sittich Herbold (1673-1712) and the posthumously born, Peter Philipp Josef (1676-1721). As she chose to have her second son baptised by an Evangelican priest in 1680, the Prince-Abbot of Fulda sieged her castle Eichenzell and fined her 200 gulden, but she refused to bow. The same year the Emperor took her under his protection and in 1684 she was named Hofmeisterin (Mistress of the Court) in the Court of the first wife of the Pfalzgraf Johann Wilhelm von Pfalz Neuburg, and after her death in 1689, Marie Gertrude continued in office as Oberhofmeisterin (Chief Mistress) by the first wife of the Pfalzgraf and Elector Karl Philipp nach Neuburg an der Donau. 1690 she was appointed Oberhofmeisterin of Marie Anna who married king Carlos II of Spain, and during her time in Spain, she had a decisive influence on the politics of the country and thereby also in the rest of Europe. She worked for the interests of Austria and was very influential when it came to appointment to important offices and became very rich. In 1695, the Emperor raised her and her sons to the positions of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgrafenstand), but in the meantime the opposition against the German influence on the Queen-Regent grew, and Marie Gertrude left Spain in 1700. She bought back the part of the Estate of Eichenzell that had been taken as security by the Abbot of Fulda in 1680, and in 1699, she bought the Lordship of the Realm of Mylendok (Reichsherrschaft), and lived her to her death. 1706 she became the first Abbess of the newly founded Ladies Chapel in Prague (englischen weltlichen Fräulein-Stift in der Neustadt Prag) and she was appointed Princess of the Empire (Reichsfürstenstand). Born as Wolf von Gudenberg, she lived (1654-1723).


1706-08 Abbess Nullius Onofria Tarsi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Elected in the presence of Bishop of Monopoli.

Sibylla Augusta von Sachsen-Lauenburg

1707-27 Regent Dowager Margravine Sibylla Augusta von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Baden-Baden (Germany)
1728-33 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City and Castle of Ettlingen et cetera

Barely 15 as she became the wife of "Türkenlouis", Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden (1655-1707). She became regent for her only surviving son, August Georg Simpert (1706-1707-1771) in the middle of the war of the Spanish Succession, under difficult circumstances. She used lots of energy in the rebuilding of Baden, and reviving the finances, which had stressed heavily during the two wars. She used her personal incomes from Bohemia but also granted privileges and tax advantages for the rebuilding-efforts. She build various manors, castle and churches and she was a grand promoter of the arts. Already when she assumed the regency she started to limit the influence of the co-regents, Elector Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz and Duke Leopold Josef von Lothringen, and she managed to persuade the French marshal Villars to half his war-taxes and she was successful in persuading Emperor Leopold to fulfil parts of his promises of vast financial contributions to her late husbands. After her son assumed the government, she withdrew totally to her dowries. She was daughter of Duke Julius Franz von Sachsen-Lauenburg and Maria Hedwig Augusta von Pfalz-Sulzbach, and had inherited vast lands and lordships, mainly in Bohemia; she gave birth to nine children, and lived (1675-1733).


1707-? Soledatu We Adda of Soppeng (Indonesia)

Succeeded brother, La Tenrisenge Towes, as ruler of the Buginese state in South Western Celebes/Sulawesi. Married to Arung Palakka of Bone.


1707-14 Sovereign Duchess Maria Clara Angelica van Egmond of Gavre, Princess of Steenhuis, Marchioness di Renty, Countess van Egmond and Berlaymont, Baroness of Hierège, Lalaing and Lens and Lady of Fiennes and Floyon (The Netherlands)

Her father Filip van Egomnd II was Vice-roy of Sardegna her mother Maria Fernanda de Croy, was heir to the Margravate of Renthy. She succeeded her brother, Filip. She was married to Nicolo Pignatelli, Duke di Bisaccia, Count di (1658-1719), and her son, Propocio, held the titles. She lived (1661-1714).

Louise von Mecklenburg-Güstow

1708-09 Regent Queen Louise von Mecklenburg-Güstow of Denmark and Norway

The government of the realm was in her hands during the journey of her husband, Frederik 4 to Italy. She had been married the later king since 1695. Her husband was first married to the "left hand" in a morganatic marriage with Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg and after her death to Comtesse Anna Sophie Reventlow. The Queen became more and more engaged in her pietistic faith. She was mother of two surviving children and three other children who all died as infants, and lived (1667-1721).

1708-23 Sovereign Princess Anna Henrietta Julia zu Pfalz-Simmern of Arches-Charleville (France)
Also known as Anne-Henriette de Bavière, she inherited the principality after the death of her grandfather, the last duke of Mantua Carlos III, who used the title of "Carolus Gonzaga dux Nivernensis et Rethelensis, Dei gratia princeps supremus Archensis". She was daughter of Anna Maria of Gonzaga, and married to the Henri Jules de Bourbon-Condé and mother of 10 children. Arches was considered part of the kingdom in 1789 when the Estates General were called, and its residents elected a representative to what became the National Assembly. She lived (1648-1723).

Mai Bhago Ju

Around 1708 Army Leader Mai Bhago Ju in Punjab (India)

A member of a high-ranking Sikh-family, she led troops in battle in favour of the Sikh faith. She was seriously wounded, and thereafter stayed on with Guru Gobind Singh as one of his personal guard. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh at Nanded in 1708, she retired further south. She settled down at Jinvara, 11 km from Bidar in Karnataka where, immersed in meditation, she lived to attain a ripe old age. 


1709-15 Joint Regent Dowager Queen Anna Irubakidze of Kakheti (Georgia)

After the death of her husband, Irakli I, King of Kakheti (1675-1676, 1703-1709) and Kartli (1688-1703), she was regent  with her younger son, Teimuraz (future king Teimuraz II of Kakheti)  for her absent elder son David II (Imam Quli-Khan) from 1709-15. The kingdom was under the protection of the Safavid dynasty of Iran. The daughter of Prince Shirmazan Irubakidze of Sacholokao, she (d. after 1716).


1709 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Barbara Dorothea von Winterfeld of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhage (Denmark and Germany)

After the death of her mother-in-law, Eleonore Charlotte von Sachsen-Lauenburg, she tried to continue running the estates of the small duchy, but she had to give up and moved to Hamburg where she died in poverty. Her husband, Ludwig Carl von Holstein-Sønderborg in Franzhage had died in 1708. She (d. 1739).


1709-14 Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Ursula Regine Marie von Friesen of Muskau (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Curt Reinicke von Callenberg (165-1709) she was in charge of the government in the name of her son, Johann Alexander Graf von Callenberg. She lived (1658-1714).


1709-51 Reging Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christiane Emilie Antonie Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Mirow in Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Duke Adolf Friedrich II von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, she reigned in her dowry. Emelie von Schwarzburg was mother of 2 children; Sophie Christine Louise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1706-08) and Karl Friedrich Ludwig Herzog zu Mecklenburg, Prinz zu Mirow (1708-52). She lived (1681-1751).


1709-39 Reigning Abbess Maria Antonia Constantina Scholastika von Falkenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Built the large baroque chapter-complex in the years 1721–27. 5 of her sisters were nuns in Unterlinden in Colmer, 1 in Günterstal and 3 possibly in Alspach beiKeysersberg, her brother, Adalbert became Bishop of Csanád in Hungary, another was a cleric and the last married a former nun in Wald. She was daughter of Freiherr von Falkensten and Anna Franziska Ursula von Mercy, and lived (1666-1739).


1710-19 Raja Devi P'ra-Chao of Patani (Thailand) 

Raja Mas Jayam reigned the merciant Malayan state in the south of Thailand 1707-10 and 1724-26.

Unnamed Queen of Baule

Circa 1710/30-circa 60 Queen Regnant Asea Poku of Baule (Ashante-Brong) (Cote d'Ivoire)

Also known as Awura, Aura, or Abla Pokou was born a princess of Koumassi, daughter of Nyakou Kosiamoa, sister of Dakon, the ill-fated successor of Opoku Ware I, and niece of Osei Kofi Tutu I, a formidable king and co-founder of the Ashanti Empire. She became leader of a breakaway group from the main Ashanti Confederacy, which she refused to join. Disagreements among the factions resulted in war in Ghana. She led her group westward, through a long, arduous journey, to the Komoe River and asked her priest how to cross the river safely, and he told her a sacrifice was required. Pokou sacrificed her son, throwing the infant into the water and calling out "Ba ouli", "the child is dead". It is for this reason that her descendants are today known as the Baoule. After the sacrifice, hippopotamuses appeared and formed a bridge, by which Pokou and her people crossed to the other side.

Christiane Marie Hedwig zur Lippe-Braake

1710-18 Regent Dowager Countess Christiane Marie Hedwig zur Lippe zu Brake of Bentheim-Tecklenburg Steinfurt and Limpurg, Lady of Linge, Rheda, Wefflinghoffen, Hoya Alpen und Helffenstein, Hereditary Guardian of Cöllin (Germany)

Second wife of Friedrich Moritz zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1653-1710) and regent for son her only son Moritz Kasimir I (1701-68). In official documents, she used the title "wittiben Grafin zu Bentheim, Tecklenburg, Steinfurt und Limburg, Frau zu Linge, Rheda, Wefflinghoffen, Hoya Alpen und Helffenstein, Erb Voigtin Zu Cölln, gebohren Gräfin und Edle Fraue Zur Lippe, Confirmirte Vormünderin und Regentin pp." She lived (1669-1738).

1710-18 Regent Dowager Countess Christine von Mecklenburg-Güstrow of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Hohnsteinschen Forst, Gedern and Schwarza (Germany)

As her husband Ludwig Christian zu Stoberg-Gedern-Schwarza und Hohnstein and brother-in-law Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode died soon after each other, her 3 surviving sons, hristian Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode, Friedrich Karl zu Stolberg-Gedern and Heinrich August zu Stolberg-Schwarza, each inherited parts of the counties. In Wernigerode she was regent for her oldest son, Christian Ernst, with confirmation of Emperor Joseph until 1714 and for the youngest until 1718. In spite of the fact that her duties as regent meant that she had to travel a lot, she also collected a large library and was in close contact with her relatives in Denmark, Brandenburg and various Saxon lines. In order to prevent the citizen getting drunk and engaging in fights, she issued a decree closing all inns on holidays. King Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Preußen protested against this in 1713, but she managed to persuade him to accept her decision. She maintained an extensive correspondence with several of the influential Pietistic theologians of the time. She gave birth to 23 children with in 21 years: Gustav Adolf (born and dead January 1684), a daughter (born and dead in 1684), Gustav Ernst (1685-89), Friederike Charlotte zu Solms-Laubach (1686-1739), Emilie Auguste zu Stolberg-Rossla (1687-1730), Christine Luise (1688- August 1691), Albertine Antonie (1689-August 1691), Karl Ludwig (1689- August 1691), Gustave Magdalene (1690-March 1691), Christian Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode (1691-1771), Christine Eleonore zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Büdingen (1692-1745), Friedrich Karl zu Stolberg-Gedern (1693-1767), Ernestine Wilhelmine zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Wächtersbach (1695-1759), Ludwig Adolf (1697-98), Heinrich August zu Stolberg-Schwarza (1697-1748), Friederike Luise (1696-97), Sophie Christiane (1698-1771), Ferdinande Henriette zu Erbach-Schönberg (1699-1750) Rudolf Lebrecht (1701-02), Ludwig Christian (September-November 1701), Auguste Marie (1702-68) (a Canoness in Heford, created Fürstin in 1742), Karoline Adolfine (1704-07) and Philippine Luise zu Isenburg-Philippseich (1705-44). She was the 5th daughter of Duke Gustav Adolf zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Magdalene Sibylle von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp and lived (1663-1749).

1710-28 Sovereign Marchioness Marie Anne Henriette Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Also known as Marie Henrëtte, she succeeded father, Francois Egon de La Tour d'Auvergne, Count d'Auvergne et d'Oliergues and from 1722 she reigned jointly with husband Prince Johann Christian Joseph von der Pfalz-Sulzbach, who was succeeded by their son, Karl Phillip Theodor, Pfalzgraf and Kurfürst von der Pfalz in 1742 and Kurfürst of Bayern in 1777. He was as under the regency of her mother, Maria Anna van Arenberg. She lived (1708-28). 


1710-22 Guardian and Administrator Dowager Marchioness Maria Anna van Arenberg en Aarschot of Bergen op Zoom and Walhain  (The Netherlands)

After the death of her husband, she acted as regent for her daughter, Maria Henriëtte de la Tour d'Auvergne. According to some sources Maria Anna's mother acted as regent for Maria Henrietta's son Karel Philip Theodoor van Sulzbach from 1728. She was daughter of Philippe Charles François d'Arenberg, 3rd Duke of Arenberg, Duke d'Aerschot and Donna Maria Enrietta del Caretto, Marchesa di Savona y Grana (Marie-Henriette d'Alcaretto, marquise de Grana e Savona), and lived (1689-1736).


1710-32 Sovereign Countess Christiane Luise von Ostfriesland-Rietberg-Cirsena of Criechingen, Lady of Rollingen et cetera (Germany)

Christiane Luise von Ostfriesland, Erbin von Criechingen was only little more than one month old when her father, Count Friedrich Ulrich von Ostfriesland, Graf von Rietberg, died. He had succeeded his brother three years earlier, who again had succeeded their mother, Countess Anna Dorothea von Criechingen in 1705. Christine Louise's mother was Marie Charlotte von Ostfriesland (1689-1761). Gräfin Christina Luise von Ostfriesland, Erbin von Criechingen, Rollingen, etc, later married Johann Ludwig von Wied zu Runkel (1705-1762) and died after giving birth to her second child, and first son, Christian Ludwig, who survived and had children with his wife, Charlotte Sophie Auguste von Sayn-Wittegenstein. She lived (1710-32).

1710-26 Regent Dowager Countess Marie Charlotte von Ostfriesland of Criechingen, Rollingen et cetera (Germany)

Regent for her daughter Christiane Louise (1710-32) until the daughter married Prince Johann Ludwig von Wied-Runkel. She was 3rd of the 10 children of Christian Eberhard I von Ostfriesland and Eberdine Sofie von Oettingen-Oettingen, and lived (1689-1761) .

1710-38 Princesse-Abbesse Béatrix Hiéronyme de Lorraine-Lillebonne of Remiremont (France)

Béatrice Hiéronyme de Lorraine was known as the "Mademoiselle de Lillebonne", she had lived in the entourage of the Grand Dauphin at Versailles, before she was named coadjutrice in 1705-11. She was daughter of Charles IV de Lorraine and Béatrix de Cusance. She built a Hospital for the sick, poor and orphans, and  lived (1662-1738).

Erdmuthe Benigina zu Reuss-Ebersdorf, geborne Solms-Laubach

1710-17 Guardian Regent Dowager Countess Erdmuthe Benigna zu Solms-Laubach of Reuss zu Ebersdorf (Germany)

She was guardian for son, Heinrich XXIIX after the death of her husband, Heinrich X. Some male relatives were regents. She lived (1670-1732).

Dorothea Renata von Zinzendorf

1710-25 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Dorothea Renata von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf of Castell-Remlingen (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Graf Wolfgang Dietrich zu Castell-Remlingen, she was joint guardian for son, Ludwig Friedrich Graf und Herr zu Castell-Remlingen (1707-10-72). She was the aunt of the founder and leader of the Herrnhuts Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760). His guardian was Graf Friedrich Eberhard zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, and lived (1669-1743).


1710-11 and 1718-20 Reigning Abbess-General Inés de Osio y Mendoza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her full title was "noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey".

Anna Ivanovna

1711-37 Sovereign Duchess Anna Ivanovna in Livonia of Kurland and Semigallia (Latvia)
1730-40 Imperatitsa Regnant Anna Ivanovna of Russia

Her husband, Friedrich-Wilhelm of Kurland, died after two months of marriage in 1711, leaving her as reigning Duchess. 19 years later the Privy Council offered her the Russian throne on certain conditions, which reduced the autocratic powers, but unrest ensued and she was made to repudiate the restrictions. Having become a full autocratic Empress, she dissolved the supreme privy council. She had patience and common-sense but preferred to sign official documents unread and leave the ruling to two Germans, Field Marshall Muennich and Count Ostermann. However, these were soon eclipsed by the Empress's lover, Ernst Buehren, or Biron, whom she brought to Russia. She had a taste for guns and enjoyed shooting through windows at birds in her garden. Lazy and easily bored, she surrounded herself with gossiping women, dwarfs and hunchbacks. Zarina or Zaritsa Anna lived (1693-1740).

Marie-Louise von Hessen-Kassel

1711-33 Governor Dowager Princess Maria Louise von Hessen-Kassel of Friesland, Groningen, Drente and Gelderland (The Netherlands)
1732-65 Baroness of IJsselstein
1759-65 Governor of Friesland

Her husband Johan Willem Friso van Oranje-Nassau, had been non-hereditary Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and she was in charge of the government as Acting Stadtholder in parts of the country first for her son son, Willem IV, Price of Oranje and Nassau and then for Grandson Willem V, after the death of his mother, Princess Anne. Her Dutch title as regent was Gouvernante der Nederlanden (Governess). Her regency took place during the Twenty Years War, and she was very popular in Friesland and known as warm and friendly and was involved in social work. The barony of IJsselstein was part of the Oranje-Nassau inheritance but the Staten-Generaal challenged the inheritance, but she managed the barony and was later given it as a present. Known as Marijke Meu (Aunty Marijke), she was the sister of Friedrich, who became king of Sweden in 1720 after the abdication of his wife, Queen Ulrika Eleonora, and lived (1688-1765).

Eleonora-Magdalena zu Pfalz-Neuburg

1711 Regent Dowager Empress Eleonora-Magdalena von der Pfalz-Neuburg of Austria and Hungary et cetera

The widow Emperor Leopold I (1640-57-1705), she was regent for son Karl VI until his arrival from Spain, where he reigned as Carlos III, in order to succeed his brother, Joseph I, whose two daughters, Maria Josefa and Maria Amalia, were passed over in the succession but later contested the succession of Karl’s daughter Maria-Theresia in 1740. Eleonora lived (1655-1720).

Elisabeta Cristina zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

1711-14 Stadtholder and General-Captain Elisabeta Cristina von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Aragón, Catalunya and Valencia (Spain)
1735 Politically Influential in Austria

1708 she married Carlos III of Spain, who was only in control of Aragón, Cataloña and Valencia during the succession-war between the Habsburgs and Borbons, and acted as regent during his absences. In 1711 he succeeded his brother, Josef I as Emperor Karl VI, and left for Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons she joined her husband. In 1716 she gave birth to a son, who died soon after. The following year the later Empress Maria Theresia was born and two other daughters followed. It was only in 1735 that she gained political influence, forming a party against the Spanish Council in Vienna, but also her daughter kept her away from the government. She lived (1691-1750).


1711 Abbess Nullius Giuditta Pascale of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Listed in the alternative list of Abbesses. 1709 the ancient ceremony where the clergy paid public homage to the Abbess was modified and toned down.


1711-13 Princess-Abbess Maria Eva Rosa von Römerstal of Schänis (Switzerland)

1712 she fled from troops to Zürich into exile into the interior of Switzerland, and in the meantime Maria Anna Margaretha von Wessenberg acted as Regent. The daughter of Johann Wilhelm von Römerstal, Chief Forester of the Bishop of Basel, and Klara Margarethe von Reinach, and the French version of her name was Marie Eve Rose de Rombeveaux.


1712 Acting Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Margaretha von Wessenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

As the only one to remain in the chapter when the Fürstäbtissin and the other canonisses fled from the troops from Zürich she acted as Stadtholder (Statthalterin) from May to August.

Hannah Callowhill Penn

1712-24 Acting Governor Hannah Callowhill Penn of The Colony of Penn (British Possession in the USA)

The King of England gave her husband the lands in 1693. In 1712 he was paralyzed and she became acting governor or Proprietor of the Colony of Penn. He died in 1718 but his son (her stepson) did not “take power” until 1724. The last of the Penn-family to rule the state of Pennsylvania was deposed in 1776. She lived (1671-1727).  

1712-72 Hereditary Duchess Maria Theresia von und zu Liechtenstein of Troppau (Czech Republic)
1769-72 Head of
the Herzoglich Savoyschen Damenstiftes in Wien (Austria)

Also known as Maria Teresa Anna Felicita di Liechtenstein, Marie-Thérèse de Savoie or  Marie Terezie Savojská vévodkyně z Lichtenštejna, she became heir of the Duchy of Troppau through her father, Fürst Johann Adam Ulrich von und zu Liechtenstein (1662-1712), who purchased the Counties of Vaduz and Schellenberg, the core of the present day's principality. Both her 2 brothers died young  she married Tommaso Emanuele de Savoie-Carignan (Savoia-Carignano), Count of Soissons, Governor of Antwerben (1687-1729) and after his death she took up residence at her family's castle in Bohemia, Škvorec and 1769 she founded the The Ducal Savoyan Ladies' Chapter in Vienna - Her son, Eugene Jean François de Soissons was Duke of Troppau (1714-29-34), and married Duchess Maria Teresa di Massa e Carra, but he died before they ever met. After his death, her sister-in-law, Marie Anne Victoria, became heiress of Soissons, and Troppau reverted to the Princely family of Liechtenstein. She lived (1694-1772)

Markgräfin Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg

1712-14 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margravine Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg of Neustadt Erlangen in Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)

Had been given the domain by her husband, Margrave Christian Ernst in 1703 and was very influential in the design of the castle, the garden and the Orangerie, until she married a second time in 1714, and lived (1674-1748).

1712-30 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Friederike Elisabeth von Sachsen-Eisenach of the Castle and Office of Dryburg in Langensalza in Sachsen-Weissenfels-Querfurt (Germany)

Secured strong social accents to the reforms of her husband, Johann Georg of Sachsen-Weißenfels-Querfurt (1677-97-1712). Her only son and 3 oldest daughters died as infants. Only Johanna Magdalene (1708-60), survived into adulthood and married Ferdinand Kettler, Duke of Kurland and Semgallen, but they did not have any children. The youngest daughter, Friederike Amalia, was born 2 weeks before her father passed, died at the age of 2. She was Daughter of Duke Johann Georg I von Sachsen-Eisenach and Countess Johanetta von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, and lived (1669-1730)

1712-36 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Charlotte Wilhelmine von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld of the Office and Caste of Babenhausen in Hanau-Münzenberg (Germany)

Administered her dowey after the death of her husband, Count Philipp Reinhard von Hanau-Münzenberg (1664−1712), but after the death of the last Count of Hanau and the the incorporation of the County into Hessen-Kassel and Hessen-Darmstadt, she took up residence in a palais in the Old City of Hanau. She did not have any children, and lived (1685-1767).

1712-21 Titular Duchess Anna Sophie Reventlow of Slesvig, Countess of Vallø (Denmark)

Married to the "left hand" in a morganatic marriage to king Frederik (1671-99-1730) and the day after the death of his first wife, Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow in 1721, they got legally married and she was crowned Queen - as the only non-royal so far in Denmark. She was given different estates and lands, among other the County of Vallø, but after the king's death she was sent in internal exile at Clausholm Castle, her dowry, by her stepson, Christian VI. She was mother of six children who all died in infancy and lived (1693-1743).

1712-13 Princess-Abbess Marie Elisabeth zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Gandersheim  (Germany)

Regent of the Chapter of Rühn in Mecklenburg 1705-12 and held the office of Dechaness of Gandersheim before becoming its Sovereign. She was daughter of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and Marie Katharina von Braunschweig-Dannenberg (1616-1665). Her oldest sister, Sophie Agnes was Regent of Rühn 1654-94, another, Christine was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim 1681-93 and Juliane Sibylle was also Regent of Rühn 1695-1701. She lived (1646-1713).


1712-42 Princess-Abbess Maria Cäcilia II Constanza Schmid of Heggbach (Germany)

She managed to pay off most of the heavy depths of the chapter, but the production buildings were hit by lightening and all the stock burned down to the ground. She wrote to a large number of neighbouring convents - including Gutenzell and Buchau and received plenty of donations. 1713 Emperor Karl VI of Austria confirmed the privileges of the chapter, but the following year she wrote to the Abbesses of Baindt, Gutenzell and Rottenmünster threatening to withdraw from the College of Prelates of the Realm (Reichsprälatenkollegium) if it would bear only financial obligations and no advantages to stay member, and she continued the disputes with the cities and other inhabitants of the territory, because of the taxes imposed by the Realm, and she feared for her position as Princess of the Realm. At the time of her reign the territory covered around 50 square kilometres and 1.718 inhabitants. She lived (1671-1742).


1713-24 Regent Dowager Countess Isabella Justina von Hoorn of Bentheim und Steinfurt (Germany)

Isabella Justine van Horne was the widow of Count Ernst (1661-93-1713), she was regent for Friedrich Belgicus Karl (1703-13-33), and she was addressed as Highborn Countess of the Realm, Graciously Reigning Countess and Lady (Hochgeborene Reichsgräfin! Gnädigst regierende Gräfin und Frau). 1716 she ended the long dispute with the Bishop of Münster, who finally recognized the sovereignty of the County in present day's Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony). She had inherited the Lordships of Bratenburg, Kessel, Bicht, Oedekirchen in from her father in 1694 in the Netherlands. She lived (1661-1734).


1713-19 Payung e-ri Luwu Fatima Batara Tongke of Luwu (Indonesia)

Succeeded father, Muhammad Muizuddin To Palaguna, and was succeeded by the daughter of her father's sister, Batari Toja. After Batari Toris death, Fatima's own daughter, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin, succeeded to the throne.


1713-22 Regent Dowager Countess Sophia Eleonora von Limpurg-Gaildorf-Schmiedelfeld of Limpurg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Vollrath Schenk of Limpurg, she became regent against her own will. Four days after his death a representative of the Prussian king claimed the lands, since only 5 daughters had survived. Troops were placed in the county, which withdrew after pressure from Emperor Karl VI. Apart from Volrath's 5 daughters, their 3 cousins were co-heirs of the Schenken von Limpurg (since 1705), but they could not claim their inheritance because of the Prussian claims until 1746/48, and it was not until 1775 their grandchildren agreed on a division of the lands in ten new lines: Limpurg-Gröningen, Limpurg-Obersontheim, Limpurg-Michelbach Limpurg-Schmiedelfeld, Limpurg-Gaildorf, Limpurg-Gaildorf-Wurmbrand, Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim, Limpurg-Gaildorf-Rechteren and Limpurg-Gaildorf-Schönburg-Waldenburg. Sophia Eleonora (d. 1722).


1713-35 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmina Sofia zu Limpurg-Sontheim of the Amt Schmiedefeld within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)

Oldest daughter of Vollrath von Limpurg-Speckfeld zu Obersontheim and married to Graf Rudolf von Prösing (d. 1718), and succeeded by daughter, Juliane Franziska.


1713-46 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Magdalena zu Limburg-Sontheim of the Amt Gröningen within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (the Lordship of Limpurg Gröningen) (Germany)

Second daughter of Vollrath von Limpurg-Sontheim she married to Ludwig-Georg von Hessen-Homburg, and was succeeded by daughter, Maria Friederike von Hessen-Homburg.


1713-38 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Eleonora zu Limpurg-Sontheim of the Amt Michelbach within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)

Third daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, a number of acts exists from her administration of her fiefs. She was married to Friedrich-Karl von Erbach (d. 1731) and succeeded by two daughters Sophia Christine and Friederike. She lived (1695-1738).

Co-Regierende Gräfin Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim

1713-46 Joint Sovereign Countess Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim of  the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)

Fourth daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Heinrich-Friedrich zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, and was succeeded by a number of sons among others Johann-Ludwig-Vollrath and Friedrich-Ludwig, who married the daughters of her sister Sophia Eleonora: Friederike and Sophia-Christine. Her two daughters, Amöne Sophia II and Karoline Christiane also shared the inheritance. Amöne Sophia I lived (1684-1746). 


1713-57 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederika Augusta zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim - the Lordship of Limpurg-Schmeidenfeld-Speckfeld (Germany)

Fifth daughter of daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Christian-Heinrich von Schönburg-Waldenburg (d. 1753) and succeeded by daughter, Sophie Henriette Freiderike. The County of Limpurg-Sontheim had one vote in the Bench of the Fränkische Gräfen (Frankish Counts), which had a joint vote in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), which became known as the "Seat of the countly Limpurgian Allodial-heirs". She lived (1682-1757)

1713-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sophie Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Bützow in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)

When her husband, Friedrich Wilhelm von Mecklenburg-Grabow-Schwerin (1688-1713) died, she set up a court in her dowry, which formed a small German Reformed congregation, which survived after her death. She was daughter of Landgrave Karl Hesse-Kassel (1654-1730) and Maria Amalia of Kurland (1653 to 1711), daughter of Duke Jacob Kettler of Kurland, had no chldren and lived (1678-1749).


1713-48 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Friederike Philippine von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg of Neustadt an der Orla in Sachsen-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt (Germany)

Widow of Friedrich Heinrich von Sachsen-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt and joint guardian for her son Moritz Adolf Karl (1702-59), who chose to become a catholic cleric and was first bishop of Königgrätz and then of Leitmeritz, and he resigned from the Duchy. It seems that she continued to be in charge of the City and Office of Neustadt. She was daughter of Duke Philipp Ludwig von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg and Anna Margaretha von Hessen-Homburg. (1665-1748).

Elisabeth Ernestine von Sachsen-Meiningen

1713-66 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Ernestine Antonie zu Sachsen-Meiningen of Gandersheim (Germany)

During her reign the Chapter of the Realm (Reichsabtei), experienced a revival. She had set up her permanent residence in the Stift and used her funds on expanding the church and other institutions and she was a great sponsor of arts and science and baroque culture. She also collected a large library and built a number of baroque buildings. She defended the independence of the chapter against the interventions of the duke of Braunschweig and his use of "Our Chapter" or "Princely Chapter" stressing that Gandersheim was an "ancient Imperial Free Worldly Chapter." She was daughter of Duke Bernhard I of Saxe-Meiningen and his second wife Elisabeth Eleonore von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, and lived (1681-1766).


1713-35 Princess-Abbess Maria Clara Salomé von Roggenbach of Schänis (Switzerland)

Because of a serious mental inless a Reigning Coadjutorin was installed 1722 until she resigned from office. The Daughter of Johann Franz von Roggenbach, of a noble Austrian family living in the Diocese of Basel, and Maria Jacobe Münch von Rosenberg. She lived (1668-1736).


1713-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sofia Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel of the Administrative Office of Bützow in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Friederich Wilhelm zu Mecklenburg in Schwerin, she took over her dorwy, the Amt Bützow-Land, where she set up a court, which formed a small German Reformed congregation that survived after her death. She did not have any children but her husband had at least 9 with different mistresses. She was daughter of Landgraf Karl von Hessen-Kassel, and lived (1678-1749).

1713-19 Politically Influential Marianna Bielińska Denhoff Lubomirska in Poland

During her time as Maitresse of king Augustus II the Strong, she cooperated close with the French Ambassador Jean Besenval and persuade Augustus to conclude an alliance with Ludwik XIV in 1714. Her first marriage to Bogusław Ernest Dönhoff ended in divorce in 1719 and later she married George Ignatius Lubomirski. She was daughter of Grand Marshal Crown Kazimierz Louis Bieliński (d. 1713), the head pro-french party in Poland, and lived (circa 1685-1730) .


1714-1715, 1720, 1724-1738 and 1741-1749 H.H. Bata-ri Toja Daeng Talaga Arung Timurung Datu-ri CittaSultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din binti al-Marhum Sultan Idris Azim ud-din, Arumpone of Bone 
1715 and 1728-1738 Datu of Soppeng
1719-20 Datu of Luwu (Indonesia)

Succeeded her father, H.H. La Patau Paduka Sri Sultan Idris. Styled Datu Chita and Arung Timurang before her accession and during the times she had vacated the throne. First abdicated in favour of her brother. After his deposition she again became ruler, but abdicated immediately in favour of her eldest half-brother. Restored for the third time on his deposition, in 1724. Married to Sultan Muharram Harun ar-Rashid of Sumbawa, Prince Pabukajuwa of Bone and Datu Ulaweng, Arung Zallieng, Adatuwang of Sidenreng, who was Regent of Bone 1724-1725, and finally to Daeng Mamuntuli, Arung Kayu, Regent of Bone 1726-1728. All but the third marriage ended in Divorce. Her ceremonial name was Matinroé-ri Tipuluna, she had no children and was succeeded by a female relative, Siti Nafisha, and lived (1687-1749).

Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden

1714-41 Member of the Council of State Princess Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden
1714 Regent of Sweden
1718-20 By the Grace of Good, Sweden's, the Goths and Wend's Queen, Grand Duchess of Finland, Duchess of Skåne, Estonia, Livonia, Carelia, Bremen, Behrden, Stettin, Pommerania, Casüben and Wenden, Princess of Rügen, Lady over Ingermanland and Wissmar

1731 and 1738 Regent of Sweden et cetera

Generally known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, she was in charge of the government a number of times during the reign of her brother Karl XII. After his death, she had his confidante, the unpopular Baron Goertz arrested, and - after accepting a number of conditions - she was proclaimed Queen by the estates. These conditions limited royal power; they are regarded being a contract between sovereign and people. Actually, power shifted to the Rigsråd (Council of the Realm), which was responsible to the estates. The privileges obtained by the estates limited royal power so far, that Sweden in fact became an aristocratic republic. She abdicated in favour of her husband, Friedrich von Hessen (1676-1720-51), because she came at odds with the Parliament. She acted as regent both for brother and later for husband, who was succeeded by a son of a sister of hers. She lived (1688-1741).


1714-21 Governor Ann Andros of Alderney (United Kingdom Crown Dependency)

Followed her father George Andros on the post. He had succeeded his uncle, Sir Edmund Andros, who had been granted Alderney for 99 years at an annual rent of about 13 pounds in 1683, then year before. Sir Edmund then delegated his powers to Thomas Le Mesurier to whom he was related by marriage as he had been appointed Governor of New York. According to one source, the island passed to his two daughters and when they both died by 1721 to his sister Ann. Other sources report that John Le Mesurier became Governor in 1714 in the right of his wife, and when he died in 1722 the island passed to Peter Le Mesurier. Ann Le Mesurier died in 1729 and her eldest son Henry became Governor. She lived (1684-1721). 

Isabel Farnesio

1714-46 De-Facto Joint Ruler Queen Isabel Farnesio of Spain
1759 Regent Dowager Queen

Born as Elisabetta Farnese di Parma, Elizabeth Farnese was regent until her son, Carlos III, arrived in Spain from The Two Sicilies after the death of her stepson Fernando III (1713-46-59). In 1714 she had married Philip V of Spain (1683-1746) who was was afflicted by fits of manic depression and increasingly fell victim to a deep melancholia, and she quickly obtained complete influence over him. The Triple Alliance thwarted her plans to recover the ancient Italian possessions of Spain, and at length in 1720 the allies made the banishment of Cardinal Alberoni a condition of peace. Sicily also had to be evacuated. And finally, all her entreaties failed to prevent the abdication of Philip, who in 1724 gave up the throne to his son by his first wife, Louis, who however died after seven months and he was recalled to the throne. During his later years, when he was nearly imbecile, she directed the whole policy of Spain so as to secure thrones in Italy for her sons. In 1736 her son Don Carlos became king of the Two Sicilies. Her second son, Philip, inherited the Duchy of Parma via her after the death of her father, Odoardo II of Parma. The mother of 7 children, she lived (1692-1766). 

1714-41 Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sofie Amalie Ahlefeldt possibly of Sønderborg in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (Denmark and Germandy)

After the death of her husband, Frederik Vilhelm of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (1668-1714), she administered her dowry, possibly Sønderborg Castle, where she died. She was daughter of Frederik Ahlefeldt, Count of Langeland and Maria Elisabeth Gräfin zu Leiningen-Daghesburg-Hardenburg, and lived (1668-1741)

Sophie Hedevig af Danmark

1714-35 Major Landowner Princess Sophie Hedevig af Danmark

The daughter of King Christian 5. (1646-99) she inherited a number of estates from her mother, Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-Kassel (1650-1714). She exchanged the estates of Gjorslev and Erikstrup for Dronninglund, Dronninggård and Børglumkloster in Jutand. Went into internal "exile" at the estate of Vemmetofte in the south of Denmark in 1721 when her brother, Frederik 4., married Anne-Sophie Reventlow the day after his first wife died. Together with her other brother Carl she set up a court with at least 70 members. When Carl died in 1729 she also inherited Vemmetofte, Højstrup and Charlottenborg, but also his large depths, which she managed to pay off. The following year, her nephew, Christian 6. Succeeded to the throne and gave her an appange and Sorgenfri Slot with among others Frederiksdal. Her religious and social engagement manifested itself by opening schools for the peasants at her estates. As a child she was engaged to Electoral Prince Johann Georg von Sachsen, but he broke it off and attempts to arrange a marriage to Carl XII and later again to Emperor Joseph I also failed, the latter because she would not convert to Catholism. There are rumours that she entered a secret marriage with her long-time companion Count C.A. von Plessen, but officially she never married. In her will she stipulated that Vemmetofte and Højstrup with surrounding estates should become a chapter for noble ladies in one of the three first classes (Adeligt Jomfrukloster). She lived (1677-1735).


1715 Regent Queen Brhat Maha Kshatriyi of Cambodia 

Born as Princess Brhat Maha Kshatriyi and granted the title of Akka Maha Sri in 1700, she was elder daughter of King Jaya Jatha IV. In charge of the government during the reign of her husband Ang Em (1674-1731), who was in office 1699-1701 and 1710-22.

1715-22 Regent Johanna Katharina von Montfort of the County of Bergh (The Netherlands)

In 1712 the family of Van den Bergh ('s-Heerenberg) died out and the county was inherited by the family of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, through her mother-in-law, Marie Klara van den Bergh (1635-1715), the wife of Prince Maximillian von Hohenzollern. Johanna's younger son, Franz Wilhelm Nikolaus, was granted the title and after the death of her husband, Prince Meinrad II Karl Anton, (1673-1715), she took over the reins. In 1718, she granted the Prussian Commissar of War, Dozem zu Kleve, several manorhouses as fief. Her oldest son was Prince Josef Franz Ernst Meinhard Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1702-69). Johanna von Montfort lived (1678-1759).

1715-28 Princess-Abbess Lambertina Cécilia de Renesse d'Elderen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)

After the death of her predecessor, Anna Leonora, she quickly took the reigns and was elected abbess the following year. She also used the title of Princess, but unlike earlier, the Prince-Bishop of Liège did not protest, perhaps because her brother, Maximiliaan Hendrik van Renesse, was Grand-Bailiff of the County of Loon, Head of the nobility of Liège and Secretary and Advisor of the Prince-Bishop. The internal disputes between different factions within the chapter continued in spite of the difficult financial situation. She was daughter of Georg Frederik de Renesse and Anna Margarethe von Bocholtz, and lived 1670-1728).


1715-18 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Baradán de Oxinalde of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than fifty villages, held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction.


1715-29 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Emilie Agnes Reuß zu Schleiz of the Administrative Office and Castle of Dahme in Sachsen-Weissenfels and Fürstlich Drehna and Vetschau in Brandenburg (Germany)

After the death of her second husband, Duke Friedrich von Sachsen-Weissenfels-Dahme (1673-1715), she took up residence at the Castle of Dahme - that had been given to her husband as a younger son in the Weissenfels-family - it had previously been held as dorwy of his mother,  Johanna Walpurgis of Leiningen-Westerburg. Later she also used the Lordships of Drehna and Vetschau from her first marriage to Reichsgraf Balthasar Erdmann von Promnitz zu Pleß auf Sorau und Triebel (1656-1703). She did not have any children in her second marriage. She was daughter of Heinrich I Reuss zu Schleiz and Countess Esther von Hardegg auf Glatz und im Machlande, and lived (1667-1729).

Mask of a Benin Queen Mother

1715-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Akenzua I of Benin (1713-35). As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and had a whole court of officeholders. 

Maria Anna von Habsburg

1716 and 1742-50 Regent Queen Mariana de Austria of Portugal

In 1742 her husband, Joâo V (1689-1709-50) was hit by a stroke and assisted by advisors, she was in charge of the government until his death eight years later, during a period of economic stagnation and decay of the state institutions. She was daughter of Emperor Leopold I of Austria, was mother of five children, and lived (1683-1754).


1716-35 Datuk We Pattekketana Faeng Tanisanga of Tanette (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father, Mappajanci Daeng Matayan (circa 1677-1716), and married Muhammad Muizuddin of Luwu (1704-1713), who was succeeded as Datu of Luwu by their daughter. We Pattekketana was succeeded by their daughters grandson, who in 1747 was again succeeded by sister, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin, ruler of Luwu from 1734.


1716-22 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Sibylle von Ahlefeldt of Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim (Germany)

As guardian (vormundschaftliche Regentin) for her son, Lothar Wilhelm Ernst (1703-22) she filed a case at the Reichskammergericht against her brother-in-law Ludwig Heinrich over the inheritance of the territories of the Lorship of Cratz von von Scharffenstein in 1718, 2 years after the death of her husband, Georg Ludwig. The case closed when Lothar died in an accident and she reached a settlement with Ludwig for her and her 2 daughters, the Countesses Catharina Polyxena epousé zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg ((1702-65) and Maria Sophia Eleonora Wilhelmina epouse zu Wartenberg, got financial compensation, but they did not sell their part of the Cratz-inheritance to Rödelheim until a few years later. She was daughter of Friederich von Ahlefeld-Rixingen and Maria-Elisabeth zu Leiningen and lived (1672-1726).


After 1716 Pretender Elena of the Kingdom of Kongo (Angola)

After the restoration of the kingdom in 1709, and King Pedro IV's power sharing scheme, the Kinlaza shared power with the other branches. Its northern branch, founded by her brother, João II, who Mbula or Lamba 1680-1716, made a claim on the throne, but the branch of this family that supported Pedro IV and opposed her claim to the throne in the 1710s. And this branch eventually becake kings of the reunited Kingdom of Kongo when Garcia IV came to power in 1743.

Unnamed Lady of the Abomey Court

Circa 1716-40 Kpojito Adonon of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of the kings Akaba and Agaja. She appears to have been the first Kpojito, a title which is translated as Queen Mother, but it literally means "the one who helped the Leopard", and her role was to serve as compliment to the king and in some aspects as his double, not the least in the spiritual world. The woman elected to this office was normally not related to the king. She was widow of king Wegbaja. She also served as priest for Aligbonon - mother of Akaba and Agaja, and thereby helped legitimizing the rule of their lineage.


1717-27 Member of the Regency Council the Dowager Maharani of Tehri Garhwal (India)
After the death of her husband, Maharaja Upendra Shah Sahib Bahadur, she reigned together with Puran Pal/Puriya Naithani for her son  Maharaja Pradip Shah Sahib Bahadur (1709-17-72).

1717-31 Governor Violante Beatrice di Bavière of the City and State of Siena (Italy)
Following the death of her husband, Ferdinando de' Medici, Hereditary Prince of Toscana (in 1713), she was appointed Governatrice of the city, while his brother, Gian Gastone succeeded his father, Cosimo III as Grand Duke of Toscana in 1723 - he was the last male member of the de' Medici-family. She was engaged in the revival of the cultural and economical life of Sienna. Born as Beatrix of Bayern, she was daughter of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria and Adelaide Henriette of Savoia, and lived (1673-1731).

Franziska Christine von Pfalz-Sulzbach

1717-76 Princess-Abbess Franziska Christine von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeersel (The Netherlands)
1726-76 Princess-Abbess of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)

After 1718 the principality of Thorn engaged with a long lasting conflict with the Westphalian Circle. The States (Parliament) was not willing to pay fees to the Circle, during the Austrian Succession war, where Thorn paid a fee to Empress Maria-Theresia. In 1726 Franziska Christine was elected as successor to Bernhardina-Sophia von Ostfriesland und Rietberg in Essen she mainly stayed in Essen, where she founded an orphanage - Fürstin-Fransika-Christine-Stiftung.  She was daughter of Count Theodor of Pfalz-Sulzbach of the House of Wittelsbach and Maria Eleonora von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, and used the titulature
ihrer Allerfürstlichsten Hoheit, Franziska Christina von Pfalz-Sulzbach, von Gottes Gnaden Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein, des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Fürstin und Äbtissin der Kaiserlichen Freiweltlichen Stifter Essen und Thorn, in Baiern, zu Jülich-Kleve-Berg Herzogin, Fürstin zu Moers, Gräfin zu Veldenz, Sponheim, der Mark und Ravensberg, Frau zu Ravenstein, Breisig, Huckarde et cetera.
She lived (1696-1776).


1717-27 Princess-Abbess Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)

Elected to succeed her relative, Anna Juliana von Manderscheid, who was Abbess of Thorn, Elten and Vreden. After her death another relative, Countess Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid was elected Abbess in Elten. In 1719 big parts of the town of Elten was destroyed in a big fire.


1717-48 Princess-Abbess Sophie Charlotte von Bottlenberg gen. Kessel of Käppel  (Germany)

A Protestant, she succeeded the Catholic Anna Elisabeth von der Hees. A successor was not elected until 1753 because of disputes between the Catholic and Protestant parties after the succession of a new "lord-protector" (Schirmherr) of the Chapter, the Catholic Fürst Wilhelm Hyacinth of Nassau-Siegen.                      


Circa 1717-34 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Melchora Juana Sarmiento Valladares y Moctezuma, V Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)

Succeeded her sister, Doña Fausta Domenga, married Ventura Fernandez de Cordova, and was succeeded by a distant cousin Doña Teresa Nieto, who lived in Spain. She lived (1697-1734).

Mary Hay, Countess of Erroll, Lord High Constable and Knigh Marischal of Scotland

1717-58 18th Hereditary Lord High Constable and Knight Marischal of Scotland, The 14th Countess of Erroll (United Kingdom)

Mary Hay was the Senior Great Officer Royal Office of Scotland and Chief of the King's Household in Scotland. She succeeded to the title in 1717 when she also became Lady Hay and Baroness of Stain, 23rd Chief of the Hays (since 1171) and Mac Garaidh Mhar (a Celtic title). In 1727 she nominated Johns Duke of Roxburgh, to act as Her Deputy and walk in the procession for the coronation of George II. In 1745 she Raised an army of Buchan men who Stood for "Bonny Prince Charlie" - Prince Charles Edward Stuart. At this time Mary was a practicing Episcopalian and as this faith was persecuted by the Hanoverians she fitted out a grain store as a place of worship. This was known in Cruden Bay as 'Countess Mary's Girnal'. It was burnt to the ground in 1746 by English Dragoons. She succeeded her brother, Charles Hay, and was succeeded by grandnephew, Lord John Boyd, the grandson of her late sister Margaret. She lived (before 1704-58).


1717-83 Sovereign Margravine Bianca Maria di Sinzendorf of Caravaggio, Countess of Galliate (Italy)

Her mother, Bianca-Maria I Sforza di Caravaggio, died giving birth to her and she was the 10th Marchesa di Caravaggio e Contessa di Galliate her whole life. She married Don Filippo Domenico Doria Sforza Visconti, Marchese Doria, Marchese di Caravaggio e Conte di Galliate maritali nomine, Patrizio Genovese, Cavaliere dell’Ordine del Tosone d’Oro 1753, Generale delle Armate Imperiali. She lived (1717 - 1783).


Until 1718 Marchiones Leonor Duque de Estrada y Urbina of Lanzarote (Spain)

She succeeded her father, Manuel Duque de Estrada y Meneses as VIII marquesa de Lanzarote. The succession to the title was settled in court in favour of Martín González de Castejón y Villalonga. She lived (1705-1718).


After 1718 Titular Rani of Attingal in Travancore (India)

The family follows matrilineal inheritance, according to male primogeniture. The two senior Princesses of the Royal House, the mother of the Maharaja and her sister, received the principality of Attingal in appanage, and were styled the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal.

1718-34 Regent Dowager Princess Charlotte Amalia von Nassau-Dillenburg of Nassau-Usingen (Germany)
1735-38 (†) Reigning Dowager Lady of Saarbrücken

After the death of her husband, Fürst Wilhelm Heinrich (1684-1702-18) she assumed the regency for son sons, Karl (1712-18-75) and Wilhelm Heinrich (1718-68). She turned the principality into a "modern" state, by reforming the administration. She created a national archive in the Castle of Idstein, which forms the core of the Archives of Hessen and she created a library that founds the basis for the National Library of Hessen today. She also introduced schools, but she limited the rights of the Jewish community. In spite of her abilities, she was not able to give the Principality a "suitable" place in the Empire, and even allowed her sons to split up the country, which weakened the state a lot. 1734 Karl was declared to be of age by Emperor Karl VI but she continued as regent for Wilhelm Heinrich, who became Fürst of Saarbrücken, Ottweiler, Jugenhein and Wöllstein in 1735/42. She lived (1680-1738).

1718-45 Sovereign Princess Marie-Françoise de Bournonville of Poix (France)

The widow of Louis Anne-Jules de Noailles, Duke Noailles and gouverneur civil de la Province de Roussillon (1650-1708), she bought the Principality from Charles-Belgique-Hollande de La Trémoïlle, duc de Thouars. The principality then stayed in the Noailles family, where it became the title of the second son. Mother of 21 children, and lived (1645-1748)


1718-39 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anastazja Myszkowska of Barcice and Rytro (Poland)

Also known  as Anastazja Jordan , she was jointly in charge of the administration of the territory with her husband Michał Stefan Jordan. She lived (ca.1684-ca.1733/39)

Sophie von Sachsen-Wissenfels, Fürstin zu Anhalt-Zerbst

1718-24 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Sophia von Sachsen-Weißenfels of the Administrative Office and Castle of Coswig in Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)

Widow of  Carl Wilhelm (1652-1718) and mother of Johann August von Anhalt-Zerbst. She lived (1654-1724) .

1718-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Maria Amalia von Brandenburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Bertholdsburg in Schleusingen in Sachsen-Zeitz (Germany)

When her second husband, Duke Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Zeitz, died, she moved to her dowry. 1 son and 2 daughters died as infants, the Hereditary Prince at the age of 10 and only Dorothea Wilhelmine survived and married Wilhelm VIII von Hessen-Kassel. Maria Amalia had first been married to Herditary Princes Karl von Mecklenburg-Güstrow, who died the same day their only child was born and died. She lived (1670-1739).

Fürstäbtissin Maria Elisabeth zu Quedlinburg, née Princess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gottorp

1718-55 Princess-Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her time in office was marked by the disputes with King Friederich Wilhelm I of Prussia, the Guardian of the Chapter, who anexed parts of her lands. Her protests to the Emperor did not have any effect, and the situation did not normalize until Friederich I came on the throne. She rebuilt and expanded the residential castle of the chapter (Stiftsschloss). She was daughter of Duke Christian Albrecht zu Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Gottorp and Princess Frederikke Amalie of Denmark, and lived (1678-1755).


1718-30 Princess-Abbess Maria Barbara von Liebenfels of Säckingen (Germany)

Reached an agreement with Prince-Bishop Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg of Basel about the rights to the estate of Schliengen. The reconstruction of the church was finished 1727. The daughter of Johann Franz von Liebenfels zu Worblingen and Maria Margarethe Schindelin von Unter-Reitnau, she lived (1666-1730).

1718-47 Princess-Abbess Maria Bernardina von Donnersberg of Gutenzell (Germany)

The Princess-Abbess of the Chapter had been a member of the Swabian Circle of the Imperial Diet since 1521.


1718-20 Governor Ines de Osio y Mendoza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Acted in the place of the Reigning Abbess.


1718-30 Politically Influential Princess Hatice Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey and the Middle East)

Her father, Sultan Ahmed III largely left the affairs of state to her husband, Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, and she had great influence over both. Some sources regard her as the real ruler of the later Tulip era (1703-1730), at least during the 1720s. She was to have assisted Marquis de Villeneuve in a Pro-French politic during the war between France and Russia. Some historians see her as the last de facto female ruler of the Ottoman Empire.


1719-34 Payung e-ri Luwu Batari Toja of Luwu (Indonesia)

Followed her relative Fatima as ruler, and since she had no children, she was succeeded by Fatima's daughter, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin.

 Augusta zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Frau zu das Amt Dargun

1720-56 Reigning Lady Duchess Augusta zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow of the Administrative Unit of Dargun in Mecklenburg-Güstrow (Germany)

After the death of her mother, Dowager Grand Duchess Magdalene Sibylle von Holstein-Gottorp with whom she had lived at the Castle of Güstrow after the death of her father Gustav Adolf zu Mecklenburg, she was given the Amt as her appanage, and she set up a court with 150 employees became known as The Princess of Dargun.
She introduced a number of reforms in her area, which consisted of 45 villages, especially within education and health and she founded schools in villages which had hitherto not had any. She was strongly influenced by the Pietist movement and gradually became more and more religious, and lived (1674-1756).


1719-65 Princess-Abbess Anna Magdalena Franziska von Dondorff of
Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

All candidates for the chapter had to undergo a comprehensive education in religion, writing, calculation, history and foreign languages. The 12 canonesses lived a religious life but did not take "Oath" as nuns, did not wear nun-habibits and lived a secular life. Only the Abbess had to be celebate, the other canonisses could marry, and the higly educated ladies were freuquent guests at the court of the Princes of Thurn and Taxis and of the highranking clerics and envoys to the Diet of the Realm in Regensburg. Her family was noble and originated from Thüringen.

Louise Adelaïde d'Orléans of Chelles 

1719-34 Reigning Abbess Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans of Chelles (France)

Also the abbesse of the Val-de-Grâce, a church built under the auspices of her maternal great-grandmother, Anne of Austria, the wife of King Louis XIII. Originally titled Mademoiselle de Chartres, she became Mademoiselle d'Orléans in 1710 after her older sister married Charles, duc de Berry and was known as Madame d'Orléans 1719-34. Died from smallpox at the Convent de la Madeleine de Traisnel in Paris. Daughter of The Regent of France, Philippe II d'Orléans, duc de Chartres, heir to the House of Orléans, and Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, a legitimised natural daughter of Louis XIV and his mistress, Madame de Montespan. She lived (1698-1743).

1720-29 Reigning Princess Marianna Lubomirska of the Ostróg Ordynat , including Lubomierz, Nowy Wiśnicz, Bochnia, Wieliczka, Łańcut, Baranów Sandomierski, Puławy, Rzeszów, Równe, Tarnów, Jarosław, Przeworsk, Janowiec upon the Vistula. (Ukraine and Poland)

The Ukrainian Principality of Jaroslaw which was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies during the Great Northern War of 1700-21, causing the town to decline further. She was daughter of Prince Jozef Karol, Great Crown Marshal of Poland, (1661-1702) and Princess Teofila Ludwika Zaslawska, who owned the Ostrog Estates 1673-1709 as the 5th Ordinate  (d. 1709). She succeeded her twin brother, Prince Aleksander Dominik Lubomirski (1693–1720), starost of Sandomierz, Zator and Ryki and the IV ordynat of the Ostrogski Family Fee Tail. Owner of Wiśnicz, Dubno and Zasław estates. Her son by her husband, Prince Pawel Karol Sanguszko-Lubartowicz (1682-1750), Janusz Aleksander Sanguszko, was the last ordynat of the Ostrogski Family Fee Tail and Court Marshal of Lithuania. She lived (1693-1729).


1720-30 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Hundbiss von Waltrams of Lindau  (Germany)

1728 the territory of the Chapter was destroyed in a fire and it was rebuild in baroque stile. Fürstäbtissin Maria Franzisca was member of a noble family from Württemberg, which also spells its name as Hundpiß von Waltrams.

1720-22  Princess-Abbess Rosina Clara Schlindlin von Hirschfeld of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Karl 6 of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, issued a decree confirming her election as Princely Abbess, "fürstliche Abbatißin zu St. Georg".


1720-23 and 1726-29 Reigning Abbess-General of the Royal Monastery María Magdalena de Villarroel Cabeza de Vaca of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

In a decree she wrote: "We, Doña Mará Magdalena de Villarroel Cabeza de Baca, by the grace of God and the Holy Apostolic Sea, Abbess of the Royal Monestary of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas, the of the City of Burgoes, the Cistercian Order,...., Mother and Legitimate Superior of the Hospital of the King and its compounds  and the convents, churches, erimitages and places with their trust and obidience with omnimodial jurisdiction, privativa, Quasi Episcopal, Nillius, et cetera..."


Until 1720 Abbess Nullius Luigia Tarsia of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

A group of Cistercian Nuns took over the chapter which had existed as a male convent since 889 and also took over the direct papal protection. As Abbess she held semi-episcopal powers until 1806.


1720 and 1730 Abbess Nullius Daniela La Forza of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Also Prioress.

Nanny of the Maroons

1720-39 Leader Nanny of the Maroons in the Blue Mountains in Eastern Jamaica

Head of the Windward or Eastern Jamaican Maroons - Africans - and the struggle against the British colonial empire and its institution of slavery in Jamaica. The Maroons themselves and the British settlers too, all recognized her as an outstanding military leader. She was particularly skilled in organizing the guerrilla warfare carried out by the Eastern Maroons to keep away the British troops who attempted to penetrate the mountains to overpower them. And, she was especially important to the free Africans in their fierce fight with the British during the First Maroon War from 1720 to 1739. She was also a spiritual leader, a Priestess, for her people.  Despite relentless pursuit by the British forces, the Windward Maroons continued raiding plantations for food and supplies; survived and thrived in the mountainous jungle terrain; communicated using the famous abeng (cow horn); and kept the location of their mountain secret for at least ten years.


1721-22/26 In Charge of the Government Countess Charlotte Luise von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Homburg of Rantzau Breitenburg and Parts of Pinneberg (Germany)

In 1721 her husband, Reichsgraf Wilhelm Adolf von Rantzau-Breitenburg, was accused of being responsible for the murder of his brother Christian Detlev, who had been arrested, perhaps on charges of "sodomy" (homosexuality) in 1715. Wilhelm Adolf took over the government and even paid king Friedrich Wilhelm I. of Preussen to keep Christian Detlev in prison, but he returned in 1720 and was killed the following year. Wilhelm Adolf travelled to Copenhagen to ask King Frederik VI of Denmark, Duke of Holstein, to confirm him as holder as the fief; he suggested that he would accuse him of the murder of his brother. Wilhelm Adolf escaped but caught in 1722, the county was occupied by troops from Holstein, and in 1726 he was convicted as an accomplice of the murder of his brother, convinced to life imprisonment and a fine of 20.000 reichstalern. He died in 1734 without heirs, and the County reverted to the Duke of Holstein - the king of Denmark. Charlotte Luise was daughter of Count Christian and Christine Christiane Magdalena von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg.


Until 1721 Reigning Lady Maria Anna Franziska von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)

Half of the Bavarian citizen were not direct subjects of the King but of "lords of the manor" - in either secular or clerical Hofmarks, which posessed lower juridstiction and other privilleges. She and her sisters inherited the territory from their mother, .Maria Anna von Haimhausen auf Tutzing.


1721-30 Reigning Lady Maria Ursula Sabrina von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)

Female "Lords of the Manor" - Hofmarksherscherinnen was not usual, but it was not unheard of since the land was hereditary within the gentred nobility. Among her duties was to exercise the lower civil and penal juridisction through a "ritter", to collect taxes in the name of the king and to supply men to the army. She also held a trade monopoly and managed the estate and agricultural aspects

Rosina von Kraichgau 1721-38 Reigning Abbess Rosina Susanna Catharina Philippina von Venningen of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
The chapter was founded by Amalia Elisabeth won Mentzingen, geb. von Bettendorf, from the inheritance from her parents for Evangelical unmarried ladied from the Ritterkanton Kraichgau (Knights Canton) in Baden, and in 1725 it was granted the status it was granted "reichsfreiheit" incorporated into the Knight's Canton of Kraichgau, but placed under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor. Took over the management of the Chapter in 1718, was inagurated as Abbess in 1721 and got the status of "reigning abbess" or princess-abbess 4 years later.

Abbesse Charlotte Armande de Rohan

1721-33 Reigning Abbess Charlotte Armande de Rohan of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Succeeded aunt, Anne Marguerite de Rohan. Daughter of Hercule Meriadec, Duc de Rohan-Rohan, Prince de Soubise et de Maubuisson, etc, Governor of Champagne and Brie and his first wife, Anne Genevieve de Levis-Ventadour, and lived (1696-1733).

Gertrud Rask

1721-35 Joint Leader of the Mission Gertrud Rask in Greenland (Denmark)

Her 13 years younger husband, Hans Egede (1686-1759), had managed to convince the king of Denmark and Norway to make an expedition to Greenland with the purpose of introducing Lutheranism among the descendants of the Norsemen who left for Greenland around year 900 whom it was expected would still be Catholics. He found no such descendants, instead he became missionary among the indigenous population, the Inuits. He thought Danish among the Inuits, and tried to introduce his own very dogmatic and righteous version of the Christian faith, something that was not received well among the Inuits. Some Christian Inuits were sent to Copenhagen but died of smallpox, and those who returned brought the illness back, which drastically diminished the population in Greenland, and among other caused her own death. She was mother of four children and lived (1673-1735).

Sophie Charlotte von Bothmer

1722-43 Regent Dowager Countess Sophie Charlotte von Bothmer of Reuss zu Obergreiz (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Heinrich II, she acted as regent for two sons Heinrich X (1718-22-23) and Heinrich XI (1722-23-1800-09), who was created Fürst in 1778. In 1723 she married Count Georg Wilhelm zu Erbach-Erbach and had two daughters with him. After her death he married Leopoldine Sophie Wilhelmine, Wild- und Rheingräfin in Grumbach and had a son by her. Sophie Charlotte was daughter of  Johann Caspar Graf von Bothmer and Gisela Erdmuthe von Hoym, and lived  (1686-1757).


1722-29 (†) Governor Ann Le Mesurier of Alderny (United Kingdom Crown Dependency in the Channel Islands)

Sister of George Andros, who held the office of Governor 1713-14, and was succeeded by his daughter Anne Andros and her husband, John Le Mesurier. According to another source, John was succeeded by his son Peter. After Ann’s death, her son her eldest son Henry apparently became Governor. She lived (d. 1729). 


1722 Regent Dowager Duchess Juliane Luise von Ostfriesland of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (Germany)

Also known as Juliana Louise. When her husband, Joachim Friedrich Herzog von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Pløn on 25. January, she was pregnant and became regent awaiting the birth of a heir - but the day after she gave birth to a still-born daughter on 28. May, the Danish king entered the Castle of Plön and took it into possetion. Her husband had 4 daughters with his first wife, 2 of whom were Canonesses in Gandersheim but died at Plön and Augustenburg. 1726-1740 she lived at the castle Ahrensbök and died in Harzgerode, the former residential town of the family of her late mother-in-law, Elisabeth Charlotte von Anhalt-Harzgerode (1647-1723), and lived (1698-1740).

Maria Amalia von Habsburg

1722-45 Politically Influential Electress Maria Amalia von Habsburg of Bavaria (Germany)
1743-45 Influential in the Holy Roman Empire 

Married to elector Karl Albrecht of Bavaria, and was a passionate hunter, loved parties and politics. She was daughter of Emperor Josef I and Amalie Wilhelmine von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and even though she had accepted the Pragmatic Solution, she did claim parts Habsburg Inheritance after the death of her uncle in 1740, but her cousin, Maria Theresia refused this. Maria Amalia's husband was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, though, in 1742, as Karl VII. Maria Amalia supported her husband in the Austrian Succession-war, but after his death, she advised her son, Maximilian III Josef to make peace and compromise with Vienna. Her sister, Maria Josepha, was very influential as Queen of Poland from 1733. Maria Amalia lived (1701-56).

1722-? Princess-Abbess Isidora Constantia Raudnitzkin von Brzesnitz of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Mentioned as "fürstlichen Abbatißin" in a contemporary decree.


1722-35 Reigning Coadjutorix Maria Anna Eleonore Reichlin von Meldegg of Schänis (Switzerland)

Elected Koadjutorin with right of succession in 1722 because of the meltan illness of Fürstäbtissin Maria Clara Salomé von Roggenbach, who had been in office since 1713. She managed to get the confirmation of the new statutes by the Bishop and the Papal Nuntius Domenico Passionei in 1732. She concluded an agreement with the community of Schänis about the maintainance of the church. After a stroke in March 1735 she died in January the following year, before Maria Clara Salomé. She lived (1682-1735).


1722-23 Princess-Abbess Anna X Haug of Baindt (Germany)

As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had the right of a vote in the College of Prelates in the Council of Princes on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1722 Reigning Princess Anna Francesca Ravaschieri Fieschi Pinelli  of Belmonte, Marquise of Galatone and Countess of Copertino (Italy)

In 1720 she conferred her rights to the principality to her husband Antonio Pignatelli, Marquis of San Vincenzo. She was daughter of Oronzo Ravaschieri Fieschi Pinelli, prince (1711-22).

1723-51 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Dürrheim of Baindt (Germany)

The privilege of lower court of justice that had originally been granted in 1437 was confirmed twice during her reign; in 1734 and 1741. Magdalena's family were lords of Dürheim near Stuttgart, Freiberg in Schwarzwald in Bavaria and had possessions in Zürich. She lived (1689-1751)


1723-57 Princess-Abbess Maria Katharina Helena von Aham auf Neuhaus of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Another version of her surname is von Aham-Neuhaus. The seat of the chapter was situated in the centre of the city of Regensburg, which was the seat of the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), but the chapter had numerous possessions outside the city.


1723-26 and 1729-32 Reigning Abbess-General Ana María Helguero y Albarado of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

A relative (possibly her sister), Clara Antonia was Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1732-35.


1723-47 Dato' Putri Siti Awan Setiawanm I of Johol (Malaysia)

The first ruler of the state of Luak Johol, which is one of the component states of the Negri Sembilan Federation and she was one of the four traditional electors of the Yang di-Pertuan (Ruler) of the Federation. She was married to Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lelei Perkasa Setia Wan.


1723-31 Bor Raj Pramateswari Devi of Ahom (India)

Married to Bor Raj/Chief king Siva Singha (1714-1744), who took on the Ahom name of Sutanpha. He became a Shakti worshipper, as he was initiated in the tenets of the Shakti cult by Krishnaram Bhattacharya, who was later on installed as head priest of Kamakhya temple, which is situated atop the Nilachal Hills. Siva Singha was a weak person who relied heavily on astrologers, and when an astrologer told him that he was in danger of being dethroned, he installed his Queen Phuleswari, who assumed the name Pramateswari, as "chief king". She was an orthodox Shakti worshiper who persecuted the Moamoria Mahantas by forcibly making them to take prasad of Durga worship and anointing their foreheads with sacrificial blood. This resulted in the Moamoria rebellion. After Phuleswari died in 1731, Siva Singha married her sister Drupadi or Deopadi and made her the next Bor Raja, with the name Ambika.

1723-29 Chief Guardian and Regent of the Realm Dowager Princess-Margravine Christiane Charlotte of Württemberg-Winnental of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
1723-29 Reigning Dowager Lady of Crailsheim

Since their marriage in 1709 she was an energetic aide of her cousin and husband, Margrave Wilhelm Friedrich, and after his death, she became "Obervormünderin und Landsesregentin" for son Fürst Karl Wilhelm Friedrich, Margrave von Ansbach (1712-23-57). She reformed the administration jointly with her Privy Councillors. In foreign affairs and defence the co-guardians; the Margrave von Bayreuth and Landgrave Ernst Ludwig von Hessen-Darmstadt assisted her. In order to reduce the depths of the state, she reduced the civil service and the court. She promoted commerce and industry. At the same time she expanded the residence city and her own castle with her own funds. The social provisions and hospitals were also reformed. But she was not successful in her endeavours to found an university in Ansbach. In official documents she used the titulature: "Der Durchleuchtigsten Fürstin und Frauen, Frauen Christianen Charlotten, verwittibten Markgräfin zu Brandenburg, Herzogin in Preußen, zu Magdeburg, Stettin, Pommern, der Casuben und Wenden, zu Mecklenburg, auch in Schlesien und zu Crossen, Burggräfin zu Nürnberg, Gräfin zu Hohenzollern und Schwerin, Frauen der Lande Rostock und Stargard p.p., geborene Herzogin zu Württemberg und Teck, Gräfin zu Mömpelgard und Frauen zu Heidenheim p.p., Obervormunderin und Landesregentin, unserer gnädigsten Fürstin und Frauen". She lived (1694-1729).

1723-24 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Eleonore Juliana von Hohenzollern of Württemberg-Winnental in Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Duke Friedrich Carl of Württemberg-Winnental in 1698 she moved back to Ansbach, where her daughter, Christiane Charlotte von Württemberg, had married her cousin, Margrave Willem Friedrich. She became very influential, especially during her daughter's regency until her own death. She lived (1663-1724).

1723-25 Politically Influential Agnès Berthelot de Pléneuf, Marquise de Prie in France

La Marquise de Prie became notable for her intriguing during the reign of Louis XV. At the age of fifteen she was married to Louis, Marquis de Prie, and went with him to the court of Savoy at Turin, where he was ambassador. She was twenty-one when she returned to France, and was soon became the mistress of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon. During his ministry (1723-1725) she was in several respects the real ruler of France, her most notable triumph being the marriage of Louis XV of France to Marie Leszczynska instead of to Mlle de Vermandois. But when, in 1725, she sought to have Bourbon's rival Fleury exiled, her ascendancy came to an end. After Fleury's recall and the banishment of Bourbon to Chantilly, she was exiled to Courbepine, where she committed suicide the next year Daughter of Étienne Berthelot, and lived (1698-1727).

Unnamed Kalmykian lady

1724-37 and 1741-45 Regent Dowager Princess Dharmapala of The Volga Kalmyks (Lower Volga Area in Russia and Kazakstan)

The first time she was regent for Cerlu Donduk, who reigned (1725-35) until he was deposed, the second time was after the death of Donduk Ombu, Prince of the Kalmykians. (d. 1741).

Herzogin Regntin Sophia Albertine von Sachen-Hildburghausen, geb. Prinzessin von Erbach-Erbach

1724-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Sophia Albertine von Erbach-Erbach of Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Germany)

After the death of her husband Ernst Friederich I (1681-1715-24) she stepped in for their Ernst Friedrich II (1707-24-45) in the small Duchy which consisted the Office of City of Hildburghausen, Office and City of Eisfeld, the Offices of Veilsdorf, Königsberg, Sonnefeld and Behrungen and parts of Sachsen-Römhild. She was able to half the taxes imposted by her husband, by reducing costs drastically, and attacked the Duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen in order to get back the Office of Schalkau, that her husband had sold in 1723. She was mother of 10 children, most of whom died as infants, but her daughter Elisabeth Albertine was regent in Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1752-53. She lived (1683-1742).


1723 Abbess Nullius Berardina Accolti of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory and among others exercised, through a vicar, amost episcopal jurisdiction in the abbital fief of Castellana.


1724-27 Abbess Nullius Marcellina Capulli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.


1724-44 Countess of the Realm Maria Anna Katharina Theresia von Tilly-Montfort of Breitenegg and the Amts of Holnstein, Helfenberg, Hohenfels and Freystadt  (Germany)

Inherited the lordship after the death of the last male of the family, Ferdinand Lorenz Franz Xaver, Reichsgraf von Tilly und Breitenegg. She promoted trade and crafts and brought prosperity to the area. Her husband, Duke Anton Sebastian von Montfort, had died in 1706 and since she had no children, she was succeeded by her cousin, Ignaz Joseph Freiherrn von Gumppenberg of the immediate Reichsgrafschaft Breitenegg, who sold it to Palatine Karl Theodor of Bavaria 1792, but the County remained "Reichsunmittelbar" (an Imperial Immediacy) in a personal union with Bavaria until 1804. Also known as Reichsgräfin Maria Anna von Tilly-Montfort.


1724-38 Soledatu Batari Toja of Soppeng (Indonesia)

Succeeded brother, La Pad and succeeded by another brother, La Mappasossong.

Unnamed Ethiopian Princess - An European Impression

1724 Politically Active Empress Uelete Rufael of Ethiopia

Also known as Woizero Walatta Rufael, she engaged in a succession-struggle in favour of her son Susnyjos, whose father was Dejazmatch Wolde Giyorgis, Governor of Semien (d. 1706). She was daughter of Emperor Iyasu the Great and sister of Emperor Adbar Sagad II Bakaffa (1721-30).


1724-43 Princess-Abbess Caroline Charlotte de Berlaimont of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)

Member of a noble family originating from Northern France.

1725-27 Imperatitsa Regnant Catharina I of Russia

Zarina Yekatarina was born as Marta Skavronskaya in Lithuania. In 1701 she married a Swedish dragoon, who soon afterwards went with his regiment to Riga, and never returned. After the capture of Marienburg by the Russians, she became the mistress first of General Bauer, with whom she lived at Moscow, then of Prince Menschikoff, and finally of Peter the Great, who first married her privately near Warsaw, and later publicly in 1712 at St. Petersburg. She then embraced the Eastern Orthodox religion, and became partner-in-power with her husband, who became Emperor in 1721 and she got the title of Imperatritsa (or Tsesareva). After his death, she was placed on the throne by the guard’s regiments. Real power, however, remained in the hands of Menshikov and the Supreme Privy Council. She died of intemperance, and lived (circa 1684-1727).

1725-41 Governor General Archduchess Maria-Elisabeth von Habsburg of the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium-Luxembourg)

Her brother, Emperor Karl V, appointed her as Gouvernante-Generaal or Landvoogdes of the Southern Netherlands, a Federation of Brabant, Flanders, Hainault, Namur, Limburg and Luxembourg, each of which had its own tradition, laws and identity. The Austrian administration pursued a Mercantilist policy intending to improve the economy. But the Habsburg dynasty interests outweighed those of the southern Netherlands and Austrian diplomacy never achieved the lifting of the blockade of Schelde, and in 1731 the charter of the Oostende East India Company, which had been founded in 1722, was lifted in return for recognition by Great Britain and the Dutch Republic of the Pragmatic Sanction, making her niece, Maria-Theresia the heir of Austria and Hungary. Maria-Elisabeth was daughter of Emperor of Leopold I, unmarried and lived (1680-1741)


1725-35 Regent Dowager Countess Marie Albertine von Nassau-Saarbrücken-Usingen of Ortenburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Johann Georg zu Ortenburg, she took over the  government in the name of her  10 year old son, Karl III. (1715-76). She tried to strenghten the position of the inhabitants of the county, which was isolated between the Electorate of Bavaria and the Immediate Abbey of Passau, and asked for the right of citizenship first by the Elector and then by the government of Landshut, which was positive, but it was never realized. Of her 3 sons 1 survived into adulthood and so did 5 of her 6 daughters. She lived (1686-1768).

1726-39 Regent Countess Dowager Margrethe Christiane Augusta Danneskiold-Laurvig of Neu-Leiningen (Germany)
Also known as Margareta, she was widow of Karl-Ludwig of Neu-Leiningen-Westerburg and regent for her two sons Georg Karl I August Ludwig (1717-26-87) and Georg Ernst Ludwig (1718-26-59-65) who were joint rulers. She was daughter of Count Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Lord of Knyphausen, Doorenwerth and Herzborn (natural son of king Frederik III of Denmark), and Countess Antoniette Augusta von Altenburg (natural line of the Counts of Oldenburg). She lived (1694-1761).

Sophia von Sachsen-Weißenfels

1726-34 Reigning Dowager Lady Sophia von Sachsen-Weißenfels of Neustadt Erlangen in Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Georg Wilhelm, she caused a number of scandals during her 8 years at her dowry until she married the Count Hoditz and moved to Slesia. Of her 5 children only one daughter, Christiane Sophie Wilhelmina survived into adulthood (1701-49), but she was unmarried. Sophia lived (1684-1752).


Around 1726 Princess-Abbess Carolina Margaretha van Renesse van Elderen of Burtscheid (Germany)

The Baroness was mentioned in 1726 when she commissioned the restoration of the two towers of the Chapter Church. She was member of a Dutch noble family.


Until 1726 Reigning Abbess Louise Charlotte Eugénie de Beringhen of Faremoutiers (France)

One of 9 children of Jacques Louis de Beringhen, Marquis de Beringhen (1651-1723) and Marie-Madeleine Elisabeth Fare d'Aumont. One of her sisters, Anne Marie Madeleine de Beringhen, was abbess du Pré au Mans aorund 1730.


1726-43 Reigning Abbess Olympe Félicité de Beringhen of Faremoutiers (France)

Succeeded her sister, Louise Charlotte as head of the abbey, which enjoyed the attention of several French kings and was an important economic factor within its vast territory in Brie.

1726 Claimant Katharina Hedwig von Rantzau-Breitenburg of the Reichsgafschaft Rantzau Breitenburg and Parts of Pinneberg (Germany)
1726-32 Reigning Lady of Breitenburg, Løvenholm etc.

Also known as Catharina Hedvig von Rantzau, Frau von Breitenburg. After the life imprisonment of her brother, she claimed the county and after a lengthily process against the king of Denmark, she was allowed to keep 3 firefly estates, but had to pay the 230.000 reichstalern costs of the process, an enormous amount. She was married to Johann Friederich, Count and Lord zu Castell-Ruedenhausen, she was the mother of one daughter, Countess Friederike Eleonore zu Castell-Ruedenhausen, Heiress of Breitenburg.


1727 Regent Countess Dowager Anna Franziska von Thurn und Taxis of Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Franz Ernst, Altgraf von Salm-Reifferscheidt zu Dyck (1659-1727), she reigned in the name of her son, August Eugen Bernhard (1706-27-67). She lived (1683-1776).

Unnamed Muslim Lady

1727-circa 54 De facto ruler Dowager Sultana Hinata binti Bakar al-Gul of Morocco

Also known as Khnata bent Bakkar, she acted as First Minister and Secretary for her husband Sultan Mulay Ismail as-Samin, who reigned (1672-1729). After his death followed a period of internal turmoil, where she remained the de-facto ruler, during the reign of her husband's 10 sons with various wifes, but who were all deposed, but she managed to lead the country out of the disastrous situation.

1727-28 “Supporter and guardian “ Albertine Friederike von Baden-Durlach of the Bishopric of Lübeck and the Principality of Eutin (Germany)
When her 17 year old son, Adolf Friedrich von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp succeeded his brother as Prince-Bishop of Lübeck one year after the death of her husband Christian August von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (1673- 1726), she acted as his “supporter and guide”, according to the National Swedish Biography, because he was still a minor, and she also gave him her estates Stendorf, Mönch-Neversdorf and Lenzahn to provide him with an income. In 1751 he became king of Sweden. Her oldest daughter, Hedwig Sophie von Hostein-Gottorf (1705–1764), was Princess-Abbess of Herford, another Joanna Elisabeth von Hostein-Gottorf (1712- 1760), was regent of Anhalt-Zerbst (And mother of Catherine the Great of Russia). She had a total of 10 children and lived (1682-1755).


1727-40 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)
Elected as successor of her relative Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid and was followed by Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid.


1727 Abbess Nullius Cesaria Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Conversano is an ancient town and comune in the southern Italian province of Bari, Apulia.


1727-30 Abbess Nullius Rosa Caporossi strong of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Ferdinanda Pascal was elected as her successor in November 1730 but renonuced.


1728-32 Rani Harrabichi Kadavube Ali Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

The Arakkal family followed a matriarchal system of descent. The elder most member of the family, male or female, was its head and ruler. While male rulers were called Ali Rajah, female rulers were known as Arakkal Beevis.


Circa 1728-34 Regent Dowager Queen Nor-dzin bde-legs dbang-mo of Mustang (Nepal)
Took over the reins for her son, Amgon bSod-nams bsTan-'dzin dbang-rgyal (circa 1717-28-50), after the death of her husband, A-ham bKra-shis rnam-rgyal, Lo rGyal-po (King of Lo or Mustang), who had reigned since 1723. She was daughter of Nyi-ma rnam-rgyal, King of Ladakh. (d. after 1735).


1728-60 Reigning Princess Lucrezia Pignatelli of Strongoli, 4th Duchessa di Tolve and 4th Contessa di Melissa (Italy)

Inherited the fiefs and territories in the Calabria region from her father, the 2nd Prince. In 1719 she married Ferdinando Pignatelli Knight of the Toson d’Or, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Tolve, Grandee of Spain. She was succeeded by her son Salvatore (1730-1792).


1728-54 Princess-Abbess Christine Eberhardine Friederike von Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)

Like her predecessors, she was in dispute with the Prince-Bishop of Liège over her right to use the title of "Princess of the Holy Roman Empire". After a lengthily court-case Emperor Karl VI issued a statement in 1734 demanding that the bishop stopped putting obstacles in the way of the Princess-Abbess and let her conduct her duties as sovereign, and the Emperor later confirmed her title as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The war of the Austrian Succession 1741-48 brought further hardship and devastation. From around 1747 she stayed in Wenen and tried to secure the interests of the chapter at the Imperial Court and the Dechaness Maria Carolina Leerodt von Born was left in charge of the administration of the chapter. The ladies of the chapter protested against her prolonged absence, and after the death of her sister, Sofia, in early 1754 they even tried to depose her, but she died soon after. She was daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm (1663-1735), and Louise von Sinzendorf. She was succeeded as Princess-Abbess by sister, Sofie Johanna Friederike. Christine lived (1695-1754).

1728-42 Guardian and Administrator Maria Enrietta del Caretto de Savona y Grana von Arenberg og Bergen-op-Zoom (The Netherlands)
After the death of Philippe Charles François de Ligne, 3rd Herzog von Arenberg, Duc d'Aerschot, (1663-91) she might have been the person who was regent for son Leopold Philippe, Duke of Arenberg, Duc d'Aerschot (1691-54), who married Donna Maria Francesca Pignatelli, Duchessa di Bisaccia, Countess van Egmond (1696-1766). Apparently she acted as regent for her great-grandson Karel Philip Theodoor van Sulzbach (b.1724) after the death of her grand-daughter, Maria Henriëtte de la Tour d'Auvergne and was known as "the Dowager van Arenberg" during this period. Karl Philip became elector of Bavaria in 1777. He died in 1799 as the last Marquis of Bergen op Zoom. She was also known as Maria Enrichetta, and was Daughter of Ottone Enrico, Field Marshal of the Empire, Governor and General Captain of the Netherlands from 1682, and succeeded him to the titles of Titluar Marchesa di Savona y Grana, Countess of Millesimo, Lady and Co-Lady of Roccavignale, Co-Lady of Cosseria, Dame  di Casaleggi in 1685, and lived (1671-1744).

1729, 1732, 1735 and 1736-1737 Guardian of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and His Majesty's Lieutenant within the same during His Majesty's absence Queen Caroline von Brandenburg-Ansbach of United Kingdom of Great Britain, Co-Heiress of Sayn-Altenkirchen

The power behind the throne during the whole reign of her husband, Georg II (1727-37). She acted as regent on during his trips to Hannover. She aided the career of the British statesman Robert Walpole. Caroline was joint heiress of Sayn-Altenburg, trough her mother, Eleonore Erdmuthe Louise von Sachsen-Eisenach (d. 1696), whose mother, Johanette had reigned as Countess of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen 1636-1701. In 1741 Caroline's nephew, Carl Wilhelm Friedrich inherited the county, but in 1783 his son, Alexander, and her son, Georg III decided to share the inheritance. Caroline lived (1683-1737).  

Elisabeth Charlotte d'Orleans

1729... Regent Duchess Elisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans of Lorraine (France)
1737- 44 Sovereign Princess of Commercy

The Madame Royale was born as Princess of France, Mademoiselle de Chartres and married Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine (1679-1729). Most of her at least 13 children died within a few weeks, but her son, François-Etienne, was among those who survived. He later married Maria-Theresia of Austria and became Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and founded the dynasty of Habsburg-Lothringen. Elisabeth Charlotte was later created Duchess de Commercy and after her death the duchy her brother-in-law, Stanislav. She lived (1676-1744).

Maria Zofia Czartoryska Sieniawska

1729-31 Reigning Princess Maria Zofia Czartoryska Sieniawska of Jarosław (Ukraine), Bukaczowce, Brzeżany, Jarosław, Oleszyce and Sieniawa (Red Ruthenia), Krzeszowice, Międzyrzec Podlaski and Puławy (Little Poland), Granów, Międzyburz, Mikołajów, Stara Sieniawa and Zinkowice (Podolia), Klewań and Żuków (Volhynia) and Stołpce, Szkłów and Wołożyn (Lithuania)

After the death of her husband, the Lithuanian magnate and Marshal of the Sejm, Stanislaw Denhof, she became in possession of his wast domains and estates until her marriage to Prince Alexander Augustus Czartoryski, a Russian Duke and Major-General. She was the daughter of Adam Nicholas Sieniawski and Elizabeth Sieniawska and her baptism was held by Peter I the Great, King Augustus the Strong II and Prince Rakoczy in the presence of 15 thousand soldiers. ShHe lived (1699-1777).

Fürstäbissin Johanna Charlotte zu Herford 

1729-50 Princess-Abbess Johanna Charlotte von Anhalt-Dessau of Herford (Germany)

Continued the disputes of her predecessor, Charlotte Sophie, with king Friederich Wilhelm I of Preusia over the continued drafts of soldiers for the ongoing wars - the City of Herford was only an Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbar) on paper, in reality it was treated like a Preusian provincial town and she tried to protect its interests. When she took office, she confirmed the tenantcies of local nobles who held the fiefs of the chapter, using the titulature, Johann Charlotta verwitwete Prinzessin in Preußen, postulierte Äbtissin des Stifts Herford. She was daughter of Johann Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau (1627-60-93) and Henriette Katherine of Nassau-Oranje, and widow of Margrave Philipp Wilhelm von Brandenburg-Schwedt (1669-1688-1711). Mother of 6 children, and in 1764 her granddaughter Friederike Charlotte Leopoldine Luise became the last reigning abbess of the territory. Johanna Charlotte lived (1682-1750).


1730-33 Sovereign Dame Susanne Le Pelley of Sark (English Crown Dependency)

Also known as La Dame du Serq, Susan le Pelley née Le Gros bought the fief after the death of the former owner, the Englishman James Milner, from his executor. She was daughter of the former Judge, Jean Le Gros, and widow of Nicolas Le Pelley, her cousin, who had died in 1719. Her purchase that was an indication of the wealth derived from her late husband's privateering ventures, initiated a line of Le Pelley Seigneurs that lasted for some 120 years until 1852. As the Le Pelley family had long been prominent in the public and commercial life of Guernsey, their acquisition of the fief further strengthened Sark's association with Guernsey, and the consequent weakening of the ties with Jersey. The new Dame decided to remain in the Le Gros family house at La Perronerie, which was extensively rebuilt as the new Seigneurie, and a Colombier (Pigeon-house), the exclusive privilege of the owner of a fief hubert, was erected in the grounds to mark the house's newly acquired status. In the winter of 1731 the island suffered its worst outbreak of smallpox. Constituting about ten percent of the whole population. She was succeeded by her son Nicholas who died childless in 1742, and the Seignory passed to his younger brother Daniel who died in 1752. She lived (1668-1733).

Berhan Mugasa Mentewab

1730-56 Regent Dowager Empress Berhan Mugasa Mentewab of Ethiopia

After the death of her husband the Emperor Bakaffa, Empress Mentewab scrambled to ensure the succession of her underage son Eyasu II, and had herself crowned as co-ruler to help him govern. She played a leading role during his reign, and following his murder, in the reign of his son Eyoas I as well. After the murder of her grandson Eyoas I, her influence decreased considerably, but she remained a deeply respected figure. Although she had been involved in raging disagreements with her grandson during his life, the murder of Emperor Eyoas I on the orders of her son-in-law, Ras Michael Sehul, horrified her, and was to cause her life-long sorrow, she refused to return to the capital. She lived to see two more Emperors on the throne, and officials continued to pay respectful visits to her although she retired from political activity. Her second husband was Gerazmatch Iyasu, with whom she had three daughters before he was killed on the orders of her son. She lived (circa 1710-73).


1730-95 De facto Ruler Begum Mamola Bai of Bhopal (India)
1777 Regent
of Bhopal

Exercised a dominant influence during the reign of her husband, Yar Mohammad Khan (1728-42) after their marriage. After his death, she was de facto ruler during the reign of her stepson Faiz Mohammad Khan, who concentrated on religious contemplation. After his death she acted as regent and quickly proclaimed Faiz' brother, Hayat, as Nawab, but Faiz' widow, Bahu Begum, lead a revolt and set up an alternative government which lasted until 1780. Also during Hayat's reign she was the effective ruler, and it was she who took decisions on military campaigns and all other administrative affairs. She was born as a Hindu Rajput Princess, and lived (1715-95).

Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana

1730-39 Saliha Sabkati Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

After the death of Ahmed III a revolt of the Janissaries put her son with Mustafa II, Mahmud I (1750-54) on the throne, and she became Sultan Valide and in some aspects considered joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Affairs of state were largely in the capable hands of the Nubian Agha Beshir (1653–1746), who was the power behind a number of successive grand viziers At the tune Ottoman Empire was involved in wars with Persia. 1737 Emperor Karl IV entered the war with Russia on Russian side, but by the separate peace of Belgrade (1739) he restored North Serbia to Turkey. Mahmud was succeeded by his brother, Osman III. Saliha lived (1680-1739).

1730-43 Princess-Abbess Anna-Margarete von Gemmingen of Lindau (Germany)

Her family were Lords of Gemmingen, Bad Rappenau et cetera in present day's Baden-Württemberg.


1730-34 Princess-Abbess Maria Magdalena von Hallwyl of Säckingen (Germany)

The city was under occupation by French Troops during the Polish Succession War 1733-35. She got permission from Prince-Bishop Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg of Bern for the canonisses to wear a special order of the chapter (Ordenszeichen). The daughter of Johann Joseph von Hallwyl, Lord of Blidegg and Zihlschacht and Maria Julia Katharina von Schönau-Oeschgen, she lived (1692-1734).

1730-62 Titular Duchess Dowager Princess Dorothea Christine von Aichelburg of Reinfeld and Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Reinfeld in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Nordburg (Germany)

Her son  Friedrich Carl (1706-61) was born 3 months after the death of her husband, Prince Christian Carl von Holstein-Nordborg (1674-1706). The king of Denmark granted him the name of Schleswig-Holstein-Nordborg-Carlstein. Her brother-in-law Joachim Friedrich (1668-1722), inherited the Duchy of Plön from a relative later in 1706, but since his daughters could not inherit the title, it went to Friedrich Carl, after a decree from the Danish king, who determined that her marriage to Christian Carl had been "equal" and not Morganatic and occupied the territory on his behalf. The next in line, the duke of Holstein-Rethwisch sued, her son counter-sued, and the matter dragged on for years until the Rethwisch-line died out in 1729 and her son inherited Rethwisch as well. 1730 her son married Christiane Irmgard Reventlow, the nice of Anne Sofie Rventlow, the morganatic wife of King Frederik of Denmark, and finally in 1731 the Emperor determined the case in the favour of her son, who was invested with the title and she was then grated the Administrative office of Reinfeld as her dowry. Another version of her surname is von Eichelberg, and she lived (1674-1762).


1730-31 Reigning Lady Maria Adelheid Maximiliana von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)

Resigned in favour of her sister Maria Theresia Cäcilia and continued to live with her and her daughter until she got married in 1738. When her husband died already 1743 she returned.


1731-47 Reigning Lady Maria Cäcilia Theresia Violanda von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)

Returned to her family's possessions after the death of her husband, Freiherr Ferdinand Joseph von Vieregg, whom she had married  in 1710. He was father of 5 surviving children aged 24 to 1½ years from 2 earlier marriages. She gave birth to 9 children between 1711 and 1723. Only the oldest daughter, Maria Christina Adelheit and 4 sons survived. Back in Tutzing she agreed with her 2 surviving sisters that she would take over the administration of the Hofmark. Her sons went to university and her daughter helped her with the duties in the territory which had a total of 80 inhabitants. Her pharmaceutical knowledge was of great help to the villagers. She was deeply involved in the daily life of her subjects and the ecclesiastical life of the territory. She experienced financial problems during the Bavarian war with Austria during the succession-war 1742-45. During the end of her reign she left more and more of the administration to her daughter and left the Hofmark to one of her sons and retired to the Ladies Chapter in Moosburg. Her oldest son, Matheus Karl Anton, received the Estate of Tutzing with Starnberg and Rösselberg and 1748 he married Maria Theresa Renata Chlotildis Baronin de Spontin, her younger son, Maximilian Ernst von Götzengrien, married the daughter and only heir of Hans Albrecht Viehbeck von und zu Haimbhausen

1731 Sovereign Princess Louise-Hippolyte Grimaldi of Monaco, Princesse de Château-Porcien, Marquise de Les Baux, Chilly and Guiscard, Comtesse de Carladès Baroness of Calvinet and Buis-les-Baronnies and Massy, Sovereign Dame of Mentone and Roccabruna, Dame de Saint-Rémy de Province

In January she succeeded her father, Antonio I and in December she died in childbed giving birth to her third child, and successor Honore. Jacques IV de Goyon de Matignon, Duke of Estouteville, Valentinois, Count of Thorigny, Lord of Matignon, Baron of Saint-Lô, Hambye and La Luthumière, Heditary Governor of Cherbourg, Granville the Island of Chausey, who assumed the surname of Grimaldi and succeeded his wife, but abdicated two years later in favour of their son Honoré III, and continued as his regent for some years. She lived (1697-1731).

1731-90 Sovereign Duchess Maria-Theresa Cybo-Malaspina of Massa e Carrara, Sovereign Princess of Carrara, 6th Duchess of Ajello, Baroness di Paduli, Sovereign Lady of Moneta and Avenza and Lady of Lago, Laghitello, Serra and Terrati (Italy)

Succeeded father, Alderamo Cybo Malaspina (1690-1731). She first married Eugene de Savoia, Count of Soissons and Duke of Troppau, by proxy but never in person because he died in 1734. Four years later she married Ercole III Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena and Reggio (1727-1803). 1744 she received her imperial investiture and took over command of her state and reigned with energy and competence. She was known as a nice and sensible person, who had been well educated by her mother, with the emphasis on clemency, moderation and patience. She reformed the laws, built a hospital and promoted art, culture and architecture, in 1787 she transferred the fief of Ajello to her brother-in-law, the Prince of without any feudal prerogatives, and was succeeded by her only daughter, Maria Beatrice d'Este. The surname is also spelled Cibo-Malaspina. She lived (1725-90).


1731-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Ricciarda Gonzaga di Novellara of Massa e Carrara (Italy)

Named "custode e tutrice" of her oldest daughter, Maria Teresa, in the will of her husband, Alderano I, and received the Imperial Diploma in 1732. 1728 she had succeeded her brother, Filippo Alfonso, as Countess Regnant di Novellara-Bagnolo, but in 1731 county was given in dowry to Maria Teresa and included in the Duchy Modena. Ricciarda was mother of three daughters, and lived (1698-1768).

Enrichetta Maria d'Este

1731 Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Duchess Enrichetta Maria d'Este of Parma e Piacenza (January-December) (Italy)

Co-regent for grandnephew, Felipo Carlo of Spain, who succeeded her husband, Antonio Farnese, who had been duke of Parma e Piacenza since 1727.  

Dorothea Sofia von Pfalz-Neuburg

1731-35 Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Duchess Dorothea Sofia von der Pfalz-Neuburg of Parma e Piacensa (Italy)

In 1690 she was married to hereditary-prince Odoardo Farnese, who died 1693. Three years later she married his half-brother, Francesco, who had been duke since 1694. He was succeeded by another brother, Antonio, in 1727. After his death in 1731 Dorothea Sofia's daughter-son, Felipo Carlo de Borbone became duke of Parma. He was son of her daughter with Odoardo, Elisabetta Farnese - Queen Isabel of Spain - and Dorothea Sofia became co-regent. She lived (1670-1748).


1731-38 Bor Raj Regnant Ambika Devi of Ahom (India)

Originally named Drupadi or Deopadi, she married the widower of her sister, Bor Raj Pramathesvari Devi, the former king Siva Singha, who made her the next Bor Raja, with the name Ambika. She constructed the Shiva Dol (temple) at Sibsagar, which is the highest Shiva dol in Assam. Gauri Sagar tank and Sibsagar tank were dug at the instruction of 'Bor Raja' Phuleswari and Ambika respectively. She was succeeded by Savesvari Devi. 

Henrietta Charlotte von Nassau-Idstein, Herzogin von Sachsen-Merseburg

1731-34 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Henrietta Charlotte von Nassau-Idstein of the Castle and Administrative Office of Delitzsch in Sachsen-Merseburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Merseburg (1688-1731), she reigned her dowry until her own death. Their only daughter died at birth. She lived (1693-1734).

Until 1731 Princess-Abbess Maria Augusta von Fürstenberg of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
The daugher of Reichsfürst Wenzel von Fürstenberg and Maria Josepha Truchess Trauchburg Friedberg, her German title was gefürstete Äbtissin d. Benediktinerklosters zu Sankt Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag (Sv. Jiri in Prag). It was the oldest convent in the Bohmian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada. During the reign of Josef II the convent was abolished in 1782. Maria Augusta (d. 1731).


1731-32 Abbess Nullius Serafina Girondi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Also the Abbesses of Aguileia, Brescia, Brindisi, Fucecchio and Goleto held semi episcopal authority.


After 1732-.. Queen Regnant Ramanandrianjaka II Ravorombato of Imarovatana (Madagascar)

Daughter of Princess Rabodofilankanina, daughter of King Andriamananimerina I of Imarovatana, and expelled her uncle, king Andriantomponimerina II (ruled from 1732). Her second husband was Rabezaka, of Anosinimerina, of the Andriamasinavalona caste of nobility and she was mother of 4 sons and 4 daughters.


1732-45 Rani Junumabe Adi Raja Bibi I of Cannanore (India)

Also known as Junumma Beevi Arakkal Ali Raja, she was head of the only muslim ruling house in what is now Kerala resided in the Arakkal Palace, located 3 km from Kannur (Cannanore). A daughter of hers was one of the wifes of Prince Shahzada 'Abdu'l-Khaliq Sultan Sahib of
Khdadad, who was surrendered to Lord Cornwallis in 1792 and returned to his father 2 years later. Exiled to Vellore in 1799, and deported to Calcutta with his brothers and the rest of his family in 1806.

Unnamed Maharani

1732-36 Rani Regnant Minakshi Ammal of Madrai (India)

Also known as Meenakshi, she reigned on behalf of a young boy she had adopted as the heir of her late husband,  Vijayaranga Chokkanatha, to rule the state which was also known as Trichinapali.  Vangaru Thirumala , the father of her adopted son, started a rebellion against her after a few years, and representatives of the Mughal emperor of Delhi took the opportunity to attack the kingdom. The invaders took Tanjore by storm and, leaving the stronghold of Trichinopoly untouched, swept across Madurai and Tinnevelly and into Travancore. Vangaru Thirumala was declared king, but Minakshi did not give up, and made a pact with the emperial representative, Chanda Sahib. Vangaru was given an other principality. But in 1736 Chanda Sahib returned and made himself master of the kingdom. She was soon was little but a puppet: she had fallen in love with Chanda Sahib and so let him have his own way unhindered, but after defeating Vangaru he locked her up in her palace, and proclaimed himself ruler of her kingdom. She then committed suicide.


1732-42 Co-Regent Sri Sri Rani Chandrapavati of Gorkha (Nepal)

Widow of Bhupal Shah, Raja of Gorkha and co-regent with stepson. She was daughter of the Raja of Palpa.

1732-60 Reigning Lady Friederike Eleonore von Castell-Rüdenhausen of Breitenburg etc. (Germany)

Inherited the estate after her mother, Catharina Hedwig von Rantzau, whoo took over in 1726.. Her brother and 3 sisters all died as infants. Married to Karl Friederik Gottileb Graf von Castell-Remligen, was succeeded first by son and after his death in 1762, by daughter. She lived (1701-60)

Luise Dorothea zu Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg

1732-67 Political Advisor Duchess Luise Dorothea zu Sachsen-Meiningen of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (Germany)

Participated frequently in the meetings of the Privy Council and was very politically influential during the reign of her husband, Friedrich III (1699-1732-72). She was a friend of Friedrich the Great, was in close contact with Diderot, Rousseau and Voltaire, who visited her in 1753. She was daughter of Duke Ernst Ludwig I. of Sachsen-Meiningen and Dorothea Maria von Sachsen-Gotha und Altenburg, mother of several children, and  lived (1710-67).

Magalena Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst, Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg 1732-40 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Magdalena Augusta von Anhalt-Zerbst of Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
Widow of Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha (1676-1732), of their 18 children 7 sons and 2 daughters survived. She lived (1679-1740).

1732-35 Princess-Abbess Aloysia von Widmann of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Her election was confirmed by Karl 6 of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.


1732-35 Reigning Abbess-General Clara Antonia de Helguero y Albarado of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

A relative (possibly sister), Ana María, was Abbess-General 1723-26 and 1729-32.

Reichsgräfin Erdmuth Dorotha von Zinzendorf, geb. Gräfin Reuß aus Ebersdorf

1732-43 Official Representative of the Herrnhut Bretheren Countess Erdmut Dorotea von Zinzendorf (Germany)

From the time of her marriage to Reichsgraf Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf she had been in charge of all the financial and economic aspects of his attempt to create a pietistic community and she administered all the estates and manors. After he had been banned from Sachsen she took over the leadership (Ortsherrschaft) of Berthelsdorf and Herrnhut were officially transferred to her, she was lady of the estate of Oberlausitz and "House Mother" of the "Pilgergemeine" which lived in exile with her husband. As the Official Representative she travelled to Denmark, Estonia (Livonia) and Russia. 1743 she withdrew to the private life because of health-problems. Born as Countess Reuß aus Ebersdorf, and lived (1700-56)


1733-38 Regent Dowager Countess Luise von Nassau-Ottweiler of Salm-Dhaun (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Karl (1697-1717-33) she ruled in the name of their third and only surviving son, Johann Philipp III (1723-33-42), who was succeeded by his unmarried uncle, Christian Otto, who died 1748, then by a cousin, Johann Friedrich, who died 1750 and his two sons, who died later that year at the age of 2 and a few months old. She was also mother of 10 daughters. She lived (1686-1773).


1733-38 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Franziska Charlotte zur Lippe-Detmold of Bentheim-Steinfurt and Alpen (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Friedrich Belgicus Karl (1703-13-33), she was regent for son Karl von Bentheim-Steinfurt, Count of Steinfurt and Alpen. After her death the regency was taken over by some of her late husband's relatives. She lived (1703-38).

1733-45 Sovereign Princess Maria Eleonora Boncompagni Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Princess of Venosa and Countess of Conza, Lady di Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli e Palmaiolan (Italy)

The oldest of six sisters, she succeeded her mother Ippolita Ludovisi who had died in 1724, and married her uncle Don Antonio I Boncompagni, who became Prince of Piombino by the right of his wife (1658-1721), and lived (1686-1745).

1733-35 Regent Dowager Duchess Karoline von Nassau-Saarbrücken of Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Herzog Christian III, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld, Bischweiler und Rappoltstein from 1717 and Duke of Zweibrücken 1731, she became regent for their son, Christian IV (1722-35-75). One of her daughters, Karoline Henriette Christine, became known as the Grand Countess of Hessen-Darmstadt (die große Landgräfin) during her marriage to Ludwig IX. Her mother-in-law was Catharina Agathe, Sovereign Countess von Rappoltstein from 1676. Caroline was mother of 2 daughters and another son, and lived (1704-74).


1733-40 Sovereign Princess Hélène de Courtenay-Chevillon of Courtenay, Comtesse de Cézy, Dame de Bléneau (France)

Her brother, Charles-Roger de Courtenay, died in 1730 and was succeeded by their father's unmarried uncle, Roger (1647-1733). After his death she inherited the claim to the title as the last member of the line of the Capet-family. In 1712 she had married Louis-Bénigne de Bauffremont, Marquis of Listenois, and the family has used the prince de Courtenay, as well as a number of other princely titles. Their title of prince of the Holy Roman Empire conferred in 1757 was authorized in France the same year. She lived (1689-1740).


1733-38 Reigning Abbess Anne Therese de Rohan-Montbazon of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Daughter of Charles III de Rohan, 5th Duc de Montbazon, Pr de Guéméné, etc, and his second wife Charlotte Elizabeth de Cochefilet. One sister was a nun at the chapter and two of her sisters were also abbesses, Marie Anne Benigne, at Panthemont and Angelique Eleonore at Preaux and Marquette. She lived (1684-1738).

1733-57 Politically influential Queen Maria Josefa von Habsburg of Poland and Sachsen

When her husband, Elector Friederich August II von Sachsen or King August III of Poland (16961733-63) was in Poland she functioned as his representative, if not as an official regent in Sachsen. Ministers and ambassadors reported to her and she maintained a large network of correspondence. She was a powerful personality, who exercised great influence over her husband, and whose authority was recognised by all members of the court. She also participated actively in the negotiations in the Reichstag (Assembly). All of her surviving 11 children made good marriages, but this alignment with Austria and the rest of Catholic Europe provoked the aggression of Prussia, and led to the Seven Years War, which began in 1756, when Sachsen was occupied by King Friederich II. Her husband escaped to Poland, but she chose to stay back and organised the defence together with her son, Friederich Christian and his wife, Maria Antonia, and she used her big international network to do her best to save the electorate from total destruction. As there were no male Habsburg Heirs to the Austrian Empire she and her sister Maria Amalia (influential in Bavaria since 1722), had been given precedence in the succession in the secret "Pactum Mutuae Successions", but later her uncle, Karl VI, paved the way for the succession of his daughter, Maria-Theresia in 1740 through the Pragmatic Sanction. Instead she tried to have her husband Holy Roman Emperor after the death of Karl VI and his successor, Karl VII, in 1744. She lived (1699-1757).

Johanette Wilhelmine von Nassau-Idstein-Wiesbaden

1734-47 Regent Dowager Princess Johanette Wilhelmine von Nassau-Idstein-Wiesbaden of Lippe-Detmold (Germany)

Widow of Simon Henrich Adolf, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son, Simon August (1727-34-82). She was daughter of Duke Georg August Samuel and Dorothea von Öttingen.


1734-51 Payung e-ri Luwu We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin of Luwu
1747-76 Datuk of Tanette (Indonesia)

The daughter of Fatima, who ruled 1713-19, she succeeded a relative, Batari Toja, and was succeeded by another female ruler, Petta Matinroe ri Kaluku Bodoe. In Tanette she succeeded her brother, La Odanriu Daeng Mattiri Ysuf Fakhruddin. She married La Mappaselli Aru Patojo (died 1732) and then Tolaowe Sapirie, the Datu of Mario ri Awa, and the daughter from this marriage, We Panang-areng, became Datu of Mario ri Wawo.


1734 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana Dorothea II von Löwenstein-Wertheim of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Wurmbrandische Antheil) (Germany)

Juliana Dorothea von Löwenstein-Wertheim succeeded her mother, Juliana Dorothea I von Limpurg-Gaildorf, and married to Heinrich I von Reuss zu Schleitz (d. 1744), and succeeded by daughter, Luise. She lived (1694-1734).


1734-73 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Daughter of Juliana Dorothea I, she was married to Christian-Wilhelm von Sachsen-Gotha (d. 1748) and Johann August von Sachsen-Gotha (d. 1767), and succeeded by a daughter from each marriage, and lived (1726-73).


1734-56 Joint Sovereign Countess Marie Anne Marguerite von Wurmbrand-Stuppach of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf  [-Wurmbrand] (Germany)

Also known as Mariana Margaretha Leopoldine, Maria Anna Magalena or Margaretha, she was the third daughter of Juliana Dorothea I (1677-1734), and also known as Mariana gebohrne Gräfin von Wurmbrand regierende Gräfin zu Limpurg-Gaildorf (Née Countess von Wurmbrand, reigning Countess of Limpurg-Gaildrof), she married her cousin Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Assenheim, the son of her maternal aunt, Wilhelmine Christine, who inherited a fifth of his mother's half of Limpurg in 1758 (Adding up to 6/48). They were succeeded by their daughter Christiane Wilhelmina, and lived (1702-56).


1734-35 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Teresa Nieto de Silva y Moctezuma, VI Condesa de Moctezuma de Tultengo [Mexico]

A descendant of a sister of the 2nd Conde/Condesa. She was also Grandesa de Epaña and III. Marquesa de Tenebron, Vizcondesa de Ilucán, and was married to Don Gaspar Antonio de Oca Sarmiento. She lived (1669-1701).


1734-53 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Regina von Liebenfels of Säckingen (Germany)

The territory was raided during riots in 1741, the so-called 'Salpetererunruhen auf dem Hotzenwald' - peasents riots - and afterwards she allowed the County of Havenstein to pay off the serfs and reached an agreement with the Town of Säckingen about the contracts of priests. The church with had been rebuild in Baroque Style in 1740, was destroyed by another fire already in 1751 and she ordered that it should be rebuild in the new Rococo style. The daughter of Heincich Christoph von Liebenfels, Lord zu Worblingen and Maria Rosa Freiin Vogt von Altensumerau und Prasberg, and lived (1700-53).


1734-35 Abbess Nullius Rosa Caporossi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Exercised, through a vicar, amost episcopal jurisdiction in the abbital fief of Castellana. Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory.

Anne de Clermont-Chaste of Chelles

1734-89 Reigning Abbess Anne de Clermont-Chaste of Chelles (France)

Former Canoness at Saint-Cyr, Abbess of Saint Paul de Beurepaire en Vienne in 1725 and later of Chelles. A large number of her relatives were bishops, abbesses and abbots. (b. 1697-1789).

Wilhelmine zu Preussen

1735-58 Co-Reigning Margravine Wilhelmine zu Preussen of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)

The sister of Friedrich the Great of Prussia she was de-facto joint regent with her husband, Friedrich von Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. She emulated the musical and cultural standards Frederick had achieved at the Prussian Court. The most lasting monument from her time there is the superb Baroque opera house. It's not clear how much Wilhelmine wrote, as most of it is lost; however her compositions include the opera Argenore and several arias. She lived (1709-58).


1735-75 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana-Franziska von Prösing of a Portion of Amt Schmiedefeld within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)

Also known as Countess von Prösing von Limburg, she was daughter of Wilhelmina-Sofia zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Rheingraf Karl-Vollrath zu Solm-Grumbach (d. 1768), and succeeded by son, Karl-Ludwig, who married Elisabeth-Christine von Leiningen, Co-Heiress von Gaildorf and then to Friederike von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein, co-heiress von Sontheim (1767-1849). This part of the County was sold to Württemberg in 1781.Juliana-Franziska lived (1709-75).  

1735-57 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Johanna Elisabetha von Baden-Durlach of Kirchheim in Württemberg (Germany)

She was also known as Johanne Elisabethe, and lived alone in the Alte Schloss in Stuttgart after her husband, Eberhard Ludwig had left her. She spent most of her energy fighting for her position as consort. After 1711 she boycotted all court-functions attended by her husband's mistress Christina Wilhelmina von Grävenitz. Her only son, Friedrich Ludwig died in 1731, and when her husband died 4 years later, she took up residence in the Castle of Kirchheim. She lived (1680-1757).

Christine Luise von Öttingen-Öttingen, Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Fürstin von Blankenburg

1735-47 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Luise von Oettingen-Oettingen of Blankenburg in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)

During her first years of marriage she resided together with her husband, Duke Ludwig Rudolf von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, in Blankenburg, which he had been given to him by his father as apanage and 1707 Emperor Joseph I elevated the Lordship to a Principality. They held an elaborate court and she was influential with  regards to political affairs and appointments to state offices. Afater his death she returned to Blankenburg where she promoted culture and art and expanded the castle. She was daughter of Albrecht Ernst I. zu Oettingen-Oettingen (1642–1683) and Christine Friederike von Württemberg (1644–1674), mother of 4 daughters, of whom 3 survived, and lived (1671-1747).



1735-63 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Franzisca zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)

Her aunt, Maria Anna Susana zu Rhein, had been ruler of the territory 1701-11. The daughter of Johann Franz Ludwig zu Rhein zu Mortzwiller and Maria Sibylla von Roggenbach, she lived (1684-1763).

1735-.. Princess-Abbess Anna Scholastica Paulerin von Hohenburg of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Emperor Karl 6 confirmed her election. "Carl der Sechste, Römischer Kayser", bestätigt die neugewählte Äbtissin von St. Georg"


1735-38 and 1741-42 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa Baradán de Oxinalde of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

She exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than fifty villages and held her own courts.


1736-38 Regent Rani Sijana Bai of Tanjore (Thanjavur) (India)

Governed the principality after the death of her husband H.H. Meherban Shrimant Raja Ekoji II [Baba Sahib] Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj, Raja of Tanjore. (1694-1736) the Maratha ruler of Thanjavur of the Bhonsle dynast. She deposed by the pretender Sawai Shahji, who reigned in 1738.

Friederike Gräfin zu Ortenburg

1736-51 Regent Dowager Countess Friederike zu Ortenburg of Castell-Castell (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Wolfgang Georg II (1694-1736) she was regent for her son, Count Christian Friederich Karl von Castell-Castell (1730-73), and lived (1712-58).

1736-63 Titular Countess Anna Vittoria di Savoia-Carignano of Soissons (France)

Inherited the wast estates, castles, 2 Million Guilders, a library and a enormous collection of paintings from her unmarried uncle, Prince Eugen von Savoyen (Eugenio di Savoia). Her father, Prince Luigi Tommaso di Savoia-Soisson, Count of Soissons (1657-1702) had been been disinherited because of his unequal marriage to Urania de la Cropte (1655–1717). Together with her siblings she grew up with their grandmother, Marie de Bourbon-Condé, Countess of Soisson 1641-92, and she lived in a convent until she took over her uncles possessions and married the 20 year younger Prince   Joseph Friedrich von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, who was given 300.000 Guilders in cash and the Castle of Schloss Hof in Niederösterreich. They seperated in 1752 and she lived the rest of her life in Torino. She was known as Countess of Soissons, but the title was incoroprated into the title of the Savoian Kings of Sardegna. The Princess lived (1683-1763).

1737 Regent Princess Benedetta Maria Ernestina d'Este of Modena and Reggio (Italy)

After the death of her father, Rinaldo III, she acted as regent together with sister for their brother Francesco III, who was a General in the Imperial Army and whose wife, Princess Charlotte Aglaë d’Orléans, lived in Paris. Benedetta was unmarried and lived (1697-1777).

1737 Regent Princess Anna Amalia Giuseppa d'Este of Modena and Reggio (Italy)

Married to the Marchese de Villeneuf, a French adventurer, and lived (1699-1778).

Maria Augusta von Thurn und Taxis

1737-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Maria Augusta von Thurn und Taxis of Württemberg (Germany)

Her claims to the regency were good. Her husband, Karl Aleksander (1684-1737), had entrusted her with the regency of the Duchy during his planned absence, and he named her as regent for their son, Carl Eugen, in her will. But the Privy Council and Estates overturned the will and appointed the senile Carl-Rudolph of Württemberg-Neuenstadt as sole regent among others because she was a catholic, and her three sons, with Carl Eugen, Ludwig Eugen and Friedrich Eugen became virtual prisoners in Berlin. She fought the Estates and all other obstacles and managed to be named Co-regent in 1737, a situation approved by the Emperor the following year. 1739 she was rumoured to be pregnant with her lover and exiled to Brussels from 1740. But she manoeuvred her back into a position of considerable influence in 1744; she broke the regent's policy of dependency of Prussia by having her son declared of age. Her influence declined as her son grew more impendent after 1749, but she continued to speak her mind until she was confined to her dower hose at Göppngen, where she died in 1756. She was Daughter of Fürst Anselm Franz von Thurn und Taxis and Maria Ludovica von Lobkowitz, Duchess of Sagan (1683-1750), and lived (1706-56).

1737-51 Princess-Abbess Maria Antonia Überacker of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of an Austrian Countly family

Anna Maria Luisa De’ Medici

1737-43 "Hereditary Grand Duchess" Anna Maria Luisa De’ Medici of Toscana (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Johann Wilhelm of Sachsen in 1716, she moved back to Toscana. Her father, Cosimo III had her named heiress in 1714 supported by the major powers. In  1723 her brother Gian Gastone succeeded to the throne and in 1731 he accepted Charles de Bourbone (who had claims through his mother) as heir, provided that she was reserved a right to play a role in the Cabinet. But in 1735 the Grand Duchy was occupied by Spain and a treaty was concluded making Franz Stephan von Lothringen (husband of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn)) heir in 1737. Her brother died soon after, and she inherited the family's enormous possessions and soon after concluded a "Treaty or Convention of the Family", with her successors, the Grand Dukes of Lorraine in 1737, by which all the art treasures belonging to the Medici family became property of the city of Florence museums for the enjoyment of people from all over the world. The title had been transferred to Franz Stephan von Lothringen, who descended from a female member of the De' Medici family. She did not have any children, and lived (1667-1743).

Magdalene Wilhelmine von Württemberg

1738-42 Regent Dowager Margravine Magdalene Wilhelmine von Württemberg of Baden-Hochberg zu Durlach (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Margrave Karl II Wilhelm (1679-38) she took over the regency for her grandson, Karl Friedrich (1728-1811), together with another regent. Karl Friedrich who later became Elector of Baden and then Grand Duke was son of her second son, Friedrich (1703-32) and Anna Charlotte Amalie von Nassau-Dietz (1710-77). Magdalene Wilhelmine lived (1677-1742).


1738-41 H.H. I-Danraja Siti Nafisah Karaeng Langelo binti al-Marhum, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Succeeded Sultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din. She was second daughter of H.H. I-Mappainga Karaeng Lempangang Paduka Sri Sultan Safi ud-din, Sultan of Tallo, by his first wife, H.H. I-Tanitaja Siti Amira Maning Ratu, Arung Palakka and Heir Apparent of Bone, whose father was sultan 1720-21. Siti Nafisah died unmarried and lived (1729-41).


1738-44 Bor Raja Regnant Sarvesvari Devi of Ahom (India)

The third consecutive Queen or "Chief king" in succession to Ambika Devi. Like her two predecessors, she was possibly also married to the ex-king Siva Singha (1714-1744), who had abdicated because an astrologer told him that he was in danger of being dethroned.

Gräfin Charlotte Sophie von Aldenburg, Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Knyphause,  Frau von der Freie Herrlichkeit zu Knyphausen und der Edle Herrschaft Varel.

1738-1800 Hereditary Countess Charlotte Sophie of Aldenburg (Germany)
1738-54 Lady of the Free Lordship of Knyphausen and Noble Lady of Varel, Lady of Sengwarden, Fedderwarden and Accum (Germany), Lady of Doorwerth (The Netherlands)

Daughter of Anton II von Aldenburg and Baroness Anna von Inn- und Knyphausen (1690-1718) and succeeded her father as Head of the Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Kniphausen (semi-independent territory) and to the titles Frau of the Freie Herrlichkeit of Knyphausen and the Noble Lordship of Varel. She reigned jointly with her husband the Dutch Count Wilhelm van Bentnick und Altenburg (1704-74) until their divorce in 1754. Since the age of 14 she had been love with Count Albrecht Wolfgang zu Schaumburg-Lippe, and they maintained their connection, which ended in a major scandal. She lived (1715-1800).

1738-... Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Wilhelmine Maria von Hessen-Homburg of Aldenburg and Knyphausen et cetera (Germany)

The year after Count Anton III (1681-1738) died, Count Albrecht Wolfgang von Schaumburg-Lipe-Bückeburg was confirmed as co-guardian for her daughter on her request. She was daughter of Friederich von Hessen-Homburg and Luise Elisabeth von Kurland, mother of one daughter, and lived (1678-1770).


1738-41 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophie Christine zu Erbach-Erbach of a Part of the Amt of Michelbach within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)

Daughter of Sophia-Eleonora zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she married Friedrich Ludwig von Löwenstein, joint heir of Spontheim, trough his mother Amöne Sofie I. They had one daughter, Sophie Charlotte, who lived (1739-42), and after her death, he took posesion of the Lordship of Limpurg-Sontheim-Michelbach in her name. Friedrich-Ludwig remarried with Sophie Luise zu Solms Assenheim. Sophia Christine lived (1716-41). 


1738-86 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike Charlotte Wilhelmine zu Erbach-Erbach of the Amt of Michelbach within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim

Inherited the whole Amt of Michelbach. Sister of Sophia Christine, she was married to Johann-Ludwig-Vollrath von Löwenstein-Wertheim, brother of Friedrich Ludwig. They were succeeded by son, Johann Karl, who had two sons. Friederike lived (1722-86).

Queen Mother of Benin

1738-? The Iyoba Ede of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of King Eresonyen of Benin (1735-50), who successfully fought the rebellious chiefs and restored power and legitimacy to the Benin Monarchy. As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process.

1738-41 and 1745-48 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel Rosa de Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Several members of her family was elected to the office of Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas.

Princess-Abbesse Anne Charlotte I de Remiremont, née Princesse de Lorraine

1738-73 Princesse-Abbesse Anne Charlotte I de Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame de Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)
1754-73 Secular Abbess of Sainte-Waudru in Mons (Belgium)
1756-73 Coadjutrix of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1757-73 Coadjutrix of Essen (Germany)

Daughter of Duke Léopold I Joseph of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, and moved to the Low Countries where sister-in-law, Anna-Maria was Governor-General in 1744 and her brother, Karl, continued in office after his wife's death until 1746 and then again 1749-80. Her other brother, Franz Stephan, married Anna-Maria's sister, Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria-Hungary. Anne Charlotte became her brother's close advisor and very influential. From 1760 with the title of Dame instead of Demoiselle. In 1766 Lorraine was incorporated in France after having belonged to the Holy Roman Empire for centuries and lived (1714-73).

Dorothea Sybilla von Kraichgau 1738-70 Reigning Abbess Dorothea Sybilla von Mentzingen of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
Member of an old local noble family, which held high administrative and ecclesiastical offices throughout the centuries. No successor was appointed until 1775.

Abbesse Catherine Henriette of Jouarre

1738-92 Reigning Abbess Catherine-Henriette de Montmorin of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Doubled the Monastery buildings. One of the wings, the porch of the actual rue Montmorin and the chaplain's residence is still the major part of the Abbey. From 1790, the lands of the Abbey were confiscated by the revolutionary Committee, the buildings were put up for sale and the expulsion order was promulgated in 1792. This event was to be the death of the Abbess. She passed away on September 27th.


1738-40 Abbess Nullius Giuseppa Bassi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

There was also Abbesses with semi-episcopal authority in France and Spain.

1738-43 Abbess Friederike von Wurttemberg-Neuenstadt of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)

Danish Dowager Queen Sofie Magdalene had decided to turn the County of Vallø, which was part of her dowry, into a Lutheran chapter for unmarried ladies of the high nobility. The abbesses had authority in the Stift and possessed jus vocandi - the right to appoint the priests in the 17 churches within its territory, and were also in charge of the secular administration. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich August von Württemberg-Neuenstadt and Sofie Esther Gräfin von Eberstein. Her seven brothers died in infancy and only her two sisters survived, and after the death of their uncle, Carl Rudolf, she took up residence at the Castle of Neuenstadt together with one of them, Eleonore Wilhelmine Charlotte (1894-1751). She lived (1699-1781)

1739-72 Reigning Abbess Maria Dioskora Maura von Thurn und Valsassina of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

A member of the Taxis-family that were divided into the lines of Counts von Thurn und Valsassina, Princess of Thurn und Taxis and the Spanish line of Tassis and held the offices of Postmaster General in the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and other territories. She lived (1702-72).


1739-96 Politically Influential Nawab Aliya Sadrunissa Begum, Nawab Begum of Oudh (or Avadh) (India)

Oldest daughter of Burhan-ul-Mulk, Subedar of Avadh and married to her cousin and father's successor Mirza Muhammad Muqim (Safdar Jung) (1739-64) in around 1724. When her father died in 1839, Nadir Shah plundered Delhi in 1739, and the Avadh landlords and small chiefs who had been effectively subdued by her father, raised their heads and arms in the attempt to secure their individual independence. In his capacity as the Nawab of Avadh, her husband was hesitant to face them despite his superior military strength. Had it not been for Nawab Begum's forceful promptings, which eventually culminated in success, there may have been no further history of Avadh. Her court and courtiers maintained the peace and pomp of Faizabad. Her son, Shuja-ud-daula's, died in 1775, and together with her daughter-in-law, Bahu Begum she secured the continued existence of the capital of Avadh, Faizabad. Imprisoned in 1781 by grandson together with daughter-in-law. She lived (circa 1712-96).

Last updates 13.03.17

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