Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

  WOMEN IN POWER 
1570-1600

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


 

1570-1609 Ratu Loharaung of Tagulandang (Indonesia)

Daughter of a local minor ruler, Raja Bowntehu, she became the first monarch of whole Tagulandang. Succeeded by Prince Balango, the son of her daughter, Princess Tansekoa.

Maria Jacobäa von Baden, Verwitwete Herzogin von Bayern, Regentin in Baden-Baden

1570-79 Regent and Guardian Maria Jacobäa von Baden  of Baden-Baden (Germany)

Together with her son, Duke Albrecht V von Bayern (1528-79), she was guardian for her  grandson, Margrave Philipp II von Baden-Baden (1559-69-99) after the death of both his parents, Philibert (1536-54-69) and Mechtild von Bayern (1532-65) (Her daughter). Philbert, had inherited Baden-Baden from his father, Bernhard III, who was her uncle, and who had inherited his share of the state when her father died as she was his only child. The other share was inherited by her other uncle Ernst I, and their decendants: Christoph, Philipp and Karl von Baden-Durlach claimed the regency, but she had already received the homage by the inhabitants and Estates ("die Erbhuldigung eingenommen") and was confirmed as regent by the Emperor. She lived (1507-80).

Katharina von Mecklenburg

1570-81 Reigning Dowager Duchess Katharina von Mecklenburg of Hainau (Chojnów) (Poland)

In 1538 she was married to Duke Friederich III von Liegnitz and held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry. Also known as Katarzyna Meklemburska, she was daughter of Duke Heinrich V von Mecklenburg and Helena von der Pfalz, mother of sons and 3 daughters, and lived (1518-81).


 

Around 1570 Leader of the Immigration to Kiribati Nei Anginimaeao
Around 1570 Chief of Tabiang in Kiribati

According to the oral history, she lead the immigration to the Kiribati islands together with her brother, Na Kouteba, who commanded a fleet of canoes which left Beru, not long after the wars had started under Tem Mwea, when Bakarerenteiti was Uea of Beru. No one was in danger of losing lands on Beru Island and it seems probable that she and her followers thought it a good time to settle on an island not quite so crowded. Others had left during the wars and settled on most of the islands to the north as far as Marakei. She clearly knew exactly where she was going and what she was going to do, and she did it with superb skill. Afterwards she became chief of parts of the islands.


 

Around 1570 Chief Nei Teborata of Toakira (Kiribati)

One of the followers of Nei Anginimaeao, who gave her the territory to administer on her own. Kiribati still has female chiefs. If there are only daughters in the family, the eldest daughter would be called Chiefess but the nearest male relative will do the work until the son of the Chiefess will be old enough to take it on. The succession passes to the firstborn child, and if the eldest child is a daughter she will be called Chief but her eldest brother will do the work until her eldest son is old enough to take it on.


1570-71 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Nielsdatter Bild of the County of Ørbæk, Denmark

Margrethe Bild was given the tenantcy for life together with her husband, Henrik Friis til Hesselager, who died in March 1571. She died two months later. They had 13 children together. (d. 1571).


 

Until 1570 County Sheriff Karen Pederdatter Fikkesen of the County of Gedestorp, Denmark

Karen Fikkesen was widow of Mads Torbernsen til Sandby (of the Hässelholm family), and held the tenantcy as security for loans (Pantelen).


 

Until 1570 County Sheriff Karen Krumstrup of Toreby Birk, Denmark

Widow of Lave Urne, she held it as security for lones jointly with Jakob Brockenhuus.


 

1570-77 Princess-Abbess Anne Marie von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Anna Maria von Anhalt-Bernburg-Zerbst, she succeeded her aunt as the first of 4 sisters to occupy the now titular dignity as Fürstäbtissin. The territory had in reality been incorporated into the Principality of Anhalt, with her father as "administrator" and holder of Gernrode's vote in the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag). She resigned in order to marry Duke Joachim Friederich Schlesien, Duke of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau (1550-1602), and became mother of 6 children. She was daughter of Prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt and Eleonore von Württemberg, and lived (1551-1605).


 

1570-81 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca Manrique of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Daughter of Fadrique Manrique de Lara y Manrique de Lara, Mariscal de Castilla, Señor de Fueguinaldo etc. and doña Antonia de Valencia, Señora of the family which originated from the Kingdom of Castilla.

 

1571-1600 Princess-Abbess Anna Jakobäa von Sulzbach of Säckingen (Germany)

As the only canoness remaining in the Chapter, she was elected by the canons. Expanded the possessions of the chapter and continued the building projects of her predecessor and 1575 the new residence of the chapter (Stiftsgebäude) was finished. The year before Ursula Giel had entered the chapter and was soon after followed by 2 other ladies. Also known as Maria Jacobe, she lived (1538-1600).


1571-72 Acting County Sheriff Beate Klausdatter Bille of the County of Rødinge and the Shire of Frost (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Until 1575
County Sheriff of Vissenbjerg Birk, Denmark

Beate Bille was married to Otto Tygesen Brahe, Councillor of the Realm and Fief-holder of Helsingborg. She administered the tenantcy in Skåne, now Sweden, jointly with Sidsel Oxe. Among her children were the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe, and Margrethe, who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Lanskrona in 1612, and lived (1526-1605).


 

1571-.. County Sheriff Magdalene of the County of Møgeltønder, Denmark

Widow of Claus Rantzau.


 

1571-87 County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Blome of the County of Hørbygård, Denmark

Karen Blome was widow of Mogens Godske (of the Bielke Family), who had previsously been married to Margrethe Torbendsdatter Sparre. She was from Holstein and her family was close to the king, who gave them joint ownership of the tenantcy of Hørbygård from 1539 and he later held many tenantcies and fiefs. She (d. 1587).


 

1571-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margravine Katharina von Braunschweig of Crossen in Brandenburg-Küstrin (Germany)

During the reign of her husband, Markgraf Johann von Küstrin, she was instrumental in the spread of the Reformation in the Margraviate of Brandenburg. She had so-called "wild garden" in a suburb of Küstrin and other goods in Schaumburg, Drew and her favorite seat Dębno, a gift from her husband. She settled Dutch religious refugees here, who started a vibrant clothi-making industry. She built a school and a church and in 1562, Dębno was granted a city charter. Also founded the first pharmacy in Ośno Lubuskie and built another in Küstrin from which she provided the poor with free medicine. She was very popular, was known by the population as Mother Käte. She was mother of 2 daughters, and lived (1518-74).


 

1571-1614 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Stolberg of Wertheim and Bereuberg (Germany)

The 3 daughters of Count Ludwig of Stolberg, Lord of Wertheim am Main and Königstein am Taunus were joint heiresses. Their husbands: Count Dietrich VI von Manderscheid-Schleiden, Philipp von Eberstein and Ludwig von Löwenstein alternated in the government for one year at the time until the possessions were divided in 1581. Elisabeth's first husband died in 1593 and the following year she married Wilhelm von Kreichingen. She had no children.


1572-1604 Sovereign Duchess Catherine de Bourbon de Navarra of Albret, Comtesse d'Armagnac and Rodez 
1577 Lieutenant-général of Béarn
1582-92 Regent of Béarn (France)

Succeeded her mother, Juana III of Navarra in some of her fiefs, and was also Princess of Navarra and "Madame France" through her father, Antoine de Vendôme. She was heir presumptive to the throne of Navarre, the County of Bearn, the Co-Principality of Andorra and the Duchy of Donnezan. Her brother, King Henri III of Navarra, became Henri IV of France in 1589 and two years after her death she had a son. She was married to Henri de Lorraine, Duc de Bar, who was succeeded by his daughter by the second marriage, Nicoläa. Catharine had no children, and lived (1559-1604).


Ca. 1572-1605 Sovereign Countess Marie de Brimeu of Megen (The Netherlands)

It is not clear if she was the direct successor of Charles de Brimeu, who died 1572, but she is recorded as regent of the Free Imperial County jointly with her husband, Charles de Croÿ-Aarschot, Duke of Croÿ and Prince de Chimay, who died 1610, and was succeeded by a distant relative, François Henri de Croÿ-Crecques. 


 

1572-90 Guardian Dowager Countess Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde of Reuss zu Gera (Germany)

Her son, Heinrich II Posthumous (1572-1635), was born 2 months after her husband, Heinrich XVI Reuss zu Plauen, Gera and Krainchfeld, died in April, and she was guardian while some male relatives acted as regents. Her son was also Lord of 1/6 of Lobstein from 1577 and 1/3 of Ober-Kranichfeld from 1596 until he inherited all the estates of Ober-Kranichfeld and Lobenstein in 1616. She lived (1547-95).


Marguerite de Foix

1572-90 Countess Regnant Marguerite de Foix of Candale, d'Astarac et de Bénauges (France) 

After her brother, Henri, was killed at Sommiéres, she inherited her family's possessions. She was married to Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, Duc d'Epernon (1554-1642), but had no children. She imprisoned her sister, Madame Françoise de Candale (d. 1649), and forced her to become a nun, but after her death, she left the convent and started a process in order to gain the family possessions. Marguerite lived (1567-93).


Abbess Jehanne I of Jouarre

1572-1624 Reigning Abbess Jehanne I de Bourbon of Jouarre (France)

Her sister Charlotte been Abbess before her but became a protestant and later married Willem van Oranje-Nassau, Stadtholder of the Netherlands. Another sister was Louise, Abbess of Faremoutier, (1548-86). They were Duc Louis II de Bourbon "le Bon" de Montpensier, etc, and his first wife Jacqueline de Longwy, Countess de Bar sur Seine. She lived (1541-1624).


 

1572-73 and 1576-79 County Sheriff Dorthe Iversdatter Krabbe of Spøtrup, Denmark

Jomfru Dorthe Krabbe was granted the tenantcy jointly with her fiancé, Count Günther von Barby, but he died, and she married Benedikt von Ahlefeldt, who was County Sheriff 1573-76. After his death she married Erik Lykke.


 

1572-1604 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Działyńska of Brodnica, Poland

As representative of the king she was in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.


 

1573 Regent Dowager Duchess Dedis Imedi Bagration of Samtzkhe (Georgia)

Governed in the name of her son Minucihr after the death of her husband, Duke Kaihosro II Djakeli. After the Ottomans conquered the country, he  converted to Islam and took the name, Mustafa, and she was bestowed with 3 villages. She was daughter of Duke Bagrat I of Muchrani, and (d. 1580).


 

1573-76 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Harrach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Possibly daughter of Count Leonhard III von Harrach and Barbara von Gleinitz and widow of Leonhard von Sinzendorf (1506-48). She lived (1510-76).


1573 Acting County Sheriff Anne Corfitzdatter Hardenberg of the County of Helsingborg (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Of high nobility, Anne Hardenberg was chambermaid to Queen Dorothea 1557-71, and here she got to know king Frederik 2 (king from 1559) who fell in love with her, and wanted to marry her, but this met widespread opposition. In 1572 she married Councillor of the Realm, Oluf Mouritsen Krognos, who died after only six months marriage. She lived at her dowry Bregentved and managed to keep her husband's family at distance with the help of the royal family. She (d. 1589).  


Margrethe Sandbjerg

Ca. 1573-81 County Sheriff Margrethe Christensdatter Sandbjerg of Øland and Vig Len, Denmark

Margrethe Sandberg was widow of Niels Kjeldsen Juel til Astrup, Bøvling Len og Vilstedgård Len. (d. 1581).


Françoise de Brézé

1574-84 Regent Dowager Duchess Françoise de Bourbon-Vendôme of Sedan (Sagan) (France)

She took the reins after death of her husband Henri-Robert de La March, Duke of Sagan and Titular Duke of Bouillon, in the name of her son Guillaume-Robert (1562-88), who was succeeded by sister, Charlotte. Françoise was daughter of Louis III de Montpensier and Jacqueline de Longwy, comtesse de Bar-sur-Seine and lived (1539-1587)


Fürstäbtissin Elisabeth II zu Quedlinburg, née Gräfin zu Reinstein (Regenstein)

1574-84 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II zu Regenstein of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Ulrich VI of Regenstein (Reinstein) and Countess Magdalena von Stolberg.


 

Until 1574 Princess-Abbess Magdalena zu Wied-Runkel of Elten (Germany)

She was daughter of Count Johan III zu Wied and Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg. (d. 1574).


1574-78 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Walburga zu Wied of the Town, Adminsitrative Office and Winery of Butzbach in Stolberg (Germany)

Widow of Count Ludwig zu Stolberg, whose sister was Princess-Abbess Anna II von Quedlinburg. Her own sister was Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Elten. Her husband inherited Königstein from his relative Count Eberhard IV zu Eppstein-Königstein in 1535, Wertheim, Breuberg from his daughter Katharina, the widow of the last count of Wertheim und Breuberg, Michael III, in 1556 and it fell to their younger daughter Anna zu Stolberg-Rochefort and her husband Ludwig III von Löwenstein in 1598. (d. 1578).


 

1574 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Clausdatter Ulfeldt of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans, Tørrild and ½ of Andst, Denmark

Kirstine Ulfeldt was widow of Morten Svendsen (Orning) til Eget, who had been appointed Lensmand of Koldinghus in 1563 by Queen Dorothea, who held it as her dowry. He was member of a poor noble family and had first been married to Maren Clausdatter (Strangesen), widow of Godske Holck. Kirstine had first been married to Poul Abildgaard til Vranderup, and (d. 1589).


1574 Acting County Sheriff Gørvel Abrahamsdatter Gyldenstierne of the Counties of Høgsted, Katsløse and Magleby in Skåne (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
1574-77
County Sheriff of Bekkeskov Kloster, Denmark

Gørvel Gyldenstierne til Asserbo had exchanged other property to get the 3 tenantcies. She had first been married to Gert Jensen Ulfstand til Bønnet and secondly to Laue Truedsen Ulfstand til Torup. She (d. 1577).


 

1574 Acting County Sheriff Berite Eriksdatter Banner of the County of Vester Skerning, Denmark

Berite Danner exchanged the tenantcy with other lands. Her first husband, Claus Bryske died 1565, in 1578 she married Knud Bille (d. 1592). She (d. 1591).


Until 1574 Marquise Marie de Clèves de l'Isle, Countess de Beaufort (France)

Daughter of Francois I de Clèves, Duke of Nevers. 1574 she married Henri I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, Duc d'Enghien, and died during the birth of her daughter, Catherine de Bourbon, Marquise d'Isles (1574-95). She lived (1553-74). 


 

1574-95 Marquise Catherine de Bourbon of de l'Isle, Countess de Beaufort (France)

Succeeded mother, Marie de Clèves, who died during her birth. Catherine lived (1574-95).


A contemporary picture, probably of Nurbanu

1574-83 Politically Influential Nurbanu Sultan Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

When her husband, Selim III died, she kept his corpse in an icebox to conceal the death until her son, Murad III (1574-95), could be summoned from Manisa, where he was governor. He arrived 12 days later, and she run the government together with the Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmet Pasha and became the chief advisor of her son. She also carried on a correspondence with the regent of France, Catherine de' Medici, promoting good relations between the two courts. She was the first of influential women in the period called the Sultanate of Women. Probably born as Cevilia Venier-Baffo, the illegitimate issue of two Venetian noble families, and was she captured by the Turks on the Aegean Island of Paros in 1537, and lived (1525-83).

1575-86 Rex Poloniae Anna Jagiellonka of Poland

Succeeded her father, King Zygmunt I the Old of Poland, and was co-regent with her husband Stefan Batory, but she was not politically influential and only titular "king". After the death of her husband, she introduced nephew Zygmunt Vasa of Sweden (the son of her sister) on the throne. She was a follower of the Contra-reformation, and lived (1523-96).


 

1575-1605 17th Alii Aimoku Kaikilani of Hawai'i (USA)

Succeeded Queen Kaikilani who reigned sometime in the 15th century, and she first married her cousin Kanaloakua'ana, 16th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii and secondly to Lonoikamakahiki, joint Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, younger son of Keawe-nui Aumi, 16th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, and succeeded by son, Keakealanikane, 18th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii.


Cecilia Vasa, Princess of Sweden, Markgräfin von Baden-Rodemachern, © Uppsala Universitet

After 1575-86 Regent Dowager Margravine Cecilia Vasa of Baden-Rodemachern (Germany)

Also known as Cäcilia Wasa, she was allowed to take over the regency after many years of processes against the stipulation in the will of her husband, Christoph II of Baden (1537-75). Her son, Eduard Fortunatus von Baden (1565-1600), was Margrave of Baden-Baden (1588-96). She lived a stormy life and travelled a lot. She spent a year in London, where her oldest son was born, and became a friend of Queen Elizabeth I. At some point she lived at her dowry Arboga in Sweden where she started an iron-mine and was behind piracy at the Baltic Sea. When her son died, his oldest son Wilhelm was only 7. He did not become Margrave of Baden-Baden until 1621 and it is not clear if either Cecilia or her daughter-in-law, Marie von Eichen (d. 1636), played any role during his minority. Apart from her oldest son she was mother of 5 sons who all were unmarried or died young. The daughter of King Gustav I Vasa of Sweden and his second wife Margareta Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, she lived (1540-1627).


 

1575-78 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VI von Manderscheid-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Essen (Germany)

All the Ladies of the Chapter had the right to participate in the Landtag of the Ecclesiastical Territory of Essen, which met at least once a year in the Great Hall of the Chapter, but the Secretary of the Chapter or other office-holders often represented them. She was in close contact with her brother, Count Hermann and resigned in order to marry Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. Her sister, Margareta, was Princess-Abbess of Eltern and Vreden until her death in 1602. Elisabeth was daughter of Count Arnold and Margaretha von Wied, and lived (1544-86).


 

1575-86 Princess-Abbess Felicitas I von Eberstein of Herford (Germany)

At this time the line of Hereditary Stewarts, the Lords von Helfenstein, was dying out. The last Lord, Johann XIV, had one daughter, Wilhelmina, who married Otto von Rolshausen, who was granted the Lordship of Mühlbach by Felicitas Countess von Eberstein.


 

1575-87 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Blarer von Wartensee of Schänis (Switzerland)

Reached a compromise with the villages in Gasterland and Kerenzen about the tithe. Her brother Johann Jakob was Provost of Bischofzel and another relative of hers, Jakob Christian Blarer von Wartensee, was Bishop of Basel - he lived (1542-1608). Her family had owned the Borough of Wartensee and in 1405 they got the "Landrecht" of the Appenzelle-Canton and stayed out of the Appenzeller-wars. The daughter of Kasper, Chief steward of Arbon and Siguna von Diesbach, and lived (1536-87).


 

1575-1611 Reigning Abbess Eléonore III de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The French Princess had great influence with her nephew, King Henri IV of France, and her affection for him was so great that, towards the end of her life, when he was assassinated, her nuns dared not tell her lest the shock should be too great. She was daughter of Duc Charles IV de Vendôme and Françoise d'Alencon, Duchesss de Beaumont. Her brother, Duc Antoine de Vendôme, was married to Juanna III of Navarra and therefore Titular King of Navarre (1555-62) - they were parents of Henri IV - and 3 of her sisters were also Abbesses, Madeleine (1521-61) in Poitiers, Catherine in Notre Dame de Soissons and Renée (1527-83) in Chelles. Eleonore lived (1532-1611).


Karen Gyldenstierne

1575-76 Acting County Sheriff Karen Christoffersdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerg, Hatting, Nim and Vor  and the County of Sankt Hans Kloster, Denmark

Also known as Karen Gyldenstjerne til Stjernholm. After the death of her husband, Holger Ottesen Rosenkrantz til Boller, she administered his fief for a period. He was Stadholder in Norway, military commander of the realm. Statholder in Nothern Jutland and a few years later he became Marshal of the Realm. They were closely connected to King Frederik 2., who was the sponsor of one of their sons. She was an able administrator, built several manor houses and a new church in Uth. She also collected a number of folk songs, which is one of the most important sources for knowledge of this tradition. Around 1590 she moved to Skt. Hans Kloster in Horsens, which she renamed, into Stjernholm. She had bought a number of houses in the town of Horsens, which caused much dispute with the city council, because she claimed that as a noble she did not have to pay tax and thereby she damaged the economic life of the city. It was not until 1598 that the case was settled. She was accused using sorcery to harm Anne Hardenberg at the neighbouring estate, but no case was raised and the king settled the dispute. 1599 her son, Frederik, was convicted to lose his "honour" because of his relationship to Rigborg Brockenhuus. He was allowed to travel to Hungary to fight the Turks, but died in Prague in 1602. She was the oldest child of Christoffer Gyldenstierne (d. 1562) and 39-year old Anne Parsberg (1515-87), who had 9 other children after her. The mother of 4 sons of whom 2 died as infants, she lived (1544-1613). 


Amina of Zaria

1576-1610 Queen Amina Sarauniya of Zazzua, Zaria and Abuja
1580-82 Queen of Kano (Nigeria)

At the age of sixteen, she became the heir apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling Queen of Zazzua, one of a number of Hausa city-states, which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials. Although her mother's reign was known for peace and prosperity, She also chose to learn military skills from the warriors. Her mother died around 1566 and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time she emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power. When she died after a 10-year rule, she became Queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of her state to its largest size ever. Lived (ca. 1533-ca- 1610).


 

1576... Adelantada Juana Ortiz de Zárate of Corrientes, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, Adelantado of Chile (Chile)

Following the death of her father, Juan Ortiz de Zárate, Adelanto and Governor, founder of the City of Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, she inherited the estates of the family and apparently Emperor Charles V named her Adelantado of Chile. She was married to Juan de Torres de Vera y Aragón, who became Governor in 1578, and mother of Juan Alonso de Vera y Zárate. The seems that her mother was the Inca Princess, Leonor Yupanqui, daughter of Tupac-Hupalla (Originally Auqui Huallpa Tupac) puppet-emperor in 1533.


1576-78 Sovereign Duchess Elizabeth d'Austrice of Berry (France)

Given the duchy after the death of her husband, King Charles IX (1550-60-74), the son of Henri II and Catherine de' Medici. Their only child was Princess Marie-Elisabeth who lived (1572-78) - and her husband therefore was succeeded by his brother Henri III. Elizabeth lived (1554-78).


1576-1602 Princess-Abbess Florentina von Putterer of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
The chapter of canonisses (Kanonissen or Chorfrauenstift) was founded around 1000 by Countess Palatine Adala of Bavaria. The abbot or provost administered the estates of the clerical ladies, arranged the statues and appointed the prioress. In 1020 her grandchild, Aribo III handed it over to the protection of Emperor Heinrich II, who granted it immunity and raised it to the status of an Chapter of the Realm - or Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbaren Abtei) - the only one in Austria - and removed the Chapter from the influence of the Metropolits of Salzburg.

Anna Sophia von Brandenburg, Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Schwerin

1576-51 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Sophie von Brandenburg of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)

Alternatively resided at Eldenburg after the death of her husband, Johann-Albrecht I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The daughter of Elector Albrecht von Brandenburg, she was mother of 3 sons, and lived (1527-91). 


1576-91 County Sheriff Anne Mandrupsdatter Holck of the County of Hørby, Denmark

Anne Holck til Stadsgård was widow of Verner Tønnesen Parsberg til Harrested og Sandbygård, Lensmand of Sölvesborg (d. 1567). She (d. 1591).


Persian Queen

1577-79 De-facto joint ruler Queen Mahid-I Uliyah of Persia (Iran)
Also known as Mahd-e Olya, she initially dominated her husband, Mohammad Shah, who succeeded his brother, Shah Esma'il II, a pro-Sunni ruler who was poisoned with the participation of their sister Pari Khan Khanom after only one year at the throne. Mohammad proved to be a weak leader, but after her assassination in 1579 the Qezelbash took control. Meanwhile Ottomans took advantage of Iran's political turmoil to launch a major invasion of the country. Consequently extensive territories were lost to Ottomans, including most of Azerbaijan, with Tabriz, and Georgia. The Safavid Dynasty was of Turkmen origin and established themselves first at Tabriz, which had been the capital of the Mongol Il Khans, in Turkish speaking Azerbaijanistan. They also brought the Shi'ite branch of Islam to Persia.

 

1577-78 Reigning Sri Rani Makayiram Thirunal of Travancore (India)

The Kulusekhara Dynasty of Travancore (or Tiruvankur) is of very ancient lineage, tracing its origins to the Royal House of Vanad and dating from 1100 AD. They attained considerable power during the reign of Ravi Varma Kulasekhara, during the early years of the fourteenth century. Marco Polo claimed to have visited his capital at Quilon, a centre of commerce and trade with China and the Levant. Europeans were attracted to the region during the late fifteenth century, primarily in pursuit of the then rare commodity, pepper.


1577-84 Head of the Regency Government Dowager Margravine Anna von der Pfalz-Veldenz of Baden-Durlach (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Karl II (1553-77), she was regent for her sons together with Elector Ludwig VI. von der Pfalz and Duke Ludwig von Württemberg. The 2 oldest sons were Markgraf Ernst Friedrich von Baden-Durlach and, Markgraf Jakob von Baden-Hachberg. The third son, Georg Friedrich inherited the whole territory in 1604. She was daughter of Pfalzgraf Ruprecht von Veldenz and Ursula, Wild- und Rheingräfin von Daun-Kyrburg und Salm and mother of 8 children, and lived (1540-77)


Marchioness of Bergen op Zoom

1577-82 Superintendent Maria Marguerite de Mérode of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Given the Marchionate as a fief by the States of Brabant, but did not recieve the title of Marchioness. The king of Spain had administered it after the death of her uncle, Jan IV van Glymes, who died childless in 1567. She was Joint administrator with her husband, Jan baron van Wittem from 1578. Both were deposed by the Dutch after they sided with the Spanish, and the possession was given to the Prince of Oranje and not until 1588 is the eldest of their three daughters, Maria, given the Marchionate as a fief. She lived (1560-88).


1577-1631 Reigning Lady Sophia Hedwig von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office of Darsim in Pommern-Wolgast
1592-1631 Dowager Reigning Lady of the Administrative Unit, the City and Castle of Loitz, the Estate of Ludwigsburg bei Greifswald and the Estate of Zerpenzyn (Sophienhof) in Pommern-Wolgast (At the time German now Poland)
Her husband, Duke Ernst Ludwig of Pommern-Wolgast (1545-69-92), handed over the village to her as her dowry, and after his death, she took over her dowry that had been expanded by a number of estate through her 15 year long marriage and lived there with her 2 daughters and a son. During the years 1597 to 1601 she followed her son, Duke Philipp Julius von Pommern-Wolgast (1584–1625) to Wolgast to support the education in government affairs conducted by the guardian Duke Bogislaw XIII until 1603. She was daughter of Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Hedwig von Brandenburg, and her younger sisters, Elisabeth and Dorothea Augusta were Contra-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1578 and Princess-Abbess from 1611 respectively. She lived (1561–1631).

1577 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Karin Månsdotter of Sweden of Liuksiala Kungsgård in Finland

Initially the mistress of King Eric XIV and later married to him to the "left hand" in 1567 and 1568, when she was ennobled and crowned Queen under the name Katarina Magnusdotter. He was deposed on grounds of insanity in 1569, a few years later she was placed under house arrest in Åbo in Finland, her son, Gustav, was removed from her but she was allowed to have her daughter Sigrid with her. Her brother-in-law, Johan III, granted her the Royal Estate of Liuksiala which she administered justly and wise. She lived (1550-1612).


 

1577-79 Princess-Abbess Josina I von Manderscheid-Blankenheim und Gerolstein of Thorn (The Netherlands)

At the elections for the successor of Margaretha von Brederode, Josina von der Marck got the most votes, but since she was not yet 30, Josina von Manderscheid, took over the position of ruler of the territory. After a few years she fell seriously ill and nominated Josina v.d. Marck as her successor. She was daughter of Gerhard and Franziska von Montfort. Her sister Helena was a lady of the chapter until she left it in order to marry Count Reinhard von Brederode. Josina lived (1537-79).


Sibylla von Gernrode

1577-81 Princess-Abbess Sibylle von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
1601-14 Reigning Dowager Lady of Leonberg

Even though she was still a minor, her father, Joachim Ernst von Anhalt, forced through her election as successor of her sister, Anne Marie, as titular sovereign of the territory. It was confirmed by Emperor Rudolf II the same year. She only issued one decree in which she gave some land to the widow of Stefan Molitor, the first evangelican Superintendent of the chapter. When she resigned to marry Duke Freiderich von Württemberg (1557-1616), she was succeeded by another sister, Agnes Hedwig. She was mother of 14 children, and lived (1564-1614).


 

1577-89 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Chlum of Gandersheim (Germany)

Elected as successor of her sister, Magdalene, but after the Duke of Braunchweig occupied the territory and installed his daughter, Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, as de-facto as ruler, she had to flee to Neuenheerse and was only able to return after the second contra-abbess Margarete von Warberg died in 1587.


Elizabeth von Gandesheim

1578-82 "Titular" Contra Abbess Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

After Margareta von Chlum was elected as Princess-Abbess, her father, Duke Julius, occupied and claimed that she was the real ruler, and Margareta had to flee. Margarete von Warberg was in power until 1587, and only then Margareta II was able to return. Her older sister, Sophia-Hedwig, reigned her dowries in Pommern from 1677 and their younger sister, Dorothea Auguste was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1611. In 1583 she married Count Adolf XIII. von Holstein-Schauenburg (1547–1601) and had one son, Julius von Holstein-Schauenburg (1585–1601). In 1604 she married Duke Christoph von Braunschweig-Harburg (1570–1606). She lived (1677-1618).


1578-1600 Sovereign Lady Anna Walburga von Neuenahr-Bedburg of Moers, Bedburg, Garsforf and Rosberg (Germany)

Also known as Waldburga von Neuenhar, Countess von Hoorn, or Regierende Gräfin Walburgis von Neuenahr-Moers, she succeeded her brother, Hermann Graf von Neuenahr-Moers. Moers was occupied to by the Archbishopcy of Köln 1584-88 and by Maurits van Oranje 1588-94. Bedburg and Garsdorf was claimed by Adolf Bentheim-Steinfurt and Roesberg was held by the Ketler family 1578-ca. 1595 until she sold the lordship to this family. She was first married to Philipp von Montmorency-Nivelle, Count von Hoorn, who was decapitated in 1567, and in 1570 to her nephew Adolf von Neuenahr, Lord of Neuenhar, Moers, Limburg, Bedburg, Alpen, Alterna, Weerth, Hackenboiche, Lennep and Helfenstein (ca. 1545-1589). In 1594 named Maurits van Oranje as her heir. She lived (1522-1600)


 

1578-88 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VII von Sayn of Essen (Germany)

During her reign "only" 14 witch-processes were conducted, only a fraction of the processes in the neighbouring countries. She was daughter of Count Adolf of Sayn and Maria von Mansfeld. Her brother's daughter Anna Elisabeth (1572-1608), inherited the county from her uncle in 1606. Anna Elisabeth was married to Count Wilhelm zu Sayn and Wittgenstein (d. 1623). 


 

1578-1614 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Breiten-Landenberg of Lindau (Germany)

Member of an old countly family.


Marie-Madeleine de Rebstock

Around 1578-ca. 1606 Princess-Abbess Marie-Madeleine de Rebstock of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)

Conferred the fief of Wangenbourg at at her brother, Jean-Gabriel Rebstock, in 1606.


 

1578-1600 Reigning Abbess Antoniette II de Wissocoq of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord of Bomy.


 

1578-1611 Olangio to hoelialio Wulutileni Raja To Huliyalio of the Downlying Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)

The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Huliyalio-Branch and her title means ruler of the downlying parts. She succeeded her father, Tuliabu, and was followed on the throne by daughter, Mboheleo.


1578-79 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Eriksdatter Lange of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Gislum, Hindsted, Hornum, Horns, Hvetbo and Kære and the County of Viskumgård
1615-16 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Bygholm Len with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark

After the death of her first husband, Jens Nielsen Kaas, Margrethe Lange was acting Lensmand (County Sheriff) until a successor was appointed. Afterwards married to Knud Brahe (1555-1615) and after his death she was in charge of Bygholm etc. As most fief administrators she belonged to the ancient non-titled nobility. (d. 1622).


1578 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Timmesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Nebbegård, Denmark
1580 Acting County Sheriff
of Rosenkrantz of the County of Kalundborg
with the Shires of Arts Løve, Ods, Skippinge and Samsø

Birgitte Rosenkrantz was widow of Bjørn Kaas who was Lensmand in Helsingborg and Malmöhus. She later had a relationship to her late husband's cousin, Gjord Kaas. Because it was considered to be incest at the time, she was executed on the command of King Christian 4. Gjord went into exile, and when he returned after 17 years he too was executed. According to the legend she is today the "White Lady"; a ghost at Stårup Castle. (d. 1603).


 

1578 County Sheriff Bege Clausdatter Emmiksen of the County of Hundsbæk, Denmark

Bege Emmiksen til Damgård was widow of Peder Galskyt (d. ca. 1554). She (d. ca. 1613).


 

1578 County Sheriff Magdalene Clausdatter Sehested of the County of Æbelø, Denmark

Magdalene Sehested til Spandetgård was widow of Mourids Podebusk and lived most of her life in Ribe, where she died after having been blind for some years. She was daughter of Claus Sested or Sehested, and lived (1538-1611).


 

1578 County Sheriff Kirsten Pedersdatter Galt of the County of Børglum Kloster, Denmark

Kirsten Galt til Tyrrestrup was widow of Erik Kaas til Voergård og Lindbjergård, Lensmand of Børglum Kloster 1574. He had first been married to Berte Seefeld. She lived (1536-1616).


1578-90 Feudal Princess Zenobia del Carretto of Melfi (Italy)

Succeeded her father, Marcantonio Doria del Carretto, as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and married Gian Andrea Doria, Duke di Tursi and Marchese di Torriglia etc. (1540-1606). The family retained certain sovereign rights until the War of the Spanish Succession, and the title became dormant to a degree. It was revived though, under less autonomous conditions, in 1760. She lived (1541-90).


1578-1603 Politically Active Margravine Sophia von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
1603-39 Reigning Dowager Lady in Nürnberg
Following the death of his first wife, Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin, she took over her role, as the most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who had no children in any of his marriages. Sophia lived (1563-1639).


1580 Candidate for the throne Infanta Catarina de Guimarães of Portugal

After the death of King Sebastião de Aviz-Beja she was one of the contenders for the throne, but he was succeeded by his great-uncle, the  Cardinal-King Henrique, who died tow years later, and again she was one of the contenders and had a strong position, even though her older sister had several children, but in the end the throne was taken over by King Felipe II of Spain. In 1640, when her grandson João II, Duque de Bragança, became king as João IV, she was proclamed as the rightful heir.  She was daughter of Infant Duarte de Aviz-Beja, Duque de Guimarães, son of King Manuel I, and Infanta Isabel de Bragança, married to João I de Bragança, Duke of Bragança and mother of 8 children. She lived (1540-1614).


Sidonia von Sachsen

1579-86 Regent Dowager Duchess Katharina Sidonia von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Teschen-Freistadt (Poland)

Also known as Katarzyna Sydonia Cieszyn, she reigned the the Slesian Duchy in the name of her son Adam Wacław after the death of her husband, Duke Wenzel III Andam. In 1586 she married Emmerich III Forgach, Obergespan of Trentschin. The daughter of Duke Franz I and Sibylle von Sachsen-Freiberg, she was mother of 6 of her husband's 9 children. Her son's daughter, Elisabeth Lukretia, succeeded her brother Friederich Wilhelm (1601-17-25) as ruler of Teschen in 1625. Katherina Sidonia (d. 1594).


 

1579-1623 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Luxembourg of Penthièvre and d'Étampes and Vicomtesse de Martigues (France)

Succeeded her father, Sébastien de Luxembourg. Her husband,
Philippe Emmanuel de Lorraine. She was married to Philippe-Emmanuel de Lorraine, Duc de Bretagne (1576–1602), was Duke of 'Étampes et de Penthièvre by the right of his wife. At the death of King Henri III, he claimed his inheritance, and they established an independent government at Nantes as head of the Bretonic League. When Philippe-Emmanuel made peace with King Henry IV, their daughter, Françoise de Lorraine-Mercœur (1592-1669) was married to his legitimised son César de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme. Françoise was the richest heiress in the kingdom, and inherited the titles in 1602 upon her father's death, but Marie also held them until her own death. She lived (1562-1623).


1579-1604 Princess-Abbess Josina II von der Marck of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)

Had been elected Abbess already in 1577, but since she was not yet 30, she had to step aside for Josina von Manderscheid. In 1586 she obtained a seat and voting right in the Westphalian Circle of the Diet of the Realm and the following year she participated in the Assembly in person. But she was the "black sheep" among the Princess-abbesses, and was, among other things, accused of printing false money. She was daughter of Johann II von der Marck and Margareta van Wassenaer, and was succeeded by her sister, Anna, and lived (1546-1604).


 

1579-94 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Gleissenthal of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1219 the reichsunmittelbare Chapter came under direct Papal protection and in 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the Chapter immunity and during Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre. 1484 the Abbey was turned into a Chapter for Noble Ladies, with a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots), which had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat). The Fürstäbtissin also sat on the Bavarian Landtag and from 1495/1500 member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) and in 1521 mentioned as Reichsprälatin (Imperial Prelate) in an inventory of the Reichsstände - the territories of the Realm.


 

1579-80 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Mogensdatter Gyldenstierne of Åkær with Hadsherred, Denmark

Dorthe Gyldenstierne was in charge after the death of her husband, Christian Munk, former Stadholder of Norway et cetera. She lived (1547-1583).


 

1579-82 County Sheriff Margrethe Rantzau of the County of Gudum Kloster, Denmark

Widow of Otto Emmiksen. Detailed information missing.


Unnamed Ethiopian Lady

1579-97 Politically Influential Empress Maryam Sena of Ethiopia

During reign of her husband, Sarsa Dengel (1563-97). The country had been plagued by anarchy and civil war for generations, and it continued during her husband's period as Emperor. 


Chand Bibi

1580-90 Regent Dowager Sultana Cand Bibi of Bijapur
1596-99 Regent of Ahmadnagar 
(India)

After her husband, 'Ali 'Adil Shah II, was killed in 1580, she ruled with great prudence and intelligence till her nephew, Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II, came of age. When order was restored in the Bijapur kingdom she went back to her motherland Ahmadnagar, where the ruler, Murtada Shah, died at a moment when the foreign relations of the state were strained to breaking point and war was imminent. She returned to Bijapur and mustered some reliable troops for the defence of Ahmadnagar fort against the army of the Mughals. After this great defence, she was known as Chand Sultana. Later the Mughals succeeded to turn her troops and had a siege over Ahmadnagar in 1599. She resisted the Mughal attacks with such courage that the invaders were repelled at many places. At length, Hamid Khan, the traitor allowed the Mughal force to enter Ahmadnagar, and entered the palace to kill her. She fought bravely but was killed, and thus, the Mughals captured Ahmadnagar in 1600. She was daughter of Hussain Nizam shah of Ahamadnagar, and lived (1550-99).


1580-1611 Sovereign Marquise Henriette de Savoie of Villars, Countess of Tende and Sommerive (France)

Daughter of Honoré II and Jeanne-Françoise de Foix and married to Charles de Lorraine. Her daughter, Catherine de Lorraine (1585-16189) and son-in-law, Carlo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova, Monferrato, Nevers and Rethel were Duchess and Duke of Mayenne. Henriette lived (1541-1611).  


 

1580 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Krabbe of the County of Åkær with the Shire of Had, Denmark

Anne Krabbe was widow of Axel Viffert, who had taken over the teantncy in 1579. She married Erik Kass til Voergaard in 1595 and became a widow again 3 years later. Her sister, Karen, was Acting County Sheriff in 1594. Anne was mother of 2 daughters by her first husband and 1 by the second, and (d. 1625).


 

1580-92 County Sheriff Else Hansdatter Mule of the County of Nordby, Denmark

Else Mule was widow of Iver Bertelsen, Magister in Sorø, Headmaster of Ringsted Kloster (1548-83) and Niels Pedersen Krag, Professor of History, Royal Histographer, Rector of Copenhagen University and Headmaster of Sorø Academy (d. 1602), who was send on various diplomatic missions and was ennobled by King James of Scotland. Her family had held the position of mayor of Odense for generations. She lived (1556-1605).


 

1580-.. County Sheriff Gese Brockenhuus of the County of Rynkeby with the Shire of Gudme, Denmark

Exchanged the tenantcy with other estates. Widow of Erik Bille. Detailed information missing.


 

1580 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Clausdatter Ulfeldt of the County of Skodborg, Denmark

Kirsten Ulfeldt had the tenantcy exchanged to her on behalf of her children. First married to Poul Abildgaard (d. 1563) as his third wife and secondly to Svend Mogensen Orning til Eget, who had first been married to Maren Clausdatter Strangesen Bild (ca. 1502-73), who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Koldinghus. She (d. 1589).


 

1580-1601 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Kłoczewska of Małogoszcz, Poland

She was also known as Kłoczowska.


1580-1602 Princess-Abbess Barbe de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of St. Pierre and Metz etc. (France)

Also known as Maria Barbara von Salm. The Duke of Lorraine forced her predecessor to accept her as Coadjutrice in 1579, but the other canonisses refused to accept her automatic successio and instead elected Huberte de Chastenay and appealed to the pope, but he ruled in favour of Barbe, who appointed her rival as Coadjutrice and managed to build up a good relationship with the ladies of the chapter. 1588 the territory was again hit by the plague. (d. 1602)


Catherine de Retz

1581-1604 Sovereign Duchess Claude Catherine de Clermont of Retz, Dame de Dampierre and Baronne de Retz  (France)

Originally she was created Duchess-regnant together with her husband. She lived (ca. 1543-1604).


 

1581-1610 Captain-Donatary Margarida Côrte-Real of the Captainship of Angra including the Island of Terceira, Praia and São Jorge in the Azores (Portugal)

Held the office of Capitana do donatário, which was similar to that of governor, jointly with her husband, Cristovão de Moura, 1st marquês de Castelo Rodrigo (1538-1613), Vice-King of Portugal on several occations. She succeeded her father, Vasco Anes Corte-Real (1530-77-81), was mother of 3 children, and lived (1570-1610).


 

1581-... Regent Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Pallandt-Culemborg of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen (Germany)

Widow of Jobst II von Schaumburg-Gemen, who had participated in the freedom-fights of the Dutch against the Spanish and as a result, the lordship had been raided by the Duke of Alba in 1568. Born as Gräfin von Palandt.

 

1581-1625 Joint Reigning Princess Anna Ostrogska of Jarosław (Then Ukraine, now Poland)

The daughter of Zofia ze Sprowy, who ruled (1545-80) and her first husband, she was married to Alexander Ostrogski at the age of 19 and they settled in Jaroslaw and in 1606 she bought the half of the town owned by her sister,  Katarzyna Sieniawska the second half of the city. She died after a lengthy illness after having lived (1575-1635/36).


 

1581-1606 Joint Reigning Princess Katarzyna Sieniawska of Jarosław

Together with her sister, she ruled the town and domain which was established by an Ukrainian prince in the 11th century. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further and it was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. (d. 1606).


 

1581-86 Princess-Abbess Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The third of four of daughters of prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt to be titular head of the territory. She was follower of Melanchthons (Philippstine), which was in opposition to the ruling Lutheran Orthodoxy in Dresden. At the age of 14 she married Kurfürst August von Sachsen-Dessau, who died of a stroke after less than a month. And then, after 5 years as ruler of Gernrode, she married as his second wife, Duke Johann von Holstein-Sønderborg in 1588. He was the brother of August's first wife, Anna of Denmark. Agnes-Hedwig gave birth to 7 children of which 2 daughters survived, and lived (1573-1616).


1581  County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge
1586-89 County Sheriff of Snersted in Skåne
(At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Karen Gyldenstierne was also known as Karen Ottes to destinguis her from her many contemporary cousins with the same name. Her husband, Jørgen Marsvin (1527-81), was Lensmand at Landskrona and member of the Danish Council of State until his death. Her cousin, Karen Gyldenstierne, was Acting County Sheriff of Bygholm 1575-76. Karen Ottes lived (1542-89).


1581 Acting County Sheriff Christence Nielsdatter Rotfeld of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark

Christence Rotfeld was widow of Bjørn Kaas, who had taken office the previous year. Mother of 7 children,  and lived (ca. 1535-1601).


Marguerite de Valois

1582-1615 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite of Valois, Senlis, Clermont et d'Etampes (France)
1608-15 Countess of Auvergne et d'Eu

Succeeded mother, Catherine de Medici, in Valois. In 1572 she was forced to marry the Protestant Henri of Navarra (later Henri IV) to seal Catholic-Protestant reconciliation. She was involved in a number of extramarital love affairs at the courts of both her brother Henri III at Paris and her husband at Nerac. Expelled from the royal court for her political intrigues, she returned to the unwilling Navarre in 1584. After taking up arms against her husband, she was banished to the castle of Usson in Auvergne, where she soon took control. In 1599, ten years after her husband's accession to the throne, she consented to the annulment of her marriage. She was a very important cultural personality; her charm and literary talent were admired by the leading writers of the age and was also known as Reine Magot. She lived (1553-1615).


1582-1619 Sovereign Duchess Diane de Valois of Châtellerault, d'Angoulême et d'Etampes (France)
1593-96 Governor of Limousin
1605-19 Governor of the Bourbonnais

Daughter of Diane de Portiers and King Henri II of France, and was legitimized as Princess of France in 1548. She first married Orazio Farnese, Duke of Castro and secondly with François Villers-Cotterets, Duke de Montmorency. She lived (1538-1619).


Unnamed Abbess of Las Huelgas

1582-87 Reigning  Abbess-General Leonor de Castilla of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The last Perpetual Abbess - that is elected for life. Her successors were elected for three-year periods. Possibly the 10th child of Alonso de Castilla, Lord del Mayorazgo de Valladolid, of an illegitimate sideline of the royal house of Castilla, and Ines de Acuna.

 

1582-87 De-facto Ruler Contra Abbess Margarete von Warberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Followed Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel as the contra-abbess and real ruler after the official office-holder, Margareta II, had to flee in 1578.


 

1582-1611 County Sheriff Karen Eriksdatter Banner of the County of Orlofgård, Denmark
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Jungshoved
1612 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Vordingborg with the Shires of Bårse, Hammer and Tybjerg

Karen Banner held the fief of Orlofgård after the death of her first husband Gregers Ulfstand and the fief of Jungshoved after the second, Henrik Lykke til Overgaard og Hverringe. She inherited the estate of Gisselfeld and Ryegård in 1588 after the death of Mette Rosenkrantz til Vallø, who had inherited it from her husband, Peder Oxe, who was her uncle,  in 1575. (d. 1611).


 

1582-96 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Sophia Gyldenstjerne of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)

Elected by the Assembly of Canonesses and instated by the two Councillors of the Realm, Chancellor Ejler Grubbe and Steen Brahe. In the beginning she was an able administrator but soon the old disputes among the canonesses entrupted again and she was removed from office by King Christian 4. She was in charge of the estats of the chapter and mangade the Town of Maribo jointly with the Confessor.


 

1582 Hereditary Landgravine Maximiliane von Pappenheim of Stühlingen, Lady of Hohenhöwen (Germany)

Inherited the territory after the death of her brother, Hereditary Marshal Maximilian von Pappenheim, and was married to Count Friedrich Rudolf von Fürstenberg.


 

1583-... Joint Sovereign Lady Susanne von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)

The daughter of Alexander III von Wildenstein, she inherited 1/4 of the lordship. Married to Georgs von Rindersbach.


 

1583-... Joint Sovereign Lady Agnes von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)

Younger daughter of Alexander III von Wildenstein, she inherited 1/4 of the lordship from her brother, Friedrich Karl I von Wildenstein. Married to a Lord von Haslang.


 

1583-1609 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern of the County and Castel of Philippsburg in Hessen-Rheinfels (Germany)

Her husband Philipp II of Hessen-Rheinfels (1541-67-83) had apparently received the county of Philippsburg from his father, Philipp of Hessen-Kassel (d.1567). They did not have any children, and she lived (1549-1609).


 

1583-1611 Princess-Abbess Katherina II Brümsi von Herblingen of Schänis (Switzerland)

During her term in office the chapter burned down twice, in 1585 and 1610, and she sold some of the possessions in South Germany in order to extend the buildings of the Abbey and church. She reformed the Chapter and exerted her position as ruler of the territories. She was daughter of Eberhard von Brümsi, Lord of Altenklingen and Rosa von Breitenlandenberg.


 

1583-98 Princess-Abbess Ursula II Steinhauer of Baindt (Germany)

Probably member of the noble family of Steinhauer zu Bulgarn.

 

Around 1583 Abbess Nullius Vittoria Palagano of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory.


1583-98 Joint County Sheriff Magdalene Andersdatter Emmiksen of the County of Vissenbjerg Birk (or Grøftebjerg), Denmark

Magdalene Emmiksen was the owner of Millinge and Hejsager, she held the tenantcy jointly with her sister, Margrethe. After her death it was taken over by her husband, Erik Bille til Kjærsgård. Apparently her first husband had been Albert Maltesen Viffert with whom she had a son, Anders. She (d. 1598).


1583-85 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Emmiksen of the County of Vissenbjerg Birk (or Grøftebjerg), Denmark

Margrethe Emmiksen was unmarried and held the fief jointly with her sister. (d. 1585),


1583 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Christoffersdatter Galde of the County of Vinstrupgård, Denmark

Lisbeth Galde was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her first husband, Eggert Ulfeldt. She later married Jørgen Friis, as his third wife. He was County Sheriff of Vinderslevgård and Lysgård Herred, Skivehus, Hald, Akershus and Sejlstrup, also Judge, Councillor of the Realm and Stadholder of Norway. They were burried on the same day. (d. 1616).


Beate Brahe

1583-1602 County Sheriff Beate Ågesdatter Brahe of the Counties of Gislumsherred and Ramsø, Denmark

Beate Brahe heldt the fief for life as security for a lone. She was widow of Jørgen Pedersen Lykke (Munk) til Hverringe og Overgård, Bonderup, Hessel, Ovegård and Bregenholm, and lived (after 1523-1602).


1583-84 Acting County Sheriff Karen Henriksdatter Friis of the County of Ålborghus, Denmark

Karen Friis was acting Lensmand or (County Sheriff) after the death of her husband, Bjørn Andersen Bjørn til Stenalt, Bjørnsholm, Voer, Gunderupgård og Strandbygård. 1562-66 Judge in Zealand, Councillor of State 1567, Lensmand of Fredsgård, Stege, Københavns Slot, Roskildegård, Tryggevælde, Århusgård og Ålborghus. They had 3 children and he had 6 children with his first wife, Sidsel Ulfstand. Karen Friis lived (1541-1601).


Raja Ijau

1584-1616 Raja Ijau I of Patani (Pattani) (Thailand)

According to the Portuguese chronicler Mendez Pinto, the mercantile elite decided in 1584 to give the throne to the sister of the murdered king after twenty years of unstable rule. She ruled as Raja Ijau the 'great queen' and was also known as Ratu Hijau "The Green Queen". She was on the throne when the first Dutch and English Company agents visited Patani, and one of these, Jacob van Neck, writing in 1604, reported a relatively prosperous state under her rule and she was well disposed to merchants, and was one of the major traders and financiers of the city. Her Malay monarchy absorbed a diversity of foreign traders into a polyglot elite united by the royal person, a Malay lingua franca, and a pattern of rules and sacred regalia passed down from courts such as Malacca and Pasai. The Chinese were the major merchants, but the most important of them, like the leading commercial official Datu Sirinara, had adopted Islam and the Malay manners of the court. Her aunt, Raja A'isyah had sometime been regent for Sultan Bahdur after Sultan Manzur Syah who ruled (1564-73). She was succeeded by sister and (d. 1616).


Maria van Oranje-Nassau

1584-1616 Administrator Countess Maria von Oranje-Nassau of Buren, Leerdam and some of the Nassau Properties (The Netherlands)

Daughter of Countess Anna van Egmond of Buren and Leerdam and Willem I, Count of Nassau and Prince of Oranje. In 1567 her brother, Philips Willem was adducted to Spain and the next 10 years she spent by her uncle, Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. The Prince of Orange had given control over Philips Willem's properties to her, before he was assassinated in 1584. After her marriage to Count Philipp zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein in 1595, a curator was appointed to care for the paternal inheritance which her younger half-brother, Mauritz had demanded control of. In the summer of 1595, Philips Willem, was allowed to leave Spain and return to Brussels, but was still kept under tight Spanish control. The following year they met secretly in Clèves; their first meeting in 28 years. She continued to administer her properties and founded an orphanage in Buren. She lived (1556-1616).


 

1584 Acting Lady Hilleborg Hansdatter of Gotland (Sweden)

Acting Lensherre - royal appointed lord of the fief - after the death of her husband, Emicke Kaas, until his successor arrived to the island.


Fürstäbtissin Anna III zu Quedlinburg, geb. Gräfin von Stolberg und Weiningsrode 

1584-1601 Princess-Abbess Anna III von Stolberg-Weiningsrode  of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Heinrich the Older and Countess Elisabeth von Gleichen. Her brother, Wolfgang became Domherr of Halberstadt in 1512 at the age of 10 and 2 years later he as chosen as Koadjutor as the Dean of the Cathedral (Dompropst) and he succeeded to the eccleastical office at the age of 15 and received its incomes while it was executed by a Vicar. Later he also became Dean of Dardesheim and Königstein. She lived (1565-1601).

 

1584-1635 Princess-Abbess Magalena von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)

When she was elected abbess in spite of the fact that she was only around 20 years old, the failed candidate, 35 year old Magdalena von Eynatten, sister of the predecessor Maria, protested and the case dragged on for years until the Vatican ruled in von Eltz's favour and she was officially installed in 1591. 1610 she was first mentioned as Princess of the Realm in an official document, but the Prince-Bishop of Liège protested, and they engaged in a fierce powerstruggle. In 1616 she had her sister, Claudia, named as Coadjutrice, but she married the following year. The chapter was also marked by the ongoing wars and was hit by plague in 1622-23, 1629 and 1633-36. She was daughter of Godfried von Eltz-Uttingen and Regina van Elter, and lived (ca. 1564-1635).


1584 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Visborg with Gotland (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)

Hilleborg Lindenov was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Emmike Kaas. She later married Hans Speil til Borreby og Julskov, and (d. 1602).


Maria von Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark

1585-97 Politically Influential Duchess Jakobäa von Baden of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark (Germany)

Also known as Jakobea or Jakobe, she married Johann Wilhelm (1592-1609), and since her father-in-law, Wilhelm IV, was mentally deficient and her husband mentally ill and both therefore were unable to rule, she took the reigns after her marriage in 1585, managing to get some councillors on her side. She stood between the catholic party around the powerful Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg, supported by the Spanish Low Countries and the protestant lead by the Counts von Broich and Valckenstein and Lords von Rheydt, who tried to remove the catholic regentess with the help of the Dutch General States. Because of the intrigues of her sister-in-law, Sybille, she thought about moving back to Bavaria, but the responsibly towards her husband made her stay in Düsseldorf. She became more and more powerful, but Sybille spread rumours about her unmoral way of life and in 1595 Von Waldenburg held her prisoner, she was accused and convicted of infidelity and kept in the castle for two years. With the help of her brother-in-law, Count Leuchtenberg, she wrote a document of defence and managed to have a trial arranged, but died before the trial was called. After her death, her husband married Antionia of Lorraine (d. 1610), but did not have any children. She lived (1558-97).


1585-86 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Christiansdatter Lykke of the County of Vordingborg with the Sires of Tryggevælde and Faxe, Denmark

Kirsten Lykke was also known as Kirstine, and was in charge of the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Eiler Grubbe til Lystrup (1532-85), who was at one time Chancellor of the Realm. In 1594 she married Niles Gyldenstierne til Bjørnholm, and lived (1558-1630)


Ingeborg Skeel

1585-1604 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Nielsdatter Skeel of the County of Sejlstrup
1586 County Sheriff of the County of Amtofte and Strekhals, Denmark

Ingeborg Skeel had bought Voergård in 1578 together with her mother, Karen Krabbe and they got the right of lower court in the parishes of Voer, Albæk og Skæve, which meant that they appointed the judge and got the income from fines and the costs of the law cases. She was an able farmer and trader, and administered both her own and her husband's estate. After the death of her husband, Otto Banner til Asdal, she took over the administration of the fief, and after her mother died the following year, she took over her two small royal fiefs; Amtofte in Thy and Strekhals in Mors (Northern Jutland). There are many stories about her as an evil mistress who killed the architect of one of her estates and a harsh employer towards the peasants, but the stories does not seem to be based on facts. She was daughter of Niels Skeel and Karen Banner, had no children, and lived (ca. 1545-1604).


1585-16.. County Sheriff Margrethe Skovgaard of the County of Davinde, Denmark

Jomfru Margrethe was granted the tenantcy for life. Owned Sanderumgård together with Karen Skovgaard 1581-83. Details missing.


Sabine Katharina zu Rietberg

1586-1618 Sovereign Countess Sabine Katharina Cirksena von Ostfriesland of Rietberg (Germany)

4 years old when her mother, Walburga of Rietberg, died, and her father, Enno III Cirksena von Ostfriesland, acted as regent. She was married to her uncle, Count Johann von Ostfriesland - who had converted to Catholism - with papal dispensation because they were too closely related. She also converted and introduced the catholic faith to her county. She died giving birth to her 11th child, and lived (1582-1618). 


Gräfin Agnes von Ostfriesland und Rietberg

1586-1616 Hereditary Lady Agnes Cirksena von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Dietrichstein-Wichelstädt, Esens Stedesdorf and Wittmund (Germany)

Sister of Countess Sabine Katharina of Rietberg, she inherited parts of the territories of her family. She was the first wife of Gundacker von Liechtenstein, Lord of Wilffersdorf and Riegelsdorf, Governor of Austria (1614-17) and 1st Prince of Liechtenstein (1623-58) and mother of two sons. His second wife was Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth Lukretia of Teschen (1599-1653). Agnes lived (1586-1616). 


1586-1612 Princess Zofia Olelkowicz-Slucki of Sluck (Lithuania - Now Poland)

Only one year old when she inherited the possessions of her father, Jerzy Olelkowicz-Słucki with her mother, Barbara Kiszczanka (d. before 1606) acting as her guardian. She married Janusz Prince Radziwill, castellan of Wilno (1579-1620) was also known as Zofia z Olelkowiczów Radziwiłłowa, and lived (1585-1612)


 

1586-1600 Regent Dowager Princess Barbara Kiszczanka of Sluck (Lithuania - Now Poland)

Reigned during her daughter's minority after her husband, Jerzy Olelkowicz-Slucki's death, the large estate in what was Lithuania at the time - it later became part of Russia, Belarus and since 1920 Poland. She was daughter of Mikolaj Kiszka, Voivode Podlaski and Barbara Chodkiewicz, and (d. before 1608).


1586-95 Reigning Dowager Duchess Barbara of Brandenburg of Brieg (Brzeg) (Poland)

Also known as Brandenburska, she was widow of Duke Georg von Brieg (Jerzy II of Brzeg) and held the Slesian Principality as her dowry


Dorothea Maria von Anhalt, Fürstabtissin von Gernrode and Herzogin-Witwe and Regentin of Sachsen-Weimar

1586-93 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Maria von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose
1605-15 Joint Guardian of Sachsen-Weimar (Germany)

The last of 4 sisters to occupy the post, she resigned in order to marry Duke Johann von Sachsen-Weimar (1570-1605). After his death, the Duchy and her 10 surviving sons came under the guardianship of the unpopular Electors of Sachsen-Albertine (Albertinischen Kurfürsten). She concentrated on the education of her 8 surviving sons who shared and expanded the inheritance: Duke Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Weimar (1594-1626), Friederich (1596-1622), Duke Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, zu Remda, in Eisenach, Creuzburg, Gerstungen, Salzungen, Gotha, Heldburg, Eisfeld, Weimar, Jena, Burgau, Berka, Buttsadt, Lobeda, Eisenach, Ilmenau, Kaltennordheim, etc, (1598-1662), Duke Albrecht of Sachsen-Eisenach, (1599-1644), Duke Ernst I the Pious von Sachsen-Gotha, in Tenneberg, Waltershausen, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg und Tonndorf, Heldburg, Eisfeld und Salzungen, Frauenbreitungen und Wasungen, Kranichfeld, Altenburg, Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Krainburg, Eisenberg, Stadtroda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Grafenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonneberg, Haldburghausen, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen und Römhild (1601-75), Friedrich Wilhelm, (1603-19) and Bernhard (1604-39), who became Duke of Franken in 1633, and the posthumously born daughter, Johanna (1606-09). She was daughter of Prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt and Eleonore von Württemberg, died after a fall from a horse, and lived (1574-1617).


 

1586-1604 Princess-Abbess Magdalena I zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)

Her sister, Margareta, had been sovereign of the territory 1563-78.


 

Until 1586 Reigning Abbess Louise de Bourbons-Vendôme of Faremoutiers (France)

Sister of Charlotte, who was first Abbess of Jouarre and later married Willem I van Oranje-Nassau, and succeeded by another sister, Jeanne de Jouarre. She lived (1548-86).


1586-97 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Gunilla Bielke of the Town and Estate of Björneborg with various Parishes, the Estate and Parishes of Kumo, the Estate of Sari with certain Parishes (Finland), the Estate of Brånäs in Östergötland with the Parishes of Dagsbergs, Steneby and Konungsund and hundred royal hereditary estates closest to Brånäs (Sweden)

She was widow of King Johan III of Sweden, and lived (1568-1597).


 

1586-1618 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore von Württemberg of Lichtenberg in Anhalt (Germany)

Widow of Joachim Ernst, Fürst von Anhalt (1536-86) who reigned Anhalt-Köthen from 1551 and all of the parts of the Principality of Anhalt from 1570. With his first wife Agnes von Barby (1540-69) he had 3 sons and 4 daughters and they had 5 sons and 3 daughters together. She lived (1552-1618).


1586-87 County Sheriff Kirstine Andersdatter Lindenov of the County of Vesterstad (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Kirsten Lindenov was widow of Steen Clausen Bille (1527-86), who was Judge, diplomat and soldier, and she held the fief, which is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden. She owned the estate of Herrevad Kloster and Sellerup in her own right. After 17 years of marriage she had a son followed by one more son and a daughter (d. 1612).


1586-1626 County Sheriff Beate Christoffersdatter Huitfeldt of the County of Møllerud, the Shire of Gers and the County of Epholt, Denmark
1615-26 County Sheriff of the Counties of Lund Skt.
Peders Kloster
in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Beate Huitfeldt was widow of Knud Ebbesen Ulfeldt til Svenstorp and held the small tenantcies as security for some loans. Mistress of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Anna Cathrine von Brandenburg from 1597 until her death in 1612 and for the three young princes until 1617. As an award for her court service, she was given the tenantcy of Gers Herred i Skåne and 1615 St. Peders Kloster i Lund, also Skåne, also owner of a number of estates in her own right. She wrote the history of her family and she was sister of the famous Chancellor of the Realm and historian, Arild Huitfeldt, mother of 2 sons, and lived (1554-1626).


1586-89 County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Snersted in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Karen Gyldenstierne was also known as Karen Ottes. Her husband Jørgen Marsvin (1527-81) was Lensmand at Landskrona and Member of the Danish Council of State until his death. Her cousin, Karen Gyldenstierne, was Acting County Sheriff of Bygholm 1575-76. Karen Ottes lived (1542-89).


 

1586-.. County Sheriff Kirsten Ludvigsdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Vesterbygård, Denmark

Kirsten Gyldenstierne was widow of Gregers Carlsen Bryske til Skaftelevgård (d.1566) and Erik Bassesen Basse, County Sheriff of Dalby Kloster in Skåne (d. after 1581) as his second wife.


1587-93 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine von Hessen-Kassel of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)
1587-1604 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Kiel

Her oldest son, Friederich II, succeeded his father, Adolf (1526-33-86), as Duke of Gottorp at the age of 18. He died after one year and was then succeeded by their second son, Philipp (1570-87-90) and finally after his death by the youngest, Johan Adolf (1575-1590-1616). Her husband had been given the duchy after the death of his father, King Frederik I of Denmark and his older brother, Johann was given Hadersleben (Haderslev) but he died without issue in 1591. She was mother of a total of 10 children, and lived (1543-1604).


 

1587-90 and 1596-99 Reigning Abbess-General Inés Enríquez of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The first Abbess to be elected for a three years period - and to be re-elected. Before that Abbesses of the chapter were elected for life.

 

1587-89 County Sheriff Pernille Albrechtsdatter Gøye of the County of Vesterstad (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Pernille Gøye was probably married to Hak Holgersen Ulfstand til Hikkebjerg (1535-95), who married Anne Vernerdatter Parsberg after her death. She did not have any children, and lived (1550-89).


1587-90 County Sheriff Tale Tagesdatter Thott of the Counties of Åhus and Åsum, (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)

Thale Thott or Tale Tot was in charge of Åhus and Åsum, situated in the Landscape of Skåne after the death of her husband, Arild Axelsen Urup (1528-87). A number of folk tales and folk songs were written about their love story. She lived (1550-1611).


Lene Thott

1587 Acting County Sheriff Lene Tagesdatter Thott of Hammershus with the 4 Herreds of Bornholm, Denmark

Lene Thott was widow of Henrik Brahe. Mother of 7 children, and (d. 1599).


 

1587-92 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Garnysz of Barcice and Rytro, Poland

Her Polish title of starościna niegrodowa translate into "Elder" in the female version and she held the territory as representative of the king.


Sophie of Denmark

1588-94 Regent Dowager Queen Sophie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Schleswig-Holstein (Slesvig-Holsten) (Denmark and Germany)
1588-1631 Reigning Dowager Lady of Lolland-Falster, County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the 2 Shires of Falster and the Counties of Ålholm and Ravnsborg, Denmark

Sophie af Mecklenborg was widow of Frederik 2., and regent for her son Christian 4. in the Duchies of Slesvig-Holsten 1588-94. She was engaged in a power struggle with the Regents of Denmark, The Council of State, which had Christian declared of age in 1593, but she did not give up her position in the Duchies before the following year. She then withdrew to Lolland-Faster, where she managed her estates extremely well and became very rich, lending her son a lot of money for his warfares. Her Dowries included the jurisdiction of Majbølle, Nybølle, Kallø, Soersmark, Oreby, Urne and Vignæs Birk, which meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. She lived (1557-1631).


Charlotte de La Mack of Boullion

1588-94 Titular Duchess Charlotte de La Mack of Boullion, Princess of Sedan, Jametz and Ravcourt (France)

Inherited the title from her brother, Guillaume-Robert, and after she died giving birth to a stillborn daughter, she was succeeded by husband, Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne. The duchy today is held by the Dukes of Rohan, via succession trough female lines. She lived (1575-94).


 

1588-1613 Titular Marchioness Maria Mencia van Wittem van Beersel of Bergen op Zoom, Countess van Walhain, Dame of Beerssel, Duffel, Gheel, Leefdael, Waver, Eigenbrakel etc. (The Netherlands)

Daughter of Jan van Wittem, Vicomte de Sébourg etc (d. 1588), who was joint superintendent with his wife, Marie Marguerite de Mérode, Marchioness van Bergen op Zoom (d. 1588). Maria Mencia was first married to Herman van Berg s'Heerenberg, count of Bergh, Governor of Spanish Gelre (1558-1611), and secondly to Guillaume de Melun, Prince d'Epinoy (d. 1635), and was succeeded by daughter Maria Elisabeth Clara. Maria Mencia's sister Margareta inherited the title of Baroness van Bautershem and Ernestine inherited the title of Countess de Walhain, Viscountess de Sébourg.  She lived (1581-1613). 


 

1588-98 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VIII von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Essen (Germany)

Sister of Elisabeth VI, who had resigned in 1578 in order to marry an Evangelical count. The abbey was severely damaged during the wars of the time. In 1590 she appointed her brother Amtmann (Governor) in Breisig, a small territory which was also claimed by the Duke of Jülich. 


 

1589-93 Governor Luisa Grinalda, Espírito Santo (Brazil)

After the death of her husband, Vasco Fernandes Coutinho, she acted as governor for the King of Portugal, until she returned to her Portugal and died in a Chapter in Èvora some years later. She was daughter of Pedro Álvares Corrêa and Caterina Grimaldi, and lived (1541-ca. 1626).


Amelie von Neuenahr-Alpen

1589-1602 Sovereign Countess Amelie von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Acting Hereditary Marshal of the Diocese of Köln, Acting Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Lennep (The Netherlands and Germany)

In charge of Vianden and a number of attached possessions 1579-87 as an inheritance from her first husband, Heinrich von Brederode (1531-68). She married Friedrich II von der Pfalz in 1569, but he died in 1576. In 1589 she inherited Limburg from her half-brother, Anton. In 1590 she was given the rights of use of Alpen, Helpenstein, Lennep and Erbvogtei of Köln by her half-sister, Magdalena, who was the owner of the territories after the death of their brother. Alpen was occupied by the Republic of the Netherlands in 1597 and the following year by the Spanish Low Countries which also occupied Helpenstein and the Stewardship of Köln. 1600 she took possession of Alpen and, she still held the right of Linnep and Limburg. She was succeeded by sister, Magdalena, the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575. Also known as Amalia, she was daughter of Gumprecht II. von Neuenahr-Alpen, Count of Limburg (1505-1552/1556), and Carda von Schaumburg (d. 1540) in her second marriage, and lived (1539-1602).


1589-1601 Sovereign Duchess Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont of Berry (France)

After her husband, King Henri III of France, was murdered, she spend the rest of her life in mourning. She did not have any children, and lived (1553-1601).


 

1589-1605 Princess-Abbess Ursula II von Stotzingen of Heggbach (Germany)

Prioress and second-in-command for a number of years before her election. At the time of her reign, her family was Imperial Immediate Lords (Reichsfreien Herren) of a territory in Württemberg and were later appointed Counts.


 

1589-1611 Princess-Abbess Anna Erika zu Waldeck-Eisenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

The first Evangelical ruler of the territory and for the first time since 1206 no Papal confirmation was sought for her election. She saw the fact that Emperor Rudolf II gave her the fief and regalia (mit den regalien belehnt) as a proof of the independent character of the territory and she refused to swear an oath of allegiance (Erbhuldigung) to the Duke of Braunschweig, but in 1593 she and Duke Heinrich Julius signed the "Grand Treaty" (Grosser Vertrag) where she gave the Duke a right to have a say when positions within the chapter had to be filled. On the other hand the Duke accepted that the Chapter enjoyed Freedom of the Realm (Reichsunmittelkeit). The chapter burned down in 1597 and was rebuilt in renaissance-style, which lead to heavy depths to the Duke of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Wolrad II Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg and Anastasia von Schwarzenburg, and lived (1551-1611).


 

1589-94 County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter Galt of the County Nederby  (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Anne Galt was widow of Anders Keldsen Bing, Councillor of the Realm, County Sheriff of Nederby and Varberg. (d. 1589) without children as the last male of his family. She lived (1546-after 1605).


 

1589 County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Vestermand of Thistedgård with Hundborg Herred, Denmark

Anne Venstermand til Pilegård was widow of Godske Brockenhuus, and (d. after 1607).


Queen in Congo

Ca. 1590-1660 Mwan and Yau Lundij Rweej of Lunda (Congo)

Succeeded by husband Cibinda Ilunga as ruler of the marshy environment of the Upemba depression, the source of the Zaire River, which encouraged the formation of a state. It demanded that its inhabitants develop forms of large-scale cooperation if they were to maintain a secure and productive lifestyle. In the Upemba environment of lakes, marshes and river channels, they needed dikes to protect homes against seasonal flooding, drainage channels, and dams to retain lake waters for dry-season fishing.


 

Before 1590 Datuk I Sambo of Tallo (Indonesia)

Inherited the principality from her father, I Daeng Padulu, and was succeeded by husband, Tunijallo, who was also Somba of Gowa.


 

1590-1607 I-Dangka We Tan-ri Tuppu, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Successor of her father, and abdicated in favour of her husband as rule by women became to be considered not to be in keeping with Islam, but he was deposed after one year for urging his people to accept Islam. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Sidenreng.


 

1590 Regent Dowager Princess Isabel de Mendoza of Piombino and the Lordships of Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and Vignale and the Islands of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli and Palmaiola  (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Alessandro Appiani d'Aragona, she was regent for son, Giacopo VIII (1581-1603). Later her daughter, Isabella (1577-1661), was Princess of the territory 1611-24 until she was deposed by the Spanish. The daughter of Don Pedro Gonsalvo de Mendoza, COunt of Binasco, Ambassador of the King of Spain to Genova, she lived (1558-1619).


 

1590-? Joint Sovereign Countess Anne de Montmorency-Laval of Joigny (France)

Succeeded to the country jointly with her sister after the death of their brother Guy de Laval.


 

1590-1606 Joint Sovereign Countess Gabrielle de Montmorency-Laval  of Joigny (France)

She sold the county to Pierre de Gondi. She d. 1616). 


 

1590-93 Reigning Abbess-General Beatriz Manrique de Lara y Valencia of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her sister, Francisca Manrique de Lara y Vaencia, was Abbess-General 1570-81. Beatriz (d. 1593).

Kurfürstin Sophie von Sachsen, Prinzessin zu Brandenburg

1591-1604 Guardian Dowager Electress Sophie von Brandenburg of Sachsen (Germany)
1591-1622 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Offices and Castles of Rochlitz, Colditz and Borna, the Office and Castle of Leisnig with the Cities of Leisnig and Döbeln in Sachsen

After the death of her husband, Christian I von Sachsen (1560-86-91) she was guardian for their son, Christian II (1583-91-1611) and other children. She was very much involved in the religious fights during her lifetime and on her demand the Calvinist Chancellor Nikolaus Crell and a big part of the Saxon nobility were arrested and after a lengthily process executed in 1611. A very able administrator, she extended her dowry over the years, held a large court with many civil servants, and Colditz experienced a time of cultural and commercial growth. The castle remained the dowry of Saxonian Dowager Electresses until 1753. She lived (1568-1622).


 

1591-1603 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Wied (Germany)
1603-05 (or 1628) Dowager Reigning Lady of Gronau in Bentheim

After the death of her husband, Count Hermann I zu Wied, she was regent for their son, Johann Wilhelm (ca. 1580-1633). After he came of age, she took over her dowry in her "native" Bentheim. Mother of 3 sons and 3 daughters and lived (1555-1628).


Lensmand Anne Gyldenstierne

1591 Acting County Sheriff Anne Knudsdatter Gyldenstierne of of the County of Malmøhus  with the Shires of Oxle, Ingelstad and Jærestad and the County of Högby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1591-92 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Kalundborg
with the Shires of Arts Løve and Ods Skippinge and Samsø, Denmark

Anna or Anne Gyldenstierne was widow of Corfitz Viffert. She lived (1544-95).


 

1591-1637 Feudal Duchess Isabella Gonzaga of Sabbioneta e Treatto, Contessa di Roddi e Ricalta, Baronessa di Tutino, Itri e Minturno, Contessa di Fondi (Italy)

Succeeded her father, Vespasiano I Gonzaga Colonna is possessions and a rich dowry in gold coins. It opened a bitter dispute over the succession to the duchy of Sabbioneta with her relatives; the Gonzaga of Mantua and of San Martin. An agreement was signed and the small state was dismembered: the county of Rodigo went to Vincenzo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, the Marquisate of Ostiano and the feuds of Cocoon , Rivarolo and Commessaggio were divided among the sons of Pirro Gonzaga and the she kept Sabbioneta, Itri , Fondi and Minto. She married to Don Luigi Carafa Principe di Stigliano (d. 1630). At her death she was succeeded by her granddaughter, Donna Anna Carafa de Stigliano-Gonzaga (1637-44), who was married to the Duke de Medinas de Torres, Don Ricardo de Guzmán. She lived (1565-1637).


1592-1600 Regent Dowager Duchess Dorothea af Danmark of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Germany)
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Winsen (Schloss und Amt) and of Gross Rhode

From 1582 her husband, Wilhelm, suffered fits of insanity and she fled in security. After his death she was regent for son, Duke Georg (1692-1644) who inherited the duchies of Carlenberg-Göttingen from a relative. She mistrusted the Councillors who had thrown the country into chaos during her husband's illness, took matters in her own hand and became known as an energetic and charitable regent. She was daughter of King Christian III of Denmark and lived (1546-1617).


Sibylla, Herzogin von Jülich-Kleve-Berg

1592-1609 Politically Influential Princess Sibylla von Jülich-Kleve-Berg of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark (Germany)

Contemporary sources describe her as power-mad, stupid and vindictive. She supported Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg and in 1595 she handed over a petition against her sister-in-law, Jakobäa von Baden, to the Landtag in Grevenbroich accusing her of among others infidelity. She and von Waldenburg claimed to working for the healing of the insane Duke and in this way they managed to keep power. They were rumoured to have caused the sudden and mysterious death of Jakobäa, and the rumours continued for centuries. After the death of her brother, Johann Wilhelm, she engaged in a war of succession together with her husband, Archduke Karl of Austria (d. 1618) against the husbands and children of her sisters: Marie Eleonora (1550-1608), Anne (1552-1632) with her husband, Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg (d. 1614), Magdalena (1553-33) with Pfalzgraf Johann von Pfalz-Zweibrücken (d. 1604). In the end it was the oldest daughter of Marie Eleonora, Anna von Preussen, who inherited the duchies. Sibylle lived (1557-1627).


Anna von Habsburg

1592-98 Politically Influential Queen Anna von Habsburg of Poland 

The beginning of the 17th Century in Poland went through a very turbulent time, and she was influential during the reign of her husband Zygmunt III Wasa, who was elected as successor of Stefan Batory as King of the Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sigismund was son of Johann III Vasa of Sweden (1537-1592) and Katarina of Poland (1526-83), the daughter of Sigismund I the Old and his wife Bona Sforza. On his father's death, he was offered the Swedish throne, and he was crowned in 1594. He tried to rule Sweden from Poland but his uncle (duke Charles, later king Charles IX) took full control of Sweden. In 1598 Sigismund tried to defeat him with a mixed army from Sweden and Poland but was defeated in the battle of Stångebro. She was daughter of Archduke Karl II of Austria, mother of four children, and lived (1573-98).


Sophie von Holstein-Gottorp

1592-1608 Guardian Dowager Duchess Sophie von Holstein-Gottorp of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Güstrow (Germany)
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Offices of Rehna, Wittenburg and Lübz
1603-08 Administrator of Schwerin

After her husband, Duke Johann VII of  (1558-76-92) committed suicide at Stargard, she became guardian for her sons, Duke Adolf Friedrich I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628) and Johann Albrecht II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (1590-92-1610-36) and yielded substantial influence over the government in Schwerin. After the death of her brother-in-law Sigismund August was Duke (1576-1603) and his uncle, Ulrich III (1603) she signed a treaty with the new Duke Karl which left her with the administration of Schwerin until her sons came of age. She was engaged in heavy disputes with the Treasurer Andreas Meier, whom she accused of fraud and she demeaned to have the financial control transferred to her at the Assemblies of 1604 and 1606, but it was denied. She was active in trade and commerce and modernised her residence in her dowries where she possessed full sovereignty - except for the role as fief-overlord over the nobility. But her territories were occupied several times during the Thirty Years War. Her sons accused her of mismanagement and their relationship was never good. She lived (1569-1634).



 

1592-1600 Reigning Abbess Agnes Reiff genannt Walter von Blidegg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

As Abbess she also held the overlordship and lower jurisdiction in the villages of Wald, Buffenhofen, Burrau, Dietershofen, Gaisweiler, Hippetsweiler, Kappel, Litzelbach, Otterswang, Reischach, Riedetsweiler, Ringgenbach, Rothenlachen, Steckeln, Walbertsweiler und Weihwang by the Bodenzee Lake and outside it's acctual territories of Igelswies, Ruhestetten und Tautenbronn.


 

1592 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Clausdatter Daa of the County of Hald, Denmark

Following the death of her husband, Jørgen Skram, Hilleborg Daa took over the administration of the fief. Daughter of Claus Daa af Ravnstrup. She lived (1549-95).


1592-93 County Sheriff Christence Cortiftzdatter Viffert of the County of Vinstrupgård, Denmark

Christence Vifferet was widow of Henrik Bille til Mogenstrup (1559-92). Mother of one son, and (d. 1604).


 

1592 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Mikkelsdatter Seested of Roskildegård with Harritsborg and Kirketjenerne under bispegården og Fadeburslenet, Denmark

Lisbeth Seested was widow of Niels Vernersen Parsberg til Harrested og Sandbygård. She lived (1555-1624).


 

After 1592-1631 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Herburtowna Czarnkowska of Świecie, Poland

Appointed by the King as his local representative.


1592-1632 Politically Influential Urszula Meierin in Poland

The chamberialin and administrator of the Queen's court (her surname means chamberlain) and Senior Governess and very close and unofficial advisor of king Zygmunt III Waza (1566-87-1632) of Poland and his wifes Queen Anna Austriaczka and Queen Konstancja Austriaczka. Also known as Meyerin and her real name was possibly Ursula Gienger von Grünbüch.  She lived (around 1570-1635).


 

1593-1604 Sovereign Countess Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbaden of Virneburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Joachim von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1540-82), 2 relatives were appointed regents and guardians for her children, and she spend lot of energy keeping on to her dowry Neurburg and preventing her young son from being taken abroad for "proper catholic education" by the Spanish Duke of Alba, the governor of the Southern Netherlands - Manderscheid was within the Luxembourgian interest sphere. Her son Philipp Dietrich died in 1590 and her daughters and son-in-laws were engaged in a fight over the succession, which was solved in the way that the 3 sons-in-law alternated in reigning the country one year at a time. In the end the county of Schleiden was divided among the three. She later inherited the country of Virneburg from her brother-in-law, Count Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Schleiden-Virneburg, who was the last male member of the line. She secured the succession for her oldest, and only surviving daughter, Elisabeth, who took over the inheritance in 1604 and transferred the county to her husband and son. Magdalene lived (1546-1604).


 

1593-1616 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Weilburg and of the Lordship of Wehen in Nassau-Ottweiler (Germany)

Widow of Count Albrecht von Nassau-Ottweiler, Ottweiler, Hohenburg, Kircheim, Lahr and Mahlberg, a leading follower of the reformation and diplomat. The lordship of Wehen was poor and she managed to revitalise the economy and build a school in the area, and from 1602 she lived together with her daughter-in-law, Elizabeth von Hessen-Darmstadt at the Castle of Wehen. Mother of 14 children and lived (1541-1616).

 

1593-1610 Princess-Abbess Sophie Elisabeth von Anhalt-Dessau of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

When she resigned in order to marry her cousin, Georg Rudolf (Jerzy) von Liegnitz (1595-1653), as his first wife, the Ecclesiastical Territory was secularised and incorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg. She was daughter of Johann Georg I von Anhalt-Dessau and his first wife, Dorothea von Mansfeld-Arnstein, did not have any children, and lived (1589-1622).


 

1593-96 and 1599-1601 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Ayala      of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her title was noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey.

 

1593-1643 Reigning Abbess Louise de L'Hôpital of Montvilliers (France)

Appoined by a bulle by Pope Clement VIII. One of 3 Abbesses from the Dynasty. Nicolas, Marquis de Vitry et d'Arc, Count de Châteauvillain and Seigneur de Coubert and Lucrèce Bouhier, succeeded by niece Anne de L'Hôpital , and lived (1567-1643).


1594-1613 Queen Kusumasana Devi of Kandy (Sri Lanka)

Her father, king Karaliadde Bandara, on his deathbed had placed her in the custody of the Portugues, brought her up as a Christian under the name of Dona Catarina. Together with the Portugese she fought Vimaladharma and as installed on the throne. Her supporter, Lopez de Souza, was killed at the battle of Danture in 1594 when she fell into the hands of Konappu Bandara, a Kandyan aristocrat who had mastered Portuguese military skills by feigning to have become a Christian became the king of Senkadagalapura (Kandy) in 1592, after deposing the Portuguese puppet Don Juan, set up by them. Konappu Bandara assumed the name of Vimaladharmasuriya I, (1592- 1604) marrying her and thereby strengthening his claim to the throne. After his death, she married his first cousin Senarat (1604-1635), a former priest. She lived (1578-1613).


 

1594-1608 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Mufflin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Elected as successor of Magdalena von Gleissenthal.


 

1594-1610 Princess-Abbess Eléonore von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)

Her reign was very quiet and the chapter was in a stable development. She was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Magdalena von Schwarzenberg and niece of the former abbess, Margarete von Montfort (1540-56). 


1594 County Sheriff Thale Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Malmøhus (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

In various documents Thale Ulfstand wrote her name as Thaale Wlffstandt til Skabersøe. She took over as Lensmand after the death of her brother, Hack Holgersen Ulfstand, who had been Government Councillor, Councillor of State, Marsk, Knight of the Order of the Elephant and after the death of King Frederik 2, guardian for his son, Christian 4, but was executed for treason in 1590. (d. 1604).


1594 Acting County Sheriff Karen Iversdatter Krabbe of Hammershus with the 4 Herreds of Bornholm, Denmark

Karen Krabbe was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Falk Falksen Gøye. Her sister, Anne, was Acting County Sheriff in 1580. Karen was mother of 2 children, and (d. 1602).


The carriage presented to Safiye as a present by Queen Elizabeth I of England

1594-1603 Politically Influential Safiye Vailde Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Already as Chief Wife of her husband, Murat III from 1574 she was the power behind the throne especially after the death of her mother-in-law Nurbanu. She continued the pro-Venetian policy of Nurbanu and maintained an extensive foreign correspondence, most notably with Queen Elizabeth I of England. When her husband died, she kept the news secret, because wanted to give her son, Mehmet, time to return from Manisa, where he was governor. In 1599 Queen Elizabeth presented him with an organ and her with a splendid carriage, which she used to excursions into the town. When Mehmet died in 1603 her grandson, Ahmet I, sent her to the Old Seray where she died 15 years later. She lived (1550-1618).

 

1594-1600 (†) Politically Influential Esperanza Malchi in the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Throughout the ages the Queen Mothers had carried out their financial dealings through a series of Jewish women (kira), who acted as commercial agents for the secluded Harem women. She was Safiye's kira, and became enormously rich, and the Secretary to the British embassy in the 1600s even attributed her influence to the fact that she and Safiye were lovers. In 1600 the imperial cavalry rose up in a revolt because of the devaluation of the currency. Their fury was directed towards her and she was killed together with her son.


1595-96 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottosdatter Brahe of the Counties of Åkjær and Sønderlyngherred, Denmark
1612 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Landskrona Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Margrethe Brahe was in charge of the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her hsuband, Councillor of State Christen Skeel til Hegnet, Hammeltofte and Fusingø (1543-96), who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Fiefs of Bøvling Slot and Len and Aakjær Len for many years. After the death of her second husband, Christian (Kristen) Bernekov, she was in charge of his tenantcy. She was daughter of Otto Brahe til Knudstrup and Beate Bille,  who was County Sheriff of Røding from 1571, and lived (1551-1616).


Gabrielle d'Estree

1595-99 Duchess Gabrielle d'Estree of Beaufort and Verneuil, Marquise de Monceaux (France)

Mistress of Henri IV of France and active in persuading him to convert from Protestantism to Catholism. She died after having given birth to a stillborn child, her third, and lived (1571-99).


 

1595-1615 Princess-Abbess Maria III von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)

Possibly the daughter of Bernhard, Herr von und zu Eltz zu Üttingen und Wolmeringen, Governor of Diedenhofen, Statholder of Luxemburg, (d. b.1550) and Jutta de Villers (d. before 1534).


 

1596-1616 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Württemberg of Hainau (Chojnów) (Poland)

Also known as Anna Wirtemberska, she held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry after the death of her first husband, Duke Jan Jerzy of Oława (Johan von Ohlau). In 1594 she was married (as the third wife) to Duke Friederich IV von Liegnitz (Fryderyk of Legnica). She was daughter of Duke Christopher von Württemberg and markgräfin Anna Maria von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, mother of two children, and lived (1561-1616).


Margrethe Rosenkrantz

1596-99 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred, Denmark

After the death of her husband, Hans Johansen Lindenov, Margrethe Rosenkrantz was in charge of the tenantcy. She raised several young noble women and her own grandchildren, and was mother of 9 children, and lived (1552-1635).


 

1596-1602 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Margrethe Pedersdatter Norby of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)

Elected as successor of Sophia Gyldenstjerne. She had been married to Jørgen Bryske until their divorce, and in 1564 she entered the chapter. As Abbess she held the jurisdiction of those who lived at the estates of the Chapter and 1559 over the City of Maribo and surroundings. This meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. Daughter of Peder Norby til Urup (d. 1602).


1596 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Gundesdatter Lange of the County of Kalø with the Shires of Mols, Nørre- and Sønderherred, Djurs, Sønderhand and Østerlisberg, Denmark

Dorthe Lange was widow of Jørgen Rosenkrantz, chancellor and leader of the regency government for the minor King Christian 4. Her mother, Karen Breide, had been County Sheriff of Svendstrup 1539-44 . She was mother of 3 children, and lived (1541-1613).


Isabel Barreto de Castro

1596 Governor and Admiral Isabel Barreto de Castro, Santa Cruz (Solomon Islands at the time a Spanish Possession)      

Just after the death of her husband, Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, Spanish navigator (1541-96), she proclaimed herself governor and took command of the fleet. Her husband had been given command of a small fleet by his uncle, the Governor-General of Peru in 1567. After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there. They left for the islands in 1595 and on the way they discovered the Marquesas de Mendoza Islands and another large island, which they named Santa Cruz, and resolved to establish the colony there. Some of the crew murdered one of the native chiefs, and a bloody war was begun against the invaders. Afterward there was a mutiny among the troops. These adversities undermined her husabnd's health, and he soon died, leaving the government to her. Soon after she and the chief pilot, Quiros resolved to abandon the colony, and she directed her ships to the Philippines. She held the title “La Amiranta de la Mar Oceana”, and lived (1570-1612).


1597-1603 Crown Councillor Dowager Empress Hamalmal Malik Mogasa of Ethiopia
1604-1607 Politically Influential

Following the death of her husband, Emperor Sartsa Dengel (or Malik Sagad I) (1563-97), she was member of the regency for stepson, Yaqub (Malik Sagad II) (1590-97-1603 and 1604-07), and remained influential after he came of age. He was deposed by a cousin in 1603 and killed in battle against another, who took over the throne. She was born as Mariam Senna, and (d. 1614).


 

1597 Regent Dowager Feudal Baroness Isabella della Tolfa of Agripoli(Italy)

The widow of Agostino Grimaldi and regent for son, Nicola Merualdo Grimaldi, she sold the feudal the barony to Dalmazio Arcalla Caracciolo for 12.390 Ducates. 


 

1597-1611 Regent Dowager Lady Metta van Limburg-Bronckhorst of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen (Germany)

When her husband, Heinrich V von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen died, their only son, Jobst Herman, was 4 years old, and she took over the government of the territories in Northern Germany and the Netherlands, among others' the Water-castle (Wasserburg) Gemen van Schaumburg.

 

1597-1628 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Erika von Isenburg-Birstein of the Castle and Administrative Office of Burgschwalbach in Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)

Widow of Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg, she died in Berleburg where the youngest of her 2 daughters, Elisabeth Juliane (1598-1647) was married to Count Ludwig Kasimir von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1643) and Count Georg von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1680). The oldest, Anna (1597-1645) was married to Count Friedrich X von Leiningen-Dagsburg. She lived (1569-1628).

 

1597-1608 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina Sophia von Liegnitz of the Administrative Offices of Flossenbürg and Vohenstrauß and parts of Parkstein-Weiden in Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Velden-Parkestein (Germany)

Widow of Pfalzgraf Friedrich II. von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkestein, who had been given the Offices of Parkstein, Weiden und Flossenbürg, when his father died. Since both their sons and their daughter died as infants the seigniorial rights returned to the Principality of Pfalz-Neuburg, but she remained in charge of her dowry and resided at the Castel of Friedrichsburg bei Vohenstrauß, that her husband had built. She was daughter of Heinrich XI. von Liegnitz, Brieg und Goldberg, and lived (1561-1608).

 

Until 1598 Regent Dowager Lady Catalina Escobar of Lanzarote (Spain)

Reigned in the name of Agustin I de Herrera (1537-1598)

 

1598-1621 Regent Dowager Lady Mariana Enriquez
Manrique de la Vega of Lanzarote (Spain)

Reigned in the name of Agustin II de Herrera y
Rojas (1594-1631)

 

1598-1658 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Klara zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Heringen an der Helme in Schwarzburg (Germany)

Due to her wise actions during the Thirty Year War, she managed to save the city from plundering and war taxes. She was widow of Wilhelm I. Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, Lord of Hohenstein Count Wilhelm I von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg (1535-83-97). She was the 8th of 16 children of Duke Wilhelm of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1535-59-92) and Dorothea af Danmark (1549-1617), and lived (1571-1658).


Irina Godunova

1598 De facto reigning Zarina Irina Fedorovna Godunova of Russia (07.-17. January)

Considered to be the effective ruler throughout the reign of her weak husband, Fedor I Ivanovich, from 1584. In 1598 she took the throne for ten days before retirering to a convent to become a nun. After a brief interregnum, her brother Boris Godunov was elected to succeed her. She lived (1557-1603).


Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg

1598-1621 Isabel Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, By the Grace of Good Archduchess of Austria, Joint Duchess of Burgundy, Lothringen, Brabant, Limbourg, Luxembourg and of Gelders, Joint Countess of Vlaanderen, Artois and Bourgogne and Tirol, Palatine of Hainault, Holland, Namour and of Zuytphen, Margravine of the Holy Roman Realm, Joint Lady of Friesland, Salins, Mechelen, of the City, Cities and Lands of Utrecht, Overijssel and Groeningen
1589-1633 Countess of Franche-Comté (Belgium)
1617-33 Joint Marchioness of Coligny and Andelot (France)
1621-33 Governor of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium-Luxembourg)

After her uncle, Henri III of France, was assassinated 1589, her father, Felipe II of Spain, claimed the French crown on her behalf in spite of the Salic Law and the fact that her mother, Elisabeth de Valois, had to abjure any claims to the French crown with her marriage. 10 years later she married her cousin Archduke Albert of Austria, and they became joint Governors of the Southern Netherlands. Their reign brought a period of much-needed peace and stability to the economy and their actions stimulated the growth of a separate South Netherlandish identity. She promoted the Flemish Baroque and artists as Rubens, Brueghel, Coebergher, the De Nole family, the Van Veens and others. Their court became a vital link in the chain of Habsburg courts and the diplomatic conduits between Madrid, Vienna, Paris, London, Lisbon, Graz, Innsbruck and Prague. When her husband died in 1621, she joined the order of the Sisters of St. Clare, and became the governor of the Netherlands. Mother of 3 children who all died as infants, and lived (1566-1633).


Anna von Wertheim-Löwenstein

1598-99 Sovereign Countess Anna von Stolberg-Königstein-Rochefort of Wertheim and Rochefort (Germany)

Her father Ludwig zu Stolberg-Königstein had inherited the possessions of the House of Eppstein-Königstein in 1532 and in 1556 he inherited the county of Wertheim. She was married to Count Ludwig zu Löwenstein-Scharffeneck  (1530-1611), who added Wertheim to his name and was Stadholder of Styria, Carinthia and Carnolia. She lived (1531/48-99).


 

1598-1625 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV Hartmann of Baindt (Germany)

In 1607 she introduced the more strong clausures and the common meal that had been demanded already in 1573. And in 1622 she build the long-building (Langbau) and reconstructed the Mill of the Chapter, which was financially very important for the territory


 

1598-1604 Princess-Abbess Margaretha-Elisabeth von Manderscheid-Gerolstein of Essen (Germany)

From 1586 she had been Abbess of the Stift Gerresheim, from 1598 of Freckenhorst, in 1590 she had become Probstin of Relinghausen and around 1600 she was elected Abbess in Schwarzrheindorf. She was daughter of Count Hans Gerhard and Margarethe, Wild und Rheingräfin, and lived (1569-1604). 


Tombstone of a Fürstäbtissin of Niedermünster, but the name and year of her death have disappeared from the wear of the centuries

1598-1605 Princess-Abbess Katharina II Scheiffl of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of the Assembly of the Bavarian Circle. The function of each Circle was primarily the administration of Imperial law and the maintenance of order, but the assemblies also served to assess local opinion and to direct regional efforts as circumstances dictated. The system was formalized in 1500, when Emperor Maximilian I created 6 circles (Bavaria, Franconia, Lower Saxony, Swabia, Upper Saxony, Westphalia), and reorganized twelve years later into ten, with the addition of Austria, Burgundy, the Rheinish Electorates, and the Rhine Palatinate.


Margarita d'Austria-Este

1598-1611 Politically Influential Queen Margarita d'Austria of Spain and Portugal

Reacted toward the influence of the advisors and the Duke of Lerma during the reign of her spouse, King Felipe III, and was active in an intrigue to reveal the corrucption she accused Lerma of having, which eventually lead to his fall from power, although not until after her own death. Active in representing the Austrian Habsburg interests at the Spanish court from 1599 until her death. A great patroness of the arts, she was daughter of Archduke Karl II of Austria-Este and Maria Anna of Bavaria, and mother of a number of children. She lived (1584-1611).


1599-1610 Reigning Dowager Lady Katharina av Sverige of Pewsum, Woquard Loquard and Campen in Ostfriesland and Neeuwarden (Germany)

Held the territories after the death of her husband, Edzard II of Ostfriesland, and after her death the four lordships were united into the office of Pewsum, which was inherited by her son, Enno III. Also known as Catharina Wasa, she travelled, with her one-year old son, to her estates in Ostfriesen and Neeuwarden, and took care of those for a month, and while there she felt the murmur, the more open talks of rebellion, the Calvinists urge to throw of the Spanish King. After a couple of months she went to Madrid, where the King used her as a sort of "Advisor of Protestant Affairs". She was daughter of king Gustav I Vasa, mother of 10 children and lived (1539-1610).


 

1599-1600 County Sheriff Sophie Pedersdatter Bille of the County of Mariager, Denmark

Sophie Bille til Svanholm was widow of Jakob Seefeld til Visborg, and lived (1549-1608).


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