Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

WOMEN IN POWER 
1670-1700

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


1670-91 Regent Dowager Princess Anna Eleonore von Stolberg-Wernigerode of Anhalt-Köthen (Germany)

Her husband, Emanuel (1631-50-70), died after only 7 months of marriage, and she became joint regent with Johan Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau, for her posthumously born son, Emmanuel Albrecht (1671-1704), and got Imperial confirmation as regent in 1671. She lived (1651-91).


 

Around 1670 Queen Suzana de Nóbrega of the Lovota District in Southern Soyo in the Kingdom of Kongo (Angola)

Head of a Kimpanzu lineage, to which kings as kings Afonso II, Afonso III and Daniel I, belonged. Described as a powerful queen who sanctioned the rule of  Manuel de Nóbrega, brother of King Daniel I (ruled 1674-1678) over Mbamba Lovata.


1670-85 Reigning Dowager Lady Queen Dowager Sophie Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Denmark of Lolland-Falster and the County of Hørsholm, Denmark

Received the fief in 1660 as security for loans to her husband, Frederik 3, and she also administered the estates of Ibsholm and Dronninggaard. She was quite influential during the reign of her husband from 1648. She was mother of among others, Prince Jørgen (George) the husband of Queen Anne of England and Scotland. Sophie Amalie lived (1628-85).


 

1670-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Bernarda Östringer of Heggbach (Germany)

Continued the building and renovation works of her predecessor, but marked by illness during the whole of her short reign. She lived (1650-75).


1670-1704 Reigning Abbess Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Marie-Madeleine-Gabrielle was the sister of the Marquise de Montespan, she is said to have translated all the works of Plato from the Latin version of Ficino. The children of the highest nobility frequented the abbey school, and her successors were entrusted with the education of the daughters of Louis XV.


 

1670/71 Abbess Nullius Faustina Sforza of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

In the alternative list of Abbesses she is listed as ruler 1663-70, 1675 and 1683.


1670-73 Politically Active Queen Eleonora Maria Josefa von Habsburg of Poland 
1690-97 Politically Active Dowager Duchess of Lorraine (France)

Politically active during reign of her first husband, king Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki of Poland, and in 1673 she prevented the civil war in the country. After the death of her second husband, Karl IV Leopold, she tried to fulfil his last wishes by placing all of her energy into the return of Lorraine to her children. At the German Reichstag in Regensburg she presented an offer for the restoration of the duchy and established the rights of her eldest son, Leopold Joseph. In 1697 at the Treaty of Rijswijk she achieved her aims, but died only a few weeks after. Mother of 5 children with second husband, and lived (1653-97).


1671-96 Rani Regnant Chennamma of Keladi (or Bednur) (India)

Also known as Chennammaji, she succeeded her husband Somashekara Nayak I at a very young age but managed to take over the throne in spite of scheming councillors and external dangers. Apparently she was skilled with the sword as well. Several ministers and the commander-in-chief unsuccessfully plotted to remove her from power. A member of the royal family who felt he should have succeeded to the crown made alliance with the Wodeyer ruler of Mysore, but the she defeated him in battle and forced a treaty on Mysore. Taking advantage of the situation the chieftains of Sodi, Sirsi and Vanavasi declared war but they too were crushed. Other leaders in the kingdom also revolted but she banished them. Rajaram, son of Chatrapati Shivaji came to her while fleeing from Aurangazeb and she granted him safe passage. This led to war with the Mughal Empire in which her troops destroyed a major part of the Mughal army led by Aurangazeb's son, they captured several Mughal captains and ultimately a treaty was signed. She was succeeded by adopted son, Asavappa Nayakka I.


 

1671-circa 73 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Dorothea Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön (Denmark and Germany)

Her son, Hans Adolf von Holsten-Pløn (1634-71-1704) participated in various wars in the service of the German Emperor, and left the government in her hand and then in the hand of her daughter-in-law, Dorothea Sophia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. Dorothea Auguste was widow of Joachim Ernst of Plön, the areas of Kenfeld and Ahrensbök, during whose reign the armies of Wallenstein went through the Duchy in 1627, the Swedes looted in 1643 and the Danish-Swedish war 1657-60 devastated the state. She lived (1602-82).


Maria Franzisca von Hohenzollern

1671-98 Sovereign Marchioness Henriëtte Francisca zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Bergen op Zoom, Countess of Walhain (The Netherlands)

One year after the death of her mother, Maria Elisabeth II van der Bergh s'-Heerenberg, she was given the Marchionate as a fief, but was not inaugurated until 1781. She married Frédéric Maurice de La Tour, Comte d'Auvergne et d'Oliergues, and had nine children. During the war between the United Republic of the Netherlands and France, Bergen op Zoom was given two times to the King-Stadholder Willem IIII (1672-78 and 1788-97). She was succeeded by her son, Francois Egon. Also known as Franziska Henriette, she lived (1642-98). 


Circa 1671-76 Squaw Sachem Awashonks of Sakonnet in Rhode Island (United States of America)

Also known as Awashunckes, she was a Sachem or Suncksqua of very high standing and a major player in events leading up to the native King Philip's (Metacomet's) War (1675-76). Repeatedly, we hear of her negotiating war and peace at the council fire, backed by her war leaders, most of who were her sons and she was among those signing the "submission" after the Native American army was defeated. She was contemporary with three other women sachems of the period Weetamoo and Potok Magnus and an unnamed woman leader from Concord in Massachusetts.


 

1671-75 Abbess Nullius Maria Acquavia d'Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Member of the family that ruled Conversano and a number of other territories in Italy.


The Duchess of Portsmouth

1671-85 Politically Influential Duchess Louise Renée de Kéroualle of Portsmouth in England (United Kingdom)

French mistress of Charles II of England. She exerted a powerful influence over the king in favour of France until his death in 1685. She was made Duchess of Portsmouth and d'Aubigny in 1673 and was the mother by the king, of Charles Lennox, duke of Richmond. Many English hated her as a French-Catholic menace; she stayed mostly in France after 1685, and lived (1649–1734).


1672-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Louise von Anhalt-Dessau of Liegnitz and Brieg in Slesia (Schlesien-Liegnitz-Brieg) (Poland)
1672-75 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Wołów
1672-80 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Ohlau (Oława)

Also known as Ludwika Anhalcka. After the death of her husband, Christian von Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau (1664-72), also known as Duke of Slesia in Liegnitz or Duke of Legnica-Brzeg-Wołów-Oława, who inherited Legnica and Brzeg from his older brothers, she became regent for their son, George Wilhelm. She was tolerant and assisted the Catholics, which made the Protestant people of the Duchy accelerate the declaration of age of her son, and against her protests Emperor Leopold I declared him ruler of his Duchy (14 March 1675). One of his first acts was to strip her of Wołów, part of her Dowry. But he died after 8 month's rule of smallpox. She then retired to Oława, where she spend her last years in the construction of the Baroque Silesian Piast mausoleum at the church of St. Johannes the Baptist in Legnica, also called Piasteum, where she translated the remains of her husband, son and some of their ancestors. Her daughter, Charlotte von Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau (1652-1707) (or Karolina Piastówna) apparently explored the possibilities of succeeding to the territories, but Emperor Leopold objected to this and the lands were taken over by the Habsburgs. She was married to Duke Friederich von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg (1652–1724) until their divorce in 1680. Their only child, Leopold (1674–1744), remained in the custody of her ex-husband, she was given and annual salary of 6,000 talers during her lifetime as compensation for the Slesian lands and she lived in Wrocław, the old city of her ancestors for the rest of her life. Louise was daughter of Duke Johan Kasimir von Anhalt-Dessau and Agnethe von Hessen-Kassel, and lived (1631-80).


Marie de Orléans-Longueville, Princesse Souveraine Neuchâtel et Valangin, Duchesse-Consort de Nemours

1672-74, 1679-82 and 1699-1707 Sovereign Princess Marie de Orléans-Longueville of Neuchâtel and Valangin (Switzerland)

The daughter of Henri II d'Orléans, Duke de Longueville, and his first wife, Louise de Bourbon-Soissons, Marie lost her mother at age 12, and in 1642 came under the authority of her stepmother, the celebrated intriguer of the Fronde, Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé. Raised in a strict, studious atmosphere, Marie came to have little in common with her scandalous stepmother and eventually fled to Dieppe and then to Flanders in 1651 upon the renewed outbreak of the wars of the Fronde. For a time she was considered a possible bride for the Duke of York and even for Charles II of England, who had asked her hand. In 1657 she married Henri II, Duke de Nemours, a near invalid, who died two years later, leaving her childless. The rest of her life was spent in a cruel, arduous legal battle with her stepmother's relatives, trying to establish her own inheritance. In 1698 she lost her case as far as the French property was concerned, but she did establish her right to the sovereign principality of Neufchatel the following year. In her Memoirs she dealt with the Fronde, writing with sympathy toward her father and with particular hatred for her stepmother and other Condés. She lived (1625-1707)


 

1672-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Cleopha Schenkin von Castell of Säckingen (Germany)

Had to flee for the rench troops during the Dutch Wwar in 1678. Säckingen was looted and a large part of the city burned down, including the church. Ten years later the territory was again attacked during the War of the Palatine (Pfälzischen Krieg) and she moved her residence to Etzgen. She was an able financial administrator and defended the seigniorial rights of the chapter in Hornussen and Stein in Switzerland and ended disputes with the Lord of Grandmont over the rights within the Lordship of Laufenburg. Daughter of Ulrich Christoph Schenk von Castell and Maria Cleophe von Wolfurt. Various male members of her family were Prince-Bishops of Eichstätt. She lived (1639-93).


 

1672-88 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Sauther of Baindt (Germany)

As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she sat on the Ecclesiastical Bank in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1663 the Diet sat indefinitely and became known as the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag). From now on emperor was represented by a prince of the empire as his commissioner; a jurist was appointed as Subcommissioner; and the elector of Mainz, Archchancellor of the empire, had charge of the business of the meetings of the Diet. This assembly of representatives without legislative power disappeared when the realm collapsed under Napoleon's attack in 1806.


 

1672-88 Reigning Abbess Catherine II de Bernemiscourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Since the chapter was under the direct protection of the Pope, he or his personal representative was the only one who could conduct visitations to the chapter (control visits).


1672 Reigning Lady Catharina  Regina von Galler von Purgstall of  Riegersburg in der Steiermark (Austria)

Also known as Catharina Regina Freiin von Galler, Gräfin von Purgstall, she was daughter of Katharina Elisabeth Wechsler, Lady of Riegersburg 1648-72, and Lord Hans Wilhelm von Galler. She married Johann Ernst Graf von Purgstall, and the Lordship remained in the possession of this family until 1817, when the possessions was divided among 17 persons. (b. 1642-)


Elisabeth Sophia von Sachsen-Altenburg

1672-75 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth Sophia von Sachsen-Altenburg of Altenburg (Germany)
1675-80 Reigning Dowager Lady of the towns of Kapellendorf and Berka, with Gartenhaus in Weimar in Sachsen-Altenburg

In 1672 her unmarried cousin Duke Friedrich Wilhelm III, died, and she inherited Altenburg against the claims of Friederich Wilhelm's sister Johanna Magdalena- and her husband, Duke Ernst I of Sachsen-Gotha (1601-75) added Altenburg to his title. He was already in charge of Tenneberg, Waltershausen, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg, Tonndorf, Heldburg, Eisfeld, Salzungen, Frauenbreitungen, Wasungen, Kranichfeld, and from 1672 also of Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Krainburg, Eisenberg, Stadtroda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Grafenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonneberg, Haldburghausen, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen and Römhild. When he died in 1675, their oldest son Friedrich I became Duke of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg etc. Elisabeth Sofie had already inherited the Saxon claim to Jerusalem when her father, Johann Philipp, died in 1629. She was mother of 18 children, and lived (1619-80).


1673-83 Sovereign Countess Katharina Agathe von Rappoltstein of Rappoltstein and Hohenach, Lady zu Geroldseck am Wasichin (Germany)

Oldest daughter of Johann Jacob (1598-1673), and through an old Imperial privilege it was possible for women to inherit the title.  She was married to Christian II, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Duke von der Pfalz-Birkenfeld und Bischweiler and was succeeded by their oldest son, Christian III. The descendants of her aunt, Anna Elisabeth von Rappoltstein, the Princess of Waldeck-Pyrmont later assumed the title of Count of Rappoltstein, but never perused their claim. Catharina Agathe lived (1648-83).


Isabelle Angelique de Montmorency, Herzogin zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin

1673 Regent Duchess Isabelle Angélique de Montmorency of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)

Appointed by her husband, Christian Ludwig I, during his absence in the war against the Netherlands. They had married in 1664 but she had remained in France where she was deeply involved in the political affairs, but her pro-French and her relationship with lord of the chamber Bernstorff and she soon returned to France. She had been married to the Hugenot Gaspard IV. de Coligny, Duke de Châtillon, who was killed in a duel after a few years. Her posthumously born son, Gaspard, died in 1657. During the Fronde she supported the Prince de Condé, who was finally defeated by Cardinal Mazarin, which ended the independent position of the nobility. King Louis XIV considered her as expert in German Affairs and sent her at a diplomatic mission to Braunschweig where she managed to recruit Hannover as French allied. She was daughter of François III de Montmorency-Boutteville, Comte de Luxé and Elisabeth Angélique de Vienne and lived (1627-95).


1673-1709 5th Ordinate Princess Teofila Ludwika Zasławska of the Ostrogski Ordinate, including Jarosław (Poland and Ukraine)

After the death of her brother, Aleksander Janusz Zasławski i, she became one of the largest landed estates in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth accounting for 11.000 square kilometres – about a third of the Volhynian Voivodeship – with over 1.000 settlements, including several dozen towns. Married to Dymitr Jerzy Wiśniowiecki and Józef Karol Lubomirski and had three children with the last. Her twin son and daughters both inherited the estates, the latter in 1720. She lived (circa 1650-1709).


1673-1702 In Charge of the Government Duchess Dorothea Sophia zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön
1704-06 Member of the Guardian Government
1704-22 Titular Duchess of Reinfeld and Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Office
 (Germany)

After her marriage to Hans Adolf, Of the Grace of God, Heir of Norway, Duke to Schleswig-Holstein (1634-71-1704), who participated in various wars in the service of the German Emperor and spend very little time in Plön, she took over the government from her mother-in-law Dorothea Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp. After his death she became member of the guardian government for her grandson, Leopold August, who died after 2 years at the age of 4. She was given the title of titular duchess and Castle of Reinfeld as her dowry. She lived (1653-1722).


Anne Genevière de Bourbon-Condé

1674-79 Sovereign Princess Anne Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé of Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

Born in the prison of Vincennes, into which her father Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and mother Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, had been thrown for opposition to Marshal D'Ancre, the favourite of the Regent, Marie de' Medici. In 1642 she was married to the Duc de Longueville, governor of Normandy, a widower twice her age. After Richelieu's death her father became chief of the council of regency during the minority of Louis XIV. She became of political importance in 1646 when her husband was the chief envoy during the drafting of the Treaty of Westphalia, where she was addressed as the " goddess of peace and concord." She maintained a long liaison with the duc de La Rochefoucauld and joined him as a leader of the Fronde. A determined enemy of Cardinal Mazarin, she obtained the assistance of her brother Armand de Bourbon, prince de Conti, during the first Fronde, and that of the Vicomte de Turenne and her brother, the Great Condé, The king pardoned her and she became the great protectress of the Jansenists. As her health failed she hardly ever left the convent of the Carmelites in which she had been educated. On her death in 1679 her brother buried her with great splendour, and her heart, as she had directed, was sent to the nuns of the Port Royal des Champs. She lived (1619-79).


Unnamed Dutch American Lady

1674-89 Acting Patroon Maria van Cortland van Rensselaer of the Patroonship of Rensselaerswijk in New Amsterdam (USA)

After the death of her husband, Jeremias van Rensselaer, who was the Third Director, Fourth Patroon, and Second Lord of the Manor of Rensselaerwyck, she acted stand-in for son. The Dutch colonized the area, which later became New York after it was sold to the British. She was daughter of Oloff Stevensen Van Cortlandt, a wealthy Manhattan merchant, and Anna Lookerman, mother of 6 children, and lived (1645-89). 


 

1674-76 Overseer of the Crown Lands Helena Zielęcka z Wodyna of Bydgoszcz (Poland)

Appointed by the king in succession to her husband, Jan Zielęcki z Zielęcina, (1666-1674), to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.


1674-98 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Maria Dorothea Sophie von Oettingen-Oettingen of Nürtingen and Kirchheim in Württemberg-Stuttgart (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Eberhard III (1617-74), she took over her dowry and resided there until her death. After Kirchheim burned down in 1690 she moved to Nürtingen and lead the reconstruction of the city. She was his second wife, and had no children. She lived (1636-98).


 

1674-95 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Johanna Dorothea von Anhalt-Dessau of Gronau in Bentheim-Tecklenburg (Germany)

Widow of Moritz zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1615-74), mother of 2 sons and 7 daughters and lived (1612-95).


Queen Maria Kazimiera of Poland

1674-96 Politically Influential Queen Maria Kazimiera d'Arquien of Poland
1679-98 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Brodnica

Also known as Marysieńka, she was very political influential during the reign of her husband, king Jan III Sobieski (1629-74-96). Since 1699 she lived in Rome and from 1714 in France. She lived (1641–1716).


Katarzyna Sobieska

1674-93 Political Advisor Katarzyna Sobieska in Poland

During the reign of her brother, King of Poland Jan III Sobieski, she was politically influential. First married to Władysław Dominik Zasławski and secondly to Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł on June 13, 1658. She lived (1634-1694).


Unnamed Noble Muslim Lady

1675-77 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)

Granddaughter of Sultan 'Ali Mughayat II Ri'ayat Shah, who ruled 1604-07, and married Laksamana 'Abdu'r Rahman bin Zainal Abidin, Orang Kaya Kaya Maharaja Lela Melayu, son of Zainal Abidin bin Daim Mansur, Tengku of Ribee. Perhaps mother of Sultan 'Ala ud-din Ahmad Shah Johan Badr Berdaulat, but she was succeeded by Sultana Zaqiyat. Her Throne-name Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah means Light of the world, Purity of the Faith. (d. 1677).


Elisabeth d'Orlèans

1675-96 Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth d'Orléans of Alençon and Angoulême (France)

Daughter of Gaston, Duc d'Orléans, son of king Henri IV of France and Marie de Bourbon. She was half sister of Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier and full sister of Anne, Duchess of Montpensier, Marguerite Louise, married to Cosimo III of Toscana, and  Françoise Madeleine, wife of Charles Emmanuel II, duke of Savoia. She was married to Louis Joseph, duke of Guise (1650–1675), but since their only son died as a child, the duchy reverted to the crown at her death. She lived (1646-1696).


Marie de Lorraine

1675-88 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Lorraine of Guise et de Joyeuse, Princess de Joinville (France)

She was daughter of Henriette-Catherine, Princesse de Joyeuse (1585-1608-56), and succeeded a grandnephew. In 1686 she left Guise and Joinville to Charles de Stainville, Comte de Couvonges, with a remainder to the younger sons of the duke of Lorraine’s younger sons and their heirs male. She also left Joyeuse by an act of 1688 to Charles Francois de Lorraine, prince de Commercy. The Parlement de Paris voided the donation of 1686 in 1689, and Anna Henrietta Julia of Bavaria, second daughter of the prince Palatine, distant cousin of the deceased, inherited Guise and Joinville. Marie de Lorraine lived (1615-1688).


1675-1704 Sovereign Duchess Marie Madeleine Thérèse de Vignerot of Aiguillon, Demoiselle d'Agénois et Baronne de Saujon (France)

Succeeded aunt, Marie-Madeleine Vignerot. She became a nun, and at her death her nephew Louis-Armand, marquis De Richelieu, inherited the title. Marie-Thérèse lived (1635-1705).


1675-98 Sovereign Duchess Marie-Anne de Bourbon of Vallière (France)

Her mother, Louise-Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc, resigned in her favour. In 1698 she gave the duchy to her cousin, Charles-François de La Baume Le Blanc. She had no children in her marriage with Prince Louis-Armand I de Bourbon-Conti, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon (1661-85). Also known as Marie-Anne de Blois, she was daughter of King Louis XIV, and lived (1666-1739).


 

1675-87 Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Anna Theresia von Haslang of Breitenegg (Germany)

In charge of the government in the Tillyschen Reichsgrafschaft (Tillyian Imperial Immediate County) during the minority of her son, Ferdinand Lorenz Franz Xaver t'Serclaes, , Reichsgraf von Tilly und Breitenegg (d. 1724), who was succeeded by his daughter, Maria Anna Katharina Theresia Reichsgräfin von Tilly. The County of the Realm had received a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet in 1654.


 

1675-78 Joint Gardian Dowager Countess Christiane Elisabeth von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Homburg of Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)

When her husband, Friedrich von Nassau-Weilburg (1640-75), died after a fall from a horse, her sons, Johann Ernst and Friedrich Ludwig (1665-84), were placed under guardianship with her and Johann von Nassau-Idstein and after his death in 1679 Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Ottweiler, and her sons lived with him in Ottweiler until they came of age. She lived (1646-78).


 

1675-87 Princess-Abbess Maria Cäcilia I Vöhlerin of Heggbach (Germany)

In 1686 she changed the common sleeping hall for the ladies of the chapter with cells for each one of them. During her reign the bad harvests returned (in 1682 and 1685), but she started a number of commercial activities and opened a mill and a saw. Another version of her surname was Vöhlin, and she was born Freifrau von Frickenhausen, Illertiseen und Neuburg.


Tombstone of a Fürstäbtissin of Niedermünster, but the name and year of her death have disappeared from the wear of the centuries

1675-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Muggenthal of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of the noble family of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgrafen) von Muggenthal in Bavaria.


Maria Franziska I von Elten

1675-1708 Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska I von Manderscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)

After she had her election approved, she had her right to appoint and dismiss the clerics of the territory confirmed by the Pope, and she managed to curb the attempts by her General Vicar, who was her assistant in her exercise of her quasi episcopal authority, to become her superior. She founded convents and schools in the Catholic enclave partly on German, partly on Dutch ground. And in 1700 she issued a law which clearly divided the secular and clerical courts.


 

1675-95 Abbess Nullius Guiseppina Cedrella of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Alternative reign 1679-80.


 

Circa 1676-circa 1711 Sultan Alimah II of Nzwani, Comoro Islands

Arabic-style sultanates developed in Nzwani as early as the sixteenth century with different areas of the island first ruled by chiefs known as Fani. Later, the chiefs were involved in conflicts and appealed to Europeans to intercede on their behalf. Eventually, in 1886, the island became a French protectorate and was formally annexed by France to its possessions in 1909.


 

1676-1715 Sovereign Countess Magdalena Christina von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Sayn-Hachenburg (Germany)

Succeeded brother, who had succeeded their mother, Countess Ernestine von Sayn, who was co-ruler of the county which was part of the Imperial Circle of the Lower Rhine-Westphalia and the bank of the Counts of The Lower Rhine-Westphalia in the Imperial Diet (Niederrheinisch-Westfälischen Reichskreis & Grafen dem Niederrheinisch-Westfälischen Reichsgrafenkollegium). She was married to Burgrave Georg Ludvig von Kirchberg and in 1799 the counties were inherited by Burgravine Luise of Kirchenberg, Countess of Sayn-Hardenburg and Lady of Farnrode and trough her, by the Dukes of Nassau-Weilburg - the present ruling family of Luxembourg. She lived (1658-1715).


1676-88 Regent Dowager Duchess Ilona Zrinyi of Munkacs (Hungary)

After the death of her first husband, Francis I Rakoczy (Rákóczi Ferenc), and mother-in law, Sophia Báthory, she inherited the immense property of the family. She married Imre Tököly and helped her husband with organising the "kuruc" uprising. After her husband had been defeated she defended fortress Munkach against the Habsburgs. In 1688 she was forced to give up. She was kept imprisoned in a cloister in Vienna. Later her husband changed her for Habsburg emperor's officers. She followed her husband to his political exile. Her first husband had been designated as successor of his father, George I of Transylvania in 1652 by the Diet, but he was never recognized. The city of Munkacs is situated in Transcarpathian Ruthenia (Zakarpatskaya Oblast) and its population was a mixture of Hungarian-, Slovak-, Ukrainian-, Ruthenian-, and German-speaking elements; it also boasted one of the most culturally significant Jewish communities in Eastern Europe.  She died in Nikodemia having lived (1645-1703)


Eleonorą Charlottą Mompelgard

1676-1702 Reigning Dowager Duchess Eleonora Charlotte zu Württemberg-Mömpelgard of Twardogóra in Oleśnica (Poland)

In Polish she is known as Elonora Karolina, and she held the territory after her marriage to her father's cousin, Prince Sylvius Friederich zu Württemberg-Oels or Sylwiusz Fryderyk of Oleśnica (1651-97)) as her dorwy. Its German name was Festenburg. Her husband was son of Duke Sylvius Nimrod von Württemberg-Juliusburg, and Elisabeth Marie von Münsterberg-Öls and she was daughter of Duke Georg II von Württemberg-Mömpelgard and Anne de Coligny (1624-80), did not have any children, and (1656-1743).


Anne von Blome

1676-88 County Sheriff Anne Ottesdatter von Blome of the Counties of Riberhus and Møgeltønderhus, Denmark

1648 Anne von Blome married Hans Schack, who had been a soldier in Danish, German and French armies. They then lived at his estates Gültzow and Rosenthal in Sachsen-Lauenborg before her husband was appointed Commander of Hamburg. He became Lieutenant General and County Sheriff of Riberhus and Møgeltønderhus, (now Schackenborg Slot) in 1658 and he played a crucial role in the Danish-Swedish war as Governor of Copenhagen which was put under siege and he was one of the most important commanders during the war. 1660 he became supreme commander and continued to hold even higher offices until he was appointed Count in 1671, 5 years before his death. She was daughter of Otto Blome zu Kaltenhof, mother of several sons, and lived (1632-1688).


 

1676-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Rosina Brümsi von Herblingen of Lindau (Germany)

The Abbess of Lindau became Princess of the Empire with the title of Princess-Abbess (Reichsäbtissin to Lindau) in the 15th Century.


1677-84 Regent Sri Rani Aswathi Thriunal Umayamma Rani of Travancore (India)

As the senior Princess of the Royal House, she was already Rani of Attingal, which was given to her as her personal appanage, when she succeeded on the death of Raja Aditya Varma after defeating a rival contender to the throne, Nedumangattu Kerala Varma in battle. Around this time, the British first came to Kerala. In 1684, she facilitated the construction of god owns for the British near Attingal. She adopted Kottayam Kerala Varma, who became a famous personality. Unfortunately, his popularity came at the cost of making powerful enemies, who had him assassinated on his return from an audience with the Queen. She was mother of six sons, five of them drowned at Manakad while bathing. After the death of her last son, Raja Ravi Vama, Raja, she adopted an entire family from the House of Kolatbunad, the Koil Tampurans of Kilimanur - three men and three women. Ummayamma Rani  (d. 1684/90).


 

1677 Governor Leonor de Moura y Aragón of Sicily (Italy)

Acting Vice-Reine of Sicily after death of her first husband, Anielo de Guzmán who was vice-rey for King Carlos III of Spain as King of Sicilia and Napoli. Her second husband was Pedro Homodei y Pacheco, 2nd Marquess of Almonacid de los Oteros. She succeeded her father, Francisco de Moura y Melo as 4th Marchioness de Castelo Rodrigo, 1675-1706 3th Countess de Lumiares, 2nd Duchess de Nocera in Portugal in 1675. She was had no children in her 3 marriages and was succeeded by her sister, Juana, who also held the position of Lady of las Islas Terceras in the Azores from 1706. Leonor lived (circa 1630-1706).


Magdalene Sibylle von Hessen-Darmstadt

1677-93 Co-Regent Dowager Duchess Magdalene Sibylle von Hessen-Darmstadt of Württemberg (Germany)
1677-1712 Reigning Dowager Lady of Leonberg

Following the death of her husband, Duke Wilhelm Ludwig, she reigned in the name of their son Eberhard Ludwig (1676-77-1733) together with some co-regents, among other her brother-in-law, Friedrich-Karl. She formed a form of alternative government against the administrator; she initiated intrigues and changed side as she saw her own advantages. When Friederich-Karl was captured by the French, Emperor Leopold outmanoeuvred her by declaring her son of prematurely of age. She held the Castle and Landscape of Leonberg as her dowry. The daughter of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt, she grew up in Sweden, and lived (1652-1712).


 

Around 1677 Queen of Wayonaoake in Virginia (USA)

Mentioned as one of the signateurs of the treaty between the Indian tribes and the British colonisers.


1677-81 Regent Dowager Duchess Eleonore Clara von Hohenlohe-Gleichen of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Germany)

After her husband, Gustav Adolf von Nassau-Saarbrücken, fell in battle at Kochersberg, she was regent for son, Ludwig Kraft von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1663-77-1713). During her reign, she abolished the serfdom in the county in a proclamation with the titulature: "Wir Eleonore Clara, Verwittibte Gräfin und Vormünderin zu Nassau Saarbrücken und Saarwehrden, Frau zu Lahr und Wiesbaden und Jdstein, geb. Gräfin von Hohenlohe u. Gleichen, Frau zu Laneenburg u. Granichfeld." She lived (1632-1709).


 

1677-1700 Burgravine Amalia von Dohna-Vianen, Sovereign Lady and Heiress of Vianen and Ameiden, Hereditary Burgravine of Utrecht (The Netherlands)

The "Souveräne Frau und Erbin von Vianden und Erbburggräfin von Uetrecht" succeeded her mother's sister, Hedwig Agnes van Brederode (1764-1802), as all of her 5 brothers and 2 sisters predeceased her. She was daughter of Christian Albrecht von Dohna-Schlobitten (1621-77) and Sophie Theodore Gravin van Holland-Brederode-Vianen (1620-1678), married to Count Simon Heinrich zur Lippe-Detmold (1649-99), mother of 16 children and lived (1644-1700).

Giovanna II Aragona Pignatelli Cortes

1677-1723 Territorial Princess Giovanna II Aragona Pignatelli Cortes of Castelvetrano, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Machioness of Avola, Duchess of Terranova and Countess of Borghetto, etc. (Italy)

Daughter of Andrea Fabrizio (?-1677) Duke of Monteleone. Married to Ettore Pignatelli, Marquis del Vaglio. Succeeded by son Prince Diego, Marquis of Valle Oaxaca later Duke of Terranova and Monteleone. She and her husband acquired extensive feudal properties in Southern Italy, in central and western Sicily, in Spain and Mexico. She lived (1666-1723).


1677-99 Countess Sophie Amalie Moth of the County of Samsøe (Denmark)

Official Maitresse of King Christian V, and appointed Lensgrevinde til Samsø til Gevskabet Samsøe (Fiefcountess of Samsoe to the County of Samsoe), and her children with the king were given the surname of Gyldenløve and they became the ancestors of the Danneskiold-Samsøe counts. She lived (1754-99).


 

1677-1701 Princess-Abbess Maria Eva Schenkin von Castell of Schänis (Switzerland)

Reached a compromise with the parish of Benken in the dispute over the right to appoint the local priest (Kollaturstreit). Her Cousin, Countess Maria Cleopha, was Princess-Abbess of Säckingen (1672-93). The daughter of Johann Erhard Schenk von Castell, Chief Steward of Delsberg and Maria Elisbeth von Rotberg, she lived (1640-1701).


 

1678-88 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zaqiyat ud-din 'Inayat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Mahmud Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)

The mercantile oligarchs elected her as successor to sultana Naqiat - the second female ruler of the state. The rule of women was not simply a weak version of male monarchy; it also partook of some of the attributes that women were expected to show in Southeast Asian societies. Women were entrusted with the handling of money, the buying and selling of goods, the promotion of the family as a business and the making of deals. Sultan Zaqiyat was daughter of Raja Mahmud Shah bin Raja Sulaiman Shahand and married to a great-grandson of Sultan Mukmin, who reigned 1579. Succeeded by her sister-in-law, Sultana Zinat. (d. 1688).


1678 Sovereign Duchess Isabella I Gonzaga of Gaustalla (Italy)

When she married Ferdinando Carlo IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova in 1670, they were promised the succession to the Duchy after her father, Ferrante III, but when he died in 1678, the Duchy was placed under administration and in 1692, Emperor Leopold declared the arrangement illegitimate and granted the feud to her father's cousin, Vincenzo I Gonzaga, who married her younger sister Maria-Vittoria (1659-1707) in 1679. Anna Isabella had no children, and lived (1655-1703).


Dowager Duchess Eliabeth-Dorothea of Hessen-Darmstadt

1678-88 Regent Dowager Landgravine Elisabeth Dorothea von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of Hessen-Darmstadt (Germany)
1688-1709 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Butzback

Took over as regent for son, Ernst Ludwig (1667-78-1739) after the death of her stepson Ludwig V, who died 18 weeks and 4 days after succeeding her husband, Ludwig IV (1630-61-78). The Imperial Court (Reichskammergericht) demanded that she should reign jointly with a College of Councillors, but she prevented that they could take their oath and they therefore remained subordinate "advisors" to her. During her term in office she only called the Estates (Landtag) 2 times. She worked hard on consolidating the economic and industrial situation of the Landgrave and after she took over the government in her dowry, she advised her son to do the same, but he refused her interference. She also promoted music and culture, and lived (1640-1709).      


 

1678-93 Regent Countess Dowager Ernestine Barbara Dorothea Sibylle zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort of Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Altgraf Erich Adolf, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son Altgraf Franz Wilhelm I von Salm Reifferscheid zu Bedbur (1672-78-1734). She lived (1654-98).


 

1678-98 Guardian Dowager Countess Anna Dorothea von Ruppa of Reuss zu Untergreiz  (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Heinrich IV, she was guardian for son, Heinrich XIII (1672-1733), who was under the regency of a male relative. She lived (1651-98).


1678-81 Princess-Abbess Christine Sofie zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Christina Sophie, she resigned in order to marry her cousin Duke August Wilhelm of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1662-1731), who did not have any children with his two next wives, Sophie Amalie von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (1670–1710) and Elisabeth Sophie Marie von Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg (1683–1767), as he preferred men. She was daughter of Duke Rudolf August of Christiane Elisabeth, Gräfin von Barby, and lived (1654-95).


 

1678-1733 Overseer of the Crown Lands Marie Anne de la Grange d'Arquien of Nowy Targ (Poland)

The sister of Queen Maria Kazimiera, she was in charge of the administration of the territory jointly with her husband Jan Wielopolski (1630-1688). She (d. 1733).


 

1679-96 Feudal Marchioness Beatrice Acquaviva d'Aragona of Sant Emiliano, Melpignano Botrugno, Trepuzzi and Vaste (Italy)

Daughter of Francesco, she died without heirs, and the Marchese di Trepuzzi don Geronimo Acquaviva inherited the feudal lands.


Unnamed Burmese Lady

1680-83 Queen of Lai Kha (Myanmar-Burma)

Succeeded her husband, King Saw ne Ya, who reigned the Shan Kingdom (1650-80).


 

Circa 1680-circa 85 Sultan Nur al-Azam of Sulu (Philippines)

Also known as Pangian Ampay II, she was originally named Siti Cabil or Sittie Kabira, and chosen as the successor by her maternal grandfather, Sultan Muawil Wasit. Not much is known about her reign, Kabira’s name remains in an extended prayer for the Prophets and their descendants and followers in a traditional mosque in Maimbung. Her name is included in the Dalrymple's list of sultans but is not included in the Sulu genealogy, probably because she was a woman.


Charlotte Amélie de la Trémoïlle

1680-1701 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Amélie de la Trémoïlle of Aldenburg, the Barony of Kniphausen and the Lordships of Varel, Kniphausen and Doorwerth (Germany and the Netherlands)
1680-1732 Lady of Doorwerth (The Netherlands)

After her father, Henri Charles, Duke de La Tremoille, demanded that they converted to Catholism she fled together with her mother, Emilie von Hessen-Kassel. She ended up in Denmark, where her cousin, Charlotte-Amalie, was married to King Christian V. Here she married Count Anton I von Aldenburg und Kniphausen, the illegitimate son of Count Anton Günther von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Elisabeth von Ungnad, who had been created Reichsgraf. He had 6 daughters by his first wife, Auguste Johanna von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (1638-66). When he died after 5 months of marriage, she became regent for her unborn child. Her son, Anton II, was born at 26th of June 1681, and was Baron of the semi-independent Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Kniphausen until his death in 1738, when he was succeeded by his daughter, Charlotte-Sophie von Aldenburg. After he came of age she spent the rest of her life in the castle of Doorwerth in the Netherlands, and lived (1652-1732).


1680 Governor Lady Elizabeth de Carteret of Alderney (A Dependency of the English Crown)
1680-82 Lady Proprietrix of East Jersey (in New Jersey, USA)

In charge of her late husband's fiefs in the Channel Islands and America. Her husband - and cousin - Sir Georges de Carteret, was son of Helier de Carteret of St Ouen and in 1643 he succeeded her father (his uncle) Sir Philip Carteret, to the post of bailiff of Jersey, and was appointed by the king lieutenant-governor of the island. After subduing the Parliamentary party in the island, he was commissioned a vice-admiral of Jersey and "the maritime parts adjacent". Parliament branded him as a pirate and excluded him specifically from future amnesty. Prince Charles created him a knight and baronet and in 1650 he was granted "a certain island and adjacent islets near Virginia, in America," which were to be called New Jersey; but no settlement upon this grant was made. After the Restoration in 1660, he was granted the fief of Alderney and he held many other offices at court. His fourth cousin, Philip Carteret, was sent to New Jersey as governor in 1665. The patent of Alderney, she sold to Sir Edmund Le Breton, whom Charles II later appointed Governor of New York, and two years later she sold the land of East Jersey in 1682 to Quakers. She was daughter of Philippe de Carteret, 3rd Seigneur of St. Owen, and Anne Dowse, and lived (1616-96).


Elisabeth III von Herford 

1680-86 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III Albertina von Anhalt-Dessau of Herford (Germany)

Her father, Duke Johann Georg II. von Anhalt-Dessau, had her elected as Reichsäbtissin in order to secure her an income and to influence the Herfordian part of vote in the Bank of Prelates of the Rhine. After she she resigned in order to marry Heinrich von Sachsen-Wissenfels-Barby, she brought a large number of artists and merchants with her to Barby. Of her 8 children, only Georg Albrecht reached adulthood (but had no heirs), 3 were still-born, 3 died as infants, one son at the age of 19. Her sister Johanna Charlotta was Princess-Abbess from 1729. Elisabeth Albertina lived (1665-1706). 


 Fürstäbtissin Anna Sophie II von  Quedlinburg, geb. Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt

1680-83 Princess-Abbess Anna Sophie II von Hessen-Darmstadt of Quedlinburg (Germany) 

The Landgravine had been second in command of the Abbey-State since 1656 with the title of Pröpstin and Coadjutorin from 1678. Her sister, Elisabeth Amalie Magdalene, was married to the Catholic Count Philipp Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Neuburg and after she converted to this faith, she tried to persuade Anna-Sophia to do the same, but she remained a staunch protestant. 1658 she published the prayer book 'treue Seelenfreund Jesus Christus' (Faithful soulmate of Jesus Christus) with her own texts and songs. She was daughter of Landgrave Georg III von Hessen-Darmstadt, and lived (1638-83).


Magdalena Sibylle von Brandenburg-Ansbach

1680-87 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Magdalena Sibylle II. von Brandenburg-Ansbach of the and Administrative Unit of Freiberg-Colditz and the fore work zu Fischersdorf in Sachsen  (Germany)

Widow of the Elector Johann Georg II as his second wife, daughter of Christian zu Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1581-1655) Ermuth Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, mother of 3 children, and lived (1612-87).


 

1680-87 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Johanna Walpurgis von Leiningen-Westerburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Dahme in Sachsen-Weissenfels-Querfurt  (Germany)

Second wife of August von Sachsen-Weißenfels-Querfurt who died in 1680, who had 8 surviving children by his first wife, Anna Maria von Ostfriesland, and 3 who died as infants. She herself had 1 son who died at the age of 19, one stillborn son and a surviving son, Duke Friedrich von Sachsen-Weissenfels-Dahme (1673-1715), who was given the Office of Dahme as his Dukedom when he reached adulthood. She lived (1647-87).


 

1681-1721 Queen Verónica I Guterres Kangala Kingwanda of N'Dongo and Matamba (Angola and Congo)

Also known as Cangala Quinguanda, she was daughter of King João Guterres Ngola Kanini I. Her brother was killed during a battle that Matamba won against the Portuguese. Nevertheless she decided to treat for peace, signing the agreement with Portugal in 1683. But in 1689 she attacked the Portuguese in Cahenda in the Dembos Region, which was disputed between Ndongo, Kongo, and Portugal. Around 1701, Luca da Caltanisetta, the prefect of the Capuchin mission in Angola wrote to her asking to re-establish the mission which had fallen vacant, but she answered by expressing her concern that "it pained her to see her children die without baptism" but that she was "disgusted with the whites, and she would "not see any of them in her court with the missionaries." She sought once again to expand the kingdom into Portuguese domains in 1706, and it was probably for this reason that she had ambassadors in the court of Kongo's King Pedro IV that year. But her attempts to do this were thwarted, as Portuguese forces were too strong and she abandoned the attempt. Nevertheless, a state of constant low level conflcit between her army and the Portuguese at Ambaca and Cahenda led to the virtual depopulation of the country to the west of Matamba, as the people either fled or were captured and deported to the Americas. Those captured by the Portuguese tended to be sent to Brazil, those captured by her were often sold to Vili merchants, based in the Kingdom of Loango to the north, and subsequently sold to English, Dutch, or French merchants who frequented that coast. She was succeeded by her son, Afonso I Álvares de Pontes. She (d. 1721).


 

1681-82 Sometime Acting Proprietary Governor Elizabeth Smith of New Jersey (USA)

After the death of her first husband, William Lawrence (1622-80), she became the administratrix of the families' estates in Flushing and guardian of their 7 children. She then married Sir Philip Carteret, son of Helier Carteret, Attorney General of the Isle of Jersey, and governor of New Jersey (1665-82). She acted as governor during his absence in Europe, and many of the important acts of that period were "passed under her administration." And the city of Elizabeth in New Jersey, is named after her. Three years later she married Colonel Richard Townley (d. 1711). She was daughter of Richard Smith and Sarah Hammond, and lived (1643-1712).


1681-93 Princess-Abbess Christine zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Gandersheim  (Germany)
The princess was the 16th child of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and the second daughter of his second wife, Marie Katharina von Braunschweig-Dannenberg. After her death, her, Marie Elisabeth, was elected as Fürstäbtissin and ruler of the Ecclesiastical territorial. Christine lived (1639-93).

 

1681-1709 Reigning Abbess Maria Jakobe von Bodman of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Elected 6 April, confirmed by the Abbot of Salem at 5 August, received the customary homage by the inhabitants 25 January 1700 with participation of the Abbot, and was inagurated 29 June 1701. She rebuild the church of the chapter in baroque style. 2 of her sisters were nuns in Heiligenkreutz and Rottenmünster and her brother Johann Rupert Sigismund was Prince-Abbot of Kempten and another Prior in Hofen. She was related to several canonesses in Wald. She was daughter of Johann Siegmund von Bodman zu Wiechs und Steisslingen.


Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkaina

1682 and 1689-94 Regent Dowager Empress Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina of Russia

After the death of her husband, Alexis, she became regent for her stepson, Fyodor III, and held power from 27th of April to the 26th of May, but soon his mother Mariya Ilinichna Miloslavskaya pushed Peter and the Naryshkin circle aside. When Fyodor died childless in 1682, a fierce struggle for power ensued between the Miloslavskys and the Naryshkins: the former wanted to put Fyodor's brother, the delicate and feebleminded Ivan V, on the throne; the Naryshkins stood for the healthy and intelligent Peter. Representatives of the various orders of society, assembled in the Kremlin, declared themselves for Peter, who was then proclaimed tsar, and Natalya became regent again 29th of May until the 29th of June; but the Miloslavsky faction exploited a revolt of the Moscow streltsy, or musketeers of the sovereign's bodyguard, who killed some of Peter's adherents, including Matveyev. Ivan and Peter were then proclaimed joint tsars with Ivan's 25-year-old sister Sophia as regent. After Sophia was deposed, Natalya became regent again. Her name is also transcribed Natal'ya Kirillovna Naryškina, and she lived (1651-94).


1682-86 Tzarevna Regnant Sofiya Aleksyevna Romanova of Russia
1686-89 Autocrat

Grand Duchess Sophia (Царевна Софья Алексеевна Романова) was the daughter of Tsar Alexis and his first wife, Maria Iliyanova Miroslavkaya. She was well educated and noted for her intelligence, energy and ambition. After the death of her brother, Feodor III, she led a group of Miloslavskii boyars in a struggle for power with her stepmother, Natalia Naryshkaina. She was extremely active in internal and foreign policy. Russia concluded "The Eternal Peace" with Poland in 1686, and the Nerchinskii Treaty with China in 1689. There were also two military expeditions to the Crimea. In 1687, the first educational establishment opened in Russia: the Academy of Slavic, Greek and Latin Studies. In 1689 she attempted to seize the Russian throne for herself, but this was repulsed by Peter, and exiled to the Novodevichii Monastery. After an uprising in her name by the guard regiments in 1698 she was forced to become a nun under the name of Susanna and she was put under heavy guard. She lived (1657-1704).  


 

1682-1717 Queen Regnant Nony Sonbait of Sonbai (Besar) (Indonesia)

Reigned under a number of regents; in the period 1699-1708 the regent of the kingdom in Eastern Timor was Ama Baki. Nony Sonbait lived (circa 1666-1717).


 

1682-1705 Regent Dowager Rani Mangammal of Madura (Trichinapali) (India)

Regent for King Mutti Vriappa III (1682/5-89 and Chokkanatha II (1689-1731).


 

1682-85 Hereditary Lady Anna Elisabeth von Daun-Falkenstein of Falkenstein (Germany)

As her brother, Carl Alexander had been shot by Moritz von Limburg-Styrum, in 1659, she inherited the possession from her father, Wilhelm Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein, at his death in 1682. She was widow of Count Georg Wilhelm von Leiningen-Dagsburg (1636-72), and was succeeded by son, Count Johann Karl August von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenstein (1662-98). Also mother of a son who died in infancy and a daughter. She lived (1636-85)


 

1682-1717 Hereditary Lady Christiane Luise von Daun-Falkenstein of Falkenstein (Germany)

After the death of her father, Wilhelm Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein, her husband, Emich Christian von Leiningen-Dagsburg (1642-1702), took possession of the Lordship of Falkenstein, but in 1688 Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz decided in favour of her nephew and instead her husband was granted the lordship of Boich of her inheritance. Her son Friedrich (d. 1709) and her daughter Elisabeth Dorothea (1665-1722) was married to Moritz Hermann von Limburg-Styrum (1664-1703). She lived (1640–1717)


 

Around 1682-1714 Queen Ana Afonso de Leão of Nkondo (Mucondo) and Territories at Lemba and Matari, and along the Mbidizi River in the Kingdom of Kongo (Angola)

During the Kongo Civil War (1665-1709) that waged between the House of Kinlaza against the House of Kimpanzu, she established a regional principality within the kingdom. She was the matriach of the Kilanza Clan and was engaged in battles against Manuel I of another branch in 1682, 1696, 1702 and 1714. Her lands came to be called the "Lands of the Queen".


Clara Auguste von Braunchweig

1682-1700 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara Augusta von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Office of Weißenhof bei Weinsberg in Württemberg-Neuenstadt (Germany)

Also known as Klara Auguste, she moved to her dowry - one of the Offices of the Duchy - after the death of her husband, Herzog Friedrich. They had 12 children, but only 3 sons survived into adulthood. Her sister, Marie Elisabeth was Politically Influential in Sachsen-Coburg 1681-87. Clara Augusta lived (1632-1700)


 

1683-1719 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Sandizell of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

In charge of a territory that included the Hofmarks (Seigneurities) of Obertraublingen and Oberröhrenbac, the Provosties of Tegenheim, Sallbach, Mettenbach, Langenpreising, Grosshausen and Ottmaring and a member of farms all over Bavaria and circa 100 in the surroundings of Regensburg and also owned a substantial number of houses within the city. 1704 she started the modernization and rebuilding of the Church and the Abbey-buildings in Baroque style.


 

1683-86 Reigning Abbess-General Felipa Bernada Ramírez de Arellano of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As abbess of the convent she was privileged to confirm Abbesses of convents within her jurisdiction, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

 

1683-84 Designate Princess-Abbess Anna Dorothea von Holstein-Gottorp of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Named as successor of Anna Sophie II von Hessen-Darmstadt, but Anna-Dorothea von Sachsen-Weimar , who had been named Pröbstin and promished the right of succession in 1681, protested and her cousin,  Johann Georg III of Saxony,  helped Anna Dorothea von Sachsen to elected Abbess in 1684 and the Saxon Princess recived Imperial confirmation the following year. She was daughter of Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Gottorp (1616-59) and Marie Elisabeth zu Sachsen (1610-84), daughter of Elector Johann Georg I of Sachsen. She lived (1640-1713).

 

1684/90-85/91 Titular Senior Rani of Attingal in Travancore (India)

The family follows matrilineal inheritance, according to male primogeniture. The two senior Princesses of the Royal House, the mother of the Maharaja and her sister, received the principality of Attingal in appanage, and were styled the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal.


 

Around 1684/90-after 1718 Titular Junior Rani Kartika Tirunal of Attingal in Travancore (India)

Sister of the Senior Rani.


1684-1704 Princess-Abbess Anna Dorothea von Sachsen-Weimar of Quedlinburg (Germany)

1681-84 she was Provost (Pröpstin) of the Chapter. When Anna Sophie II. died in 1683, Anna Dorothea von Holstein-Gottorp was named as her successor, but Anna Dorothea von Sachsen had her relative, Elector Johann Georg III of Saxony help her be elected Abbess in 1684. She was confirmed by Emperor Leopold I. the following year. 1698 the city was occupied by troops from Brandenburg, and the Elector of Sachsen sold the guardianship for 300.000 Taler to the Electorate of Brandenburg, which made her protest to the Emperor about the fact that she had not been consulted about the sale. She was daughter of Duke Johann Ernst of Sachsen-Weimar and Elisabeth zu Holstein-Sønderborg (1657-1704).


 

1684-1704 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Sophia von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Bierutów-Radziejów in the Silesian Pricipality of Oleśnica (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Fürst Julius Siegmund zu Württemberg-Oels - or Juliusz Zygmunt of Oleśnica (1653-84), she took over the regency in his parts of the principality for their son, Karol - or Karl Friederich zu Wurttemberg (1681-1725). She lived (1647-1726).


Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita

1684-1706 Religious Leader and Prophet Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita in Congo

Portuguese forces had defeated the Kongo, the Christianity of Afonso I had fallen into syncretism, a mix of Christian and African traditional religions, and three ruling families contended for power. Into this political and cultural vacuum a number of messianic prophets arose to proclaim their socio-religious visions. The most important of these was Kimpa Vita, a young girl who believed herself possessed by the spirit of St. Anthony of Padua, a popular Catholic saint and miracle worker. She began preaching in the Congolese city of San Salvador, which she said God wished restored as the capital. Her call to unity drew strong support among the peasants, who flocked to the city, which Kimpa identified as the biblical Bethlehem. She told her followers that Jesus, Mary and other Christian saints were really Congolese. Kimpa conspired with the general of Pedro IV, one of the contenders for the throne, but she was captured. Both Kimpa and her baby - conceived by her "guardian angel" - were burned at the stake for heresy, at the instigation of Capuchin missionaries. The Antonian movement, which Kimpa began, outlasted her. The Kongo king Pedro IV used it to unify and renew his kingdom. She was burned at the stake in 1706.


Sophie Charlotte von Hannover, Electress of Brandenburg, Queen of Preussen

1684-1700 Politically Active Electress Sophie Charlotte von Hannover in Brandenburg (Germany)

During most of her marriage she sought to influence her husband, Electoral Prince Friedrich III (King of Preußen in 1701), even though the couple grew apart over the years. She was a vivacious woman, who loved the court life, entertaining, parties, music, acting, philosophical and cultural salons where as her husband was strongly pietistic and did not enjoy the court life. She is thought to have been instrumental in the downfall of the Oberpräsident (Head President) Eberhard von Danckelmann in 1697. After her husband became King of Preussen and she was crowned as Queen in 1701 she did not seek political influence any more but continued her splendid life at court until her death. The daughter of Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who later became Elector of Hannover and Sophie von der Pfalz, who was named heir to the British throne in 1701, she was mother of two sons, and lived (1668-1705).


 

1685-97 Regent the Bendahara Paduka Raja of Johor (Malaysia)

Widow of H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Ibrahim Shah ibni al-Marhum Yam Tuan Muda Raja Bajau, Sultan of Johor, Pahang and Lingga and regent for son H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Mahmud Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ibrahim Shah, Sultan of Johor, Pahang and Lingga (1685-99) until her own death in 1697.


 

1685-91 Princess-Abbess Agathe Juliane von Steprod of Keppel (Germany)

Since it had been re-opened in 1650 as double-domination chapter, it had been ruled by a succession of Protestant and Catholic Abbesses. She therefore succeeded the Catholic Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen.


 

Around 1685 Princess-Abbess Marie Cunégonde von Beroldingen of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)

In 1686 she made a treaty with Louis XIV who agreed to respect the freedom of the canonesses to chose their own abbess and confirmed her title as princesse d’empire, even though the Chapter was no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire since both France-Comté and Alsace/Alsass had been incorporated into France at the time.


 

1685 Abbess NulliusGabriela Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Listed as ruler in the alternative list of abbesses.


 

1685-92 Reigning Princess Anna Maria Ravaschieri Fieschi Pinelli of Belmonte, Marquise of Galatone and Countess of Copertino (Italy)

Soccessor of Daniele Domenico Ravaschieri Fieschi, who held the title (1645-85).

Anne de Rohan-Chabot

1686-1709 Sovereign Duchess Anne de Rohan-Chabot of Rohan-Porhoët and León (France)

Daughter of Marguerite de Rohan-Frontenay, sovereign Duchess of Rohan from 1638, and Henri Chabot, who was created Duke of Rohan in 1648. Married to François de Soubise. 


 

1686-98 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Reuss zu Gera (Germany)

The widow of Heinrich IV, she was joint regent with another relative, Heinrich I of Reuss zu Schleiz, during the minority of Heinrich XVIII. She was mother of 8 sons, all named Heinrich as all males in the Reuss-family: Heinrich XIII, (1673-74), Heinrich XIV (1674) Heinrich XVI (1676-77), Heinrich XVIII, Graf Reuss von Gera (1686-1735) (167-1735), Heinrich XX (1678-89), Heinrich (1680-1731) (whose son, Heinrich XXIV succeeded Heinrich XVIII in 1735) and of Heinrich XXVII (1683-1706), and she lived (1645-1716). 


 

1686-88 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV zu Hessen-Kassel of Herford (Germany)

 11th child of Wilhelm of Hessen-Kassel and Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münsterberg, and lived (1634-88).


 

1686-1715 Princess-Abbess Anne Leonore d'Aspremont-Lynden of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)

Elected as successor of her aunt, Isabella Hendrika d'Aspremont-Lynden, she was an ambitious and despotic woman, and used royal symbols in her seal and engaged in disputes with the Prince-Bishop of Liège, who forbade her to use the title of Princess and forbade the inhabitants in her territory to accept her as sovereign Lady. As a result she forbade them to pay taxes to the bishop and in 1713 she denied Austrian troops the right to collect supplies, and she also refused to accept the emperor's demand that she acknowledge the bishop as her overlord. She was daughter of Count Ferdinand d'Aspremont-Lynden and Elisabeth von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg. (d. 1715).


 

1686-89 and 1695-96 Reigning Abbess-General Melchora Bravo de Hoyos of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

A relative of hers (possibly her brother), Gabriel Rodríguez Bravo de Hoyos, was Governor of Nicaragua 1689-93.

1686-1715 Politically influential Marchioness Françoise de Maintenon in France

In 1652 Françoise d'Aubigne married Scarron and entered the Literary Salons of Paris. In 1669 she became governess to the children of Louis XIV by Madame de Montespan, much to the dissatisfaction of the king, who did not like the extreme gravity and reserve of the young widow. Françoise's talents and wisdom soon attracted Louis' attention, and she became his confidant and adviser, and was made a marchioness. She refused to become his mistress, and in 1686 she married Louis to the "left hand" in a morganatic marriage, and exercised a disastrous influence on him, encouraging a reactionary politics. She lived (1635-1719).


Elzbieta Sieniawska

1686-1728 Politically influential Duchess Elżbieta Sieniawska in Poland

Daughter of Stanisław Lubomirski and Zofia Opalińska. Since 1686 she was married to Voivode Adam Hieronim Sieniawski of Belz. After the death of king Jan III Sobieski in 1696 she was the leader of the pro-France party in Poland. She also fought for her the Hungarian Throne for her lover prince Franiszek II Rakocsy. She was sometimes called  "The First Lady of the Republic of Poland". She lived (1667-1728).


1687-89 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine von Hessen-Eschwege of Braunschweig-Bevern (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Ferdinand Albrecht I von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern  (1636-87), she was in charge of the regency in the name of her son Ferdinand Albrecht II (1680-1735), who married Antoniette Amalia, the daughter of his cousin, Ludwig Rudolph Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1671-1735), and succeeded him shortly before his own death. She was mother of 9 children and lived (1648-1702).


1687-98 Sovereign Countess Maria Anna von Sulz of Sulz and Klettgau and the Administrative Units of Tiengen and Jestetten
1694-98 Princely Landgavine of Klettgau (Germany)

As the only daughter of Johann Ludwig von Sulz, Gräfin Maria Anna von Sulz und Klettgau succeeded to the County and reigned alone for the first years, but the county was gradually incorporated into the lands of her husband,  Ferdinand von Schwarzenberg (1652 - 1703), who was Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire and in 1694 Emperor Leopold elevated the county to a Princely Landgravate (gefürsteten Landgrafschaft). She was mother of 2 sons and 4 daughters lived (1652-98).


 

1687-91 Regent Dowager Sultana Mariyam Kaba'afa'anu Rani Kilege of the Maldive Islands

After the having poisoned her husband, Iskander Ibrahim, she became regent for their infant son, Sultan Muhammad I. She was killed off Dunidu Island when a spark from a victory salute blew up a powder magazine, destroying the royal vessel in which she was sailing. Her son died shortly after of the wounds he received in the explosion that killed his mother.


 

1687-1707 Sovereign Princess Marguerite de Créquy of Poix (France)

Only daughter of Charles de Créquy, who had Poix raised to a duchy under the name of Créquy in 1652, but the title died with him in 1687. Poix became a principality again and passed through to Charles-Belgique-Hollande de La Trémoïlle, duc de Thouars, who sold Poix in 1718 to the widow of Jean-François, marquis de Noailles.


1687-89 Saliha Dilaşub Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Her full title as mother of the sultan was Daulatlu Ismatlu Mahfiruzl Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, and in some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Mother of Süleiman II (1687-91), she lived (1627-89).

 

1687-1700 Princess-Abbess Maria Barbara IV Hager of Heggbach (Germany)

In 1689 the major part of the chapter fled for the passing French troops led by General Mélac. But she managed to renovate church of the chapter in baroque style, even though it lead to an economical crisis in the territory. During a number of years Prioress Maria Antonia Motz lead an internal opposition against her and she was forced to resign. (d. 1715).


1687-1725 Princess-Abbess Maria Williburg Frey of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Rebuilt the main building of the chapter.


 

1688-99 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zinat ud-din Kamalat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Umar of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)

The last of four consecutive female rulers, she succeeded her sister-in-law, sultana Zaqiyat. At the time of her election, Islamic opposition increasingly made common cause with dynastic and anti-commercial factors, and in the 1690s a mission was sent to Mecca to obtain a fatwa against female rule. The opposition to the established system became politically stronger as the trade wealth of the merchant-aristocrats diminished with Aceh's gradually less central role as enter-port. The eventual beneficiaries from the upheavals of 1699, however, were not the Panglima Polem family but a Hadramaut Arab dynasty. Its advent inaugurated a time of grave instability for Aceh, which never recovered the orderly reputation the queens had given it. She was born as Putri Raja Setia and was great-granddaughter of Sultan Mukmin, who ruled 1579. She was deposed by Sayyid Ibrahim Habib who married her and assumed the Sultanate. They had two sons who both became sultans.


Unnamed Princess of Cambodia

1688 Regent Queen Li Samdach Brhat Bhagavathi Sri Parama Chakrapati Kshatriyi of Cambodia

Born as H.H. Princess (Brhat Anak Anga) Li, daughter of H.M. Brhat Bat Machas Brhat Dharmanath Prabhunatha Maha Upayuvaraja Parama Raja – also known as king Paramaraja VIII. First married her half brother King Pramaraja IX, who was killed in 1672, and secondly married to her nephew, King Jaya Jatha III. She was granted the rank of Queen with the title of Samdach Brhat Bhagavathi Sri Parama Chakrapati Kshatriyi in 1688, when she acted as regent for husband.


 

1688-1722 Princess-Abbess Anna IX Tanner of Baindt (Germany)

In the year she was elected as head of the ecclesiastical territory, the ladies of the chapter fled the approaching French troops and sought refuge by the Bodenzee, but returned not long after.


 

1688-1728 Princess-Abbess Charlotte Sophia von Kurland of Herford (Germany)

The stewards of the City of Herford, the Electors Brandenburg, had occupied the city since 1647 and deprived it of its position of a City of the Realm, but in 1695 Elector Friederich III recognized this position for the Chapter of Herford and King Friederich I confirmed this in 1705. 1702 she send a messenger to King Karl XII of Sweden at the seige of Thorn in the Netherlands to get the money that her brother, Duke Ferdinand owed her. She was engaged in deep disputes with the other members of the Chapter and in 1703 she moved to the Chapter of Vreden, where she resided until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Jakob von Kettler, Duke of Courland and Livonia (Livland) (1640-82), and Luise Charlotte von Brandenburg (1617-76), and lived (1651-1728).


 

1688-89 Acting Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska Truchsess von Walburg-Trauchburg of Essen (Germany)

Had hoped to become Princess-Abbess in 1689 but was not a candidate in the elections that Anna Salome II won over Bernhardine Sophia von Ostfriesland. Maria Franziska was Pröbstin until her death in 1693.


 

1688-95 Reigning Abbess Marie-Anne d'Assigny of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of Lord Haghedoorne de Wasnes.


Mary II Stuart

1689-94 HM Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland (United Kingdom)

Her father, James III, had converted to Catholism and had been banned from the country various times. After his succession in 1685 he became increasingly absolutistic and favoured Catholics. In 1688 his first surviving son was born after 15 years of marriage to Maria Beatrice d'Este of Modena. The new Prince of Wales, James Francis Edward was baptized in the Catholic rites, and soon a riot followed and Mary's husband, Willem III van Oranje, the Stadholder of the Netherlands, invaded the country. James III fled the country and the Parliament excluded Catholics from the succession and elected Mary and Willem as joint sovereigns. They accepted a Declaration of Rights (later a Bill), drawn up by a Convention of Parliament, which limited the Sovereign's power, reaffirmed Parliament's claim to control taxation and legislation, and provided guarantees against the abuse of power. While her husband was directing military campaigns in Ireland and on the Continent, Mary administered the government in her own name, but she relied entirely on his advice. In the periods when he was in England she willingly retired from politics. She was, however, actively concerned with ecclesiastical appointments. Mary became sterile following complications after her first pregnancy ended in an abortion. She died of smallpox, and was succeeded by her husband, who later was succeeded by her sister, Anne. Mary lived (1662-94).


 

1689-1705 Regent Dowager Rani Mangammal of Madrai (India)

When her son, Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak died, her daugter-in-law was pregnant, and when she committed sati (was burned), Mangammal became regent for her regent grandson, Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha, who was crowned at the age of 3 months, ruling with an Advisory Council. She was a popular administrator and is still widely remembered as a maker of roads and avenues, and a builder of temples, tanks and choultries with many of her public works still in use. She is also known for her diplomatic and political skills and successful military campaigns. She was widow of king Chokkanatha, and (d. 1705).


1689-1723 Sovereign Duchess Anna Henrietta Julia de Bavière of Guise, Princesse de Joinville  (France)

Succeeded a distant cousin, Marie de Lorraine, who by an act of 1686 had left Guise and Joinville to Charles de Stainville, comte de Couvonges, but this donation was voided by the Parlement de Paris in 1689, and Anna Henrietta Julia, second daughter of the prince Palatine, succeeded to the title. She was married to prince Henri-Jules de Bourbon-Condé, and the duchy was raised to the peerage again for them and their descendants in 1704. Anne Henriette Julie von Bayern was member of the Pfalz-Simmeren-sideline, and father became Kurfürst of Bavaria. She lived (1648-1723).   


 

Until 1689 Captain-General Mariana de Lencastre Vasconcelos e Camara of Funchal in Maidera (Portugal)

Also 2nd Condessa de Castelo Melhor, and daughter of Simão Gonçalves da Camara, 3rd. conde da Calheta and Hereditary Captain-General (Governor) and Margarida de Menezes Vasconcelos. She succeeded brother, João V Gonçalves da Câmara, who died without issue. She was married João Rodrigues de Vasconcelos, senhor de Valhelhas, was a lady-of-the court of Queen Maria Francisca de Sabóia, and was succeeded by son, Luís de Vasconcelos e Câmara. Mother of 8 children, and lived (1615-89).


 

1689-1720 Princess-Abbess Maria-Magdalena von Hallwyl von Herblingen of Lindau (Germany)

Member of a family of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgraf), which originated in Aargau in Switzerland, but settled both in Germany and Sweden among others. 


 

1689-92 and 1696-98 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 lordships and villages, held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.

 

1689-98 Regent Dowager Princess Marie Clara van Berg of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Germany)
1712-15 Hereditary Countess of Berg-s'Heerenberg, Lady of Boxmeer, Bergh, Diksmuide, Gendringen, Etten, Wisch, Pannerden and Millingen (Netherlands)

After the death of her husband, Maximilian von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she was regent for their son Prince and Count Meinrad II Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1673-1715) together with her brother-in-law and 1695 she made the agreement with Elector Friederich III von Brandenburg on the succession in the Principality of Hohenzollern. When her brother died her second grandson, Franz Wilhelm Nikolaus, was created Count zum Bergh und Hohenzollern in 1712 af, with his mother, Johanna Katharina von Montfort as regent until 1722. Marie Clara lived (1635-1715).


Marie Ernestine Franziska Gräfin von Ostfriesland und Rietberg, Erbgräfin von Rietberg, Reichsgräfin von Kaunitz

1690-1758 Sovereign Countess Maria Ernestine Franziska von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Rietberg (Germany)

Her father Count Ferdinand Maximillian died in July 1687 and she was born one month later. Firstly her father's older brother, Franz Adolf Wilhelm took over the government. He had resigned in 1690 after three years of regency, having willed the county to his niece. Emperor Leopold I appointed the Prince-Bishops of Münster and Paderborn as her guardians. 1692 Her mother, Joannette Franziska von Manderscheid-Blankenheim, received the renewal of the fief in her name, but the same year she married Count Arnold Moritz Wilhelm von Bentheim-Steinfurt, and Maria Ernestine Franziska grew up in Düsseldorf. She married Count Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz, and lived most of her life in Austria. She left the government in the hands of her husband and after his death in the hands of her son, Wenzel Anton Graf von Kaunitz (1711-94), who later succeeded her as Count of Rietberg. Mother of 13 children and lived (1687-1758).


 

1690-1734 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana Dorothea I von Limpurg-Gaildorf of 24/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Wurmbradische Antheil) (Germany)

According to the will of her father, Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf , she inherited parts of the county jointly with her sisters. 1707 she and her surviving sister Wilhelmina Christina decided to divide their half of the Town of Gaildorf and other possessions. But it was not until after the death of the last male member of the family that they were able to take up their inheritance in 1713. They also managed to protect their claims from the King of Prussia who had been named heir to by the brother of the last  Schenk Vollrat, after a long court case before the Reichshofrat. No one disputed the right of the King to the Imperial Fiefs (Reichslehen) of Limpurg or those of the two sisters in the other fiefs, lands, estates and rights, the dispute was about the right to a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet and Circles (Reichs- and Kreistagen) as well as the "Reichsstandschaft" and sovereignty (Landesherrschaft). The two sisters were not content with just administering the estates and lands; from the beginning they saw themselves as "Reigning Countesses of the Realm in Limpurg (Regierende Reichsgräfinnen) with all the attached rights, including the right to be present at the Imperial Diet and the Frankish Circle. Prussia disputed this and had the vote of Limpurg suspended. Both the Countesses and Emperor protested and in 1721 a settlement was reached which granted them the right to sit in the two assemblies. She married Eucharius Kasimir von Löwenstein-Wertheim (d. 1698) and Johann-Wilhelm von Würmbrand-Stuppach, the President of the Council of the Court of the Realm (Reichshofratspräsident) and Advisor of the Austrian Emperor. She was succeeded by her daughters, Juliana Dorothea II von Löwenstein (1794-1734) and Maria Margaretha Leopoldine von Wurmbrand (1702-56), who married her cousin, Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Assenheim. Juliana Dorothea lived (1677-1734).


 

1690-1757 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf of 24/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Solms-Assenheimische Antheil) (Germany)

Wilhelmine Christiane von Limpurg was the second daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was only able to take full possession of her inheritance after a lengthly battle with some male members of the family. 1700 she transferred the government of her Gaildorf Lands to her husband, Ludwig Heinrich, who from then on named himself Count Solms-Assenheim und Limpurg-Gaildorf. But she named a number of conditions, among others that she was to have full rights to the incomes of the Estate of Augustusburg and that her lands were to revert to her in the event of his death - and not be incorporated into the lands of Solms. In this way she took over the reigns again in 1728, at the same time as she became guardian for the two youngest sons Johann Ernst Karl von Solms-Assenheim (1714-90) and Karl Christian Heinrich (1716-45), which led to many years of dispute over the rights to the territories with the oldest Wilhelm Karl Ludwig zu Solms-Rödelheim (1699-1778) which resulted in a number of court-cases. In 1732 her heirs received a provisorial homage for the Lordship of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim, and after her death, her children, Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim, Gräfin Dorothea Sophia Wilhelmina von Waldeck-Pyrmont, Gräfin Eleonora Friderica Juliana von Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz and Gräfin Sophia Christiana Louisa von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, took the necessary steps to secure their inheritance. She gave birth to a total of 15 children and lived (1679-1757).


 

1690-99 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliane Charlotte von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Also known as Juliana Charlotta, she was youngest daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf and Elisabeth Dorothea von Limburg-Gaildorf. Unmarried and never able to fully take up her inheritance as it was disputed by the last male member of the family until 1713. She lived (1685-99).


 

1690-1705 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Elisabeth von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)

Youngest daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf. A source describes the homage of the condomial lordship of Wurmbrand and Solm-Assenheim after the death of her sister, -12 Charlotte and herself (Erbhuldigung auf die Kondominalherrschaften von Wurmbrand und von Solms-Assenheim nach dem Tode der Gräfinnen Juliana Charlotta und Sophia Elisabetha von Limpurg-Gaildorf). She lived (1688-1705).


1690-93 Member of the Council of State Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark of Sweden

Married to Karl XII and mother of 7 children. 1685 three of the sons died and in 1687 she had a miscarriage. In 1690 her husband appointed her head of an eventual regency government, but she died three years later. Her youngest daughter, Ulrika Eleonora the younger, was reigning Queen 1718-20 in succession to her oldest brother, Karl (1682-97-1718), who first reigned under a council of regency. Ulrika Eleonora the Older lived (1656-93).

 

1690-1706 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Daughter of Ferdinand Karl von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort and Countess Anna Maria von Fürstenberg, and lived (1653- 1706).


 

1690-1721 Reigning Lady Maria von Limburg Stirum of Bronckhorst (The Netherlands)

She was daughter of Count Albrecht Georg von Limburg und Bronckhorst (1661-90) and Elisabeth Philippine van den Boetzelaer (1663-92), in 1714 married to Landgrave Philipp von Hessen-Philippsthal (1686-1717). She sold the Lordship in 1721 and lived (1689-1759).


Bernhardina-Sophia von Ostfrisland-Rietberg

1691-1726 Princess-Abbess Bernhardina Sophia von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Essen (Germany)

Reigned her ecclesiastical small state, an independent enclave within Prussia, as a very confident sovereign, who advocated a doctrinarian absolutism, and limited the influence of the Estates. She also promoted the Order of the Contregatio Baetae Mariae Virginis. She was daughter of Johann IV, Count of Ostfriesland und Rietberg and Anna Catharina von Salm-Reifferscheid. Her niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska, was Sovereign Countess von Ostfriesland and Rietberg (1690-1758). Bernhardina Sophia lived (1654-1726).


Elisabeth Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt, Kurfürstin von Pfalz 1690-1709 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Elisabeth Amalie Magdalene von Hessen-Darmstadt of Neuburg an der Donau in Pfalz (Germany)
Her marriage to Elector Philipp Wilhelm von der Pfalz was a happy one. She had secretly converted to the Catholic faith before the marriage and the couple promoted culture and art in Düsseldof before they withdrew to Neuburg, where she remained in charge after her husband's death. Her 23 pregnancies resulted in 9 sons and 8 daughters who made important marriages to the Emperor of Austria, Kings of Spain, Portugal and Poland and the Duke of Parma. She lived (1635-1709).

Regentin Gräfin Witvw Susanna SOphia zu Löwenstein-Wertheim und Virneburg

1691 Regent Dowager Countess Susanna Sophia von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (Germany)

During the process of her confirmation as regent, the city of Speyer was destroyed and the next agnate (male member of the family), Count Eucharius Casimir von Löwenstein asked to become co-guardian of her son, Heinrich Friedrich (1682-1721), but she had designated Albrecht Wolfgang von Hohenloe-Langenburg as the co-guardian, and he was confirmed by the Court of the Realm (Reichsgericht). She was widow of Friedrich Eberhard zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1629-83), and her son was married to the joint sovereign Countess Amöne Sophie von Limpurg (1684-1746). Susanna lived (1646-91).


Anne Sophia af Danmark, Kurfürstin von Sachsen

1691-1717 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Anna Sophie af Danmark of Castle and Administrative Unit of Lichtenberg auf bei Prettin in Sachsen (Germany)

A very staunch protestant, she supported her daughter-in-law Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth in her decision not to convert to Catholism and join her son, Friederich August, who had converted in order to become King of Poland. She been given castle at the time of her marriage in 1666, and her sister, Wilhelmina Ernestina (1650-1706), the widow of Kurfürst Karl II of Hannover (1651-85), lived here from 1685 until her death. They were daughters of King Frederik 3. of Denmark and Norway and Sofie-Amalie of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, and was mother of two sons, and lived (1647-1717).


 

1691-1705 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Friederike von Baden-Durlach of Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (Germany)

Married Duke Friedrich I (1646-1691) as his 2nd wife in 1681. She had been married to Albrecht V Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1634-67) as his 3rd wife and might have reigned a dowry 1667-81, possibly Crailsheim. She did not have any children and lived (1645-1705).


 

1691-1710 Regent Dowager Duchess Dorotea Acquaviva d'Aragona of the Duchies of Nardò and Noci and the Counties of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano  (Italy)

Her husband Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d'Aragona, Duke of Nardò and Noci, Count of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano died in January 1691 and her son, Julio Antonio Acquaviva, was born a few months after and she was in charge of the feuds during his minority. She was daughter of Giosia Acquaviva d'Aragona, 14 duke d' Atri (1631-79). She (d. 1714).


Around 1691 Princess-Abbess Anna Mechtildis Schönwiesin von Eckstein of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Leopold von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire issued a decreee in 1691 allowing her "Abbtissin Bey S. Georgen auf (Vnserm) Schloß zu Prag" to rebuild a church that burned down in 1688.

A Queen Mother of Benin

1692-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Oreoghenen, who ruled 1689-1700. And as Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda; she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 


1692-97 Administrator Dowager Hereditary Princess Charlotte Friederike von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken in Landsberg in the Palentine (Germany) 

Also known Charlotte Friedericke, Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein zu Zweibrücken, she was the widow of Hereditary Prince (Erbprinz) Wilhelm Ludwig of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Landsberg (1648-75), whose father, Friederich Ludwig died in 1681, and she was appointed administrator of the territory of Landsberg by King Karl XI of Sweden, who was of the line of Pfalz-Kleeburg. She was daughter of Friederich, Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken, and mother of 2 sons and a daughter who all died in infancy, and lived (1653-1712).


 

1692-1701 Reigning Dowager Lady Christiana von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg of the Castle and Administrative Units of Delitzsch and Sangerhausen in Sachsen-Merseburg (Germany)

Another version of her title was Holsten-Glücksborg, and she administered the castle as her dowry after the death of her husband, Christian I von Sachsen-Merseburg (1615-57-91). When she moved to the castle with her court, she initiated the creation of a modern baroque-garden. She lived (1634-1701)


Duchesse de Maine

1692-1719 Politically Influential Princess Anne Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon-Condé in France

The wife of, the Duke of Maine, the natural son of Louis XVI, she was both intelligent and energetic, and very influential at court. She took part of the conspiracies in 1718 organized by the Cardinal of Polignac against the Regent with the aim of placing Philippe V of Spain on the throne of France and the Duc du Maine regent in his absence. (1676-1753).


 

1692-1717 Princess-Abbess Anna Elisabeth von der Hees of Keppel (Germany)            

A Catholic, she was elected as successor to the Protestant Agathe von Steprodt as head of the Chapter of Käppel, which was founded around 1390. The abbess was Reichsfürstin and a one of the joint members of the Ecclesiastical Bank of the Diet of the Empire.


 

1692-93 Princess-Abbess Maria-Franziska II Truchsess von Zeil-Wurzach of Buchau (Germany)

Daughter of Johann Jakob von Zeil-Wurzach and Johanna von Wolckenstein-Trostburg, and elected as Fürstäbtissin at 14.10.1692, proclaimed at 4.11 and confirmed by the bishop at 10.11, at a time when she was already 62 years old. She had been canoness in both Buchau, Essen and Sankt Ursula in Köln, since 1648. She did not participate in the election of her predecessor Maria-Theresia I, but excused herself. In 1673 she was refused when she wanted to take over her job in Buchau - in the meantime she had also become Deaconess in Essen - because all positions had already been filled, and the difficult financial situation in the Chapter did not permit any additional office-holders. She then stayed in Essen and became Archdeacon (Pröbstin), but was denied the right to run for the post of Fürstäbtissin there in 1689 because she was not member of a Swabian noble family. She lived (1630-93).


 

1692-95, 1701-04, 1707-10 and 1714-15 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Jerónima Guerrero y Contreras of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Re-elected as temporal and secular ruler of the territory 3 times.

 

1692-1721 Reigning Abbess Anne Marguerite de Rohan of Jouarre (France)

Daughter of Francois de Rohan, Comte de Rochefort, Prince de Soubise, Governor of Champagne, Berry and Brie and his scond wife Anne-Julie de Rohan-Chabot, Dame de Soubise, and lived (1664-1721).


 

1693-1742 Princess-Abbess Maria-Theresia II von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)

A former Lady of the Chapel of Essen, she was a master builder, and consolidated the position of the territory. She changed the liturgy of the service in her church and defended her own ecclesiastical position and head of the clergy of the Chapter against the Bishop of Konstanz. She was listed among the Worldly Princes and Stifts in the Swabian Circle - 1793, 1796, 1799 and also mentioned as the 12th ranking prelate. The daughter of Count Johann VIII von Montfort-Tettnang and Anna Katharina von Sulz, she lived (1663-1742).


Fürstäbtissin Henriette CHristine von Gandersheim, geborene Herzogin zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

1693-1713  Princess-Abbess Henriette Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

Resigned after having given birth to a child the year before, converted to the Catholic faith and became a nun in a convent in Roermond. She was daughter of Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Elisabeth -12 von Holstein-Norburg, and lived (1669-1753).


 

1693-1718 Princess-Abbess Maria Regina von Ostein of Säckingen (Germany)

In spite of the high contributions that the chapter had to pay in the succession wars of the Palentine and Spain, she continued the rebuilding of the church that had burned down in 1678. Daughter of Johann Jakob von Ostein, Councillor of the Prince-Bishop of Basel and Anna Maria von Kippenhem, and lived (1643-1718).


 

1693-97 Princess-Abbess Regina Recordin von Rein und Hamberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Elected as successor of Maria Theresia von Muggenthal. 


Henriëtte Catharina van Oranje-Nassau

1693-98 Regent Dowager Princess Henriëtte Catharina van Oranje-Nassau of Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)
1798-1708 Temporary in charge of the Government

Also known as Henriette Katharina, she was widow of Fürst Johann Georg III (1627-60-93) and governed in the name of her son, Leopold I (The old Dessauer) (1676-93-1747), she continued his financial and fiscal reforms. Like her husband, Leopold entered the army of Brandenburg and spend most of his time away from the Principality leaving her in charge of the government. She founded a number of charitable foundations, and lived (1637-1708).


Anna Katharina von Nassau-Ottweilder

1693 Regent Dowager Countess Anna Katharina von Nassau-Saarbrücken-Ottweiler of Salm-Dhaun (Germany)

In charge of the government in the name of her son, Wild- und Rheingraf Karl (1693-1733). She lived (1653-1731).


Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg, Hereditary Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst

1693-1702 Joint Administrator Princess Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha (Germany)

After the death of her father, Duke Friedrich I. (1646-91), she moved to the Castle of Altenburg, where her step-mother, Christine Friederike Baden-Durlach, had her dowry. But when her brother, Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha (1676-1732) took over the government in 1693, she moved back to Friedenstein to assist him with the government affairs. 1702 she married Johann August of Anhalt-Zerbst and also became a strong support to him until she died. Her mother was  Magdalena Sibylla von Sachsen-Weißenfels (1648-81), did not have any children and lived (1675-1709).


Hedwig Sophie zu Lippe-Brake, Regentin und Gräfin zu Sayn-Wittgenstein und Berleburg

1694-1705 Regent Dowager Countess Hedwig Sophie zu Lippe-Brake of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (Germany) 

After the death of her husband, Count Ludwig Franz (1660-1694), she took over the regency for son, Casimir (1687-1741) with her brother, Count Rudolf zur Lippe-Brake, as co-guardian. She was dominated by Pietistic Protestantism, and she used much energy rebuilding the country that was still devastated by the consequences by the Thirty Years War. She lived (1669-1738).


Erdmuthe Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz

1694-1712 Regent Dowager Duchess Erdmuthe Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz of Sachsen-Merseburg
1712-20 Reigning Dowager Lady of Bündorf in Sachsen

When her husband, Duke Christian II (1653-94) died, she was leader of the regency government during the minority of her sons, Christian III. Moritz (1680-94), who died one month after his father, and then Moritz Wilhelm (1688-1731), who was the 5th born son (2-4th son died young), the 6th son died 1714 and the youngest child, a daughter lived 1 year. Chief Guardian was the Elector of Saxony, Friedrich August I and his uncle, August von Sachsen-Merseburg-Zörbig. She lived (1661-1720).


 

1695-1705 Regent Dowager Princess Bilas Devi of Guler (India)

For Dalip Singh who was ruler of the Hill State in the Punjab.


Christiane Eberhardine von Sachsen 1695-96 In charge of the Government Electress Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth of Sachsen (Germany)
1697-1727 Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Pretzsch in Sachsen
The year after her marriage to Friederich August II, he succeeded his brother as Kurfürst. From 1695 he spend two years in Hungary fighting the Turks as Imperial Commander-in-Chief. She remained a Protestant after the court became Catholic and refused to join her husband for his coronation as King August II of Poland, but withdrew to her dowry Pretzsch. She did return to Dresden for a number of official occasions during the years, but her husband was seldom in Sachsen - he was in Poland 1697-99, 1700-03, 1706, 1710, 1713, 1714-17 and 1720 and away in the Empire for most of 1705 and 1711 when he functioned as regent. He was also engaged in war with Sweden, and in 1704 he resigned as King of Poland. Never the less the Swedes occupied Sachsen in 1706. He was king again 1709-33. The Protestants gave her the honorary name of the Praying-Pillar. Her husband had at least 13 known maitresses and a substantial number of children. She was mother of one son, Friederich August (1696-1763), who succeeded his father as Elector and King of Poland. She lived (1671-1727).

1695-1706 Princess-Abbess Katharina Benedicta von Stürgkh of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Head of the only Austrian chapter with the status of an Imperial Immediacy.

 

1695-99 Abbess Nullius Isabella Tommasa Acquavia d'Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Alternative rule until 1705.


 

1695-98 Reigning Abbess Marie-Françoise Adornes de Ronsele of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord of Ronsele.


Frederikke Amalie of Denmark

Circa 1695-1704 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Frederikke Amalie af Denmark of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)
1695-1704 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Kiel

She must have had some kind of political influence after the death of her husband Duke Christian Albrecht of Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp in 1695 and not the least after her son; Friedrich  (1671-1702) married Princess Hedvig Sofia of Sweden in 1698 and spend some time in her country. Federikke Amalie also visited her sister, Queen Ulrike Eleonora in Stockholm. After her son was killed in battle, Hedvig Sofia became regent, but stayed in Sweden. Frederikke was daughter of king Frederik 5 of Denmark, mother of two sons and one daughter, Marie Elisabeth, who was been Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg until her death in 1755, and lived (1649-1704).


Contemporary Picture of Gülnus

1695-1715 Mah-Para Rabia Gülnüş Ümmetüllah Ummetulla Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

After the death her of her husband, Mehmet IV in 1687, she was confined to the Old Seray, but when her sons Mustafa II (1695-1703) and Ahmed III (1703-30) came to the throne she became Queen Mother. She did not play any major role during their reigns, but she was asked to approve and authorize the replacement of Mustafa by Ahmed, which she did. As the senior representative of the dynasty, her approval was considered to be imperative. Either of Cretan origin or daughter of the Venetian Retimo Verzizzi, she lived (1647-1715). 


From 1695 Extraordinary Representative Teresa z Gosiewskich Słuszkowa to Bavaria (Germany)

As "Extraordinary representative" she had the plenipotentiaries to represent the King Jan III Sobieski and Queen Maria Kazimiera on the Bavarian Court. The former governess of Therese Kunigunde Sobieska - later regent of Bavaria - and very close political ally of Queen Maria Kazimiera d'Arquien of Poland. A Polish magnate, she was first married to Józef Bogusław Słuszka and secondly to Kazimierz Jan Sapieha. (d. 1708).


Henriëtte Amalia Maria von Anhalt-Dessau

1696-1708 Regent Dowager Princess Henriëtte Amalia Maria von Anhalt-Dessau of Nassau in Diez (Germany)
1696-1708 Governess-General of Friesland, Groningen and Drente (The Netherlands)

Following the death of her husband, Hendrik Casimir II, she acted as regent for son, Johan Wilhelm Friso (1697-1711). She was daughter of Johan Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau and Henriette Catharina van Oranje-Nassau, who had acted as regent for her brother. She lived (1666-1726).    


Unnamed Bhutanese Noble Lady

1696-98 De facto Royal Representative mTsho-skyes rDorje of Bhutan

Succeeded rGyal-thab bsTan-'dz Rabs-rygas, who was royal representative 1651-95/96 in succession to her grandfather, who had been ruler 1616-51. She was succeeded by rGyal-s'ras sPrul-sku Kul-gd-'a rGyal-mtshan (1689-98-1712-13).


 

1696-1713 Sovereign Duchess Françoise de Narbonne of Angoulême (France)

The widow of Charles de Valois, Duc d’Angoulême (1573-1650), she took over the Duchy after the death of his son Louis Emanuel and granddaughter, Marie Françoise de Valois. Françoise lived (1621-1713).


1696-1718 Princess-Abbess Maria Viktoria Hochwind of Gutenzell (Germany)

As a Swabian Fiefholder, she exercised the High Court-right of the Marshallate of Swabia until 1717.


 

1696-1701 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Maria Geronima Tesifon de Moctezuma y Jofre, III. Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)

Married to Don Jose Sarmiento Valladares, Viceroy of Mexico (1643-97-1701) and after her death, King Carlos II gave him the right to use the title of Conde de Moctezuma de Tultengo. Succeeded by two daughters, Fausta and Melchora.


 

1697-1717 Sovereign Margravine Bianca Maria Sforza of Caravaggio, Countess of Galliate (Italy)

After the death of her father, Francesco III Sforza di Caravaggio, the succession to the Marchionate was disbuted and it was not until 1712 she was officially invested with the title by the Holy Roman Empire with a reminder for the succession of her future children. She was married to the Austrian count Giovanni Guglielmo Edmondo di Sinzendorf-Neuburg (Graf Johann Wilhelm Edmund von Sinzendorf) and died following complications at the birth of her only child and successor, Bianca Maria di Sinzendorf, who succeeded as marchesa di Caravaggio e contessa di Galliate (1717-1783). Bianca-Maria I Sforza di Caravaggio lived (1697-1717).


 

1697-1717 Regent Dowager Countess Henriette Amalie von Friesen of Reuss-Obergreiz and Reuss-Dölau (Germany)

Reigned in the name of Heinrich I (1693-97-1714) and Heinrich II (1696-97-1722) who also became Joint Counts of Reuss-Dölau in 1698. After her husband's death she moved to Dresden and lead a successful "Political Salon" which some contemporary sources considered to have been more important than the the Saxon ministries, and some of the mistresses of August II, Aurora von Königsmarck, the Princess of Teschen were fequent guests. She is supposed to have had a relationship to the Stadholder of Dresden, Prince Anton Egon von Fürstenberg. She was daughter of Freiherrn Heinrich von Friesen and Gräfin Maria Margaretha von Luetzelburg geboren. She lived (1668-1732).


 

1697-1723 Princess-Abbess Johanna Franziska Sibylla von Muggenthal of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Chosen as successor of Regina Recordin von Nein-Hamberg. 


 

1698-1700 Regent The Sisodia Maharani Sahiba of Bikander (India)

Widow of Maharaja Sri Anup Singhji Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner and regent for her son who became ruler of the Punjabi principality. 


 

1698-1715 Regent Dowager Countess Johanna Magdalena von Hanau-Lichtenberg of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim and Broich (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Johann Karl August, she was in charge of the government for their surviving son, Christian Karl Reinhard, (1695-1766). She was mother of 3 daughters, of whom 2 survived, and 3 sons, of whom also 2 survived. The daugher of  Johann Reinhard II von Hanau and Anna Magdalena von Pfalz-Bischweiler, she lived (1660-1715).


Princess of Conti

1698-1720 Sovereign Duchess Marie Anne de Bourbon-Condé Conti of Bourbon (France)

Daughter of François-Louis de Condé, Duke of Conti and Marie-Therese de Bourbon-Conti. She was 4th in line for the Stuart-throne of England and Scotland, and lived (1666-1732).


 

1698-1701 and 1710-11 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Inés de Osio y Mendoza of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Temporal and secular leader of vast territories in Castilla and Léon.

 

1698-1742 Reigning Abbess Madeleine-Eugenie de Béthune des Placques of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

A large number of her relatives had been bishops and abbesses of various dioceses and institutions since around 1200. Succeeded by niece, Marie-Charlotte de Béthune, and lived (1696-1742).


1698-1714 Politically Active Dowager Electress Sophia von Hanover in Great Britain
1701-14 Heiress Apparent to the British Throne

Since the 'glorious revolution' in 1689 and the accession to the British throne of her cousins Mary II and Anne she has been presumed heir to the kingdom even though about 50 Catholic relatives with superior hereditary claims, she was the closest protestant member of the family as the daughter of Elizabeth Stuart (1596-1662) and Elector Friedrich V of Pfalz-Simmeren - known as the 'Winter King' of Bohemia. She grew up in the Netherlands and in Heidelberg in Pfalz after her father's Electorate was restored. She married Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who was prince-bishop of Osnabrück from 1661, Duke of Lüneburg-Calenberg from 1679, and first elector of Hannover. During his lifetime she was not politically active and concentrated on intellectual and cultural endeavours and the establishment of large Baroque gardens. She also became the good friend and confidant of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the court Librarian and Privy Counsellor, who by then also had a world-wide reputation as philosopher, physicist, theologian, and mathematician, who among others advocated her case in London for a clear settlement of her as heir to the British throne, and through the Act of Settlement, which declared that the English crown would settle upon "the most excellent princess Sophia, Electress and duchess-dowager of Hanover" and "the heirs of her body, being Protestant." As the Heir Presumptive she was also active in English politics for the remaining years of her life, but she died only a few weeks before Queen Anne, who was succeeded by her son, George. Sophia's sister Elisabeth von der Pfalz, was Princess-Abbess of Herford from 1667, she was mother of 5 surviving sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1630-1714).


 

1699-1700 Regent Dowager Princess Anna-Maria Arduino e Furnari of Elba and Piombino, Populonia, Venosa, Conza etc.  (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Don Giovanni Battista I Ludovici (1647-99), Principe regnante di Piombino e dell’Isola d’Elba etc, she was regent for her son, Niccolò, and after his death in 1699 for her sister-in-law Olimpia, who remained in the convent until her death in November 1700 and was succeeded by her sister, Ippolita. Anna-Maria died one month later. She was daughter of Don Paolo Arduino e Patti, Principe di Palizzi, Marchese della Floresta, Barone di Placabaiana e Signore di Grassura. She (d. 1700).


 

1699-1700 Sovereign Princess Olimpia I Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, 8th Marchioness of Populonia, 8th Princess of Venosa, 13th Countess of Conza and Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola and Castelvetere (Italy)

Following the death of her nephew, Niccolo, she succeeded to the principality but remained in the Convent of ongregazione di Santa Francesca Romana under the name of Sister Anna, and her sister-in-law, Anna-Maria Arduino e Furnari, remained regent until her sister, Ippolita took over as Sovereign Princess. Their oldest half-sister, Donna Lavinia (1627-34), succeeded her mother, Donna Isabella Gesualdo, as 5th Principessa di Venosa, 10th Contessa di Conza, Signora di Frigento, Montefusco, Auletta, Boiaro, Boninventre, Caggiano, Cairano, Calitri, Calvi, Caposele, Castelvetere, Castiglione, Contursi, Cossano, Fontanarosa, Gesualdo, Milone, Montefredano, Palo, Paterno, Salvia, Salvitelle, San Nazzaro, San Nicola di Calitri, San Pietro Indelicato, Sant’Agnese, Santa Menna, Sant’Angelo a Cancello, Sant’Angelo all’Esca, Sant’Angelo le Fratte, Santa Paolina, Taurasi, Teora e Torreleoncelle, Nobile Romana e Patrizia Veneta in 1629. Olimpia lived (1656-1700).


 

1699-1708 Regent Ama Baki of Sonbait of Sonbai (Besar) (Indonesia)

Followed Ama Bobo as regent for Queen Nony Sonbait.


1699-1723 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Charlotte von Anhalt-Harzgerode of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Osterholm in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Nordburg (Germany)

Widow of Duke August of Slesvig-Holsten-Nordborg (1635-99), she was mother of 8 children. Her husband's father, Joachim Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (1699-1722) and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Plön (1706-22), had three daughters by his first wife Magdalene -12 von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1686-1720) and a stillborn child by his second wife, -12 Luise von Ostfriesland (1698-1740), who apprently did not occupy Østerholm, who was taken over by the King of Denmark in 1729 and torn down 4 years later. She lived (1647-1723).


1699-1714 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Charlotte Amalie zu Hessen-Kassel of Denmark of Lolland-Falster with the Castle of Nykøbing

Widow of Christian 5 (1646-70-99). Though her husband was Head of the Lutheran Church she resisted the pressure to give up her Reformed faith, and was a major sponsor of Reformed and Calvinist communities in Copenhagen, which she helped establish as "permitted faith" in 1685. When the Swedes attacked Copenhagen in 1700 while her son, Frederik 4, was in Slesvig-Holsten, she remained in town and "opfordrede" to resistance. Her father-in-law, Frederik 3, had granted her the estates of Frederiksdal, Bagsværd and Gentoftegård for life and she gathered the papermill by the Strandvej, the estate of Vemmetofte and almost of the whole of the Shire of Stavens and Børglumkloster, Dronninglund and Dronninggård in Jutland. Mother of 7 children of whom 4 survived infancy, she lived (1650-1714).


 

1699-1711 Abbess Nullius Giacoma Palmieri of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Rulerof Conversano (Italy)

During her reign, the Regent of the County of Conversano was Dorotea Acquaviva d'Aragona, who administered the fief in the name of her postumously born son, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva during the years 1691-1710 Regent, after the death of her husband, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d'Aragona, Duke of Nardò and Noci, Count of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano.


Last update 24.02.14

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