Women in power 1600-1640

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

Unnamed African Queen

Until 1600 Queen Nganja of Kalembe (Angola)

Kalembe was part of a large cluster of Ovimbundu States, founded a various times from around 1600 - today the principality is situated on the border to the Democratic Republic of Congo.


Around 1600 Queen Nana Ikuro of Nsuta (Ghana)

Followed by Nana Yita as head of the Akan speaking people, which is closely related to the Asante (Ashanti) royal family. In 1701 it was one of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.


Around 1600 Queen Nana Ankeyeo Nyame of Kokofu (Ghana)

Succeeded by Nana Aberewa Ampen as head of the Akan speaking people, which was another of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.


Around 1600 Queen Nana Adifa of Dwaben (Ghana)

Ruler of an Akan-speaking people, closely related to the Asante (Ahanti) royal family, and alto took part in the founding, of the Asante Confederation 100 years later.


Around 1600 Aru We Cella of Alitta (Indonesia)

Inherited the principality after her father, Adatuang/Raja La Cellemata of Sawito, who founded the Buginese principality in Southwest-Sulawesi. She was succeeded by her son La Masora. She was married to the Adatuang of Sidenreng (La Pancaitana). La Masora was in his turn succeeded by his daughter We Tenrilekke, who married to the Aru of Rappang, La Tone(e).


Around 1600 Datuk Tosappae (Indonesia)

Reigned until the beginning of the 1600s. Married a distant relative, and was succeeded by another distant relative Prince La Pancaitana.


Around 1600 Datuk We Passulle of Supa (Indonesia)

Ruled in the beginning of the 1600s. She succeeded her father, La Pancaitana, married La Patiroi and was succeeded by her son La Tenrisessi.


1600-24 Regent The Dowager Begum of Maler (India)

After the death of her husband, Khan Sahib Fath Muhammad Khan, Rais of Maler (1566-1600) she was regent for their son, Nawab Muhammad Bayazid Khan Bahadur (1593-1600-59), who later changed the state's name to Malerkolta. She was born in Rupar in Afghanistan.

1600-23 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Erdmute von Brandenburg of the Administrative Office of Stolp and the Office and Castle of Schmolsin in Pommern-Wolgast (At the time Germany, now Poland)

Her late husband, Johann Friedrich had become Bishop of Cammin at the age of 14 in 1557 and held the office until 1674, was Duke of Pommern-Wolgast under the regency of his mother from 1560, and in 1569, he and his brother's devided the Duchy of Pommern among them, and he received Stettin. He died 1600). They did not have any children, she lived (1561-1623).


1600-15 Princess-Abbess Anna MariaUrsula Giel von Gielsberg of Säckingen (Germany)

A nun at Tämkon until she was allowed to move to Säckingen, where she was elected Princess by the Chapter consisting of 3 canonisses and 3 canons in the presence of representatives of the Bishop and the Government of Vorderöasterreich. Her brother, Gabril was Prince-Abbot of Murback 1573 and another relative, Roman Giel von Gielsberg, was Prince-Abbot of Kempten (1639-73). She was daughter of CHristoph Giel von Gielsberg zu Glattburg, Diocesian Steward of Klingenau (Bischöflichen Vogts) and Barbara Muntprat von Spiegelberg and (d. 1615).


1600-03 Reigning Abbess Barbe II de Bailleul of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord d'Eecke and Steenvoorde.


1600-36 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Werdenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Mentioned as Kustorin 1597, reformed the chapter 1607 and in 1632 the canonisses escaped to Konstanz, Überlingen and Pfullendorf. She lived (1557-1638).

Mette Ulfstand

1600-01 Acting County Sheriff Mette Gregersdatter Ulfstand of the County Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge and the Counties of Högby and Vefre in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Acting County Sheriff of the County of Lykå in Blekinge and Dragsmark Kloster in Norway

Following the death of her husband, Knud Grubbe til Alslev (1542-1600), Mette Ulfstand took over as County Sheriff - Lensmand, and acted as the King of Denmark's representative in the fiefs also in the landscapes of Blekinge and Skåne. 1620 she handed over Lykå to her son-in-law, Siverd Grubbe. She lived (1554-1602).

Mette Urne

1600-12 County Sheriff Mette Johansdatter Urne of Vemb Skibrede Len, Norway

Mette Urne til Højsgaard administered the fief in her own name after the death of her husband, Alexander Durham, until she passed away herself, as was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. He was a Scottish nobleman who moved to during the Seven Year War and held various fiefs in Denmark and Norway. She was daughter of Johan Urne and Mette Rønnow and had no children. (d. 1612).

Queen of Hawaii

16.... Queen Regnant Keakamahana of Hawai’i

19th Alii Aimoku of Hawai'i. Succeeded on the death of her father, Keakealanikane. She married her Iwakakualii, son of Makakaualii. She had issue, a daughter and was succeeded by her only daughter, Keakealani who reigned until the year 1700.


16... Sultan Adji di Kurin-dana-Malaka of Berau (Borneo) (Indonesia)

Succeeded father Adji di Kotoh, as ruler of the large sparely inhabited area, located in the northwestern and quite isolated part of the East Kalimantan province in Central Java. 

Unnamed Tongan Lady

16.... Princess Sinaitakala-'i-Langileka, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

Daughter of 'Uluakimata I Tele'a, Tu'i Tonga and Mata'ukipa, Ma'itaki. She married Tapu'osi, from Fiji. Her son, Fonomanu, married Princess 'Ekutingapipiki, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, daughter of Fatafehi, Tu'i Tonga. Her daughter was the Tamaha Princess Fonokimoana. In the Tongan system the Tui'i Tonga by his title and religious significance was considered the highest authority in the land, but he was by no means the person of highest rank. That honour belonged to his eldest sister, the Tu’i Tonga Fefine (Female King) and her eldest daughter, the Tamaha (or sacred child). But although they held the highest rank they had no political authority, but were considered through their privileges of rank to be quite powerful.


16.... Princess Fonokimoana, Tamaha, Tonga

The daughter of the Tui'i Tonga Fefine, Sinaitakala-'i-Langileka, she held the title of Tamaha, and was considered the highest spiritual entity in the kingdom, and both her mother and grandfather paid homage to her.


16... Princess 'Ekutingapipiki, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

She was daughter of Fatafehi, Tu'i Tonga and Kaloafutonga, Ma'itaki and married Fonomanu, son of Tapu'osi, from Fiji, and Sinaitakala-'i-Langileka, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, daughter of Uluakimata Tele'a, Tu'i Tonga and was mother of five children. Her daughter, Princess Tu'imala, became the Tamaha. As Tu'i Tonga Fefine she held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers. She was considered to be abowe marriage, but could take lovers as she wanted.


16....  Princess Tu'imala, Tamaha, Tonga

Daughter of  Princess 'Ekutingapipiki, Tu'i Tonga Fefine and married to Mataeletu'apiko, 3rd Tu'i Kanokupolu.


16... Princess Sinaitakala-'i-Lotunofo, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

Daughter of 'Uluakimatata II, Tu'i Tonga and Toa, Ma'itaki. Married to Tungimana'ia, 2nd Tu'i Ha'ateiho, son of Fakatakatu'u, 1st Tu'i Ha'ateiho. Mother of two daughters of whom the oldest became the Tamaha.


16... Princess Simuoko, Tamaha, Tonga

Daughter of Princess Sinaitakala-'i-Lotunofo, Tu'i Tonga Fefine.


16... Princess Sinaitakala-'i-Fanakavalilangi, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

Daughter of Fakana’ana’a, Tu'i Tonga and Tongotea, Moheofo. Her son, Latunipulu'i-teafua, 2nd Tu'i Lakepa, was first married to Princess Nanasipau'u, Tu'i Tonga Fefine.


16...  Princess Fonokimoana, Tamaha, Tonga

Daughter of Princess Sinaitakala-'i-Fanakavalilangi, Tu'i Tonga Fefine. Her brother Fonomanu married Princess 'Ekutingapipiki, Tu'i Tonga Fefine. It is not known when she held office, but it must have been towards the end of the century.


1601-? Joint Reigning Lady María de la O Muxica y Herrera de Saavedra of Fuerteventura (Spain)

The daughter of V Señor de Fuerteventura Fernando Arias de Saavedra, she reigned jointly with Andrés Lorenzo Herrera de Mendoza (d. 1624), who after their marriage was known as Andrés Lorenzo Arias de Saavedra.He served many years and in various positions as administrator at Tenerife and the Canary Islands and the military.eigned the island in the Canary Islands together with Andrés Lorenzo Arias de Saavedra, who died 1624.

Fürstäbtissin Maria zu Quedlinburg, née Herzogin zu Sachsen-Weimar

1601-10 Princess-Abbess Maria von Sachsen-Weimar of Quedlinburg (Germany)

The 31st Fürstäbtissin was daughter of Duke Johann Wilhelm and Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein Dorothea Susanna, she lived (1571-1610).


1601-04 Princess-Abbess Anne Marguerite de Namur of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

She was daughter of Philippe de Namur, Seigneur de Trivieres and Jacqueline van Liedekerke. The paternal lordship was inherited by her sister, Marie (d. 1603), who was married to Jacques de la Hamayde.


1601-04 Reigning Abbess-General María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The abbess of the Abbey held quasi-episcopal powers.


1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Turesdatter Trolle of the County of Dalby in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Lisbeth Trolle was in charge after her husband, Gabriel Sparre til Svanholm, had died. Owner of the Estate of Knabstrup. (d. 1611).


1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Else Andersdatter Lindenov of the County of Dalum, Denmark

Else Lindenov was widow of Absalon Gøye til Kærstrup. His name was also written as Absolon Gøe or Absalonn Gøie.


1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Axelsdatter Viffert of the County of Hanherred, Denmark

Margrethe Viffert til Gammel Wiffertsholm was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her second husband, Jørgen Urne. She had first been married to Evald Sehested. After her death, her son Axel Urne inherited the estate, but he sold it to his sister, Anne Jørgensdatter Urne epousé Seefeld in 1643. Margrethe lived (1562-1622).

1601-02 Joint Acting County Sheriff Agathe Jakobsdatter Seefeld of the County of Bygholm, Denmark

Agathe Seefeld or Sefeld took over the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Niels Skram til Urup together with stepdaughter, Elsebe Skram til Urup. She secondly married to Verner Parsberg til Eskær og Lynderup and had two children by him. She was daughter of Jakob Enevoldsen Seefeld and Sophie Pederdatter Bille, and lived (1579-?).


1601-02 Joint Acting County Sheriff Elsebe Nielsdatter Skram of the County of Bygholm, Denmark

Elsebe Skram acted together with her stepmother, Agate Seefeld. Inherited a number of estates from her father, Niels Skram, who had first been married to Kirsten Styggesdatter Rosenkrantz. She was married to Eske Bille til Svanholm.


1602-11 Arumpone We Tenri Tuppu of Bone (Indonesia)

According to an alternative list We Tenrituppu [Matinroé ri Sidénréng] reigned 1590-1607. She succeeded cousin of grandfather La Patawang (1595-1602) and was succeeded by son La Tenriruwe.


1602-27 Sovereign Countess Magdalena von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Hereditary Marshall of the Diocese of Köln, Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Linnep 
1610-12 Regent of Bentheim-Steinfurt
  (The Netherlands and Germany)

Inherited Helpenstein, Linnep, Erbvogtei Köln, Alpen and Hackenbroich from her brother, Anton, in 1589, and the following year she gave her half-sister, Amalia, the right of use to the lordships. On the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575 she inherited Limburg after the death of Amalia in 1602. The Archbischopcy Köln had occupied Limburg since 1584, but gave it back to her in 1610. She installed her son, Konrad Gumprecht, as Commissioner and resigned Limburg and Linnep in his favour in 1616. The territory of her husband was also occupied by troops from Köln, and it was not until four years after the death of her husband, Arnold III, that she was able to take over the regency for her son, Konrad Gumprecht von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1585-1618), and after his death she installed his widow, Johanette Elisabeth, as regent in Limburg and transferred Linnep to her as dowry. Magdalena was daughter of Gumbrecht II von Neuenahr-Alpen of Limburg and Amöna von Dhaun, and remained influential to her death. She lived (1551-1627).

1602-69 Sovereign Duchess Françoise de Lorraine of Mercœur, Sovereign Princess of Martigues, Duchess of Étampes and Baroness of Ancenis (France)
1623-69 Sovereign Duchess of Penthièvre

Françoise de Mercaeur et Penthièvre succeeded her father Philippe-Emmanuel de Lorraine, duc de Mercœur et de Penthièvre, marquis de Nomeny, Baron d'Ancenis and Gouverneur de Bretagne (1558-1602) and mother, Duchess Marie de Luxembourg of Penthièvre (1579-1623). She was married to Cécar de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme, the son of Gabrielle d'Estree and King Henry IV. Mother of 3 children, and lived (1592-1669). 

1602-08 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Amalia von Leiningen-Westerburg of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)

Born as Gräfin zu Falkenstein she inherited the Lordship after the death of her relative, Count Johann III von Hohenfels-Reipoltskirchen. According to her will, the sons of her sister Sydonia zu Falkenstein; Casimir and Steino von Löwenhaupt inherited the Lordship. Steino's daughter, Elisabeth Amalia, married Count Philipp von Manderscheid whose family thereby inherited parts of the lordship. Amalia lived (1546-1608).


1602-55 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Elisabeth von  Hessen-Darmstadt of the Lordship of Wehen in Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)

The first years, she resided at the Castle of Wehen together with her mother-in-law, Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg, and after her death in 1616, she took over the reign of the lordship. She was widow of a younger son, Count Johann Kasimir von Nassau-Gleiberg (1593-1602), who died the year after their marriage.  Her only daughter, Anna Eleonore, was born 6 months after her husband's death and later married Duke Ludwig Friedrich of Württemberg-Mömpelgard (1586-1631). Elisabeth lived (1579-1655)

Pfalzgräfin Anna Marie von Pfalz-Neuburg, Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg

1602-43 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Marie von Pfalz-Neuburg of Dornburg an der Saale in Sachsen–Altenburg (Germany)

Widow of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Sachsen–Altenburg (1562–1602) and mother of the next four Dukes of Altenburg: Johann Philipp (1597–1639), Friedrich (1599–1625), Johann Wilhelm (1600–1632) and Friedrich Wilhelm II. (1603–1669). The daughter of Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Neuburg (1547–1614) and Anna von Jülich–Cleve–Berg (1552–1632), she lived (1575-1643).


1602 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Munthe of the County of Sorø, Denmark

Acted after the death of her husband, Headmaster of Sorø Akademi, Hans Mikkelsen.


1602 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eriksdatter Kaas of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred

Anne Kaas was widow of Preben Bild til Aggersborg and Lindholm.

Abbesse de Remiremont

1602-11 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

Resigned in favour of Catherine de Lorraine ad received a large pension. She was daughter of Friedrich I de Salm, Wild- und Rheingraf in Dhaun et Neuviller-sur-Moselle, of the French branch of the family, and Franziska zu Salm. Around 1605 the copper production in the mines at Thillot reached its maximum. She lived (circa 1570-1611).

1602-10 Princess-Abbess  Regina von Schrattenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of a noble family in Niederösterreich.


Until 1602 Princess-Abbess Margaretha von Manderscheid
-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Eltern and Vreden (Germany)

Her sister, Elisabeth, was Fürstäbtissin of Essen (1575-78) until she abdicated in order to marry Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. They were daughters of Count Arnold and Margaretha von Wied. Fürstäbtissin Margaretha lived (1539-1602).


1602-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Elisabeth von Limburg-Styrum und Bronckhorst of Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst and Borghorst (Germany)
1640 Hereditary Countess of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen

In 1619 she gave the Vredener Hungertuch (Cloth of Hunger) to the city of Vreden, which depicts 11 passion-pictures and an inscription in Latin stating: "Agnes, by the Grace of God, Abbess to Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst und Borghorst, Countess von Limburg und Bronckhorst, has given this ornament in the honour of the sufferings of Christ..." In 1635 her sister's son; Jobst-Hermann von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen, Count of Bückeburg, died unmarried. He was first succeeded by his cousin, Otto, but he died after four years, and she managed to secure the inheritance of Gemen for herself against the claims of the Holstein-Schaumburg-family, and then ceded the lordship to her nephew, Count Hermann-Otto I von Limburg-Styrum. During the later part of her life, the Thirty Years' War ravaged the country. She had family ties in both the Protestant and the Catholic camps; this enabled her to prevent several raids in the area. With various measures, thre tried to prevent the arrival of foreign soldiers. When necessary, the refused to obey orders from the government of the Bishopric of Münster. For example, at one point she prevented the arrest of an Anabaptist miller, because the arrest warrant from Münster violated the sovereign rights of her abbey. She was daughter of Count Jobst von Limburg und Bronckhorst and Maria von Schauenburg und Holstein-Pinneberg, and lived (1563-1645).

1603-11 Sovereign Lady Isabella Appiano d'Aragona of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1611-24 Sovereign Princess of Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano and the Islands of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli and Palmaionla 

Succeeded her brother, Cosimo Jacopo VII, Lord and Prince of Piombino, Margrave of Populonia, who died 1603, but was deposed by the Spanish, and in 1634 her grandson, Niccolò Luduvici, son of her daughter, Hereditary Princess Polissena (d. 1642), became Prince. She was daughter of Alessandro, Lord of Piombino and Isabel de Mendoza dei Conti di Binasco (1577-1661), who had been regent 1590 and was first married to Giorgio de Mendoza, Count di Binasco, and secondly to Paolo Giordano II Orsini, Duke of Bracciano. She lived (1577-1661).

Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana

1603-05 Handan Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Her full title was Daulatlu Ismatlu Hansam Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, during the reign of her son Ahmed Khan I (1613-17), but she never attained the prominence and power of her predecessors Nurbanu and Safie, because she has little influence on her son, but in some aspects the Valide Sultan was still considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. She lived (1576-1605).


1603-20 Reigning Abbess Jacqueline de Lannoy of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord of Hautmont.


1603-16 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Arildsdatter Griis of the County of Sandby in Skåne
1608-40 County Sheriff of the County of Hörje in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Vibeke Griis was widow of Peder Mund til Sandbygård, and held the fief of Hørjre for life and was in the service of Queen Anna Cathrine of Denmark. Her surname means "Pig". Skåne was conquered by Sweden in 1658. She (d. circa 1640).


1603-04 Acting County Sheriff Anne Mortensdatter Brok of the County of Onsø, Norway

Following the death of her husband, Erik Mortensen (Mormand) til Bramsløkke, Anne Brok was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. (d. after 1625).

Anne Rønnow

1604-05 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eilersdatter Rønnow of the County of Hagenskov with Bogherred and the County of Eskebjerg, Denmark
1604....  County Sheriff of the County of Strynø, Denmark

After the death of her husband, Erik Hardenberg (1529-1604), Anne Rønnow was in charge of the tenantcy until the accounts had been settled, and was also appointed fief-holder  in her own right. She was known to suffer of periods of depressions and her daughter, Anne Hardenberg, also suffered from mental ilnesses and conducted cases against witches, and Mette Hardenberg, who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Bøvling Len from 1616 also had mental problems. 6 of their 9 children died, including the 3 sons. She lived (1541-1609).


1604-05 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Lykke of the Counties of Lundegård and Jegindø, Denmark

Anne Lykke took over the adminsitration of the fief after the death of her husband, Mourids Hansen Stygge til Holbækgård. She lived (1554-1623).


Until 1604 Paramount Chiefess Fatima I of Bullom (Sierra Leone)

Followed her husband as ruler of the area near the Atlantic Ocean.


From 1604 Paramount Chiefess Fatima II of Bullom (Sierra Leone)

Succeeded her sister-in-law.


1604-21 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth Amalie von Manderscheid-Schleiden of Virneburg in the Eifel (Germany)

Her mother, Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbanden, had inherited the country from her brother-in-law Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Scheleiden-Virneburg in 1593. Elisabeth took over the inheritance after her mother's death, and her husband, Count Christoph Ludwig (1568-1618) assumed the name of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, and their descendants reigned as Counts co-regnant of the immediate County of Wertheim. In 1613 the emperor confirmed the title for her son, Count Friedrich-Ludwig zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1598-1657), who lost his entire estates 1622 for siding with the Elector Palatine, but was reinstated by the Treaty of Westpahlia 1648. Elisabeth lived (1569-1621).

1604-25 Overseer of the Crown Lands Princess Anna Vasa of Brodnica
1611-25 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Golub, Poland

The sister of Sigismund III Vasa of Poland, Sweden and Lithuania, she received the administration of Brodnica and Golub when she had to leave the court because she insisted on staying Lutheran. Never the less she was her brother's political advisor and acted as protector for the exiled Swedish loyalists and Protestants. She also became very respected because of her great learning and was interested in litterature, music, gardening and medicine. She was a specialist in medicinal herbs and kept her own apothecary. She lived (1568-1625).

The seal of the Abbess of Gerresheim

1604-21 Princess-Abbess Felicitas II von Eberstein of Herford (Germany)

The Countess had apparently been Abbess of Gerresheim until 1585, and in 1603 she is named as Koadjutorin of Herford. 1609 the War of Succession for the territory of Jülich-Berg-Kleve-Ravensberg which lasted until 1647 and laid great strains on the chapter.


1604-31 Princess-Abbess Anna von der Marck of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Daughter of Johann II von der Marck and Margareta van Wassenaer, she succeeded her sister, Josiana, as sovereign, and she managed to keep the principality relatively unharmed in spite of the 30th year war. Anna lived (1551-1631).

Marguerite VI de Nivelles

Circa 1604-23 Princess-Abbess Marguerite VI de Haynin of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Took over as head of the chapter and ruler of the city from Anne-Marguerite van Namur, who died 1604.


1604-08 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Villamízar Cabeza de Vac of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Member of a family of explorers of the new world and governors in South America.

Erszebet-Bathory © Dennis Bathory-Kitsz, http://bathory.org


Circa 1604-1614 Countess Báthory Erszébet of Transylvania (Hungary)

Known as the Blood-Countess or The Vampire, she began killing young virgins after her husband, Count Ferencz Nasdasdy, had died, because she thought their blood would keep her young. She was member of one of the oldest and wealthiest families in Transylvania, who counted - a cardinal, princes, and a cousin who was Prime minister of Hungary. The most famous Bathory was King Stephan of Poland. 1575-86. Her husband spent a great deal of time away from home fighting, and while he was away, and she surrounded herself with people claimed to be witches, sorcerers, seers, wizards, alchemists, and others who practiced the most depraved deeds in league with the Devil. Her deeds were discovered and her castle was raided. Erzsébet was put under house arrest. A trial was held in 1611, but she refused to plead guilty or innocent and never appeared at the trial. A complete transcript of the trial was made at the time and it survives today in Hungary. Johannes Ujvary, major-domo, testified that about 37 unmarried girls has been killed and Erzsébet's old nurse testified that about 40 girls had been tortured and killed. Erzsébet was never convicted of any crime, but the windows and doors of the bedchamber were walled up with only a small hole through which food could be passed. King Mathias II demanded the death penalty for her but because of her cousin, the Prime minister, he agreed to an indefinitely delayed sentence, which really meant solitary confinement for life. She was mother of three daughters and a son, and lived (1560-1614).

Unnamed Russian Grand Duchess

1605 (†) Regent Dowager Tsarina Maria Grigorevna Skuratova-Bel'skaya of Russia

Her husband, Boris Godunov, had been the real power behind the throne since the succession of his brother-in-law, Fedor II, who was mentally deficient, and after his death in 1598 Boris was elected Tsar. It was a period with widespread famine 16-03, and during the ensuing discontent, a man emerged who claimed to be Dmitriy, Ivan IV's son who had died in 1591. This pretender to the throne, who came to be known as the first False Dmitriy, gained support in Poland and marched to Moscow, gathering followers among the boyars and other elements as he went. In 1605 Boris died and Maria became regent for her son, Tsar Fedor II, who was murdered and Dmitriy was crowned tsar Maria was also murdered. She lived (circa 1560-1605).

Christina von Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden

1605 Regent Queen Christina von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden
1611-22 Regent of Värmland and other Duchies
1611-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of Norrköping, Gotland, Öland, Ösel, Wolgast and the Pommerian lands, Poel and Neukloster in Mecklenburg (Until 2014 Provincial Governor and Germany)
1612-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of the
Estate and County of Veckholms and Tynnelsö, The Town and Caste of Gävle and Gästrikland, Örbyhus with the Parishes of Tierps and Tolfta, the Shire of Vendel, the Parishes of Älvkarleby and Västlands and the Right and Income from the Salmon Fishery of Älvkarleby

First acted as regent during the absence of her husband, king Karl IX (1550-1611). After his death her brother-in-law. Duke Johan av Östergötland became regent for her son Gustav Adolf, and she instead took over the regency for her younger son Karl Filips in his Dukedom until his death in 1622. She was daughter of Adolf of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. (1573-1625).

Queen Ketvevan of Georgia

1605-14 Regent Dowager Queen Ketevan of Kakheti and Kakhet  (The Kingdom of Georgia)

Both her father-in-law, King Alexander II of Kakhetia (1577 - 1605) and her husband, Crown Prince David were assassinated by her brother-in-law, Constantine the Accursed, who had adopted Islam, on the instigation of Shah Abbas I of Persia. She took up arms against Constantine, and together with a multitude of Persian warriors, he suffered an ignominious death. Under her wise rule, peace and justice settled in Kakhetia, and Shah Abbas I returned her son Teimuraz to her. Later, making threats that he could decimate Georgia, Shah Abbas forced the Kakhetian vassals to give up some important hostages, and she volunteered to be one them. 2 of her grandsons were also held hostage, they were castrated and tortured to death or insanity. She spent ten years in her "honorary" imprisonment in Iran in the house of Imam-Kuli-Khan Undiladze, a Georgian who had accepted Islam. Her body became exhausted through fasting, prayer, and nights spent on cold stone floors, but she remained vigorous and cheerful, taking care of her small flock of about twenty Georgians. Finally, Shah Abbas decided to force her to renounce Christ and accept Islam. He even offered her to become a member his harem, but she refused and was tortured. She became a saint and is known as Holy Great-martyr Ketevan. She was of the royal house of Bagration, and (d. 1624).

Elisabeth IX von Essen

1605-14 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IX van Berge-s’Heerenberg of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)

Her election to the post of abbess took place under dubious circumstances. At the time, the Chapter only consisted of three protestant Ladies of the Chapter, and according to the regulations the abbess had to be elected among the three. But the Archbishop of Köln gave dispensation so that she could be elected. She was catholic and reintroduced Catholicism to the Chapter. She was daughter of Count Willem van Berg-s’Heerenberg and Maria van Oranje-Nassau, and lived (1581-1616).


1605-10 Princess-Abbess Veronica von Freyberg of Heggbach (Germany)

1605 and 1606 heavy "Turk Taxes" were imposed on the territory, which was also hit by the plague. The right of High Court was transferred from the Chapter to the Paternal Abbey of Salem during her reign and in 1610 the nuns and other inhabitants of the convent fled for the plague to Biberach and Weitenau. She resigned because of bad health. (d. 1613)

Fürstäbtissin Eva von Uhrhausen

1605-16 Princess-Abbess Eva von Uhrhausen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The chapter was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany and it was granted royal protection and, immunity in 1002. In 1494 the Fürstäbtissin was granted a seat in the College of Swabian Prelates who had a joint vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Diet and in 1521 she was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände - the territories of the Realm.


Until 1605 Reigning Abbess Françoise de la Châtre of Faremoutiers (France)

Succeeded her sister, Anne, who reigned at a not known time. They were members of the family of the barons de Montfort. (d. 1605).


1605-35 Joint County Sheriff Else Kristendatter Munk of  the County of Løndborg Bispegård, Denmark

Else Munk was given the teantcy for life jointly with her husband, Kristoffer Gersdorf, as security for lones.

Marina Mniszech

1606 De-Facto Ruler Tsarina Marina Mniszech of Russia (18.-25. May)

In 1605 the 'False Dmitri I', Russian pretender, married her, in a failed attempt to establish a firm foothold in Moscow. She was the first crowned Zarina in Russian history, but the fact that she was catholic and her husband's favoritism toward Poland aroused the opposition of the boyars, led by Prince Vasily Shuiski. Dmitri was killed, and Shuiski was crowned czar as Vasily IV. In 1607 another Dmitri appeared. Aided by the Poles after Marina identified him as her husband, he marched on Moscow and had some success, but in 1610 he was killed. She even produced an heir, Ivan Dmitrievich. Then she was married to ataman Ivan Zarudzki. After 1610 she fought for Russian throne. She was probably killed in Russian jail, was daughter of Jerzy Mniszech, Voivode of Sandomierz in Poland. lived (around 1588-1614).


1606-08 Hereditary/Sovereign Countess Anna Elisabeth zu Sayn of Sayn-Sayn (Germany)

Heiress to her uncle, Count Heinrich IV von Sayn, Lord zu Homburg, Montclair und Meinsberg (1539-1606), who was the last Count von Sayn-Sayn of the male line of Sayn-Sponheim. He inherited the county jointly with her father, Hermann after death of their uncle Sebastian II, and after her father's death in 1588, he reunited the County. Because of ilnes he transferred the government to her husband, who asumed the title of Count Wilhelm III von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn in 1605, and had him make a guarantee that he would support the Lutheran confession, but he soon replaced the Lutheran priests with Reformed. After her death, the county was in dispute and some territories were occupied by foreign powers. Wilhelm was succeeded by their oldest son, Ernst, in 1626. She lived (1572-1608).

1606-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Dorothea Maria von Württemberg of Hilpoltstein in Pfalz-Neuburg (Germany)

As the Protestant line of Duchy of Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg place their "surplus sons" in the Church, they began to secure them an income through small parts of lands, which they held for life and reverted to the Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg. She was widow of Duke Otto Heinrich II von Pfalz-Neuburg of Hilpoltstein, Heideck, Allersberg and Sulzbach.

Konstanze von Habsburg

1606-31 Politically Influential Queen Konstancja Austriaczka of Poland
1625-1631 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Brodnica and Golub in Poland

Archduchess Konstanze von Habsburg was the second wife of king Zygmunt III Waza (1566-87-1632), and political influential during his reign. She was a daughter of Archduke Karl von Habsburg of Austria, and lived (1588–1631). 


1606-07 Acting County Sheriff Adel Hansdatter of the County of Sorø, Denmark

After the death of her husband, Anders Kristensen, Headmaster of Sorø Akademi, she took over the administration of the fief.


1607-09 Sultan Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu, Sultana of Land and Sea, Lady of the Thousand Islands and Sultans of the Maldive Islands 

In spite of the fact that the island was Islamic, the rulers continued to use ancient Sanskrit titles alongside their Islamic styles until the middle of the twentieth century. The sultanate was attacked by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century but regained its independence in 1573. They also fell prey to the marauding raids of the Ali Rajas of Cannanore, who frequently kidnapped princes and influential nobles and carried them off to the Laccadives. Although close trading relations were established with the Dutch in Sri Lanka, the Maldives remained aloof from the Western powers for another two centuries. She was never secure as ruler due to a long civil war. She died at sea or on Mahibadu Island, Ari Atol, while on pilgrimage to give alms.


1607-27 Panembahan Putri Bunku of Sukudana (Indonesia)

Succeeded husband, Panembahan Giri Kusuma. She was the daughter of Ratu Prabu of Landak, who was ruler, and was succeeded by her son, Sultan Muhammad Safiuddin (Giri Mustaka).


Before 1607 Ruler Malangkanae of Rapang (Indonesia)

Took over the reign after the death of her husband, La Pasampo, and succeeded by their son, La Pakolongi, who ruled for sure in 1607, and was succeeded by daughter.


After 1607 Ruler We Dangkau of Rapang (Indonesia)

Succeeded mother and married to a relative, La Patiroi

Maren Juel

1607-08 Acting County Sheriff Maren Jensdatter Juel of Visborg in the County Gotland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Maren Juel acted as administrator of the fief (Lensmand) after the death of her husband, Herman Juel til Aabjerg (1548-1607).


1607-08 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Romellsdatter Brun of the County of Frølands Skibrede  and the Parish of Ejdsberg, Norway

Birgitte Brun administered the fief after the death of her husband, Per Knutsson Måneskiölds til Akervik. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. Her husband had 8 children with his first wife, Bodil Green. (d. before 1622).


Until 1608 Queen of the Jam Chiefs of Gersoppa (India)

Her family, the Jam Chiefs of Gersoppa, was established in power in 1409 by the Vijayanagar kings, but subsequently became practically independent and established its capital in Nagarbastikere. Women several times held the chieftaincy, and on the death of the last Queen it collapsed, having been attacked by the chief of Bednur. Among the Portuguese the North Kanara district of Bombay was celebrated for its pepper, and they called its Queen Regina da pimenta (Queen of pepper).

Henriette Catherine deJoyeuse, Duchesse de Joyeuse

1608-56 Sovereign Duchess Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse of Joyeuse, Countess du Bouchage and Baroness des Roches (France)
1641-54 Sovereign Princess de Joinville

Succeeded father, Henri de Joyeuse, comte du Bouchage, and first married to Henri de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier de Châtellerault de Saint-Fargeau and Prince souverain des Dombes etc. (d. 1608) who was succeeded by their only daughter, Marie de Bourbon (1605-27). 1611 she married Charles de Lorraine,  duc de Guise (1591-1640). Her husband went in exile to Firenze after his intrigues agaisnt the Cardinal Richelieu in 1636 and remained there until his death 4 years later. She lead a pious life and was devoted to charity. Their daughter, Marie de Lorraine (1615-88), inherited a grand-nephew as Duchess de Guise and Princesse de Joinville in 1675. The other children either died young or became clerics- including Françoise (1627-82), who was Abbesse de Saint-Pierre de Reims and Françoise Renée, (1621-82, Montmartre), Abbesse de Montmartre. She lived (1585-1656). 

Marie de Bourbon-Montpensier

1608-27 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Bourbon of Montpensier, Châtellerault et de Saint-Fargeau and  Princesse Souveraine des Dombe, Countess de Mortain etc. (France)

Inherited the Duchy when her father, Henri de Bourbon, was killed. Her mother was Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse, duchesse de Joyeuse (1608-47) and Princesse de Joinville (1641-54). She married Gaston of France, who was Duc d'Orléans, Chartres, Valois, d'Alençon, Comte de Blois, de Monthéry et de Limours etc. Died giving birth to her only daughter, Anne-Marie, and lived (1605-27). 


1608-47 Sovereign Countess Louise de Luxembourg of Brienne (France)

Also known as Louise de Brienne, she succeeded her uncle, Charles de Luxembourg, and first married to Georges d'Amboise d'Aubijoux, secondly to Bernard V de Béon du Massés, who held high military and offices at court. The daughter of Jean de Luxembourg, comte de Brienne and Guillemette de La Marck - who again was daughter of Robert IV de La Marck, Duc de Bouillon and Maréchal de France and Françoise de Brézé, Comtesse de Maulévrier, she was mother of Charles de Luxembourg-Béon and Louise de Béon, who succeeded her as Comtesse de Brienne.


1608-49 Princess-Abbess Katharina Praxedis von Perckhausen of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The chapter became an immediate realm in 833 and the abbess held the rank of a Princess of the Holy Roman Realm and reigned over the canonesses in the chapter and the subjects in the territories belonging to the chapter, which held a seat and vote in the Diet of the Realm and on the Bavarian Landtag. In ecclesiastical affairs she was subject to the Prince Bishop of Regensburg and in secular affairs she was obliged to consult the canonesses, so she was not a absolute ruler.


1608-11 Reigning Abbess-General Juana  de Leyva y Guevara of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

By the favour of the king, she was invested with almost royal prerogatives, and exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 villages. Like the Lord Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

Unnamed Tatar Lady of Sibiria

1608 Revolt Leader Princess Anna of Koda in Siberia (Russia)

A Native woman, also branded “a Tartar Joan of Arc” almost succeeded in uniting the entire native population of Western Siberia in revolt against the Russians.


Until 1609 Queen Regnant Ambary of Antakarana (Madagascar)

Founder of the Sakalava kingdom and succeeded by the king Kozobe or Kazobe, who ruled until 1639.


After 1609-before 1630 Sri Paduka Ratu Sepudak of Sambas (Indonesia)

Descendant of the Majapahit Kings and the last Hindu ruler of the kingdom. Her youngest daughter, Putri Mas Ayu Bungsu's husband, Radin Sulaiman, became Sultan of Sambas. He was son of the Sultan of Brunei.

Anna and husband recieves the fief of Preussia

1609-25 Hereditary Countess Anna zu Hohenzollern von Preussen und Jülich-Kleve-Berg of Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein
1618-25 Hereditary Duchess of Prussia (Germany)

Also known as Duchess Anna von Preussen und Jülich-Kleve-Berg, she was daughter of Marie Eleonore von Jülich-Kleve-Berg, the heiress of the three duchies and some counties, and Albrecht II Friedrich von Preussen. 1594 she married her distant relative, Elector Johann Sigismund zu Hohenzollern of Brandenburg (1572-1619), and was the dominant force during his reign. He was regent for her father from 1609, and in 1611 he was given Prussia as a personal fief. After the death of her uncle, Johann Wilhelm zu Jülich in 1609, a succession-dispute followed with the Pfalz-Newburg's until a division was agreed upon in 1614, and the counties of Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein went to Brandenburg, though she primarily considered it as her personal possessions. After her father's death in 1618 she and her son, the kurprinz Georg-Wilhelm, took over the government, since her husband had been hit by a stroke two years earlier, and she remained in charge until her death. She lived (1575-1625).


1609-14, 1620-26 and 1629-32 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel de Mendoza II of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her official title was "noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals", and she reigned over vast territories in Castilla and Leon.

Marie de Medici

1610-17 Regent Dowager Queen Marie de' Medici of France
1612-19 Governor of Normandie (Normandy)
1619-28 Governor of Anjou
1628-39 Countess d'Anjou

After the assassination of her husband, King Henri IV, she became regent for her son Louis XIII. She reversed the policies set by her husband. Having remained in power for three years beyond the king's majority, Marie was forced into exile after the murder of Concini in 1617. In 1619 her partisans rose in revolt, but she was reconciled to her son in 1622. After the rise to power of her former favourite, Cardinal Richelieu, she attempted to regain influence by urging the king to dismiss his minister of state; instead Louis forced his mother into a new exile at Compiègne, whence she fled to the Netherlands in 1631, never to return to France. One of her children was the politically influential Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I of England. She was daughter of Francesco de' Medici, Grand Duke of Toscana and  lived (1573-1642).


1610-63 Queen Regnant Chek Siti Wan Kembang of Kelantan (Malaysia)

According to some sourses, she ruled 1548-80. When her father died, a cousin of her mother, a prince of Johor, was appointed Regent and remained in office until she was in her thirties. Kelantan continued to prosper under her rule. Arab traders bestowed upon her the title "Paduka Cik Siti" in which Siti means honourable woman. Henceforth, the Queen of Kelantan came to be known as Cik Siti Wan Kembang. She eventually abdicated and was succeeded by her adopted daughter, Princess Saadong. After this point, she became a legend because nobody knows where and when she died.



Circa 1610 Queen Dodi Akaibi of Ga-Adamge (Ghana)

Succeeded by son, Okai Koi, who was killed 1677.

1610-14 Regent Dowager Electress Luise-Juliana van Oranje-Nassau of the Pfalz (Germany)

Also known as Luisa Juliane, she reigned in the name of her son, who later became known as king Friedrich V (The "Winther-King" of Bohemia). Her sisters Elisabeth was regent of Sedan, Catharina Belgica in Hanau-Munzenberg and Amalia, the Dowager Landgravine zu Hessen-Kassel, played a major role in the Thirty Years War and acted as leader of the Evangelican States at the Westphalian Congress (1637-after 1647). The Daughter of Willem I van Oranje-Nassau and his second wife, Charlotte de Bourbonhe she lived (1576-1644).

Anna Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg, Herzogin von Pommern-Stettin

1610-16 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön of Neustettin in Pommern-Stettin (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)

Married Bogislaw XIII (1544-1618), who was Duke of Pommern-Barth und Neuenkamp 1569-1603 and of Pommern-Stettin (1603-06) as his second wife in 1601. Two of her sisters: Sophia and Elisabeth married one of his 11 children by his first wife, and she thereby became their mother-in-law. The marriages of all three sisters were childless. After Bogislaw's death, she took over the government in her dowry and died on a journey from Sachsen to Pommern, after having lived (1577-1616).


1610-50 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Spaur-Pfaum und Valier of Buchau (Germany)

In dispute with the bishop on Konstanz and the College of Counts, defending her own position and travelled to Vienna to discuss her affairs with the emperor, and during the Thirty Years War, she was able to keep the territory out of trouble - not the least because of the connections with her brother, Dominikus Virgil, who was Colonel in the Army of the League and Erbschenk and Governor of Tirol. Her sister, Maria Clara, was Princess-Abbess of Essen (1614-44) and another sister, Anna Genvra, was Abbess of Sonnenberg (1622-52). Katharina was daughter of Leo Freiherr von Spaur, Pfaum und Valier and Juliane Barbara, Countess Federici, and lived (1580-1650).

Fürstäbtissin Dorothea zu Quedlinburg, Herzogin von Sachsen

1610-17 Princess-Abbess Dorothea von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)

1615 she started printing her own coins. Daughter of Kurfürst Christian I von Sachsen and Margravine Sophia von Brandenburg, and lived (1591-1617).


1610-27 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Hörburger of Heggbach (Germany)

Former Secretary of the Chapter. Aound the time of her reign, the Abbesses used the title of: "Die hochwürdige Frau des hochlöblichen Reichstifts und Gotteshauses Heggabach Äbbtissin und Frau - (The high-worthy Lady of the Highly praisable Chapter of the Realm and House of God Abbess and Lady). And the inhabitants the towns and villages of her territory paid homage to the abbess (hüldigung) after the other nuns had elected her.


1610-30 Princess-Abbess Anna Segesser von Brunegg of Gutenzell (Germany)

Succeeded Maria Segesser von Brunegg, who had been in office since 1567.

Fürstäbtissin Margaretha IV zu Göss bei Leopben 1610-40 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV von Khünburg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Her family originally came from Croatia and moved to Austria in the 15th century and were given a Countly title, held high offices in the army or in the church. She was a great promoter of the chapter.


1610 Acting County Sheriff Elsebe Jensdatter Juel of the County of Hammershus, Denmark

Elsebe Juel, or Elsebet Jul, acted for about half a year after the death of her husband, Hans Lindenov til Øsløf, and lived (circa 1524-before 1627).


1610-11 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Christoffersdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Tranekær with the two Shires of Langeland, Denmark

Vibeke Gyldenstierne was also known as Viveke Gyldenstjerne, and was widow of Niels Friis, with whom she had 13 children. She lived (1549-1613).


1611-32 Olangio to hoelialio Mboheleo Raja To Huliyalio (Ju Balu) of the Downlying Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)

The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Huliyalio Branch and her title means ruler of the downlying parts. She followed her mother, Wulutileni, on the throne, and was succeeded by her husband's adopted daughter, Bumulo.

Magalena von Nassau-Dillenburg

1611-43 Reigning Dowager Lady Magdalena von Nassau-Dillenburg of Öhringer Schloss in Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (Germany)

During the reign of her husband, Wolfgang I von Hohenlohe-Langenburg und Neuenstein (1546-1610), she was in charge of administrative tasks, managed the pharmacy nd enegaged in charities. After his death, she took over her dowry and built the so-called Lange Bau (Long Building). She was mother of 16 children, and lived (1547-1643).


1612-38 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Bellheim zu Baumgarden of Schänis (Switzerland)

Elected on 21 January and inagurated on 6 may. The Bishop confirmed the new statutes that had been drawn up after the fires in 1585 and 1610, and the Papal Nuntius gave his approval in 1616. The fact that all the documents, treaties and privileges were destroyed lead to more and more conflicts with the Cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, which were guardians of the chapter, but considered the noble chapter an alien body in the area and treated it as such.

Dorothea Auguste von Gandersheim, Prinzessin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

1611-25 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Auguste von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

Former Koadjutor. She had to flee for the army of Tilly which was on its way to Wolfenbüttel. Daughter of Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Dorothea von Sachsen. Died of the plague. Her older sisters, Sophia-Hedwig, reigned her dowries in Pommern from 1677 and Elisabeth was Contra-Abbess of Gandersheim 1578-82.She lived (1577-1625).

1611-37 Reigning Abbess Louise II de Bourbon-Lavedan of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

With aide of  Ange de Joyeuse and Joseph du Tremblay, she sought to improve the status of the monks of St-Jean de l'Habit and made various attempts to establish theological seminaries for them. Daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Vicomte de Lavedan - son of Jean II, Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne - and Jeanne Louise d'Albret.

1611-29 Reigning Abbess-General Ana de Jesus de Austria of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Natural daughter of Dona Maria de Mendoza and Don Juan de Austria, a Spanish Prince and Army Leader. She is well noted for her indirect involvement in a conspiration of an alleged king Sebastian of Portugal. In a document she was named "Dilectae in Christo Filiae Anne ab Austria Abbatissae Monasterii Monialium de Las Huelgas propre et extramuros Civitatis Burgensis Nullius Dioecesis, Ordinis Cisterciensis"

Ellen Marsvin

1611-12 Acting County Sheriff Ellen Jørgensdatter Marsvin of the County of Odensegård and Odense Sankt Hans Kloster with the Shires of Åsum, Bjerge, Lunde, Odense and Kam, Denmark
1620-39 County Sheriff of the County of Dalumkloster
1626-38 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Davinde

Fru Ellen Marsvin was of high noble family and the largest landowner of her time. Anne Lykke was the second, and in 1625 a total of 6 of the 20 largest landowners were women. Fru means Mrs but at the time the title was only used for noble ladies. Her daughter, Kirsten Munk, was married to King Christian IV. The local administration and juridical system was in the hand of royal appointed lensmænd (fiefholders) who each administered a len (fief). It was normally the local manor-owner, and if that was an unmarried woman she was in some cases appointed Lensmand in her own right, in other cases she administered the len after her husband's death. She lived (1572-1649).


1611-12 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eriksdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Silkeborg with the Shires of Hids, Lysgård and Vrads and the County of Tanekær with the two Shires of Langeland, Denmark

Anne Rosenkrantz inherited a number of estates in Norway, and was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Frantz Henriksen Rantzau to Brobygard. She held ecclesiastical juristiction, and lived (1566-1618).

Nur Jahan

1611-27 De-facto Ruler Empress Nur Jahan of India

Also known as Begam Noor Jahan, Nur Jehan or Nor Jahan, she was the twentieth and favourite wife of Mughal Emperor Jehangir, who was her second husband. Born as member of a leading Afghan family who immigrated to India. After her first husband, the Persian adventurer, Sher Afghan Ali Quli Khan Istajlu, was killed in 1607 she became a lady-in-waiting to one of Emperor Jahangir's step-mothers, Ruqayya Sultana Begam.
In 1611 she married him and received the name Nur Mahal ("Light of the Palace") and received the title Nur Jahan ("Light of the world") in 1616. Her husband's addiction to opium and alcohol meant that she effectively wielded imperial power and was recognized as the real force behind the Mughal throne. She gave audiences at her palace and the ministers consulted with her on most matters. Also, her husband permitted coinage to be struck in her name. Furthermore she had her family members appointed to high state offices. Her nice  Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal) married to Prince Khurram, her husband's eldest son, who later started a war of succession broke out. She shifted her support to a younger son, Shahryar, and arranged for him to marry her own daughter of her first marriage, Ladli Begum. Jahangir was captured by rebels in 1626, she had him rescued but he died the following year. Her brother sided with Khurram, who became Shah Jahan, and she was confined to a comfortable mansion for the rest of her life.
Born as Mehr un-Nissa, she lived (1577–1645).

Hedwig af Danmark, Kurfürstin zu Sachsen

1611-41 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Hedwig af Danmark of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Lichtenberg with Prettin and Lichtenburg and the Administrative Units of Annaburg, Schlieben, Schweinitz und Seyda in Sachsen (Germany) 

The first to reside at the castle, which had been, build between 1574-82. As reigning dowager lady she was in charge of the police and courts, she shared her authority with the Elector but her subjects considered her as their lady. She founded churches, aided the poor, the sick and the weak. As the sister of the Danish king and the sister-in-law of the British king she became an important figure for her brother-in-law, Elector Johann Georg I, and she was involved in arranging the marriages of five of his seven children. Because of her positions her territories were hardly attacked during the Thirty Years War, and she acted independently granting letters of free passage etc., something that was normally the prerogative of the Elector, and she maintains her independence against her brother-in-law also when it came to trade and commerce. She did not have any children with her husband, Kurfürst Christian II. (1583-91-1611). She was the 7th and youngest child of Frederik II of Denmark and Norway (1534-59-88) Sofie von Mecklenburg-Wismar and lived (1581-1641).

Catharina-Belgica van Oranje-Nassau

1612-26 Regent Dowager Countess Catharina-Belgica van Oranje-Nassau of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)
Reigning Dowager Lady of Windecken in Hanau

Also known as Katharina-Belgica, she took over the reins of government after the death of her husband, Philipp Ludwig II, for their son, Philipp Moritz. In 1619 when the Emperor Ferdinand II was on his way to Frankfurt for his coronation, he wanted to pass through with 1.500 soldiers but Catharina Belgica refused him entry into the city of Hanau. In 1621 Spanish and Imperial armies ravaged her territories but her complaints to Spanish and Imperial officials were of no avail. In 1626 her son took over the rule from her; however, in 1634 the family had to flee to Holland and was able to return only in 1637. Her sisters were regents in Sedan and The Rhine. She lived (1578-1648).

Margherita di Saboia


1612 Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita di Savoia of Mantua and Monferrato (Italy)
1612-29 Governor of Lisboan (Portugal)
1633-40 Vice-reine of Portugal

Following the death of her husband, Francesco IV Gonzaga, she became regent for daughter Maria in Mantova until her brother-in-law took over as Duke after having renounced his position of Cardinal. Her only son died a few months before Francesco. She was later appointed Governor of Lisbon and Vice-Queen of Portugal by her cousin King Felipe IV of Spain and Portugal (1605-21-65). In 1640 the Spanish were driven out of Portugal by the Duke of Bragança, King João IV and she was taken prisoner. She was daughter of Duke Carlo Emanuele I di Savoia, Prince of Piemonte, Count di Aosta, Moriana, Asti e Nizza, titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, and Marchese di Saluzzo and Infanta Catalina Michaella of Spain, whose sister was Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg, Governor of the Southern Netherlands. Margarita lived (1589-1655).

1612 Sovereign Duchess Maria Gonzaga of Mantua and Monferrato (Italy)
1631-47 Regent Dowager Duchess of Nevers and Rethel etc. (France and Belgium)
1637-51 Regent Duchess of Monferrato

Succeeded her father, Duke Francesco IV Gonzaga, who only reigned 10 months, but she was soon replaced by uncle, Ferdinando I, who had renounced his position of Cardinal. He died in 1615 and was succeeded by his brother, Vinzenco II, also a former Cardinal. She was engaged to Carlo Emanuele I of Savoia, but married Carlo Gonzaga Nevers, Duke de Nevers et Rethel, de Mayenne et d'Aiguillon, Marquis de Villars, Comte du Maine, de Tende et de Sommerive in 1627 (d. 1631), and their son, Caro II (1629-65), inherited Mantua in 1637 from her father-in-law, Carlo I Gonzaga, who had inherited the Duchy in 1627 from Vinzenco II, but Mantua was conquered by one of the other rulers in Italy. Also mother of one daughter, Eleonore, she lived (1609-60).

1612-27 Lord of Mann Elizabeth de Vere (Territory of the English Crown (United Kingdom))

As the Earls of Derby were the hereditary heads of state of the Isle of Man, and her husband, William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby, , took up the title of Lord of Mann in 1609 (following an Act of Parliament), she, in lieu of her husband, began taking over many administrative duties appertaining to the Isle's political affairs.  In 1612 she was appointed the first female Lord of Mann, a title she held until her death in 1627. She was succeeded by her eldest son, James. She was daughter of the Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, mother of five children and lived (1575-1626). 

1612-35 Reigning Duchess Anne de Croÿ of Aerschot (Belgium)

She was also known as Anna van Croÿ or Anne-Isabelle de Croÿ. It was stipulated in the marriage contract of her parents, that in the event of failure of male heirs, women could inherit the titles and possession of the family, so when her brother, Charles de Croy, Duke of Aarschot and Croy, died in 1612 she inherited the Duchy, even though she had to go to court because he had stipulated in his will that most of his patrimony should go to his uncle, the Marquis of Croy-Havré. He had also favoured his nephew, Anne’s third son Alexander (1590–1629). But the court confirmed in her rights in 1614. But already from around 1600 she had legally and fully acted as supreme administrator of the House of Arenberg as her husband, Karl van Arenberg (d. 1615) combined several political functions as well as military commands in the Netherlands and the Empire. She undertook all actions, legal or political, that she deemed necessary in safeguarding the Arenberg interests. Her contemporaries, both men and women, generally accepted her authority. Conflicts and gendered debates that did arise, mostly came from Anne’s sons, who wanted her to relinguish her powers in their favour, but she continued in the position until her death. Her own domains she administered completely independently and without any necessary intervention or approval from her husband. And even though her oldest son became titular Duke of Aarschot, she remained in control until her death. She lived (1568-1635)

1612-48 Princesse-Abbesse Catherine IV de Lorraine-Vaudemont of Remiremont (France)

Coadjutrice from 1602. In 1638 the troops of Turenne occupied Remiremont for a month. The following year the Princess obtained the neutrality of Vosges (for Epinal, Remiremont, Bruyère, St Dié, Arches) for the rest of the Thirty Years War. She tried to reform the convent, but failed and also founded the Monastery of the Ladies du Saint Sacrement in Nancy, and was daughter of François II de Vaudemont, duke of Lorraine, and lived (1576-1648).


1612-14 Abbess Nullius Donata Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Another chronology of Abbesses lists her as ruler 1637-38. Daughter of Don Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d’Aragona, 19th Count di Conversano, di San Flaviano e Castellana and created Duca di Noci in 1600, and Donna Caterina Acquaviva d’Aragona, Heiress to the Duchy di Nardò.

Anne Lykke

1612-13 Acting County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Lykke of the County of Arnsborg in the Island of Ösel in Gotland (then Denmark, now Sweden)

Anne Lykke was the second largest landowner of her time after Ellen Marsvin. She was in charge of the administration after the death of her husband, Klavs Maltesen Sehested til Højris og Nøragergård. She lived (1568-1645).


1613-14 Acting County Sheriff Else Steensdatter Bille of the County of Århusgård with the Shire of Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisbjerg, Denmark

Following the death of her husband, Carl Bryske (1547-1613), Else Bille was in charge of the administration. He held a number of tenantcies and was a trusted employee at court. He was also used as envoy to Sweden and Russia. She (d. 1621).

Ksenia of Russia

1613-19 Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Ksenia Ivanovna Shestova of Russia

Her son, Mikael Romanov (1613-45), was elected czar, but left the direction of the state affairs to her. She had left the convent where Boris Godunov had placed her. In 1619 her husband, Philaret Romanov, returned from his banishment to Poland, was elected patriarch, and assumed the reigns of government. Her name is also transcribed as Xenia or Kseniya Šestova and she is also known as Marfa or Martha, and lived (1596-1631).   

1613-33 Sovereign Marchioness Maria Elisabeth I Clara van Bergh 's-Heerenberg of Bergen op Zoom, Countess van Walhain, Dame of Beerssel, Duffel, Gheel, Leefdael, Waver, Eigenbrakel etc. (The Netherlands)

Daughter of Maria Mencia van Wittem van Beersel, titular marchioness (1581-88-1613) and Herman van Berg s'Heerenberg, count of Bergh, Governor of Spanish Gelders (1558-1611), she was succeeded first by uncle, and in 1638 by her cousin Maria Elisabeth II.  Maria Elisabeth Clara lived (1610-33). 

Josina van Rochefort

Circa 1613-26 Sovereign Countess Josina van der Marck of Rochefort (Belgium)

It is not quite clear to me if she succeeded her father, Philipp von der Marck, Baron von Lummen, who died 1613, or another relative. Her mother was Katharina von Manderscheid (d. 1594) and she was married to Johann Dietrich von Löwenstein-Wertheim (d. 1644), who added her name to his. Her two aunts Josina and Anna were Princess-Abbesses of Thorn. 1570-1604 and 1604-31, and the oldest of her 7 children, Josina Walpurgis van Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort 1631-32 until her marriage to Herman Frederik van den Bergh. She lived (1583-1626). 

Elisabeth af Danmark zu Braunschweig

1613-26 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth af Danmark of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Hessen in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
1616-22 De-facto in charge of the government of Braunschweig

After the death of her husband, Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig-Lüneburg she reigned in her dowry. After 3 years she removed her son, Friederich Ulrich, from the government together with  her brother, Christian 4 of Denmark, and she remained in charge for the next 6 years. In 1617 she founded the Retreat for the Poor with a chapel (Elisabeth Stift) During the Thirty Years War (1618-48) the castle was raided and was not repaired until 1654. Elisabeth lived (1573-1626).

Commander-in-chief Qin Liangyu

1613-48 Commander-in-Chief of Sichuan Province General Qin Liangyu in China

Married to Ma Qiancheng, the military commander of Shizhu district who was ordered to lead 3,000 soldiers to suppress a rebellion in 1559. She led another 500 men, and they fought side by side in battle and suppressed the rebellion quickly. In 1613, Ma offended a court eunuch, was arrested and died in prison, and she was ordered to take her husband’s former military office. She became famous for fighting the Qing invaders at the end of the Ming dynasty 1620 crushed numerous rebellions. In 1646 Emperor Longwu of the southern Ming gave her the title of Loyal Marquis. She lived (1547-1648).

Louise-Marguerite de Lorraine par la grâce de Dieu princesse souveraine de Château-Regnault

1614-29 Sovereign Princess Louise-Marguerite de Lorraine of Château-Regnault (France)

Daughter of Catherine, and married in 1605 to François de Bourbon, prince de Conti, first cousin of Henri IV of France (d. 1614 without issue). In 1629, she ceded Château-Regnault to the king of France in exchange for Pont-sur-Seine, and 3 years later she secretly married François de Bassompierre. The sovereignty of Château-Regnault included Linchamp, la Tour-à-Glaire, Macaucourt, Mohon, Montcy-Notre-Dame. In practice, since Château-Regnault is so small (it had 1.200 inhabitants in the mid-19th c.), the substantial prerogative was the right to mint coins and excelled in copying coins from the neighbouring countries, and she minted coins with the titulature: "Louise-Marguerite de Lorraine par la grâce de Dieu princesse souveraine de Château-Regnault". She lived (1574-1631).


1614-16 Acting County Sheriff Karen Hansdatter Skinkel of the County of Holbæk with the Shire of Ingelsø, Denmark

Karen Skinkel was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Anders Nielsen Dresselberg til Vognstrup, who was judge and held other administrative offices. He had first been married to Mette Grubbe (d. 1584). Karen (d. 1624).


1614-44 Princess-Abbess Maria Clara von Spaur-Pflaum und Valör of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)

From 1612 she had been Lady of the Chapter and Dechantess of Vreden, in 1616 she also became Abbess of Nottuln and 1621 of Metelen. In 1623, during the Thirty Years War, Essen received a Spanish garrison. The following year the re-catholication-law was introduced, non-catholic books banned and the obligatory church attendance reintroduced. In 1629 the Spanish bastion fell to the Dutch, and a council dominated by protestants took over power of the City of Essen, Maria Clara fled to Köln, only to return for a short period in 1631. Her sister reigned as Princess-Abbess Katharina II of Buchau, (1610-50). Maria Clara lived (circa 1590-1644).


1614-34 Princess-Abbess Susanna von Bubenhofen of Lindau   (Germany)

In 1628 the Emperor employed troops in the City of Lindau after internal riots, and he tried to re-catholicise the City and to tie it closer to Austria. The head of the Catholic chapter, Fürstäbtissin Susanna, was member of an old Prussian noble family.


1614-21 Princess-Abbess Maria Brümsi von Herblingen of Säckingen (Germany)

The City of Bad Säckingen was occupied several times during the Thirty Years War. The last male member of her family, Hans Brümsi, had died 1551.

1614 "The Legitimate Representative of the past Sovereign Incas of Peru" Doña Ana María de Loyola Cova y Coya-Inca in Peru, Marchioness  de Santiago de Oropesa, Adelantada of del Valle de Yucay and Yupangui and Lady de Loyola

Given the title of "representante legítima de los antiguos soberanos incas del Perú" by King Felipe III of Spain She married Don Juan Enríquez de Borja, and was daughter of Don Martín García de Loyola, Señor de Oñaz, Capitán General of the Bodyguard of the Viceroy of Perú around 1569, governor of Potosí circa 1579 and Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Chile around 1591 and Doña Beatriz Clara Coya, Señora del Valle de Yucay, the only daughter and heiress of Inca Sayri-Tupac, sovereign of Tahuantinsuyu and his wife, the sovereign of la Coya Cusi Huarcay. (b. 1596).

Unnamed Burmese Queen

1615-16 Regent Dowager Princess Nang Nawn Pe of Yawng Hwe (Myanmar - Burma)

Saw Hkam was king in 1615 followed by a 12-year vacancy on the throne of state, which is also known as Nyaungywe and was one of the Shan - ethnic Thai - states in Burma. 

1615-27 County Sheriff Beate Christoffersdatter Huitfeldt of Lunde Sankt Peders Kloster and Gers Herred in Skåne (Denmark and Sweden)

Beate Huitfeldt til Møllerød was Mistress of the Court, Hofmesterinde. Married to Knud Ulfeldt, and lived (1544-1626)


1615-46 Olangio to tilaiot Molie Raja To Tilayo of the Upper Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)

The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Tilayo Branch and her title means ruler of the upper parts. She succeeded her father Pangoliwudaa, who was the second Muslim ruler of the Raja To Tilayo branch, and was followed by husband, Eiato, who reigned until 1674.

1615-32 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Anna von Jülich-Kleve-Berg of the Castle and Administrative Office of Höchstädt in Pfalz-Neuburg (Germany)

The death of her brother Johann Wilhelm in 1609 led to the Jülich-Kleve Succession War where the families of her own and her 3 sisters fought over the inheritance. She transferred the rights of inheritance to the areas of the Low Rhine (niederrheinischen) she possessed as the oldest surviving daughter to her oldest son Wolfgang Wilhelm. She was chocked and kept her own Evangelical faith when he converted to the Catholic Faith in order to marry the daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria to gain the support of the Catholic League in 1613, but in the end it helped him secure his mother's inheritance as Duke of Jülich and Berg in 1614. Her husband, Count Palatine Philipp Ludwig, died the same year, and she moved to her dowry the following year, she moved to her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Wilhelm IV. of Jülich, Kleve und Berg and Maria von Österreich, mother of 4 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (1552-1632).

1616-24 Raja Ratu Biru of Patani (Thailand)

Succeeded her sister, Ratu Hijau; 'The Green Queen' and became known as Ratu Biru; 'The Blue Queen'. Her rise to the throne, does suggest that the orangkaya class of merchant aristocrats, in the words of the seventeenth-century French visitor to Siam Nicholas Gervaise, 'were weary of obeying kings who maltreated them, and shook off their yoke' in favour of queens. It became a political preference, and increasingly a recognised system. When she in turn died in 1624, a third sister, who would have had to be nearly sixty, came to the throne as Raja Ungu, 'the purple queen'.


1616 Regent rGyal Khatun of Ladakh-Balistan (Tihbat-I-Khurd) (Tibet)

Acted as regent for Seng-ge who ruled 1616-23 and sometime later.  

1616-31 and 1661 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite Charlotte de Luxembourg of Piney-Luxembourg, Princesse de Tigny, Countess de Piney and Baroness de Dangu (France)

Succeeded her father, Henri de Luxembourg-Piney (1583-1613-16) and first married to León d'Albret de Luynes, and then Charles Henri de Clermont-Tonnerre - both dukes de Luxembourg et de Piney by the right of their wife. She resigned the duchy in favour of son, Henri León d'Albert de Luxembourg. When he resigned the Duchy in 1661 in order to become a decaon, she resigned a second time in favour of her daughter, Madeleine-Charlotte-Bonne-Thérèse de Clermont-Tonnerre. Maguerite Charlotte lived (1607-80)

1616-52 Princess-Abbess Anna Maria von Salis of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

During her reign the church of the Chapter was redecorated in Baroque-style. Daughter of Albert Abstemius von Salis, a member of an old noble family from Graubünden in Switzerland, and Margaretha von Porta. She lived (1590-1652).

Augusta af Danmark zu Holstein-Gottorp

1616-36 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Augusta af Danmark of Holstein-Gottorp
1616-39 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Husum in Holstein-Gottorp (Denmark and Germany)

After the death of her husband, Johan Adolf, she was politically influential during the reign of her son, Duke Friedrich. She governed Husum as her dowry and here she promoted arts and culture, music and gardening. She supported and recommended the persecuted writer Anna Ovena Hoyer, when she fled from Holstein-Gottorp to the Swedish queen, Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg in 1632. The year before she had been in conflict with brother, King Christian IV of Denmark, over the inheritance of their wealthy mother. Mother of 8 children and lived (1580-1639).

Mette Hardenberg

1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Mette Eriksdatter Hardenberg of the County of Bøvling, Denmark

Just after her birth, Mette Hardenberg, was brought to her aunt, Birgitte Rønnow, and it was not until after 6 years that she returned to her parents at Hagenskov. At the age of 19 she married the 20 year older Preben Gyldenstierne, County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Åstrup by Hjørring. Her mother and sisters were marked by depressions and mental ilnesses and at one time she was "possessed" by an evil spirit for some weeks until she was "saved". She published a prayer's book by her own hand. Her mother, Anne Rønnow til Skousborg, was Acting County Sheriff of Skousborg, Hagenskov, Eskebjerg and Strynø after the death of her father, Erik Hardenberg in 1604. Mette was mother of 5 children, and lived (1569-1629).


1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Kristen Eriksdatter Hardenberg of the Counties of Dalum and Strynø, Denmark

Kirsten Hardenberg was in control of the fief after her husband Axel Brahe til Elvedgård, Orebygård and Eskeberjerg's death. He had served the Counts in Braunschweig, Szhwarzburg and Brandenburg and worked at court. Also former Stadtholder of Fyn, Skåne, Halland and Blekinge. 1614 var han regeringsråd. She was his second wife. With the first, Mette Gøye, he ad 6 children, and they had 4. She owned several estates in her own right, and (d. 1639).


1616 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Eilersdatter Krafse of the County of Søbygaard with Løveherred, Denmark

Hilleborg Krafse acted after the death of her husband, Mogens Gøye. She also owned a number of estates, among others Hald.


1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Pernille Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne of Hagenskov with Bogherred, Denmark

Pernille Gyldenstierne was widow of Jakob Rosenkrantz til Kærstrup, who had also had been County Sheriff of Nyborg. They had 10 children, and she lived (1576-1622).


1616-40 County Sheriff Karen Andersdatter of the County of Hven (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

The mistress of King Christian 4 for about 3 years, she left the royal court circa 1615, presumably on account of the King's marriage to Kirsten Munk. She received the Island of Hven as an entailed estate, and where she served as county administrator, and also received a lifelong pension, and later on a number of estate in Copenhagen. In 1642 her son by Christian 4. Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve was appointed County Sheriff of Hven. The daughter of Anders Hansen and Bodil Knudsdatter, she also had two daughters who died in infancy. She (d. 1673).


1617-18 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Henriksdatter Below of the County of Skivehus, Denmark

Sophie Below administered the fief after the death of her husband, Christen Pedersen Thott til Boltinggård (1568-1617). She researched the history of her family, it's genealogy and heraldica and also wrote a number of prayerbooks. She was daughter of Henrik Below and Lisbeth Skram, mother of 3 children, and lived (1590 - 1650).


1617-18 Acting County Sheriff Jutte Gyldenstierne of the Counties of Vernø Kloster and Ingedals Skibrede, Norway

Also known as Jytte, she acted as tenant of the fief (also known as Værne) after the death of her husband, Kristoffer von der Grøben til Fitseband. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway.


1617-34 Abbess Nullius Caterina Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Also listed as ruler in 1624-30. Sister of Donna Barbara, the Abbess from 1558.

Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana

1617-1623 Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
1617-18 and 1622-23 Regent Naib-i-Sultanat of the Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

After the death of her husband, Sultan Ahmed Khan I (1603-17), she ruled in the name of her mentally unstable son, Mustapha Khan I (1717-23). When he was deposed she was sent off to the Old Saray, where her predecessor Safiye was already living. She was probably sent back again in 1623 but her fate is not known after her son was deposed for the second time and killed. She escaped punishment because of her privileged status as the mother of Mustafa, whose madness led the populace to consider him a saint. Her name is not known, but she was probably born in Europe (b. 1576-?).

Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana

1618-20 Kahadija Mahfiruz Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

There is evidence that she might not have taken up the position as Sultan Valide when her son Osman II (1618-22) came to the throne, and she seems to have remained in the Old Saray, where she had been sent after the death of her husband, Ahmet I the year before. She lived (1590-1620).

Johannetta Elisabeth von Nassau-Katzenelnbogn 

1618-54 Regent Dowager Countess Johannetta Elisabeth von Nassau-Katzenelnbogen of Bentheim- Limburg und Burg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Konrad Gumprecht, her mother-in-law, Magalena von Neuenahr-Alpen (see 1602) installed her as regent for her son, Wilhelm, and after his death in 1626 for her second son, Friederich Ludolf who already died in 1639. She then became regent for his successor - a nephew - Count Moritz von Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda and in 1638 they made a treaty that secured her the regency of the County for life. She was in charge of in Limburg and Burg during the Thirty Years War, which left the county devastated. In 1633 she had to flee to her sister's residence in Fürstenau, and the same year the county was hit by plague. She returned in 1637 and managed to keep the county within the Bentheim family. She lived (1592-1654).  

1618-38 In charge of the Government Countess Anna Amalia zu Solms-Sonnenwalde of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
1628-34 Reigning Dowager Lady im Ort Döttingen (Germany)

Amid the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War, the widow Anna Maria and took over the reins of government during the absence of her husband, Count Philipp Ernst von Hohenlohe-Langenburg-Neuenstein (1584-1628). In September 1634, she fled just in time with her mother and her children and an escort of 200 cavalry provided by the Count Palatine of the Rhine. She fled to Saarbrücken and then to Ottweiler, her mother's home town. As a widow she build a hospital and other charitable institutions in her dowry land in the "Place of Döttingen. She was mother of 10 of which most died in infancy, and lived (1585-1634).

Elizabeth Stuart, Princess of Scotland, Electress of Electoral Palantine, Queen of Bohemia

1618-19 Joint Administrator Elizabeth Stuart of Kurpfalz (Germany)

Already as a child she was involved in intrigue as part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to put her onto the throne of England and Scotland as a Catholic monarch, after assassinating her father and the Protestant English aristocracy. In 1613 she married Elector Palatine Friedrich V. (1596-1632) and soon became a dominating force at his court because of her energy and strong personality. In 1618 he came to the assistance of the Bohemians who had deposed their king, Ferdinand von Habsburg (future Emperor) and won the battle at Pilsen. He had appointed a relative as administrator and it seems that she was given a joint role in the government during his absence. The following year the Bohemians offered the crown to him as an influential member of the Evangelical Union, but his allies in the abandoned him, and his brief reign ended with his defeat only two months after their coronation (thus 'the Winter King'). Imperial forces invaded the Palatinate lands and they had flee to the Netherlands in 1622. He lived the rest of his life in exile with his wife and family at the Hague, where she remained for another 28 years until the Restoration of the British monarchy, when she travelled to London to visit her nephew, King Charles II, and died while there. She had been Heiress Presumptive 1625-30 until his birth. Among their 13 children were Karl Ludwig (1617-1680), who regained the Palatinate at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Elizabeth, Princess-Abbess of Herford (1618-1680) and the later Electress Sophie of Hannover and Heir to the English throne (1630-1714). She was the eldest daughter of James of Scotland and Great Britain and Anne of Denmark, and lived (1596-1662).

Sophia von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg with her husband, Philipp von Pommern-Stettin

1618-58 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sophia von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön of Treptow an der Rega in Pommern-Stettin (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Philipp II, Duke of Pommern-Stettin (1573-1606-18), she took over the government in her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Johann von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön and Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, who had a total of 23 children. Her sister, Anna, had married Philip’s father, Bogislaw XIII (1544-1618) in 1601. Sophia's marriage was childless, and she lived (1579-1658).

Fürstäbtissin Dorothea Sophia von Quedlinburg, geb. Prinzessin zu Sachsen 

1618-45 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Sophia zu Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)

The Thirty Year War reached the city in 1622 and four years later the city is hit by the plague. In the Neustadt 2.374 people died within six months. 1632 Wilhelm von Weimar passed through Quedlinburg and the following year the city was occupied by - and forced to accommodate - Imperial and Swedish troops, who also looted the city and forced the citizen to supply them with money and goods. 1636 the city was hit by another epidemic of plague. The regiment of the Swedish colonel Bleicke occupied the city from 1639-41 when fightings broke out between the imperial colonel Laba and Count Johann Ludwig of the Rhine. 1642 General  Königsmark was in Quedlinburg. Duchess Dorothea-Sophia daughter of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm and Duchess Sophia von Württemberg, and lived (1587-1645).


1618-25-? Princess-Abbess Anna Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)

The first of four members of the Freiherrliche family of Raitz von Frentz to reign the state in the period until 1669. It is not known how long she reigned, but Henrica Raitz von Frentz is mentioned as Fürstäbtissin in 1643.


Before 1618 District Chief of Appamattuck of the Pamunkey Tribe, Virginia (USA)

Also known as Appomattox, she was the sister of the great chief Powhatan, she governed the strategically important town at that river's junction with the James. The chiefly position was also inherited matrilineal; thus his children could not succeed the Chief. Powhatan's three brothers, in order of age, were his successors, followed by his two sisters, and then by their two daughters.


1618-19 Acting County Sheriff Anne Hansdatter Baden of the County Kronborg Len with the Shires of Holbro and Lynge, Denmark

Anne Baden acted after the death of her brother, Christian or Kristen Hansen (Baden) til Nørgård. She (d. earliest 1633).


1618-circa 1636 County Sheriff Else Tønnesdatter Galde of the Counties of Verne Kloster Len and Ingedals Skibrede and the Parish of Skjeberg, Norway

Else Galde was given the tenantcy jointly with her husband, Sivert Gabrielsen Akeleje til Krengerup and Kambo (1584-1659) for the duration of their lifetimes. She had first been married to the German noble, Eiler Weide von Jasmund. Siverd then married Øllegaard Gerlofsdatter Nettelhorst and Anne Ottesdatter Bildt. She did not have any children (d. circa 1636).

Sofie Oldeland

1618-19 Acting County Sheriff Sofie Hansdatter Oldeland of Brunla Len and Numedalen Len, Norway

Sofie Oldeland had inherited the Castle of Vejlgård from her brother, Laurids in 1610. In charge of the fief after her husband, Caspaer or Kasper Markdanner (1533-1618), had passed away. His background is not known, but he was a soldier at various European courts, and ennobled by the Austrian Emperor in 1571 before he returned to Denmark and was employed at court. had also been Lensmand of Koldinghus 1585-1617.  They married in 1593 and had 2 sons. She lived (1578-1639).

1618-19 Dowager Princess Eléonore-Charlotte de Bourbon-Condé of Oranje (France)

Married to Filips Willem, Prince d'Orange in 1606, and followed him on his frequent travels between Brussels and Orange. He had grown up under the protection from the Duke of Alba, Governor of the Netherlands, during his studies in Leuven, until he was taken out of university at the age of 14 and brought to Spain while his family fled to Germany. As a captive by the king Philip II, he guaranteed the attitude of the princes d' Orange towards Spain. His father was assassinated in 1584, but he was not freed until 11 years later, and marched to his northern possessions. His brother, Mauritz, was now head of the family and his sister, Maria, looked after his domains during his absence. 1598 the Principality is returned to him, and competes with his brother for many years. After his death she fought with her in-laws over the inheritance of Oranje until her own death. She lived (1587-1619).


1619-30 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Dannenberg of Delmenhorst (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Anton II, Count von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst (1573-77) and Count von Delmenhorst (1577-1619), she was first regent for her oldest son, Anton Heinrich von Delmenhorst who died at the age of 18 in 1622, and then for the second son, Christian IX von Delmenhorst, (1612-1647), who was unmarried. She had nine daughters, among others, Catharine Elisabeth, Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim and Sibylle Marie, Dechaness in Herford. The other daughters inherited the possessions of their brother, but the county reverted to the Counts of Oldenburg and thereby to the Danish King. She lived (1576-1630).

1619-26 Dowager Reigning Lady Maria von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel og Franzhagen in Sachsen-Lauenburg (Germany)

Already in 1608 she built a court church in her future dowry where she took up residence after the death of her husband, Duke Franz II. von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1547–1619). The daughter of Duke Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and mother of 13 children. She lived (1566–1626).


1619-20 Acting County Sheriff Dorte Ovesdatter Juul of Århusgård with Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisbjerg Herred, Denmark

Dorte Juul was widow of Jørgen Kaas til Geldskov. She had no children, and (d. 1634)

1619-24 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jensdatter Brahe of the County of Sølvitsborg with Bregneherred and Lister, Denmark

Anne Brahe was widow of Otto Lindenov til Boreby.


Around 1620 Queen Nana Bempomaa of Kokofu (Ghana)

Succeeded Queen Nana Ankeyo Nyame and was succeeded by son, Nana Akyempon Tenten.


Around 1620 Governor Elena de Caso, Dos Ilheus (Brazil)

The Vice-Kingdom of Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire. She was followed on the post by Antonio Ribeiro.


1620-40 Reigning Abbess Marie IV de Bonnières of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord de Biez and Marie de Tournai.

Sophie von Sachsen

1620-35 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sophia von Sachsen of and Administrative Unit of Wollin in Pommern (Poland)

Probably held Island and Administrative Unit as her dowry after the death of her husband, Franz von Pommern (1577-1606-20). As it was the case with all the last Dukes of Pommern, their marriage was childless. She was daughter of Duke and Elector Christian I. von Sachsen and Sophia von Brandenburg, and lived (1587-1635).

1620-28 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth in Lichtenberg in Brandenburg (Germany)

When she married the Polish Prince Janusz Radziwill (1579-1620) in 1617 they were granted the Castle, Office and City , and after his death, she ruled and was known as a charitable and just ruler. They had a son and 2 daughters. When she married Julius Heinrich zu Sachsen-Lauenburg (1586-1665), her brother Christian von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, bought the Lordship. Mother of 1 son and 2 daughters by her first husband, and she gave birth to Franz Erdmann in February 1629 and died on Christmas Eve the same year. She lived (1589-1629).

Sophie Jørgensdatter Rostrup

1620 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Jørgensdatter Rostrup of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark

Sophie Rostrup acted following the death of her husband, Steen Brahe til Knudstrup. She was his third wife, and she had been married to Mads Sandberg til Løjstrup (d. 1597). The daughter of Jørgen Rostrup til Selleskovgård and Margrethe Skeel, she (d. 1632).

Sophie Brahe

1620 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Steensdatter Brahe  of the County of Vestervig, Denmark

Sophie Brahe inherited the estate of Birkelse after the death of her husband, Jørgen Lunge til Odden, and bought the estates of Toftegård, Rævkærgård, Ulveskoven og Nejsumskov. Mogens Kristensen Scheel, the son of her late daughter, Margrethe, inherited half of Birkelse but exchanged it with his aunt, Ide Lunge. Sophie (d. 1656).

1620-27 Politically Influential Madame Ke in China

客氏 or Kè Shì was the nanny of Emperor Zhu Youjiao (The Tianqi Emperor) (1605-27), who succeeded at the age of 15 and was illiterate, and delegated all duties to his eunuch Wei Zhongxian and her. Both of them were eliminated as soon the Chongzhen Emperor (the last one of the Ming dynasty) succeeded his brother to the throne in 1627.

Chretienne of Toscana

1621-28 Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Chrétienne de Lorraine of Toscana (Italy)

Christine was widow of Ferdinando I de' Medici (1549-87-1609) and acted as co-regent for grandson Ferdinando II (1610-21-70) after the death of her son, Cosimo II. She was well disposed to the scientist Galileo and as a favour in return for some services rendered by him when he was still in Padua found a position for his brother in law Benedetto Landucci. It was to Christina that Galileo later wrote his letter on science and scripture, "Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Lorraine." She was the daughter of Charles II and Claude de France and lived (1565-1637).

Maddalena of Toscana

1621-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Maria Maddalena de Austria of Toscana (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Cosimo II de' Medici, she acted as regent for son Ferdinando II (1621-70). Her weakness led to the loss of Tuscany's right to the Duchy of Urbino, which fell vacant, and which Pope Urban VII took as an unoccupied fief of the Church. Also known as Maria Magalena von Habsburg, she was mother of 8 children, and lived (1589-1631).

1621-42 Guardian Dowager Duchess Magdalena von Oldenburg of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
1621-57 Dowager Reigning Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Coswig

Her husband, Rudolf (1576-1603-21), died shortly after the birth of her son, Johan, and her brother-in-law, August von Anhalt-Köthen-Plötzkau (1575-1653), was named regent. Because of the upheavals during the Thirty Years War she had to leave Zerbst and seek refuge with her children in Wittenberg until she moved to Oldenburg with her children in 1633 and lived by her brother, Anton Günther, and they did not move back until Zerbst until 1642. In 1646 she and her son were named heirs of the Lordships Jever and Knyphausen after her childless brother, and her son inherited the territories in 1667. The mother of 2 daughters and a son, she was daughter of Graf Johann XVI. von Oldenburg (1540-1603) and Elisabeth von Schwarzburg (1541-1612), and lived (1585-1657).

1621-25 Donatary Mariana de Sousa Guerra of São Vicente (Brazil)

Also Condessa de Vimieiro, she became "Donatária da Capitania de São Vicente" in succession to her father, Pero Lopes de Sousa. She was married to Martim Afonso de Sousa, and lived (circa 1560-1625).


1621 Acting County Sheriff Else Jørgendatter Marsvin of the County of Tranekær with the two Shires of Langeland, Denmark
1621-23 Acting County Sheriff
of the County of Akershus, Norway

Else Marsvin til Stenalt was widow of Enevold Kruse, former Treasurer, Councillor of the Realm and Governor of Norway. Mother of 4 children, and lived (1572-1649).

Donna Olimpia Aldobrandini di Rossano

1621-37 Territorial Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini (Senior) of Rossano Calabro (Italy)

Niece of Pope Clemente VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini) (1536-92-1605) and universal heir of her brother, Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini (d. 1621). She administered her places, cities and feudal fiefs in Calabria, Romagna, Lazio with great competence and laid the foundations for the future Duchies of Carpineto, Maenza, Gavignano, Montelanico and Gorga, and transformed the feudal territory into a dukedom also including several surrounding villages. In 1629, she ordered the building of St. Peter's Church, which she provided with gorgeous reliquaries and frescoes, the best known being a fresco attributed to the famous painter Caravaggio. She was married to Gianfrancesco Aldobrandini and mother 2 daughters and 1 son, who also died in 1637 and the family inheritance was therefore taken over by her granddaughter, Olimpia Junior. She lived (1567-1637).


1621-40 Princess-Abbess Magdalene II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)

Maria Klara Theresia von Wartenberg was Contra-Abbess 1629-31. Herford became a Free City (Reichstadt) in  1631. Magdalene was daughter of Count Simon VI zur Lippe (1554-1613) and his second wife, Countess Elisabeth von Holstein-Schaumburg, and lived (1595-1640).


1621-58 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Greuth of Säckingen (Germany)

1630 she cleared the relationship between the chapter and the Town of Säckingen. During the The Thirty Year War the chapter had to pay heavy taxes and requisitions, and the chapter fled for the Swedish and French troops to Baden. Laufenburg was plundered and on top of that came the plague. 1648 she wrote to King Louis XIV of France asking for an end to the war contributions and 1652 she was the last Fürstäbtissin of the Chapter to be invited to the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag). She was daughter of Christoph von Greuth zu Jestetten and Catharina Muntprat von Spiegelberg.

Margherita Aldobrandini, Principessa di Parpugnano

1622-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita Aldobrandini of Parma (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Rainuncio I (1569-1622), she chaired the government in the name of their son, Odoardo I. She was Princess di Parpugnano in her own right from 1601, and daughter of Olympia Aldorandini, Princess di Rossano Calabro (1567-1623-37), and lived (1585-1646).

Anne de Rohan

1622-84 Sovereign Princesse Anne de Rohan of Guémené, Châtellenie de Guémené, Plouray and Corlay, Baroness de Montauban and Dame de Saint Maure
1660-84 Duchess of Saint-Maure

Succeeded her brother, Pierre de Rohan, who did not have any children in his two marriages. During the Fronde she participated in all the complots against Richelieu and Cardinal de Retz. In 1660 the king named her Duchess of Saint Maure. She was married to Louis VIII de Rohan, Duke de Montbazon (1598-1667), mother of a number of children and lived (1604-84)

Hedwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Herzogin von Pommern-Stettin

1622-50 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of and Administrative Unit and Castle of Neustein in Pommern-Stettin (Poland/Germany)

Her husband Philipp had taken over the Evangelical Bishopcy of Cammin, when his brother, Franz succeeded their older brother as Duke of Pommern-Stettin. He later received the Offices of Neustettin and Rügenwalde until he succeeded his brother as duke but died after only two years, and she took over Neustettin as her dowry. In 1640 she founded a Gymnasium (High School) in the Town of Neustettin. Like the marriages of all the last Dukes of Pommern, theirs was also childless. She was daughter of Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Elisabeth af Danmark, and lived (1595-1650).

Anna, von Gottes Gnaden geborene Herzogin von Stettin, Pommern, und letzte dieses Geschlechts, Witwe Ernsts, Fürst von Croy 

1622-60 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Pommern-Stettin of Stolp in Pommern (Poland/ Germany)

2 years after the death of her husband, Ernst de Croy, she moved back to Pommeren where her brother, Duke Bogislaws XIV, granted her the tenantcy of Stolp as her dorwy, but she had to retreat to Rügenwalde, Stettin and Greifswald during the Swedish-Polish war. 1624 her son, Ernst Bogisla, inherited the titles of Prince and Duke de Croÿ from his uncle, Charles Alexandre, and she won a case at the Imperial Court that secured his inheritance, but the judgement was never executed, and his cousin, Marie Claire had control over the family estates and was created Duchess d'Havré in 1627. When her brother died as the last male of the family, she inherited his estates. Her son was named Bishop of Cammin, Governor in Hinterpommern and Governor in Eastern Preussia. She was the 11th and last child of Bogislaw XIII. von Pommern-Stettin and Klara von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, and lived (1590-1660).


1622-70 Hereditary Sovereign Lady Anna Katharina von Hohenzollern of Königsberg-Kynau (Germany)

9th child of Johann Georg zu Königsberg-Kynau (1580-1622), and his second wife, Katharina Berka von Duba und Leipa. Her father was son of Count Joachim zu Zollern (1554-1587), the son of Count Karl I von Hohenzollern (1516-1576), who became a protestant in order not to have to become a prelate in the Catholic Church. Her only 2 surviving sisters, Anna Ursula (1607-67) and Helene (1614/15-) did obviously not inherit the estate and title. Anna Katharina first married Baron Moritz August von Rochow and after his death in 1657 Count Heinrich Christof von Hochberg-Rohnstock (d. 1675), she had no children and lived (1618-70).

Helle Marsvin

1622 Acting County Sheriff Helle Jørgensdatter 
of the County of Arnsborg, Denmark

In 1601 Helle Marsvin had inherited Vapnö, one of the three biggest manor houses in Halland. She became acting County Sheriff after the death of her husband, Jakob Bek til Gladsakse and Beldringe. She lived (1566-1637).

Queen Nzinga

1623-63 Queen Nzinga M'Bandi of N'Dongo and Matamba  (Angola and Congo)
1623-26 Governor of Luanda for the Portuguese

Also Known as Pande Doña Ana I Souza or Jinga, she assigned women important government offices. Constantly driven east by the Portuguese, Nzinga organized a powerful guerrilla army, conquered the Matamba, and developed alliances to control the slave routes. She even allied with the Dutch, who helped her stop the Portuguese advancement. After a series of decisive setbacks, Nzinga negotiated a peace treaty with the Portuguese, but still refused to pay tribute to the Portuguese king. Two of her war leaders were reputedly her sisters, her council of advisors contained many women, among others her sisters, Princess Grace Kifunji and Mukumbu, the later Queen Barbara, and women were called to serve in her army. She was daughter of N'Gola Kiluanzi Kia Samba and succeeded her brother. Lived (1581-1663). 


1623-47 Member of the Council of Government Princess Grace of Matamba and Ndongo (Angola and Congo) 

Before her christening she was named Kifunji, and together with her sister Mukambu, she was closest aide and members of the government of their sister, Queen Nzinga.  Also an important religious leader. In October 1647 she was drowned by the enemy as they retreated. She lived (1587-1647)

A contemporary picture, probably of Kösem Sultan

1623-48 Kösem Mahpeyker Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
1623-32 Regent (Naib-i-Sultanat)
1648-51 Regent Büyük Valide Sultan

In 1623 Sultan Mustafa was deposed for the second time and replaced by her son 14-year-old son, Murat IV, and she acted as his regent for some years a corresponded frequently with the various Grand Viziers about the state of the empire. When Murat died as result of alcoholism in 1640, she had to have Murat's corpse brought before the door of the Cage, where her younger son, Ibrahim, had spend most of his life, like all princes in the Ottoman house, because he was too scared of being killed by his older brother to come out. He was mentally ill and power again fell to her together with the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha, but they were often at odds, trying to overthrow each other. 1648 Ibrahim was deposed and killed. Her grandson Mehmed IV was only six, and Kösem again became regent with the title of Great Mother Sultan because Mehmed's mother Hadice Tarhan was only 23 and considered too young to rule. The period was the period of corruption, bribery and anarchy, and a fierce rivalry grew between Kösem Sultan and Turhan Hatice Sultan. Kösem tried to save herself and her followers by plotting to poison the young sultan - and to replace him with his mad cousin Süleymen. But Turhan Hatice Sultan learned of the plot and thwarted it with the help of the palace black eunuchs and the sultan's personal guard, and Kösem was strangled to death after a fight, where it took four men to subdue her. Other versions of her name were Kiusem, Koisem, or Kieuzel Sultan, and she was probably born as Anastasya, the daughter of a Bosnian priest, and lived (circa 1589-1651).

Elisabeth van Nassau

1623-26 Regent Princess Dowager Elisabeth van Nassau of Sedan (France)

Her husband, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duc de Bouillon, tried to keep his small but independent state of Sedan independent from France, but as more and more Huguenots came for refuge, it became a Protestant centre within an increasingly hostile Catholic country. She acted as regent during his absence from the state and after his death; she reigned in the name of her son, Frédéric-Maurice (1605-52) and continued to act as temporary regent for him after he came of age. Two of her sisters were regents in Hanau and The Rhine. She lived (1577-1642).


1623-30 Princess-Abbess Isabelle II de Schouteete van Zuylen of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of an old Belgian family of high nobility.


1623-24/25 Acting County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Lykke of the County of Kalundborg with the Shires of Arts and Skippinge and Samsø and County Sheriff of the County of København with the Shires of Smørum, Sokkelund and Ølstykke, Denmark

Anne Lykke was member of one of the riches families of the realm, and so was that of her husband, Cai Rantzau. He was Councillor of the Realm and County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Kalundborg from 1615. He later became General War Commissioner and when he died during the 30 Year War, she took over the administration of the tenancies until the accounts had been settled. In 1625 her estates was estimated to be worth more than 4.600 barrols of corn, which was 7 times more than an average estate owner. When King Christian 4 the following year learned that she had become the mistress of his son, Prince Christian, he had her arrested and send to Bohus in Norway. She refused to accept the king's terms for her release, and she complained to the Council of the Realm who freed her in 1628 and she was given back her only child, Sophie. The following year she married Knud Ulfeldt, and the relationship to the royal family became normalized though never warm. Her daughter, Sophie (1616-35) married her stepfathers brother and had 3 children who died shortly after the birth, and 1635 she died herself. She lived (1595-1641).

1623-1634 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Daniłowiczowa of Hrubieszów, Poland

Appointed by the king as his local representative.

1623-43 Politically Influential Kasuga no tsubone in Japan

In 1604, she was given the position as nurse of Tokugawa Iemitsu. When Iemitsu became the third Tokugawa shogun in 1623, she became the power behind the shogunate, particularly in his isolationist and anti-Christian policies. She was daughter of Saito Toshimitsu, a warlord who chose the wrong side in the fight between Hideyoshi and Akechi Mitsuhide; she was raised by her mother's relatives, and lived (1579-1643).

Raja Ratu Ungu 

1624-35 Raja Ratu Ungu of Patani (Thailand)

The last of three sisters to rule the kingdom since 1585 and must have been well into her 60ies. She became known as 'The Purple Queen". During the reign of the three sisters the Malayan Kingdom-Sultanate was expanded its borders to include Kelantan and Trengganu and became the most powerful Malay state after Johor. It was during this time that Patani became renowned for manufacturing cannon, producing three of the largest bombards ever cast in the region - 'Mahalela', 'Seri Negara' and 'Seri Petani'. With each measuring over six metres in length. She had previously married the neighbouring Sultan Abdul-Ghafur Mohaidin Syah of Pahang, which caused some tension until it was established that each would continue to live in their own state. She had had a daughter by him, who became Raja Kuning, 'the yellow queen' in 1636.

1624-25 Sovereign Duchess Nicole of Lorraine (France)

Also known as Nikolaea, Nicoläa or Nicola von Lothringen, she was daughter of Heinrich II der Gute von Lothringen, who named her as his heir, but in the testament of René II it was stipulated that the Duchy could only be inherited in the male line, and therefore her cousin, Charles de Vaudémont claimed the territory. They got married, and the Estates General decided that the throne belonged to her uncle and father-in-law, Franz, who then abdicated in favour of her husband after a few days. In 1634 Charles was deposed, the following year divorced her, and in spite of the fact that the Pope refused to annul the marriage, he remarried twice. His brother Nicolas, was Duke for one year, France occupied the territory until 1670 when her ex-husband took over the throne again for the last five years of his life and was succeeded by a nephew. She did not have any children, and lived (1608-57).

Margarita Gonzaga

1624-32 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarita Gonzaga of the Marchionate of Nomeny and the Land of Létricourt in Lorraine (France)

After the death of her husband, Henri de Lorraine or Heinrich II, Herzog von Lothringen und Bar, she went to the French court to defend the rights of her daughter, Nicole or Nicoläa to the succession of the throne of Lorraine. She spend the last part of her life in her dowries. She was daughter of  Vincenzo I. Gonzaga (1562-1612), Duke of Mantua and Montferrato and his seond wife Eleonora de' Medici (1566-1611). She lived (1591-1632).

Abbess Jehanne II of Jouarre 

1624-38 Reigning Abbess Jehanne II de Lorraine of Jouarre (France)

Also known as Jeanne, she initiated sweeping monastic reforms in the Abbey and raised from the Crypt the remains of St Ebregisile and the founders of the Abbey in presence of Queen Marie de Medicis and transferred them to the reliquaries which are now in the Parish Church. They were brought out for processions, on Whit Tuesday and sometimes during public calamities. Jehanne de Lorraine demolished the old abbey church and rebuilt it splendidly. She was daughter Henri I de Guise, Duc de Guise, Prince de Joinville, (1550-88), who was murdered for becoming a protestant, and Catherine de Nevers (1548-1633). She lived (1586-1638).


1624 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Dragsholm, Denmark

Lisbeth Gyldenstjerne acted after the death of her husband, Oluf Rosensparre. She lived (1564-1638).   


1624-? Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Hansdatter of the County of Kullegaard with Ludgudeherred in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Widow of Bernd Vacke, Chief of Costums (Toldskriver) in Helsingør (Elsinore, Denmark), where she resided.

Sophia zu Solms-Laubach

1625-39 Regent Dowager Margravine Sophia zu Solms-Laubach of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)

Had been very influential during the reign of her husband, Joachim Ernst, since their marriage in 1612. After his death, she became joint regent for their son Friederich, who died in battle just after reaching the age of majority in 1634 and then for the second son, Albrecht V, whom she send off to security in France. She was overpowered by the ordeals of the 30th year war, its devastation, famine and other problems and at one occasions she had to flee from the Swedish, Imperial and other troops, and the occupation continued even after she joined the so-called Peace of Prague in 1635. She lived (1594-1651).

1625-49 Politically Influential Queen Henrietta Maria de France of England

Very influential during the reign of her husband, Charles I (1625-49). She married him in 1625 and although she was devoted and loyal to her husband, her Roman Catholic faith made her suspect in England. By her negotiations with the pope, with foreign powers, and with English army officers, she added to the suspicions against Charles that helped to precipitate the English civil war in 1642. After 1644 she lived in France, making continual efforts to secure foreign aid for her husband until his execution in 1649. She remained very active in the fight for her son's restoration, and returned to England in 1660, but resumed living in France five years later. Her influence may have affected the religious beliefs of her sons Charles II and James II, although she herself was unsuccessful in her attempts to convert them to Catholicism. She was daughter of Henri IV of France, mother of seven children of whom only three survived into adulthood, and lived (160969).

1625-53 Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth Lucretia of Teschen-Freistadt (Těšín/Cieszyn) (Bohemia - Czech Republic)

Also known as Alžběta Lukrécie or Elżbieta Lukrecja, she succeeded brother, Friedrich Wilhelm of the Slesian Duchy, which had become part of Bohemia, and was successful in maintaining her independence against the co-regency of her husband, Fürst Gundacar von Liechtenstein (who was first married to Countess Agnes of Ostfriesland-Rietberg). She was an ardent follower of the contra-reformation and mother of 3 children. After her death, the Duchy was incorporated into Bohemia. She lived (1599-1653).


1625-74 Sovereign Lady Ursula Catharina zu Donha of Muskau (Germany)

Succeeded her father, Burggraf and Graf Karl Christoph zu Dohna, Herr zu Muskau (1595-1625), initially under the regency of her mother, Ursula von der Schulenburg-Lieberose. Married to Curt Reincke von Callenberg, and was succeeded by son. She lived (1622-74).


1625-43 Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Ursula von der Schulenburg-Lieberose of Muskau (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Karl Christoph von Donha-Muskau, she was regent for their 2 year old daughter until she came of age.


1625-30 Princess-Abbess Juliana Rembold of Baindt (Germany)

The Abbey was founded 1227, and it's Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373 with the rank of a Princess of The Empire.


1625-49 Princess-Abbess Katharina Elisabeth von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Gandersheim (Germany)

Because of the ongoing wars she resided in Delmenhorst and there were numerous fights among the employees of the chapter. The city of Gandersheim was occupied several times by Tilly's troops in 1626. Also known as Catharina Elisabeth she was daughter of Duke Anton II of Oldenburg Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Dannenberg, regent of Delmenhorst 1619-30. One sister, Sidonia, was sovereign of Herford (1640-49) before her marriage to Duke August Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck, and another, Sibylla Maria, was Dechantin of Herford until 1638.  Catharina Elisabeth lived (1603-49).



1625-29 Dowager Reigning Lady Agnes von Brandenburg of the Administrative Unit of Barth in Pommern-Wolgast (At the time German now Poland)

After the death of her husband, Duke Philipp Julius von Pommern-Wolgast (1584–1625), she took over the administration in her dorwy, dem Amt Barth. When she married Duke Franz Karl von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1594–1660) in 1628 she lost the right to her dowry but her new husband, who was a General in the Imperial Army forced Duke Bogislaw XIV to grant her the area for life. She was daughter of Elector Johann Georg (1525–1598) and his third wife Elisabeth von Anhalt (1563–1607), did not have any children and lived (1584–1629).

Unnamed Maharani

From 1626 Regent Aayat Bahs Bigum of Golkonda (India)

After the death of her husband, she reigned in the name of Sultan Abd Allah (1613-26-72). The Golkonda state broke from Gulbarga in 1518 and remained independent under eight sultans until 1687 when it was conquered by the Great Mughal Aurangzeb.


1626-27 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Prebensdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Låland  and Nørre- and Sønderherred, Denmark

Birgitte Gyldenstjierne was widow of Axel Urne til Rygård. She owned the estate until she sold it to Niels Trolle in 1640. Mother of 5 children, and lived (1595-1675)


1626 Feudal Baroness Donna Eleonore Mastrantonio Bardi Centelles of Calcusa (Italy)

Succeeded her father, Vincenzo Mastrantonio, but sold the feudal title to Giuseppe Bologna shortly after.


Before 1626 and 1650-54 Princess-Abbess Maria von Effern, genant Hall of Keppel (Germany)

The Chapter had been protestant since 1572, but as a result of the counter-reformation initiated by Johann VIII von Nassau  (1623-1638), the Chapter was abolished 1626 and transferred to the Jesuits. She managed to have the Chapter restored as a double-convent with both Protestant and Catholic canonesses, and until its secularisation in 1806, the post of Abbesses alternated between representatives of the two denominations.

Anne-Marie-Louise d'Orleans

1627-82 Sovereign Duchess Anne-Marie-Louise d'Orléans of Montpensier, Countess d'Eu, Mortain etc.  (France)

As a French Princess she was also called La Grande Mademoiselle. She held the title for all her life in succession to her mother, Marie de Bourbon (1605-08-27), who died giving birth to her. Her father, Gaston d’Orléans, the brother of Louis XIII. She took an active part on the rebel side in the Fronde of the Princes. In 1652 she relived the city of Orleans at the head of her troops and opened the gates of Paris to Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Condé, and his army. Exiled with her father in 1652, she returned to court in 1657. She fell in love with the duc de Lauzun and got the king’s permission for their marriage - but it was revoked  in 1670. Shortly thereafter, he was imprisoned.  She bought his release in 1681 and apparently married him, but they soon separated. She spent the rest of her life in pious works and the composition of her memoirs. She lived (1627-93).

Marie-Claire de Croÿ-Havré

1627-64 Duchess Marie-Claire de Croÿ-Havré of Havré (Belgium)

Her father, Charles Alexandre Havré, Prince and Duc of Croÿ,  was murdered in 1624 and her cousin, Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ (1620-1684), inherited both princely and ducal titles of Croÿ, but lived with his mother in Pomerania. Marie Claire first married a relative Charles Philippe de Croy, Marquis de Renty (d. 1640) and then his brother, Philippe Francois de Croy, Count of Solre (d. 1650) and in 1627 King Felipe III of Spain raised her Marquesate to a Duchy with her as the first Duchess. Her son, Phillippe Eugene, was Marquis de Renty and Bishop of Valencia until his death in 1665. Then her daughter, Marie Ferdinande (d. 1683) succeeded to the title. She was married to Count Louis van Egmond, Prince de Gavre (d. 1682). Her only son by the second marriage, Ferdinand Francois Joseph de Croÿ-Solre, succeeded to the ducal title. She lived (1605-64). 

1627-31 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Magdalena von Waldeck-Wildungen of Lippe (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Simon VII. von Lippe-Detmold (1587-1613-27) her step-son Simon Ludwig (1610-27-36) succeeded to the county after the regency of her father, count Christian zu Waldeck. She lived (1606-71).

1636-43 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Wildungen of Lippe-Detmold (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Simon Ludwig von Lippe-Detmold, she claimed the regency for her Simon Philipp (1632-36-50), but since she was only 24 and therefore not fully of age (25 years). She aspired to have her father, Christian von Waldeck named Co-Guardian or Contutor - he had already been regent for her husband. Her claims were supported by the courts and Imperial decrees, but her brothers-in-law ignored her rights and were de-facto in charge of the regency. As she feared that her sons were in danger of being taken away from her, she made contact with some troops from Hessen-Darmstadt, who secured the children and placed them under the protection of Landgrave Georg II. von Hessen-Darmstadt. Her brother-in-law Johann Bernhard made plans to divide the county between him and another brother, but this alienated the Land-states who were now on Katharina's side. In 1640 Imperial troops attacked the Castle of Detmold, and disarmed her brothers-in-law, and took up negotiations with her. 10 years later her son died without heirs, and her brother-in-law finally inherited the county two years before his death. His brother Hermann Adolf succeeded him. 1643 she married Philipp Ludwig, Count of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg
(1620-89). Katharina lived (1612-49)


1627-33 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (Denmark and Germany)

Retained undivided possession of the estate after the death of her husband, Duke Alexander of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg. She handed over the estates to the oldest of her 11 children, Hans Christian (1627-53).


1627-29 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Gräter of Heggbach (Germany)

The former Prioress, she died of the plague, and lived (1567-1629).


Until 1627 Reigning Abbess Marie de Guise of Chelles (France)

Daughter of Claude de Guise, duc d'Aumale and Louise de Brézé, and lived (1565-1627).


1627-29 Reigning Abbess Marie Henriette de Bourbon of Chelles (France)

Daughter of King Henri V of France and his mistress Charlotte des Essarts de la Haye, and lived (1609-29).

Kirsten Munk

1627-58 Titular Countess Kirsten Munk of Slesvig and Holsten, Denmark

Married King Christian 4 of Denmark to the "left hand" in a morganatic marriage in 1615 and had 12 children with him (who had a total of 24 children with his two wifes and a number of mistresses). In 1627 she and her daughters were given the title of Countess, but in 1630 she was banned to her estates Boller and Rosenvold, which she had inherited from her mother, Ellen Marsvin, because of an affaire with Count Otto Ludwig zu Salm. One of her daughters was Leonora Christine (see 1643). Kirsten Munk lived (1598-1658).

Barbara Sophie von Brandenburg, Herzogin von Württemberg

1628 Chief Guardian Dowager Duchess Barbara Sophie von Brandenburg of Württemberg
1628-36 Reigning Dowager Lady of Kirchheim (Germany)

As Chief Guardian (Obervormünderin) of her 14-year-old son, she was politically active. She had withdrawn to her dowry after her husband's death but returned to Stuttgart in 1632. She lived (1584-1636).

Anna Sophie von Brandenburg, Herzogin zu Braunschweig

1628-59 Reigning Lady Duchess Anna Sophie von Brandenburg of Schöning in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Hessen (Germany)

1623 she was behind an attempt to murder her husband, Duke Friederich Ulrich (1591-1634). After their separation, she lived at the castle and reigned the territory almost independently. She opened a Latin school. She had no children, and lived (1598-1659).

Gemeralpostmeisterin Alexandrine von Taxis

1628-46 Acting Imperial Postmaster General Alexandrine de Rye in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and and Postmaster General in the Spanish Netherlands, Burgundy and Lorraine (Germany, The Netherlands and France)

Shortly before his death, her husband, Count Leonhard II von Taxis, had named her guardian for their minor son, Lamoral Claudius Franz von Thurn und Taxis, and Emperor Ferdinand II confirmed the guardianship and appointed her to the post of Postmaster General (Generalpostmeisterin der Kaiserlichen Reichspost und Generalpostmeisterin in den Spanischen Niederlanden) in the name of her son. Also King Felipe IV of Spain appointed her as Postmaster General in his territories. Despite the difficulties of the Thirty Years War she showed herself as an able organiser and was able expand the area covered by the Post of the Holy Roman Empire.  In 1637 the new Emperor Ferdinand III confirmed her temporary appointment and the following year he named her daughter, Genoveva, as designated successor should Lamoral Claudius Franz die without heirs. When he turned 25 she resigned. She was daughter of Philibert Bar de Balançon Comte de Varax and Claudine de Tournon-Roussillon, and lived (1589-1666).

Empress Meisho of Japan

1629-43 Meishō Tennō of Japan

明正天皇 was the 109th imperial ruler of Japan, reigning from December 22, 1629 to November 14, 1643. She was the 2nd daughter of Emperor Go-Mizunoo. Her mother was Tokugawa Kazuko, daughter of the 2nd shōgun, Tokugawa Hidetada. Her name was derived by combining the names of two previous empresses, Gemmei (707-715) and her daughter Genshō (715-724). She became Empress after her father; Emperor Go-Mizunoo suddenly abdicated in the Purple Clothes Incident. By her enthronement, she became the first woman to occupy the throne since Empress Shōtoku, who died in 769. During her reign, her father Emperor Go-Mizunoo ruled in her name. In 1643, she abdicated in favour of her younger half-brother, who became Emperor Go-Kōmyō.  Her personal name was Okiko and her title was Onna Kazu no miya. After her abdication, Meisho, lived in retirement for 53 years, having lived (1624-96).

Brandenburgi Katalin

1629-30 Princess Regnant Katharina von Brandenburg of Transylvania (Hungary/Romania)

Became ruler after the death of her husband, Bethlen Gábor (or Gabriel), who was elected prince af the assassination of Báthori Gábor in 1613. A Protestant, though tolerant toward all religions, he had allied himself with the Protestant Frederick, the Winter King of Bohemia and overran Hungary in 1619 and was elected its king the following year. After Frederick's defeat at the White Mountain, Gábor signed with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II the Treaty of Nikolsburg, by which he renounced the royal title but retained control of seven Hungarian counties and received the rank of prince of the empire. He continued his relations with the Protestant powers opposing the emperor in the Thirty Years War, but kept the interests of Transylvania paramount. He was a wise administrator and encouraged the development of law and learning. Katharina was succeeded by brother-in-law Istvan Bethlen, who died 1630. In Transylvania she was known as Brandenburgi Katalin, and lived (1602-44).


1629-47 Guardian Dowager Countess Juliane Elisabeth zu Salm-Neufville of Reuss zu Obergreiz (Germany)
1640-53 Guardian of Reuss zu Schleiz

After the death of her first husband, Heinrich IV Reuss zu Obergreiz (1597-1629), she was guardian for son, Heinrich I, who was raised to the status of Counts in 1673. His relative, Heinrich II von Reuss zu Schleiz, was regent until 1637 and Heinrich III zu Schleiz until 1647 of the state which today is part of Thüringen. After the death of her second husband, Heinrich III, she was guardian for their son, Count Heinrich I (1639-92). She was born as Wild- und Rheingraf zu Salm, and lived (1602-53)


1629-35 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Täschler of Heggbach (Germany)

Daughter of a Mayor of Ravensburg and former nurse, gatekeeper and prioress before her election. In 1632 the ladies of the chapter fled for the Swedish troops first to Waldsee and Biberach and then further into Switzerland. 1634 she was taken hostage in Ravensburg by Swedish troops together with the Abbess of Gutenzell and the Abbots of Weissenau and Schussenried and only released against a large ransom. In 1635 the first ladies returned, but Margaretha died of the plague, after having lived (1591-1635).


1629-33 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Maria Manrique de Lara of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Member of a family of high nobility, descendants of the kings of Navarra, Viscounts of Narbona, Lords of Molina and later counts of Aguilar, which held high, state office and were very influential.

Landgräfin Juliane von Hessen-Kassel, geb. prinzessin von Nassau-Dillenburg

1629-43 Reigning Lady Juliane von Nassau-Dillenburg of the Office and Castle of  Rotenburg in Rotenburg an der Fulda in Hessen-Kassel (Germany)

Took over her dowry after the abdication of her husband, Landgrave Moritz von Hessen-Kassel. Her oldest son, Wilhelm V, took over the landgravate, and the rest of her 14 children moved with her to Rotenburg. Her younger sons were given the Landgravates of Rhinfels, Eschwege etc. She lived (1587-1643).


1629-31 Contra-Abbess Maria Klara Theresia von Wartenberg  of Herford (Germany)

In oppostition to the Princess-Abbess Magdalene II zur Lippe, who reigned 1621-40.


1629-42 Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Hansdatter of the County of Sællemarksgård with Samsø, Denmark

In charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Jakob Brun.

1629-48 Politically Influential Vibeke Kruse in Denmark

Came into the service of Kirsten Ludvigsdatter Munk, the second wife of Christian 4, and later of Munk's mother, Ellen Marsvin. The long-suffering relationship between the king and his wife ended in divorce and Christian and Vibeke had a son, Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve. She is known to have a large degree of influence on the King. He presented her with an estate in Holstein and a house in Copenhagen, but when he died, she was expelled from Rosenborg by Kirsten Munk's son-in-law, Corfitz Ulfeldt, who also tried to initiate a court case against her. She died a few months later. (d. 1648).


1630s Joint Reigning Princess Goshayah-biyche of The Karachai (Russia)

First reigned the Turkic people closely related to the Balkars together with Kamgut, then with Elbuzduk and finally with Giliaksan. The territory was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828 but they continued to resist Russian rule throughout the 19th century.


Circa 1630-circa 60 Queen Nana Yita of Nsuta (Ghana)

Succeeded Queen Nana Ikuro and was succeeded by her son Nana Dansu Abeo. In 1701 Nsuta was one of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.


Circa 1630 Queen Nana Aberewa Ampen of Dwaben (Ghana)

Followed on the throne by son, Nana Ampomben Afera.

Dowager Duchess  Anna Sophia zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

1630-52 Reigning Lady Anna Sophia von Anhalt zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt of the Oberschloss zu Kranichfeld and its villages (Germany)

Widow of Count Carl Günther zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, who acquired the Oberschloss zu Kranichfeld in 1620, and she reigned there after his death. They had no children and her brother-in-law, Anthon, inherited the county of Schwarzburg. Kranichfeld was divided in the Oberschloss and Niederburg and it meant that many streets, houses and even rooms were divided between the different overlords. Anna Sophia had the village given city rights in 1651. She was preoccupied with youth and education and she founded an Academy for women, she was a poet, philosopher, and lived (1584-1652).


1630-70 Sovereign Princess Charlotte di Madruzzo of Valangin, Countess de Challant, Baroness de Bauffremont etc. (France)

The daughter of Gabriele Ferdinando, who died in 1630, she succeeded her brother, Carlo Enrico, 9th Barone di Madruzzo, Sovereign Prince of Valangin etc, who died the same year. She married Charles de Lenoncourt Marquis de Lenoncourt et Blainville, and lived (1602-70).


1630-54 Princess-Abbess Adrienne II de Lannoy of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)

Member of an old and illustrious Belgian noble family, the Lords and Dames of Lannoy etc.


1630-44 Princess-Abbess Katharina III Rueff of Baindt (Germany)

In May 1632 the Swedes attacked the Chapter for the first time, and most of the nuns escaped. In the autumn of 1635 seven of the nuns died of the plague within a few weeks. And in 1643 the chapter was looted three times.

Birgitte Brokkenhus

1630-31 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Lauridsdatter Brockenhuus of the County of with the Shire of Gudme, Salling, Sunds and Vinding, Denmark

Birgitte Brockehuus acted as administrator of the fief and local representative of the king after the death of her husband, Jakob Ulfeldt til Ulfeldsholm. They were parents of Corfitz Ulfeldt, Chancellor of the Realm etc. and husband of Leonora Christine, the daughter of King Christian 4.


1630-63 Princess-Abbess Barbara Thumb of Gutenzell (Germany)

In 1632 the ladies of the Chapter fled the approaching Swedes and escaped to Steiermark. When the Swedes left in 1646, they put the Chapter on fire.


1631-42 Regent Dowager Maharani Mata Karnavati Sahiba of Tehri Garhwal (India)

After her husband, Maharaja Mahipat Shah, was killed in battle she became regent for her son,  Maharaja Prithvi Pat Shah Sahib Bahadur. She became known as the 'rani who chops off noses' for her treatment of her vanquished foes, including the army sent against her by Shah Jahan.

1631-81 Politically Influential Jahanara Begum Sahib of the Mughal Empire (India)

Eldest daughter of Emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahall and is an example of a tradition of unmarried Princesses in the Mughal Dynasty. When her mother Mumtaz Mahall (Taj Mahall) died in 1631 giving birth to her 14th child,  Jahanara, became the uncrowned woman figure head, and her father's fondness for her was reflected in the multiple titles he bestowed upon her, which include Sahibat al-Zamani, Mistress of the Age, and Padshah Begum, or Lady Emperor. Jahanara played an important role in the politics of the imperial family. This is seen through the instrumental position she held in the marriage arrangements of her three brothers. In addition she was politically active during the ‘War of Succession’ that took place at the end Shahjahan's reign as emperor in 1658 when Azrangzib, Jahanara’s brother, challenged and eventually took power from Shahjahan. During the conflict Jahanara supported her father’s claim to the throne and cared for him during his forced imprisonment, which lasted until his death in 1666. Upon her father’s death, Jahanara emerged from fort Agra and was given a sizable monetary gift by Azrangzib. The title of Padishah Begum she was permitted to disobey Aurangzeb's laws and criticize him. Jahanara composed many poems, painted, and honoured her father and mothers' love of the arts, and lived (1614-81).

Jytte Brok

1631-32 Acting County Sheriff Jytte Eskesdatter Brok of the County of Vestervig, Denmark

After her husband, Jørgen Skeel til Sostrup, died, Jytte Brok was in charge of the fief. He was Councillor of the Realm, owned a number of castles and estates, took part in the war of Kalmar and was Rigsmarsk - Chief Commander of the Armed Forces and Prime Minister in 1627. She lived (1595-1640).

Sophia Hedwig zu Branschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Gräfin von Spiegelberg

1631-42 Sovereign Countess Sophia Hedwig zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Spiegelberg (Germany)
1632-42 Regent Dowager Countess of Nassau in Diez (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Ernst Kasimir, Count of Nassau, Katzenelnbogen, Vianden and Diez, Baron of Dillenburg, Governor of Rhineberk, Lieutenant-governor of Gelderland and of Utrecht, Stadtholder of Friesland 1620 and of Groningen and Drenthe in 1625, she took over the regency of Dietz and in 1633 she moved to the old middle-age borough, with little furniture and without any kind of luxury. She was in the middle of the 30-year war, with continuing warfare, troops moving through the country and lootings with damaged the county seriously. On top of it all came failed harvests, epidemics and famine. She developed into a forceful and brave ruler and she was able to hand over the power to her son, Hendrik Casimir, after he came of age in 1634, but he was in Friesland as Stadtholder. After his death in 1640, her second son, Willem Frederik, became Stadtholder of Friesland, and she again takes over the reigns in Dietz. She was very fat and of ill health. Only two of her nine children survived into adulthood, and she lived (1592-1642)


1631-32 Princess-Abbess Josina Walburgis von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort  of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)

Only 15 when she was elected to the post of sovereign of the Eccleastical territory after the death of her aunt, Anna von der Marck, in March. She had a secret relationship to Count Herman Frederik van den Bergh and in December she married him secretly and returned to Thorn. When her father, father, Johann Dietrich, Count von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort, heard about the wedding in 1632, he put her in the very strict Chapter of Rochefort, but after four years she escaped and was reunited with her husband. Her mother was Josina von der Marck, Countess of Rochefort from about 1613. They did not have any children. She lived (1615-83).

Vittoria della Rovere

1631-96 "Heiress" Vittoria della Rovere of Urbino (Italy)

Her father, Hereditary Duke Federico Ubaldo, was poisoned at the age 18 and when his father, Francesco Maria II, died in 1631 the duchy was re-incorporated to the Papal State. Vittoria inherited the vast personal inheritance of the family. She was married to Fernando II de' Medici of Toscana (1610-21-70), and lived (1622-94).

1632-54 Christina, by the Grace of God of Sweden, the Goths and Wends Queen, Grand Duchess of Finland, Duchess of Estonia, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stettin, Pommeria, Cassuben and Wendia, Princess of Rügen and Mistress over Ingermanneland and Wissmar
1654-89 Lady of the Castle and City of Norrköpings, the Islands of Gotland, Öland and Ösel, Wolgast, a number of Estaes in Swedish Pomerania and Poel and Neukloster in Mecklenburg

When she succeeded her father Gustav II Adolf at the age of six, a regency under Axel Oxenstierna reigned until she assumed full royal power in 1644. Throughout her reign, she attempted to increase the authority of the Crown, and in this she was supported by the lower estates against the nobility and the Council of the Realm. The Thirty Years' War, however, had led Sweden into an economic crisis that Christina was unable to resolve. Highly intelligent, she was interested in intellectual pursuits and was influenced by the French philosopher René Descartes, who lived in Stockholm in 1649-50. Christina never married, and in 1654 she abdicated in favour of her cousin Karl of the Pfalz and received a number of tenantcies, conties and estates for life. She moved to Rome and later announced that she had converted to Roman Catholicism and only visited Sweden 2 times. She lived (1626-89). 

Maria Eleonora zu Hohenzollern-Brandenburg

1632-44 Politically Active Dowager Queen Maria Eleonora zu Hohenzollern-Brandenburg of Sweden, Reigning Dowager Lady of Gripsholm, Tynnelsö, Räfsnäs, Eskilstunahus, Strömsholm, Fiholm, Örbyhus and the Estate of Gävleborgs and the Towns of Strängnäs, Mariefred, Torshälla and Gävle with 9 Shires with 65 Parishes

Engaged in disputes with the Regency-council for her daughter, Queen Kristina. 1636 her parental right to Kristina was taken away from here and she was taken to Gripsholms castle. 1640 she fled to Gotland where she got on board a Danish warship that took her to Denmark. In Denmark she became the guest of Christian 4 at Nykøbing Castle. Her intentions where to go to Germany, but as her brother refused to accept her she didn't reach Brandenburg until her nephew Fredrik Wilhelm, which succeeded his father in 1640, gave his permission in 1644. But soon she started to long for Sweden again and after the Westphalian Peace she returned. Before she died in 1655 she had endured one last sorrow, her daughters' abdication from the Swedish Throne. She lived (1599-1655).


1632-61 Marchioness Luisa Bravo de Guzmán of Lanzarote (Spain)

Succeeded her son Agustín de Herrera y Rojas (1626-1632), III marqués de Lanzarote, who had succeeded her husband, Agustín de Herrera y Rojas (1694-1631). Her first husband was Antonio de Mendoza, Juan de Castilla and Pedro de Paniagua. She was succeeded by her brother Manuel Duque de Estrada y Meneses, VII marqués de Lanzarote, who again was succeeded by his daughter.


1632/33 Sultan Alimah I of Nzwani, Comoro Islands

Formerly known as Anjouan, an Island in the Mozambique Channel off northwest Madagascar between Mayotte and Njazídja in the Indian Ocean. The hilly island is only 424 square kilometres. 


1632-47 Olangio to hoelialio Bumulo Raja To Huliyalio of the Downlying Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)

The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Huliyalio Branch and her title means ruler of the downlying parts. She succeeded her adopted father's wife, Mbohelo. Bumlo was succeeded by husband, Tiduhula, who in 1677 was succeeded by sons Bia (d. 1680) and Walangadi I (d. 1718).


1632-37 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes Reuss zu Gera of Mansfeld zu Heldrugen (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Ernst Ludwig von Mansfeld, (1605-32), she became regent for son, Christoph Heinrich (1628-37) until his death. She was daughter of Heinrich II Reuss zu Plauen, Lord zu Lobenstein, Gera,  Herr zu Ober-Kranichfeld and his second wife n Magdalene von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and lived (1600-42).

Claudia de' Medici of Tirol

1632-46 Regent Dowager Archduchess Claudia de' Medici of Tirol (Austria)

Her husband had been Governor of Tirol, but later became Prince of the Territory. After his death she reigned together with 5-person Council of Advisors for her minor son Archduke Ferdinand Karl von Habsburg of Austria (1628-32-62).  She was in charge of the government during the 30-year war, the Swedes threatened Tyrol and she had a defence-line built at the northern boarder, and she reorganised the army. She also promoted trade, cut spending, limited the state-depths, reintroduced law and order, tried to limit the persecution of witches. But she did not allow Protestants or other non-Catholics in the County; she wanted it to be a "holy land”. She lived (1604-48). 


1632-1660 Dowager Reigning Lady Dowager Countess Anna Elisabeth von Anhalt-Dessau of Gronau in Bentheim-Steinfurt (Germany)

Widow of Wilhelm Heinrich von Bentheim-Steinfurt, who was son of Magdalena von Neuenahr-Alpen and Arnold IV. von Steinfurt. They did not have any children, and she gave parts of her estates and possessions to her unmarried sister, Johanna Dorothea who married Moritz von Bentheim-Tecklenburg the following years, which resulted in various problems with the ownership. Friedrichs von Anhalt negotiated a settlement. She lived (1598-1660).


1632-46 Princess-Abbess Anna Eleonora von Stauffen of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1645-46 Princess-Abbess of Essen (Germany)

Had been Dechantin or Decaness of Essen before she was elected Princess-Abbes of Thorn, and was the first to be elected sovereign of both territories. Both Chapters held a vote in the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Westphalischer Kreis (Westphalian Circle), and therefore held two votes in the regional assembly. She also had two votes in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench.


1632-4.. County Sheriff Karen Christoffersdatter Pax of the County of Kornerupgård, Denmark

Karen Pax was widow of Erik Madsen Vasspyd til Vinderup (d. 1615). She apparently (d. 1650).

1632-38 Overseer of the Crown Lands Princess Anna Katarzyna Konstancja of Brodnica, Golub and Tuchola

The daughter of the monarch of Poland, Sweden and Lithuania, Sigismund III Vasa and Queen Konstancja Habsburżanka, she married Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine in 1642, and three years later they had a still-born son. She lived (1619-1651).

Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, Duchesse de Montmorency

1633-50 Sovereign Duchess Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency of  Montmorency and Dame de Saint-Liébault et d'Arvilliers (France)

Succeeded brother, Henri II, Duc de Montmorency et de Damville, Governor of Languedoc and Vice-Roy of New France, and married to Prince Henri II de Bourbon-Condé. She attracted the attention of King Henri IV and therefore she was send out of the country and her husband had to flee to escape the king's fury. After Henri IV's assassination they returned. She was mother of three children and lived (1594-1650).

1633-79 Reigning Territorial Princess Maria Polissena Landi of Val di Taro con Val di Ceno (Valditaro), Marchioness di Bardi, Countess and Baroness di Compiano, Lady di Valdena, Bedonia etc. (Italy)

From 1578 to 1682 the principality consisted solely of the two jurisdictions of Bardi and Compiano, the only example of an “institutional territorial state” in Italy, the life of which, however, is crystallized on foundations antiquated by the imperial protection. All powers were in the hands of the lord, the Most Excellent Prince. 1627 her father Federico I Landi obtained imperial permission to let her succeed all the fiefs of the Consanguin House of Svevi and Genoese Princely family. 1630 was the year of the Manzonian plague and the golden era of the State of Bardi and Compiano was about to end. She was married to Pagano Giovanni Andrea II Doria, Principe di Melfi, Marchese di Torriglia, Santo Stefano d’Aveto, Ottone, Carrega, Garbagna, Cabella e Fontanarossa, Conte di Loano, etc., Viceroy of Sardinia (1607-40). 3 years after her death, the principality was incorporated into Parma. She lived (1608-1679).


1633-36 and 1639-41 Reigning Abbess-General Catalina de Arellano y Zúñiga of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Probably related to Felipe Ramírez de Arellano, Conde de Aguilar, who was Viceroy of Navarra 1618-20.

Anna Maria von Geroldseck und Sulz

1634-49 Hereditary Sovereign Lady Anna Maria of Geroldseck und Sulz (Germany)

Heir to the large territory from her father, Jakob von Geroldseck und Sulz, who was the last male of the family. But conflict broke out between the Overlord, the Emperor of Austria, and the Margrave of Baden-Durlach. Austria occupied the territory and appointed Hermann von Cronberg as Lord, who had already been promised the post in 1620. Anna Maria's mother was Elisabeth Schenkin vom Limburg and married Friedrich von Solms, and she lived (1593-1649).


1634 Adatuang We Abeng of Sidenreng (Indonesia)

Succeeded her father Adatuang La Patiroi, but the same year her half-brother, La Makkaraka, took power in the Bugis state in South-Western Celebes/Sulawesi.


1634-76 Princess-Abbess Anna Christiane Hundbiss von Waltrams of Lindau (Germany)

1646-47 the City of Lindau was under siege during the 30th Year War. Swedish troops tried to conquer the city, the citizen fought back. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the Imperial Troops left the city and the Confessional Independence of the City was confirmed - it remained Protestant. The Catholic Fürstäbtissin Anna Christiane was member of a noble family from Württemberg, which also spells its name as Hundpiß von Waltrams.


1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Hellum, Hindsted, Horns, Hvetbor, Kær and Hanherred, Denmark

Birgitte Lindenov was in charge following the death of her husband, Councillor of State Otte Christensen Skeel. She was employed at the court of Ane Cathrine von Brandenburg, and lived (1581-1648).

Ide Lange

1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Ide Hansdatter Lange of the County of Bøvling with the Shires Skodborg Len, Vandfuld, Hind and Ulvborg, Denmark

Ide Lange was widow of Jens Juul til Kjeldgård, Åbjerg og Nørre Vosborg. Former Governor of Norway and Councillor of the Realm. Died as she fell of a balcony. She lived (1584-1649).


1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Christoffersdatter Krafse of the County of Stege Len with the two Shires of Møn
1653-55 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Hald, Denmark

Hilleborg Krafse til Ravnholt became acting administrator Stege after the death of her first husband, Henrik Holk til Raunholt, who was appointed Count of the Realm by the German Emperor and died of the plauge on the battlefield during the Thirtieth Year War. Later she was in charge of Hald after her second husband, Frands Pogwisch had died, who had been appointed County Sheriff of  Marie Kirkes Provsti in Oslo and Rakkestad Len in Norway at the time of their marriage in 1641 and he continued to be hold high positions at court. She lived (1600-61).


1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe von der Lühe of the County of Ryfylke, Jøderen and Dalerne (Stavangers Len), Norway

Acted after the death of her husband, Jørgen Brockenhuus til Sebber Kloster. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. She was daughter of Carl von der Lühe and Agathe von Oetzen, mother of 3 children, and lived (1590-1667).


 1635-65 Queen Regenant Keakamahana of Hawaii (USA)

19th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii. Succeeded on the death of her father, Keakealanikane. She married her Iwakakualii, son of Makakaualii. Succeeded by her only daughter, Keakealani. She lived (circa 1615-65).

Procession of the Queen of Patani

1635-88 Raja Ratu Kuning of Patani (Thailand)

Known as 'The Yellow Queen', she succeeded her mother Queen Raja Ungu as the last of four successive Queens. She was the last Queen that the Patani chronicles acknowledge as legitimate. European traders found Patani less attractive than some of its neighbours in the second half of the century, and consequently sources are scarce. From the reports deposed in Nagasaki by Chinese junk captains, however, we know that the system of queens continued at least into the 1690s, through two debilitating invasions by Siam in 1674 and 1688. The four queens were able rulers and they all survived several coup attempts amid a fluctuating political situation in the region. All the men who challenged their power were "dealt with" in different ways. Nobody knows what actually happened to them, but they were never seen again.


Around 1635 Datu We Tan-ri Sui of Mario-ri Wawo (Indonesia)

Daughter of I-Dangka We Tan-ri Tuppu, Arumpone of Bone (1590- 1607) and her husband and successor La Tan-ri Ruwa Paduka Sri Sultan Adam (1607-08). She was married to La Pakkou To' Angkone Taddampali, Prince of Bone and their son became Sultan and Arumpone of Bone in 1672, at a time when he had already succeeded her as Datu of Mario-ri Wawo. He lived (1635-96). It is not known when she lived. 


1635-40 Regent Dowager Duchess Luisa Juliana von der Pfalz of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz  (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Herzog Johann II (1591-1604-35), she was in charge of the Duchy in the name of her son, Friedrich. Her oldest daughter, Elisabeth Louise Juliana, Pfalzgräfin von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken, was Äbtissin zu Herford 1649-67. She was daughter of Elector Friedrich IV. von der Pfalz and Louise Juliane van Oranje-Nasau, who was regent from 1610, and lived (1594-1640).

Anna Alojza of Jaroslaw and Ostrog

1635-54 Joint Reigning Princess Anna Alojza  z Ostrogskich Chodkiewicz of Jarosław and Ostróg (Ukraine and Poland)

When her mother, Anna Ostrogska died, she inherited the town and domains jointly with her sister, Katarzyna Zamoyska and her 3 sons, since their father, Alexander, had died in 1603. But it was her who was the actual ruler of the area. At the age of 20 she had been married to the 60-year-old Lithuanian Jan Karol Chodkiewicz who died within a year and never remarried. She lived a highly ascetic life and lived (1600-54).

1635-42 Joint Reigning Princess Katarzyna z Ostrogskich Zamoyska of Jarosław and Ostróg (Ukraine and Poland)

She and her 3 sons inherited the town and domains jointly with her sister, Anna Alojza Chodkiewicz. She (d. 1642).

Anna Sabina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön, Herzogin von Württemberg

1635-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowger Duchess Anne Sabine von Holstein-Sonderburg of Leonberg in Württemberg (Germany)

Also known as Anna Sabina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön, she was widow of Duke-Administrator Julius Friedrich von Württemberg in Juliusburg (1588-1635) and held the castle and landscape as her dowry. She was daughter of Johann, Duke von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (son of king Christian 3 of Denmark) and Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt-Zerbst, mother of 8 children, and lived (1593-1659).


1635-36 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Friis of the County of Århusgård with the Shires of Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisberg, Denmark

Anne Friis was the second wife of Laurids Hansen Lindenov til Oregård (1583-1635), a former courtier. She did not have any children, and lived (1587-1656).

1636-43 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Wildungen of Lippe-Detmold (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Simon Ludwig, she claimed the regency for her Simon Philipp (1632-36-50), but since she was only 24 and therefore not fully of age (25 years). She aspired to have her father, Christian von Waldeck named Co-Guardian or Contutor - he had already been regent for her husband. Her claims were supported by the courts and Imperial decrees, but her brothers-in-law ignored her rights and were de-facto in charge of the regency. As she feared that her sons were in danger of being taken away from her, she made contact with some troops from Hessen-Darmstadt, who secured the children and placed them under the protection of Landgrave Georg II. von Hessen-Darmstadt. Her brother-in-law Johann Bernhard made plans to divide the county between him and another brother, but this alienated the Land-states who were now on Katharina's side. In 1640 Imperial troops attacked the Castle of Detmold, and disarmed her brothers-in-law, and took up negotiations with her. 10 years later her son died without heirs, and her brother-in-law finally inherited the county two years before his death. His brother Hermann Adolf succeeded him. Katharina lived (1612-49).

1636-37 Designate Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Eleonora Maria von Anhalt-Bernburg of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (Germany)

Third wife of Johann Albrecht II and gave birth to his first surviving son, Gustav Adolf, in 1633. He named her, as regent and guardian in his will, jointly with the reformed Elector Kurfürst Georg Wilhelm von Brandenburg. Johann Albrecht wanted his son to be raised in the Calvinist faith, but the Lutheran duke Adolf Friedrich von Mecklenburg-Schwerin protested. He demanded that she withdrew to her dowry in Strelitz and left the child with him. At the funeral the present princes tried to mediate but failed, she refused to close her Calvinist chapel. Her opponents tried to oust her from the castle with all means. Adolf Friedrich kidnapped his nephew from the Castle of Güstrow and raised him with his own children in the Lutheran faith in Bützow, and he also took over the guardianship of Güstrow. She appealed at the Emperor tried to find support in Sweden. Even though Adolf Friedrich harassed her, she did not move to her dowry until 1644, and from then on her 11-year-old son lived at Güstrow Castle. At the same time the Swedish, Imperial and Prussian troops crossed through Mecklenburg several times, causing much looting and hardship. Also mother of three daughters, she lived (1600-57).

1636-63 Princess-Abbess Maria Scholastica Erberhard of Heggbach (Germany)

Elected Abbess by the ladies of the chapter in exile in Feldbach in Thurgau, where they had fled for the Swedes. But they soon returned and continued their life in the territory. 1644 she wrote to Emperor Ferdinand III asking for a moratorium against the creditors, this was granted and the depths were cancelled, but still the finances remained limited and it took years to rebuild the convent.


1636-41 Princess-Abbess Maria Magalena von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)

Her election as successor of her half-sister, Magalena, took place in Liège where the 13 canonesses and 3 canons had fled for the plauge. She accepted 21 articles set up by the ladies of the chapter to limit her powers, and the situation was still insecure because of wars and epedemics. She was daughter of Gottfried, Herr zu Üttingen, Wolmeringen, Ennery, Clervaux und Kumeringen and Elizabeth de Heu, and lived (1581-1641).


1636-39 Reigning Abbess-General Magdalena Enríquez Manrique de Ayala of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The various branches of the Mandrique family held many Duchal and Countly titles.


1636-41 Reigning Abbess Gertrud Giel von Gielsberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The whole complex was almost totally destroyed during the 30 Year War (1618-48). She was daughter of Jörg Christoph Giel von Gielsberg and Anna Katharina von Bernhausen from Swabia.

Marie-Chrétienne of Savoia

1637-38 and 1638-48 Regent Dowager Duchess Marie-Chrétienne de France of Savoia and Piedmont (Italy)

Following the death of her husband, Victor Amadeus I (1630-37), she was regent for two sons, Francesco Giacinto (d. 1638) and Carlo Emanuele II. Civil war erupted between her and her brother-in-law, Thomas from 1639-42. Until the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, France remained a threat to Savoy.
As Princess of France her official title was Madame Royale. 
She lived (1606-63).

Amalie Elisabeth von Hessen-Kassel

1637-50 Regent Dowager Landgravine Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münzenberg of Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
1643-51 Lady of the Administrative Office of Schwarzenfels in Hanau

Even though she was with her husband Wilhelm V in Ostfriesland when he died, she was immediately named regent for their son Wilhelm VI and was in control in spite of the fact that she did not return to the Landgravate until 1640 because of the upheavals during the Thirty Years War. She was an able ruler and managed add new territory to the state. She made a truce with the emperor but formed an alliance with France and became a leading force in the Protestant Group during the warfare. As regent she chaired the Councils of Regency almost daily, she chaired various Local Diets (Landtags), which she called when she felt the need for it. She was daughter of Count Philipp Ludwig II von Hanau–Münzenberg, and after the death of the last of Münzenberg line she claimed her rights on the basis of a inheritance-treaty from 1643, and received the Office of Schwarzenfels as security and handed over the territory as her own property. She was mother of several children and lived (1602-51).

Ursula von Solms-Braunfels

1637-48 Stadtholder Countess Ursula von Solms-Braunfels of the Principality of Orange (France)

Appointed to the post after the death of her husband, Christoph, Burgrave and Lord zu Dohna-Schlobitten, who had been an Aide of the Princes of Anhalt-Köthen, Advisor of Elector Friederich V. von der Pfalz, the Winter-king of Bohemia, before he was appointed Governor of Oranje in 1630 by her brother-in-law, Friedrich Heinrich of Orange-Nassau, Stattholder of the Netherlands, who was married to her sister, the politically influential Amalia zu Solms-Braunfels. She was followed on the post by her son Friedrich (1621-48-60-88). The daughter of Count Johann Albrecht I von Solms-Braunfels in Braunfels and Gambit and Countess Agnes zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, she lived (1594-1657).

Luigia Maria Gonzaga

1637-47 Governor Ludowika Maria Gonzaga of Nivernais (France)
1649-67 De Facto Co-Ruler Queen of Poland
1655-67 Sovereign Duchess of Opole and Racibórz

Very political influential and de facto co-ruler after her marriage to Władysław IV Waza (1595-1632-48) and during the reign of his younger brother, king Jan II Kazimierz Waza (1609-48-68). Maria Ludvica Gonzaga, Princess of Mantua, was also known as Marie-Louise de Gonzague, and lived (1611–67).

1637-38 Regent Dowager Empress Eleonora Gonzaga of Austria

Third wife of Ferdinand II of Austria and after his death; she acted as regent for stepson Ferdinand III, who was participating in the Thirty Years War. She established Carmelite convents in both Graz and Vienna. The daughter of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga of Mantua) and Eleonora de Medici, she did not have any children of her own, and lived (1598-1655).

1637-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön of The Castle and Administrative Unit of Rügenwalde in Pommern (Germany)

At the day of her marriage to Bogislaw XIV, who was the last Duke of Pommern-Stettin (1620-25) and Duke of Pommern (1625-37) and Evangelican Bishop of Cammin (1623-37) he transferred the Schloss and Amt (or Bezierk) von Rügenwalde to her for life. Her husband was a weak ruler, entangled in the chaos of the Thirty Years War. As his brothers and cousins died, he inherited all of Pommern but the united duchies did not have an united administration. In 1633 he suffered a stroke and until his death 4 years later, the Duchy was conducted by a Council of Regency. Her sister, Anna, was the second wife of Bogislaw's father and her sister, Sophia was the wife of her brother-in-law, Philipp II, and as her sisters, and she did not have any children. Elisabeth lived (1580-1653).

Maria Anna de Austria

1637-46 Politically Influential Empress Maria Anna de Austria of The Holy Roman Empire

Already by the time of her marriage to Archduke Ferdinand, she became very influential at court. In 1637 he succeeded his father as Emperor Ferdinand III, and she became involved in politics and was his closest aide. During the Thirty Years War, the imperial family moved to Linz, and here she died of poisoning during her last pregnancy, her daughter was still alive, and was born by a caesarean, but died soon after. Maria Anne was daughter of Felip III of Spain and Archduchess Margarete of Austria, and lived (1606-46). 

Queen Cecylia Renata of Poland 

1637-44 Politically Influential Queen Cecilia Renata von Habsburg of Poland 
1638-44 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Brodnica, Golub and Tuchola

Influential during the reign of her husband, king Władysław IV Zygmunt Waza (Vladislav IV Vasa) (1595-1632-48). Her son Zygmunt Kazimierz died in 1647 aged 7 and her only daughter Maria Anna Isabella, died one month after her birth in 1642. After Cecilia Renate's death her husband married Maria Ludovica Gonzaga (1611-67). The daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II von Habsburg, Count of Tyrol, Archduke von Steyer and King of Bohemia and Anna-Maria von Bayern, and lived (1611-44).  

Jeanne-Baptiste de Bourbon

1637-70 Reigning Abbess Jeanne-Baptiste de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

At the age of 10 she entered the Abbey of Chelles and Louise de Bourbon-Lavedan appointed her as coadjutrice at the age of 16, but she did not take over the position until she was 25. She reigned with absolute "souverainty" and her direct dependence on the Pope in Rome allowed her to act autonomously from the church in France.  In 1641 she obtained royal letters confirming the reform and finally quashing the claims of the monks, who sought to organize themselves independently of the authority of the abbess. The following year the Rule approved by Sixtus IV was printed at Paris, but in 1658, the Sacred Congregation of Rites categorically condemned that she of her own authority, obliged the monks and nuns of her obedience to recite offices, say Masses, and observe rites and ceremonies which had never been sanctioned or approved of by Rome. She was the legitimized daughter of king Henri IV and Charlotte des Essarts, and her full sister; Marie Henriette de Bourbon (1609-29) was Abbess of Chelles. She lived (1608-70).

1637-81 Territorial Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini (Junior) of Rossano (Italy)

Daughter of Jorge Aldobrandini (1591-1637) and Hipólita Lodovisi, she succeeded her grand mother, Olimpia Senior.  First married to Paolo Borghese and after his death to Camillo Pamphilj (Panfili) (1622-66), the nephew of Pope Innocenzo X and son of another heiress, Olimpia Maidalchini. The Aldobrandini family's wide domain enjoyed a great artistic and urban growth, and they maintained their dukedom until 1816, when Pope Pius VI abolished feudalism. Mother of 5 children, she lived (1623-81).

1637-44 Sovereign Duchess Anna Carafa Gonzaga Colona, Sabbioneta, Princess di Stigliano, 6th Duchess di Rocca Mondragone, Duchess di Traetto, Countess di Fondi, Baroness di Calotone, Piadena e Spineda, Lady di Montenero, San Lorenzo, Laviano, Castelgrande, Rapone, Alianello, San Arcangelo, Roccanova, Accettura, Gorgoglione, Guardia, Jannano, Pietra d’Acino, Riardo, Teano, Roccamonfina, Sessa, Minervino, Volturara, Moliterno, Armento, Montenuovo, Procina, San Nicandro, Pietravaisano, Casafredda, Galluccio, Capolungo, Itri, Fratta, Castelforte, Spegno, Sperlonga, Pastena, Sauvi, Casalnuovo, Castellorato, Monticello, Isola, Campomele, Caramanico, Torcello et cetera (Italy)

Succeeded her grandparents since both her father and her 2 brothers had died. The grandparents were Don Luigi Carafa, 4th Principe di Stigliano, 4th Duca di Rocca Mondragone, Signore di Montenero, San Lorenzo, Laviano, Castelgrande, Rapone, Alianello, San Arcangelo, Roccanova, Accettura, Gorgoglione, Guardia, Jannano, Pietra d’Acino, Riardo, Teano, Roccamonfina, Sessa, Minervino, Volturara, Moliterno, Armento, Montenuovo, Procina, San Nicandro, Pietravaisano, Casafredda, Galluccio (1567-1630) and Donna Isabella Gonzaga, Duchessa sovrana di Sabbioneta, Duchessa di Traetto, Contessa di Fondi, Baronessa di Caramanico, Signora di Acquaviva, Inola, Maranola, Carpello, Sperlonga, Monticelli, Pastena, Schigia, Turino e Agnone (1565-1637), the daughter and heir of the Duke of Duca Vespasiano I and Anna d’Aragona dei Duchi di Sogorb. The daughter of Don Antonio Carafa della Stadera, Duca di Rocca Mondragone, Duca di Traetto, Conte di Fondi (d. 1624) and Elena Aldobrandini - the daughter of Don Gianfrancesco 1st Principe di Sarsina e Meldola and Olimpia Aldobrandini (1587/1589-1663) - she was married to don Filippo Ramiro de Guzman Duca di Medina de la Torres (d. 1668) and mother of 3 sons. She lived (1607-44).


1638-50 Regent Dowager Landgravine Margareta Elisabetha von Leiningen-Westerburg-Schaumburg of Hessen-Homburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Friedrich I (1585-1622-38), she took over the regency for son, Wilhelm Christoph Landgraf zu Bingenheim (1625-81). She asked her brother-in-law, Philipp von Hessen-Butzbach (1581-1661) to act as joint regent, but he refused with reference to his high age, and the fact that he had already acted as regent for his nephew, Georg II von Hessen-Darmstadt from 1621. She was mother of 6 children, and lived (1604-67).

1638-41 Regent Dowager Countess Sibylle Christine von Anhalt-Dessau of Hanau-Münzenberg (Germany)
1641-47 and 1585-86 Reigning Dowager Lady
of the Castle of Steinau in Steinau an der Straße

In charge of the government from the time of death of her husband, Philipp Moritz, until the death of her only surviving child Philipp Ludwig III, after which she took charge of her dowry. The county was first inherited by Johann Ernst von Hanau-Münzenberg-Schwarzenfels, who died the following year. As widow she had substantial financial claims to the county, which was in economic difficulties because of the 30 Year War, and therefore she was married off to the next heir, Friedrich Casimir von Hanau-Lichtenberg (1623-85) in 1647 after he had come of age. The couple was in various disputes during their marriage, one of the reason was that she was Reformed - like the inhabitants in Münzenberg - and he belonged to the Lutheran Faith. She lived (1603-86).

1638-45 Regent Dowager Countess Ernestine de Ligne of Nassau-Siegen (Germany)

Following the death of her husband, Johann VIII of Nassau-Siegen, Marchese di Monte Caballo, (1583-1638), she reigned in the name of their son, Johann Franz Desideratus, who was created Fürst of Nassau-Siegen, in 1652. He lived (1627-99). In 1650 she signed the treaty re-establishing the Chapter of Keppel, which was governed by a Princess-Abbess but under the sovereignty of Nassau with the titulature "ihre fürstliche Gnaden, die fraw Princessin Ernestine de Ligne und des Reichs verwittibte grävin zu Nassau Siegen". She lived (1594-1663).


1638 Temporary Administrator Konstancja Ligęza of Rzeszów (Poland)

In charge of the domain after the death of her father, Castellan Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza until her marriage to Grand Marshal and Hetman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski. Her mother was Zofia Krasińska, the daughter of starost and voivod Stanisław Krasiński, and she (d. 1648).

Marie-Madeleine d'Aiguillon

1638-75 Sovereign Duchess Marie Madeleine de Vignerot of Aiguillon (France)
1649-61 Governor of Le Havre

The niece of the Cardinal Richelieu, as daughter of his sister Françoise (d. 1615) who was René Vignerot, Seigneur de Pont-Courlay (d. 1625). She was a renowned cultural personality of her times and her Salon was famous. Succeeded by niece Marie-Thérèse Vignerot, and lived (1604-1675).


1638-52 Princess-Abbess Maria von Ramschwag of Schänis (Switzerland)

In her role as Kollatorin - her right to appoint the local clergy - she confirmed the earlier decisions taken about the church of Amden in 1642 and had to flee for the Sweds in 1647. She was daughter of Kasper von Ramschwag, Steward of Gutenberg and Sophia von Kippenheim, and lived (1579-1652).


1638-44 Abbess Nullius Barbara Tarsi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

As every newly appointed Abbess of Conversano, she received public "homage" of her clergy after her appointment,the ceremony of which was sufficiently elaborate. The clergy, in a body repaired to the abbey; at the great gate of her monastery, the Abbess, with mitre and corsier, sat enthroned under a canopy, and as each member of the clergy passed before her, he made his obeisance, and kissed her hand.


1638-55 Reigning Abbess Marguerite de la Trémoille of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Former Coadjutrice and Abbess of another chapter. She continued the work of reform striving to revive a real "spirit of community" re-establishing, enclosure, poverty, silence, as well as morning and evening meditation in the monastery now numbering 120 religious.

Dutch noble lady

1638-71 Sovereign Marchioness Maria Elisabeth II van den Bergh 's-Heerenberg of Bergen op Zoom, Countess of Walhain and 's-Heerenberg (The Netherlands)

Given the Marchionate as a fief from in 1635, three years after her aunt, Maria Elisabeth I, died, but she was not able to take the fief into possession until after the Peace of Munster in 1648. Her aunt's widower, Albert, Count van den Bergh, had claimed the succession of his wife, and he was given the Marchionate as a fief by the king of Spain in 1641, and not until 1650 did he give up his claims, after she gave up her claims to the County of Bergh. Maria Elisabeth II ruled jointly with husband, Fürst Eitel Friedrich zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen until his death in 1661. She was succeeded by daughter, Franziska Henrica, and lived (1613-71). 


1639 Queen Regnant Soanaomby of Antakarana (Madagascar)

She was the elder daughter of the king Kozobe or Kazobe, who had succeeded the founder of the Sakalava Kingdom , Queen Ambary in 1609. After his death she ruled with her son, Andriamaitso (he ruled 1639-1689).


Until before 1639 Lieutenant-Governor Mary Colles of Alderney (A Dependency of the English Crown)

In charge of the island sometime during the 1630ies. John Chamberlain had been given the lease by Queen Elizabeth I in 1584 after his brother George got involved with the faction supporting Mary, Queen of Scots. He started the hereditary rule of the Chamberlain family that lasted until 1640, through several vicissitudes, mainly caused by the family’s Catholic faith; disputes with the islanders; and a temporary holding of the lease by Elizabeth’s favourite, the Earl of Essex from 1591. John Colles followed her on the post around 1639.

Berte Friis

1639 Acting County Sheriff Berte Nielsdatter Friis of Riberhus with Gjørding, Skads and Veser Herred, Denmark

Berte Friis was widow of Albert Skeel til Hegnet, Fusingø, Holbækgård, Katholm ,Hessel og Lergrav, who held many high positions in the state administration and army. They had 8 children, and she. She lived (1583-1652).


1639-40 Overseer of the Crown Lands Urszula Grudzińska of Szadek, Poland

Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration. She was widow of  Jan Opaliński h. Łodzia (1581-1637), was mother of 11 children, and lived (circa 1600-circa 1659).

Anna Aragona

Around 1639 Reigning Princess Giovanna Agliavia Aragona Cortes of Castevetrano, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Duchess of Terranova, Marchioness of Avola and Valle Oaxaca and Countess of Borghetto and Priego  (Italy)

Also Grandee of Spain (noble) and married Ettore Pignatelli, Duke of Monteleone and Count of Borrello.

Last update 16.12.16


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