Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

  WOMEN IN POWER 
1540-1570

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


Gertrud Parsberg

154.. County Sheriff Gertrud Tønnesdatter Parsberg of Annisegård

Gertrud Parsberg held the tenantcy as security for lones in a period of 9 years. She was widow of Johan Bjørnsen Bjørn (d. 1534). She (d. 1552).


Isabella of Poland

1540-41 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella Jagiello of Poland of Hungary
1541-51 and 1556-59 Regent of Transylvania and Siebenbürgen (Hungary)
1551-56 Sovereign Duchess of Troppau and Opelln in Slesia (Germany-Poland)

Her husband King János I Szapolyai (or Zápolya) of Hungary (1526-40) died two weeks before  the birth of their son Janos II Zigismund Zapolyta (1540-71), and she began her struggle to keep the Hungarian throne as a widow queen and the guardian of her son, who was elected electus rex in the meantime. After the reoccupation of Buda in 1541, she had to go to Transylvania on the order of the Sultan, where she reigned over the territories under her authority. However, the real governor was György Martinuzzi. In the summer of 1551 she left Transylvania, which fell into the hands of Ferdinand Habsburg in accordance with the treaty of Nyírbátor, and handed over the insignia of the Kingdom to Ferdinand in exchange for Opelln and Troppau in Slesia. By the request of the Hungarian nobles, she returned to the country together with her son and her advisor, Mihály Csáky, in autumn 1556. After this she set up her Transylvanian chancellery with the help of Mihály Csáky, and the new state started to function, and she ruled until her death. She was daughter of Sigismund I of Poland, and mother Bona Sforza, she lived (1519-59).


Elisabeth von Brandenburg

1540-45 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg (Germany)
1540-58 Reigning Dowager Lady of Münden

After a few years as the second wife of Duke Erich I (1470-1540), she converted to Protestantism, promoted the Calvinist faith, and forced her husband to have his mistress, Anna Rumschottle, burned as a witch. She held the regency jointly with Philipp von Hessen for son Erich II, and introduced Protestantism to the state during her reign. One year after her son took over the government she married Count Poppo XII. zu Henneberg in Thüringen (1513-1574) and continued to reign in her Dowry Münden, but in 1555 she moved to Henneberg. The daughter of Kurfürst Joachim I. and Elisabeth of Denmark (1485-1555), she was mother of a son and three daughters by her first husband and lived (1510-58).


1540-61 Regent Dowager Countess Anna von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Ostfriesland (Germany)

Widow of Enno II Cirksena and regent for three minor sons Edzard II (1532-40-93), Christoph (1536-66) and Johann (1538-91). Anna's government was supported by the States and favoured a bi-confessional co-existence system. Personally she was in favour of the reformation, but she remained neutral because the nobility was split more or less fifty-fifty between Lutheranism and  "Zwinglianismus". She also tolerated both Catholics and Spiritualists, and it was only after pressure from the Emperor that she banned the Mennonites (Baptists) in 1549. She concentrated on consolidating the territory and used her diplomatic skills and will to compromise. Her most important advisor was her brother, Christoph von Oldenburg. In 1558 she decided that her three sons should govern the territory jointly after her regency was over, as a way to limit the influence of the House of Vasa after the marriage of Edzard to Princess Katharina of Sweden. She lived (1501-75).

Louise de Clermont-Tallard, Comtesse de Tonnerre

1540-92 Sovereign Countess Louise de Clermont-Tallard of Tonnerre (France)

Succeeded mother, Anne de Husson, who reigned from 1537, and mamaged to buy the remaining parts of the County from the other heirs. She was brought up with the royal children, was Maiden-of-honor to Louise de Savoie, and a close confidante of Catherine de' Medici and became influential during the latters regency and among other served as go-between for Catherine de' Medici and Elizabeth I of England during one of the many attempts to negotiate the marriage to one of the royal sons of France. She was first married François Du Bellay and had a son, Henri (1540-54) and 1556, she married Antoine de Crussol, enabling him to raise the title of Baron of Uzès to that of count, then duke in 1565 and peer in 1572. Succeeded by nephew and lived (1496-1592).


 

Circa 1540-69 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Brosse of Penthièvre (France)

Her father, René de Brosse, was killed in Italy in 1525. She was married Francois II of Luxembourg. Her son, Sébastien de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl, got the title of Duke of Penthièvre, and was succeeded by daughter Marie in 1579. 


 

1540-59 Politically Influential Empress Sabla Wangal of Ethiopia

Widow of emperor Lebna Dengel [or Wanag Sagad or Dawit II] and the political advisor of her son Galawdewos [Atsnaf Sagad I]. Also known as Seble Uengel, she was the daughter of a father from northern Tigre and a mother from Simien (d. 1568). 


 

1540-59 Politically Influential Princess Ameta Giyorgis of Ethiopia

Influential during the reign of her brother, Gelawdenos. Daughter of Emperor Lebna Dengel.


 

1540-56 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)

At the time of her election, the economic situation of the convent was very bad, and she was preoccupied with the restoration. At the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) in 1542, she voted just after the Prelates and the Abbess of Rottenmünster. Two years later she was represented by Mr. Weingarten and Mr. Marchtal. The same year she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) and in 1555 she was represented in the Imperial Diet by the Counts of Swabia. She was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Anna von Zweibrücken, and her sister, Sibylle, had been Princess-Abbess of Essen since 1533.


1540-45 County Sheriff Anne Arvidsdatter Trolle of Åsum with Gers Herred and Elleholm Len (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1540-41 Acting County Sheriff
of Sølvitsborg Len with Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister Herreds in Blekinge
1540-57
 County Sheriff Elleham in Blekinge

Anne Trolle was widow of Axel Eriksen Urup til Ugerup, who was Lensmand or County Sheriff of Sölvesborg etc. until his death. After his death she was in charge of the two fiefs in Skåne, which was incorporated in Sweden in 1658.


Anne Friis

1540-41 Acting County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Friis of the County of Åstrup with the Shires of Vennebjerg and Jerslev, Denmark

Anne Friis was the second wife of Ove Vincentsen Lunge, who had 3 daughters with his first wife, Karen Rosenkrantz and 8 children by her. She (d.


 

1540 Acting County Sheriff Christine Johansdatter Urne of the County of Amtofte, Denmark

Kristine or Christine Urne was widow of Iver Hansen Skeel til Palsgård and Nygård. She (d. after 1545).


 

1540-55 County Sheriff Berte Eggertsdatter Ulfeldt of Herrested Birk, Denmark

Beate or Berte Ulfeldt was widow of Niels Evertsen Bild til Ranvholt, who had the tenantcy granted with the specification that she would keep it for 5 years after his death, and for their children 5 years after her death. She lived (d. 1555).


1541 Governor Beatriz de la Cueva de Alvarado of Guatemala (Spanish Colony)

After the death of her husband, Pedro de Alvarado, she manoeuvred her own election and became the
only woman to govern a major American political division in Spanish times. A young and ambitious woman who styled herself the Hapless One (La Sin Ventura), she was drowned a few weeks after assuming office in the destruction of Ciudad Vieja by a sudden flood from the volcano Agua. She was succeeded by brother, Francesco de la Cueva y Villacreces, Governor 1540-41 and 1541-42.


 

1541-50 Regent Dowager Marchioness Jacoba de Croÿ of Bergen-op- Zoom (The Netherlands)

Jacoba van Croy, markgravin van Bergen was in charge of the margravate after the death of her husband, Antoon, who was lord from 1532 and Marquess from 1533. Her son Jan IV van Glymes took over as regent in 1550 at the age of 22. Jacoba (d. 1559).


Katharina von Mecklenburg, Kurfürstin von Sachsen

1541-61 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of the Castle and Office of Wolkenstein in Sachsen (Germany)

An early supporter of Martin Luther, she was in opposition to her brother-in-law, Duke Georg of Mecklenburg, who tried to bribe her to remain Catholic. Her husband, Heinrich von Sachsen-Freiberg, at first suppressed Lutheranism, but Freiberg became Lutheran. After Gerorg's death in 1539 they moved to Dresden and introduced the reformation here. Heinrich died in 1551, and she spent the rest of her life in her dowry, the Castle and Office of Wolkenstein. She was mother of six children, and lived (1477-1561).


 

1541-42 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Timmesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Vesterherred, Denmark

Sidsel Rosenkrantz was widow of Erik Krumedige. She (d. 1557).


Anne Rosenkrantz

1541-51 Acting County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Rosenkrantz of Båstad in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Anne Rosenkrantz was widow of Tyge Krabbe who held it as security for lones to King Frederik I. Her son-in-law, Peder Skram paid it off. She lived (circa 1490-1551).


 

Until 1541 Acting County Sheriff Elline Corfitzdatter Rønnov of Askimne in Halland (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)

Ellen or Elline Rønnow was widow of Claus Ågesen Thott til Hjuleberga (d. circa 1522). She held a number of separate estates 1523-24. She (d. before 1544).


 

 1541 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Hansdatter Holck of the County of Ellinge, Denmark

Kirsten Holck til Barritskov was first married Peder Lauridsen Baden and follwed him as holder of the bishoply tenantcy. (Bispelensmand) Her second husband was Steen Brahe til Knudstrup. She (d. circa 1599).


1541-44 County Sheriff Dorthe Hennekesdatter Sehested of Ellinge Bispelen and the County of Årupgård, Denmark

Dorthe Sehested was daughter of Hennk Sehested, who had not been Lensmand of the tenantcy (Bispelensmand). She first married Otto Drewe, then Mikkel Grape and finally Mogens Kaas til Brendore. (d. 1579).


Susanne Bølle

1541-69 County Sheriff Susanne Eilersdatter Bølle of Marup Len
1563-65 Acting County Sheriff of Stege Len

Susanne Bølle was daughter of Eiler Bølle (d. 1534) and Anne Bildsdatter (Bild) til Hellerup and inherited Nakkebølle around 1534, she was first married to Claus Eriksen (Ravensberg) (d. 1541) secondly to Claus Eriksen Ravensberg til Kindholm and finally to Jacob Brockenhuus, and was in charge of the fief during her husband, admiral Jakob Brokenhuus' imprisonment in Sweden. She (d. 1569).


 

1542-67 Princess-Abbess Maria von Hohenlandenberg of Gutenzell (Germany)

The chapter was founded in 1230, started the process of independence in 1417 and in around 1521 the Abbess achieved the rank of Princess of the Realm.


1542-51 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of Holmekloster, Denmark
1560-63 and 1563-70 County Sheriff of the County of Lister, Norway

Sophie Lykke was married to Councillor of the Realm, Jacob Hardenberg, who died 1542. Thereafter she administered the possessions of her three young daughters together with her own lands. She was very unpopular. Her peasants protested to the king against her, and in 1557 she was convicted of illegally selling cattle. In 1560 she was given Lister Len as security for a lone, and moved to Norway. Also here the peasants complained against her, and she broke the ban against exporting timber abroad, and she lost the fief, but managed to get it back later the same year, because of her good connections. She lived (circa 1510-70).


 

1542-44 County Sheriff Maren Christiansdatter Spend of the County of Oksvang, Denmark

Maren Spend was widow of Hans Lange Munk, who had died already in 1535.


 

Around 1542-.. County Sheriff Birgitte Iversdatter Dyre of the County of Thodbøl, Denmark

Birgitte Dyre was widow of Enevold Stykke, who had been granted the tenantcy by Bishop Niels Stykke. She bought the estate in 1544, and lived (circa 1510-after 72).


Ermegaard Bille

1542-64 County Sheriff Ermegaard Andersdatter Bille of Øster Velling Birk
1563-64
County Sheriff of Viskumsgård with Synderlyng Herred, Denmark

Ermegaard Bille was widow Jørgen Podebusk. She paid off the other heirs and was granted Østervelling for life, and held Viskumsgård as security for lones (Pantelen). She (d. 1564).


1542-71 Joint County Sheriff Catharine Markvardsdatter Buchwald of Harridslevgård, Denmark

Catharine Buchwald was appointed jointly with husband, Jørgen Svave. They both (d. 1571).


Garcia Mendes Nasi

1542-69 Influential International Banker Gracia Mendes Nasi in Europe and the Ottoman Empire

Also known by her Christianized name Beatrice de Luna Miques, she inherited the enormous Mendes fortune after the death of her brother-in-law, Diego in 1542, whom she had joined in Antwerpen after the death of her husband, Francisco whose wealthy Spanish Jewish banking family had also fled the Inquisition and settled in Portugal. She then took over the management of the international banking empire and continued using the family's contacts and resources to help Jews escape the Inquisition, and this meant that she and her remaining family were constantly in danger. Over the next 11 years, she moved across Europe with her daughter, her sister, and her daughter- and son-in-law, travelling from Antwerp through France, Italy, and Turkey. The Inquisition pursued them, local rulers relentlessly crying heresy and attempting to confiscate their fortune. With diplomacy, shrewdness, and business acumen, she managed to escape each assault and continue building the family business. She and her family finally reached Turkey in 1553, where they settled near Constantinople. In 1558 she leased Tiberias, in Palestine, from Sultan Suleiman, for a yearly fee of 1000 ducats and, in 1561, her nephew and son-in-law, Joseph Nasi obtained ruling authority over Tiberias and Safed, developing major new centres of Jewish settlement.. She lived (1510-1569).


Ethiopian Lady

1543-52 Regent Dowager Sultana Bat'ial Dël Wanbara of Harrar (Ethiopia)

Also known as Bati Del Wambara she was ruled the territory after her husband, Imam Ahmad died in battle. She reigned jointly with 'Ali Jarad. She had accompanied her husband on his expeditions of conquest in the Christian highlands. At times she had to be carried on their shoulders up and down steep and rocky mountain slopes, twice in a state of pregnancy. She gave birth to Muhammad in 1531 and Ahmad two years later. After the defeat and death of her husband and the capture of her young son Muhammad, she fled to the northwest of Lake Tana, and eventually succeeded in returning to Harar, then at the centre of Adal power. Her first task was to make arrangements for the exchange of her eldest son Muhammad for Emperor Galawdewo's brother, Minas. Del Wanbara was determined to revenge her husband's death and, nine years later, agreed to marry the Emir of Harar, Nur Ibn Mujahid, son of her first husband's sister, seeing in him the best prospect of achieving her aim. Emir Nur began by rebuilding Harar, which had been sacked, and enclosed the town with a wall, which can be seen to this day. Having reorganized his forces, he undertook a new conquest of the Christian highlands and, in 1559, killed Emperor Galawdewos in battle. She was daughter of Imam Mehefuz, governor of Zayla and de facto ruler of the state of Adal. She married Imam Ahmad and, ignoring the protests of his soldiers.


Emilia von Sachen

1543-56 Politically Active Guardian Dowager Duchess Emilie von Sachsen of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)

Also known as Aemilie, and after the death of her husband, Georg the Pious, she was guardian of their son, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who reigned under the regency of the Electors of Brandenburg and Sachsen and Landgrave of Hessen until 1556. She gave him a good scientific and humanistic education. She must have spend the rest of her life administering her dowry lands, but I have found no specific informations about this. She lived (1516-91).


 

1543-66 Princess-Abbess Amalia von Leisser of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family.


 

1543-49 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Hausen of Säckingen (Germany)

The last known decree from her is from 1547 and according to legent she tried to eleope in order to marry Thomas Leimer, former Diacon of Schpfheim, but instead she was kept prisoner and resigned 1549, but remained in the chapter until she bought her freedom in 1558 and moved to Basel. She had entered the chapter together with her sister Genoveva in 1514 and lost her position temporarily in 1524 because of her Protestant sympaties. Daughter of Sixt von Hausen and Sigone von Freiberg.


 

1543-83 Reigning Abbess Renée de Bourbon de Vendôme of Chelles (France)

The daughter of Charles de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme et de Françoise d'Alençon de Beaumont, she lived (1527-83).


 

1543-59 Reigning Abbess Louise de Longwy-Givny of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Succeeded her aunt, Madeleine d'Orléans. Daughter of Jean de Longwy-Givny, Seigneur de Givny etc. and Jeanne d'Orléans, the daughter of Charles d'Angoulême and Jeanne de Polignac.


1544 Governor of the Realm Queen Katherine Parr of England (United Kingdom)

Very learned and inclined towards the reformed doctrines and successfully interceded for many so-called 'heretics,' who would otherwise have suffered death. She also induced Henry VII, her third husband, to restore, to Royal rank, the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth whose legitimacy his remarkable matrimonial arrangements had left in doubt. Henry named Catherine as Regent when he designed an expedition to France in 1544. Her main functions, in the last two years of her husband’s reign, were those of his nurse as he suffered agonies of pain from an ulcer in his leg. After his death in 1547, she married Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudley, and died giving birth her first child, named Mary, the year after. She lived (1512-48).


 

1544-60 Governor Brites de Albuquerque of Pernambuco (Brazil)

Widow of Duarte Coelho Periera (1534-44) and succeeded by son Duarte Coelho de Albuquerque, who was governor for the Portuguese King (1560-72).


 

Around 1544 Datuk Lampe Ellong of Supa (Indonesia)

Granddaughter of Dom Joao, and sucessor of her father, married La Cellamata and was succeeded by Princess Tosappae.


 

1544-68 Princesse-Abbesse Marguerite IV d'Haraucourt dite d'Ubexy of Remiremont (France)

Around 1520 Madeleine de Choiseul had resigned as Princess-Abbess in her favour, but Marguerite de Neufchâtel prevailed in the powerstruggle in 1528. After her death in 1544 she was succeeded by Madame de Choiseul, who was in office for a few months before she died and Marguerite d'Haraucourt finally was able to take office as the 42nd Princess-Abbess. She was also known by the surname of d'Ubex because her family owned the castle Ubexy, which had been inherited by Elisabeth d'Haraucourt in 1543, the wife of Nicolas du Châtelet, who had no children. She was the 42nd Abbess of the Chapter. In 1565 the war of "panonceaux" broke out between Duke Charles III of Lorraine and the ladies of the chapter, who used the Imperial Eagles in the city shield to show their independence. Charles profited by the fact that Emperor Maximillan II was tied up in Hungary and used force to have his sovereignty recognised. 


 

1544-87 Sovereign Lady Ermgard van Wisch of Wisch op Oud-Wisch, Wildenborch, Overhagen and Lichtenvoorde (The Netherlands)
1552-58 Regent Dowager Countess of Limburg-Stirum
1553-87 Hereditary Countess of Bronckhorst and Borculo

Inherited the family's possessions in Wisch after the death of her brother, Joachim, but her mother, Waldburga van den Bergh was allowed to reside in the castle for life. After the death of her husband, Georg von Limburg in Stirum (1500-52), she was regent for son, Herman George, Graaf van Limburg en Bronckhorst, heer in Stirum, Wisch en Borculo (1540-74), who later married to Maria von Hoya (1534-1612). Finally she inherited the possessions of her uncle, Count Joost van Bronckhorst-Borculo. She (d. 1587).


1544-? Politically influential Mihrumâh Sultana of the Ottoman Empire

Only daughter of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan, who adored her, and complained with her every wish. She married Rüstem Pasha, Governor-General of Diyarbakýr, who was shortly afterwards appointed grand vizier. According to Ottoman historians, she, together with her mother and husband conspired to bring about the death of Sehzade Mustafa, who stood in the way of her influence over her father. The fact that she encouraged her father to launch the campaign against Malta, promising to build 400 galleys at her own expense; that like her mother she wrote letters to the King of Poland; and that on her father’s death she lent 50.000 gold sovereigns to Sultan Selim to meet his immediate needs, illustrate the political power which she wielded.  Her husband was grand vizier in the periods 1544-1553 and 1555-1561, and she and her mother formed an inner circle in the government, which evidently influenced the sultan's decisions particularly in issues concerning the succession and the future of the sultanate. They were accused of putting pressure on her father to execute his eldest surviving son, Mustafa. At that critical point when he was faced with open protest from the army and negative public opinion following the murder of Mustafa, her father was forced to replace his her husband in the position of Grand Vizirate with Kara Ahmed Pasha, a war hero and favorite of the army. But within two years under pressure from the inner circle under Hürrem, Kara Ahmed was eliminated and Rustem resumed the Grand Vizierate, keeping the office until his death in 1561.


Circa 1545-64 Rani Regnant Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya of Gondwana (India)

The principality is also known as Garha-Kalanga or Gond, and it's inhabitants were a group of Dravidian tribes, aboriginal (pre-Aryan) people She was the daughter of the Rajput chief of Mohaba and married to Dalpat Shah, and after his death she ruled for their minor son. In 1564, the Moghul emperor Akbar directed one of his commanders Asaf Khan to conquer the kingdom. On the advance of the huge imperial Moghul army, she was cautioned by her counsellors to whom she replied, "It is better to die with glory than to live with ignominy". Her son Bir Narayan was seriously wounded. But she waged the war with the great skill and bravery until she was disabled by two arrow shots. Her officers wanted to carry her from the battlefield to a place of safety, but she rejected the proposal and committed suicide.


1545-52 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine of Denmark of Lorraine and Bar (France)
1560-90 Titular Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, The Wends, Goths and Slavs, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein, Ditmasken, Countess of Oldenborg
1558-68 Political Advisor and Temporary Acting Regent in Lorraine
1568-75 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen in Bayern (Germany)
1578-90 Reigning Dowager Lady of Tortona (Italy)

After her father, Christian 2 of Denmark was deposed she grew up by her mother, Elisabeth von Habsburg's aunt, Margaretha, Governor-General of the Netherlands, who took it upon her to guard the children from the Lutheran faith. After Margaretha's death, their mother's sister, Dowager Queen Maria of Hungary took over their upbringing. In 1535 her first husband, the 26 year older Duke Francesco 2. Sforza of Milano of died after 1½ year of marriage, and she returned to the Netherlands. In 1541 at the age of 20 she married François of Bar who inherited Lorraine three years later.
She was regent whenever her husband was abroad from the Duchy and acted as his political advisor, among others at the Reichstag in Speyer in 1544. In his will her husband appointed her regent jointly with her brother for her son, Charles (Karl) (1545-1608), but she tried to rule independently. In 1552 France attacked the Duchy and in exchange for a peace treaty she had to give up the regency and accept that her 10 year old son were to grow up at the French court as a future husband of Princess Claude, and she returned to her aunt in the Netherlands together with her two daughters. Six years later both her aunt and the emperor died and everybody assumed that she would be appointed Governor-General of the Netherlands as she was close to her cousin Filip II and was much loved by the Dutch people. Also, she had just contributed to the peace treaty between the French and Habsburgs in Cateau-Cambrésis, but the post of Regent was given to Felip's sister, Margaretha of Parma. She then lived in Lorraine as the political advisor of her son Charles and also acted as regent from time to time. She never gave up the thought of regaining her father's Nordic realms. In 1560 she tried to have her daughter René married to King Frederik 2 of Denmark. At the beginning of the seven-year war between Denmark and Sweden 1563-70 she attempted, through alliances with the Swedish king Erik XIV and the Danish exiled Councillor of the Realm, Peder Oxe, to plan how to regain the realms, and already signed her self as Queen: “Chretienne par la grace de dieu royne de Dennemarck, Suede, Norwegen”. When Renata married Duke Wilhelm of Bayern, she took up residence at the castle, the city of Friedberg became the center of the court life and in the next years it experienced a major boom. For health reasons she withdrew to her Italian Dowry Tortona in 1578, where she presided over a big court. She continued to print coins and medals as Queen of Denmark. She took over the claims as successor of their father, Christian II (d. 1559), from her sister, Countess Palatine Dorothea, who had no children. Christine lived (1521-90).


1545-53 Regent Dowager Queen Yun Mun-jong of Korea

Also known as Munjeong, Mun-jong Wang-hu, she was widow of Chung-jong, Chung-jong (1488-1506-44) and in charge of the government in the name of Myong-jong, who succeeded his half-brother, Injong. Known as a good administrator, she continued to rule even after he reached the age of majority. She gave out the land to common people that had been formerly owned by the nobility. It was only after her death that her son took over power. She was the most influential supporter of Buddhism during the early dynasty and lifted the official ban on Buddhist worship and instigated an impressive resurgence of Buddhim.. She lived (1501-65)..


Circa 1545-ca.1570/80 Sultan Hudah bint Sarmah al-Fasi of Fazzan (Libya)

Grandchild of Muhamad al-Fasi Fezzan. The state mainly consisted of oases in the Sahara Desert, and the population is largely Arab, with Berber and black African influence. Located on caravan routes connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Sudan, Fazzan was long important in the trans-Saharan trade. From the early 16th to the early 19th century it was the centre of the Bani Muhammad dynasty, which originated in Morocco.


1545-47 (and possibly 1564-78) Queen Regnant Phra Chao Chira Prapa Mahadevi of Lanna (Thailand)

Also known as Chiraprabha, Mahatevi Jiraprapa or Phra Nang Yout Kham Thip, she was the oldest daughter of king Phaya Ket, and took over after a power struggle among various factions and during civil war in the region. According to some sources, King Burengnong married her, (now in her 40s (at least), and she ruled for a second time from 1564 until her death in 1578, according to other sources, it was her younger sister, Queen Wisutthithew, that Burengong married, and it was she who ruled from 1564.


 

1545-48 Regent Dowager Lady Elena Salviati of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa  (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Jacopo V Appiani (1480-1545) she was regent for their son, Iacopo VI (1529-85). The Lordship was under attack from Toscana and in 1548 she protested against the investiture of Cosimo I de' Medici as Duke of Piombino. She lived (1506-62).


Zofia Odrowaz

1545-80 Reigning Princess Zofia ze Sprowy Odrowąż of Jarosław  (Then Ukraine, now Poland)

The town and domaine was was established by an Ukrainian prince in the 11th century. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further and it was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. First married to hetmanJan Krystof Tarnowski (1555-1567) and from 1575 to castellan Jan Kostka, and lived (1540-80).


 

1545-68 Reigning Abbess Marie II de Saint-Omer, dite de Morbecque of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord of Ebblinghem.


Lensmand Ide Mogensdatter Munk

1545 Acting County Sheriff Ide Mogensdatter Munk of the County of Abrahamstrup, Denmark

Ide Munk was a major land-owner, also known as Ida, she was married to Oluf Nielsen Rosenkrantz til Vallø, and their daughter was Birgitte Olufdatter Rosenkrantz til Øster Vallø. Ide died 1586.


 

1545 Military Leader Lilliard in Scotland (United Kingdom)

Led the Scots at the Battle of Ancrum in one of their last victories over the English forces. She killed the English commander but lost her own life later in the battle.


1546-48 Joint Regent Dowager Queen Si Sudachan of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand)

สมเด็จพระศรีสุริโยทัย was also known as Sudachachandra. After the death of her husband, Chairajadhirai (Chaiya Radschathira) she poisoned his oldest son and made her lover, the minor court official, Kaeofa (Phra Yod Fa),kingChaiya Radschathira, and executed those who protested. Her son was succeeded by Worawongsathirat, a favourite of the widow of king Boromaradscha IV (1529-33) and after he was deposed her close relative, Maha Chakrapat, ursurped the throne and ruled until 1568. She (d. 1548).


 

1546-60 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Amalie von Leising of Mansfeld-Vorderort zu Bornstädt (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Philipp II (1502-46), she ruled in the name of her son, Bruno II (1545-1615). Their three other children died young. She was daughter of Hugo von Leisnig and Dorothea Schenkin von Landsberg, was Dame de Penig in her own right, and lived (1508-60).

1546-1601 Sovereign Duchess Marie II de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl of Estouteville, Countess de Saint-Pôl (France)
1
573-1601 Regent Dowager Countess Marie de Bourbon of Neuchâtel (Neuenburg) (Switzerland)  

Also known as Marie de Bourbon-Vendôme, she succeeded her brother, François (1536-46), and was first married to Jean de Bourbon, Duke d'Enghien and secondly François II de Clèves, Duke Nevers, whom she divorced in 1561, and last to Léonor d'Orléans (1540-73), Duke de Longueville, Prince de Neuchâtel. After his death she was regent for her son, Henri II d' Orléans-Longueville, and showed both force and talent by her reinforcement of the princely authority and financial reforms. She made treaties and took over the control of the finances from the citizen of the city. She made her own coins and used much of her energy to incorporate the Lordship of Valangin in the Principality of Neuchâtel, and on this occasion she made her only visit to the city in 1576. Daughter of François de Bourbon, Comte de Saint-Pol and Duchess Adrienne d'Estouteville, she lived (1539-1600).


1546-53 In-charge of the Government Electress Agnes von Hessen of Sachsen (Germany)
1553-55 Reigning Dowager Lady of Weissenfels and Weissensee in Sachsen

Reigned as her husband, Moritz was away in various wars. 1547 he was awarded with the title of Kurfürst (Elector) and Duke of Sachsen-Wittenberg. In 1553 he was wounded in the battle of Sievershausen and died shortly after. Their only surviving child was a daughter, Anna von Sachsen (later married to and divorced from Willem of Oranje) and therefore he was succeeded by his brother August. Her sister, Anna, was Guardian in Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein and Birkenfeld from 1569. Agnes lived (1527-55).


Tsaritsa Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina

1547-60 Member of the Chosen Council Tsaritsa Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina of Russia

Also known as Anastasiia Zakharina, she was member of the Chosen Council with a number of military leaders, priests that carried out a number of political, military, and ecclesiastical reforms during the reign of her husband, Ivan the terrible. She was periodically able to control her husband's fits of bad temper, and those periods were known as the "good part" of his reign. After her death - during the "bad part" he carried out a reign of terror against the boyars. He married six more times, and treated his wives cruelly: one was drowned, three were imprisoned, and two were sent to a nunnery. She lived (1530–60).


1547-58 Sovereign Duchess Eléonore of Austria of Touraine (France)

Married to Manoel I of Portugal and then to king François I of France (1497-1547). After his death she was given the duchy as a dowry. His brother Henri II succeeded him as king, since their marriage was childless. She lived (1498-1558).


 

1547-67 Sovereign Countess Guyonne XVIII "la Folle" of Laval (France)

The daughter of Guyonne VIII, she was originally named Renée de Rieux, and succeeded her uncle Count Guy XVI. 1545 she had married Louis de Sainte-Maure, marquis de Nestlé et comte de Joigny. She lived a tumultary life and converted to the Calvinist faith. Her sister, Claude de Rieux, married one of the protestant leaders François d'Andelot. She was convicted for treason by the Parliament of Paris together with two other leaders of the "poursuite de Meaux" which tried to kill King Charles IX and Dowager Queen Catherine de Médici in 1567; their possessions were confiscated, and executed. Guyonne escaped this faith because of her mental instability. She sought refuge in Laval and died a few months later. She was succeeded by her sister Claude, or his son Paul, who took the name of Guy XIX he died 1586.


 

1547-77 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Chlum of Gandersheim (Germany)

During the Schmalkaldian war, she was she only canoness who remained in the chapter, and Duke Heinrich von Brauschweig had her appointed as head of the territory. In 1568 the church service became protestant but she remained a Catholic. Duke Julius von Braunschweig occupied the territory in 1575 and she was taken prisoner. She was member of a Bohemian noble family.


Anna van Egmond

1548-58 Reigning Countess Anna van Egmond of Buren, Leerdam en Lingen, Dame of Ijsselstein, Borssele, Grave, Cranendonk, Sint Maartensdijk en Odijk (The Netherlands)

Daughter of Count Maximiliaan van Egmond and Francoise de Lannoy, Dame de Lannoy, de Santes et de Trochiennes. Married to Prince Willem I van Oranje and lived (circa 1533-58).


 

1548-58 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Kittlitz of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The Lords of Kittlitz had their lands in Sachsen and Slesia.


1548-66 Sovereign Duchess Diane de Portiers of Valentinos and d'Étampes (France)

Mistress of King Henri II of France and first married to Louis de Breze, Count de Maulevrier. She hat tree daughters, Francoise de Breze, Countess de Maulevrier, who was married to Robert von der Marck, lord of Sedan, Duc de Bouillon, Louise de Breze, Dame d'Anet, who was married to Claude of Lorraine, Duc d'Aumale, and by Henri II, she had Diane de Valois. She lived (1499-1566).


 

1548-53 De facto Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Wied-Runckel of Manderscheid-Blankenheim (Germany)

After the death of Arnold of Manderscheid-Blankenheim, two male relatives were appointed guardians of her children, but they does not seem to have taken much part in the governing of the county, and she was in fact the regent until her oldest son, Hermann, came of age. Two of her daughters became Princess-Abbesses of Essen - Elisabeth VI and VII and another daughter, Margarethe was Abbess of Elten and Vreden. A son, Johann, was Prince-Bishop of Strassburg.  Margarethe von Wied later married a Count of Bentheim, and (d. 1571).


Ingeborg Drefeld

1548-49 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Gjordesdatter Drefeld of the County of Lundenæs with the Shires of Bølling, Ginding, Hammerum and Herm, Denmark

Ingeborg Drefeld was widow of Peder Galt Ebbesen til Birkelse etc, Lensmand til Lundenæs. 


 

1548-49 Princess-Abbess Adrienne I de Morbecq of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

As ruler of the territory she was Princess of the Empire and Head of a number of Lordships around Nivelles.


Queen Sisdachan

1548 Heroine Queen Suriyothai of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand)

Also known as Somdet Phra Sisuriyothai or T’ao Sri Suda Chan. Barely six months into the reign of her husband, King Maha Chakapat, the King of Burma invaded Siam with the intent of sacking the main capital, Ayutthaya. Her husband lead his troops in the defence of the city from atop his war elephant and she disguised herself as a man and rode into battle on her own elephant. During the battle with Burmese troops, her husband's elephant collapsed from wounds and he was in danger of being killed and she rode her elephant to protect her husband and was killed by a scythe. (d. 1548).


Söyembikä of the Kazan Khanate

1549-53 Regent Dowager Khanum Söyembikä of Kazan (Tartarstan in Russia)

Sujumbike, Syun Beka or Syunbeka reigned in the name of her 2 year old son, Ütämesch, after the death of her second husband, Safagäräy, whom she married in 1535 after the death of her first husband, Canğäli, the brother of the second. When the Russians conquered the city of Kasan in 1553 she was married to the new Khan Şahğäli, and brought to Moscow as hostage, where she died in 1554. Her son was christened and brought up in a school for the nobility and died of tuberculosis at the age of 20. Her father, the Khan of the Nogais, asked Tsar Ivan IV to release her but he did not receive an answer. She lived (1516-54). 



Henriette de March-Nevers, Duchesse de Nevers-Rethel 

1549-1601 Sovereign Countess Henriette de la March-Nevers of Rethel (Belgium)
1564-1601 Sovereign Duchess of Nevers, Sovereign Princess Boisbelle-Henrichemont (Belgium and France)

In 1564 she succeeded her brother Jacques, who had succeeded their father, François de March Nevers as Duke of Nevers in 1563. Her husband Ludovico Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova was duke of Nevers-Rethel by the right of his wife. Her father and brother had left her with large debts but she managed to bring the financial situation back in order, and was one of the chief creditors of the kingdom. Her son, Charles II de Gonzauge, had been co-governor with his father of Champagne since 1589 and had become titular duke in 1595 after his father's death, but did not take part in the government until after her death in 1601. Her one sister, Catherine, was countess d'Eu and the other, Marie, was Comtesse de Beaufort. Henriette lived (1542-1601). 


1549-76 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara zu Sachsen-Lauenburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Fallersleben in Braunschweig (Germany)

Her husband, Franz von Braunschweig-Gifhorn, died at his 41th birthday from the effects of an infected foot. She was mother of 2 daughters, and her husband's Duchy returned to the main line in Celle, but she was given Fallersleben as her dorwy, and was responsible for an economical boom.


 

1549-61 Princess-Abbess Marguerite IV d'Estourmel of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a French noble family.


 

1549-74 County Sheriff Abele Hansdatter Breide of the County of Näsbyholm (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

After the death of her husband, Mikkel Hals til Näsbyholm, Abele Breide was Acting Lensmand or County Sheriff of the fief in Skåne, which has been part of Sweden since 1658.


After 1549-74 County Sheriff Karen Eilersdatter Bølle of Toreby Birk, Denmark

Karen Bølle til Hellerup og Søbo was widow of Laue Johansen Urne til Rygård (d. 1559) and held the tenantcy jointly with Jacob Brockenhuus as security for lones. She had first been married to Marqvard Tidemandd ti lHellerup and did not have chidlren, and (d. 1582).


Around 1550s Paramount Chieftainess Borkia of Mambolo (Sierra Leone)
Migrated from Guinea in the mid-16th century, most likely as part of the Mane invasion. Her chiefdom was conquered by Bullom warriors after a very short period.

Around 1550s Paramount Chieftainess Baimba Mariama Kallay of Mongo (Sierra Leone)
Came in the mid 16th century from Maly after the fall of the Empire.

Marguerite de France

1550-74 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de France of Berry (France)

Daughter of François I of France and Duchess Claude de Bretagne, she was married to Emmanuel-Philibert, duc de Savoie, and lived (1523-74). 


Antoniette de Bourbon, Duchess of Guise

1550-83 Joint Administator Duchess Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche of the Duchies of Aumale and Guise (France)

Exhibited considerable administrative talent at domestic economy as well as in the running of the vast Guise dominions surrounding their chateau of Joinville after the death of her husband, Duke Claude de Guise, together with her daughter-in-law, Anna d’Este. Described as a remarkable woman, combining a strong sense of family pride with a wry sense of humour, she exerted a powerful influence on the childhood of her granddaughter Mary, Queen of Scots during the latter's thirteen-year sojourn in France, and was one of her principal advisors, and acted as proxy for her daughter, Mary of Guise during the betrothal ceremony of the Queen of Scots and the Dauphin Francis in 1558.  Her two other daughters were Abbesses, Renée de Guise of St. Pierre in Reims and Antoinette de Joinville of Faremoutiers. Also mother of 9 sons.  The daughter of Count François de Vendôme and Marie de Luxembourg, she lived (1493-1583).


Anna d'Este

1550-66 Joint Administrator Duchess Anna d’Este of France of the Duchies of Aumale and Guise (France)
1550-1607 Politically Influential in France

During her marriage to Francis de France, Duke of Aumale and Guise, she was in charge of the family estates and the enormous fortunes of the Guise after the death of her father-in-law, Claude. At court she was active on behalf of her father, Duke Ercole II d'Este of Ferrara, and acted as mediator between  France and Ferrara. In 1563 her husband was assassinated. She held the leader of the French Huguenots, Gaspard de Coligny, responsible for the assault and her contemporaries considered her responsible for the shot which was fired on him in 1572 and which became the starting signal for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. 1566 she had married Jacques de Savoie, Duke of Nemours and Genevois, and spent most of her time in Annecy or on the road between Genevois and the court of France. She acted as mediator between her husband and the Duke of Savoie, and still claimed a prominent place in official ceremonies at the French Court. After the death Jacques in 1585 she lived in Paris. With the formation of the Catholic League, in which her sons played a prominent part, her importance increased again. In 1588 King Henri III ordered the murder of her two oldest sons and her imprisonment. Some contemporaries also held her responsible for the assassination of the king. During the siege of Paris by Henri IV, she was declared "queen-mother" by the League, but after his conversion to Catholicism, she recognized him and tried to convince her sons to do the same. She spent her last years in the highly respectable position of "superintendante de la maison" of the Queen Marie de' Medici. Her mother, Renée de France, was Duchess of Chartres 1515-75. She lived (1531-1607).


 

1550-82 Adelantada Catalina Montejo of Yucatán (Mexico)

Inherited position of Adelantado (a kind of governor/landowner) jointly with her husband, Alonso Maldonado. After his death she was in charge of the area alone.


 

1550/55-71 Princess-Abbess Agathe Heggenzer von Wassersteltz Säckingen (Germany)

After the resignation of Fürstäbtissin Magdalene no canonisses remained in the chapter and the "grand verge" (Grossmeier) Hans Jakob von Schönau acted as administrator, but the Austrian Government and Bishop Christoph Metzler of Konstantz asked the 3 canons to elect an Abbess. At the time she was a nun at St. Katharinental bei Diessehhof and she is known to have been in Säckingen at lest 1552 together with another nun from her original convent but she did not take office until 1555. She restored the chapter and is seen as it's second founder, brought it back on its feet economically, and restored the church. The water supply was renewed and several treaties were made between the Chapter and the city of Säckingen.. She also introduced new and more sombre status and reinstated the secular authority of the chapter which the Grossmeier had "ursurped" during the interregnum. She was daughter of Landvogt Johan Melchior Heggenzer.


Eline Gøye 

1550-61 Acting County Sheriff Eline Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Skjoldnæs, Denmark

Eline Gøye was married to Mourits Olufsen Krognos and Vincents Juel. She was daughter of one of the country's major landowners, Mogens Gøye, but he had many children, and she therefore only inherited half of the estate Clausholm together with a brother. She was in dispute with her sister-in-law Anne Rosenkrantz, and in 1561 a compromise was reached, which according to Eline favourised Anne. Later same year Anne also was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) Skjoldnæs, which Eline had got after the death of her first husband. She was sister of another major landowner and Lensmand, Birgitte Gøye, and lived (circa 1510-63).


1551 Queen Jalampa Siri Sudhamma Mahadevi of Lanna (Chiang Mai)  (Thailand)

Also known as princess Thao Meh Ku, she was married to Sethathirat of Lan Xang, who became king of Chiang Mai. After he was deposed, she ruled on her own until she was deposed herself by Mekut (Mekkhuti), the king of the Shan State of Muong Nai (he was succeded by Queen Wisuthatevi in 1564). Sethathirat continued fighting against Lanna until his death in 1571.


Sabina von Bayern, Herzogin von Württemberg

1551-64 Reigning Lady Duchess Sabina von Bayern of Nürtingen in Württemberg (Germany)

After the birth of the Crown Prince Christoph in 1515 she fled the threats of her husband Ulrich with both her children to her brothers, the Bavarian Dukes Wilhelm und Ludwig, and only after her son ascended to the throe she was able to return to Württemberg, where she took up residence in her dowry in Nürtingen, where she held a small court, which became a local centre of Protestantism. She lived (1492-1564).


1551-72 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Roye of Roucy (France)

Succeeded her father, Charles de Roye, married to François III de la Rochefoucauld and was succeeded by her son Josué de La Rochefoucauld de Roye.

 

1551-60 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Tecklenburg of Essen (Germany)

During her tenure in office, the protestant movement became stronger. 1555 was the year of the Augsburg Peace, where it was made clear that the subjects had to have the same faith as their sovereign. In Essen the citizens were mainly protestant, but Katharina remained catholic, and the city council saw this as a way to free the city from the dominance of the Abbess, and for a period they were successful. Daughter of Otto IX von Tecklenburg and Irmgard von Cuyk-Rietberg. Her older sister, Jakobäa was Abbess of Vreden (1533-1563), and the younger Irmgard Abbess of Quernheim since 1534. Their niece Anna was heiress of Tecklenburg und Rheda (1527-82) and married to Everwin III von Götterswick Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt. Katharina lived (1517-60).


Until 1551 County Sheriff Birgitte Steensdatter Bille of the County of Sandby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Until 1553 County Sheriff of the County of Katsløse (Denmark)

Birgitte Bille's husband, Jens Torbensen Rosensparre died in 1553. Sandby is situated in the landscape of Skåne which was annexed by Sweden in 1658. She (d. 1553).


Sidsel Jensdatter Ulfstand

1551-52 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Jensdatter Ulfstand of the County of Kalundborg with the Shire of Arts Løve, Ods and Skippinge  and Samsø, Denmark
1554-circa 75 County Sheriff of Villands Herred in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden) 

In 1535, during the "Fight of the Count" (Grevens Fejde) Sidsel Ulfstand's husband, Knud Pedersen Gyldenstierne til Tim, was imprisoned by Count Christoffer, and he was not freed until Copenhagen gave in to Christian 3. one and a half year later leaving her in charge of his estates. He rejoined the Council of State became in charge of the tenancy of Kalundborg Slot. After his death she acted as an energetic and able administrator with economic sense. She was in charge of her husband's estate for her minor children, she inherited some estates from her childless brothers and in 1554 she was given charge of Villads Herred in Skåne for life. During the Seven Year War 1563-70 she lend money to the crown against security in estates in Ramsø and Tune Counties. As County Sheriff of Villands herred, she made good use of her talents as she had to gather supplies for the army, conscribe peasants for the war, collect taxes and maintain roads, bridges and defences in a unruly boarder area, and she was also a frequent visitor at court. She mainly lived at Ljungby, but also often lived at Bønnet, where she was the patron of the parish church of Horbelev from 1565. She was very preoccupied with securing that her pastors lead a sober life, and one of them, Mr. Jakob, had to ask for her forgiveness. She seems to have a formidable women, also much respected by her children. Mother of 7 children and (d. circa 1575).


Sophie Rosenkrantz

1551-... County Sheriff Sophie Holgersdatter Rosenkrantz of Börringe Kloster in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Sophie Rosenkrantz was widow of Axel Axelsen Brahe til Krageholm, Hammar, Vittskövle og Tunbyholm (d. 1551), and (d. 1558).


 

1551-54 County Sheriff Ane Christensdatter of Hindselgård with Refs Herred in Thy, Denmark

Widow of Jens Lassen, citizen of Hostebro, who had held the tenantcy as security for lones. After his death, she was given royal permision to keep the tenantcy for life. She handed over the right to the administration and income to Erik Rud but kept the estate.


1551 County Sheriff Helvig Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting, Nim and Vor, Denmark

Helvig Gøye til Avnsbjerg og Ormholt was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her first husband, Otto Henriksen Gyldenstierne. Secondly married to Mogens Gøye til Bremversvold. She (d. 1597).


 

1551 County Sheriff Eline of the County of Nygård, Denmark

Widow of Anders Rølike. Her background is not known.


Mary Queen of Scots

1552-67 HM Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (United Kingdom)
1558-87 Titular Duchess of Touraine (France)

Ascended to the throne of Scotland when she was just six days old. At age five she was sent to France to be brought up in the French court, and eventually married King Francis II, who died the next year, where after Mary returned to Scotland where a series of politically unwise love affairs and her continued adherence to Catholicism in a Protestant country led to trouble and a revolt against her. Forced to flee to England for refuge, but Queen Elizabeth kept her under a form of imprisonment for the next 19 years. Watched closely, she was implicated in a series of conspiracies against Queen Elizabeth, and was executed, but her son, Jacob later succeeded as king of England. Mary lived (1552-87).


1552-75 County Sheriff Alhed Jørgensdatter Urne of Krønge Birk, Denmark

Alhed Urne was widow of Jørgen Venstermand, who had first been married to Maren Hansdatter Griis. She lived (1505-after 60).


Lady Jane Grey

1553 HM Jane, By the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth, under Jesus Christ, Supreme Head (United Kingdom)

Lady Jane Grey was also known as Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland. She was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, daughter Mary, the younger of King Henry VIII's two sisters. On May 21, 1553, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who exercised considerable power at that point in the minority of King Edward VI, joined with Jane’s father, Duke of Suffolk, in marrying her to his son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Edward VI accepted Jane as his heir and on his death she was proclaimed Queen on July 10 and the Council of the Realm recognized her claim. The rightful heir, Edward's sister, Mary Tudor, had the support of the populace, and on July 19 even Suffolk, who by now despaired of success in the plans for his daughter, attempted to retrieve his position by proclaiming Mary Queen. Jane was later beheaded (as was her husband) in 1554 having lived (1537-54).


Mary I

1553-58 HM Mary I Tudor, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. (United Kingdom)
1553-54 Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland 

She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, and restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. She also revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a religious and civil offence amounting to treason. As a result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years. Her decision to marry Philip, King of Spain from 1556, in 1554 was very unpopular; the protest from the Commons prompted her reply that Parliament was 'not accustomed to use such language to the Kings of England' and that in her marriage 'she would choose as God inspired her'. England suffered during her reign. The economy was in ruin, religious dissent reached a zenith and England lost her last continental territory. She possibly died from cancer, leaving the crown to her half-sister Elizabeth. Mary lived (1516-58).


 

1553-79 De-facto Reigning Dowager Countess Maria von der Hoya of Bronckhorst, Lady of Borckelo (Germany)

After her husband, Jobst, Graf zu Bronkhorst und Herrn zu Borculo, was killed in an accident the fief reverted to the Diocese of Münster, but she continued to be in charge of the administration until her own death.


 

1553-59 Princess-Abbess Ursula I Schad of Heggbach (Germany)

Prioress and Second in Command 1540-53 until her election as ruler of the territory. She resigned because of bad health, and died later the same year.


 

1553-70 Dowager Reigning Lady Elena von Pfalz-Simmern of Schwarzenfel in Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)

Widow of Count Philipp II von Hanau. The castle served as the seat of the dowry government for other dowager countesses of Hanau as well.


 

Until 1553 County Sheriff Johanne Jørgensdatter Krumpen of the County of Kjølskegård, Denmark

Johanne Krumpen was widow of Jacob Eskilsen Høegh til Lergrav, Eskær Vang and Kjølskegård, who died after 1528 at a not known time. She lived (circa 1480-circa 1553).


1553-79 County Sheriff  Lene Tønnesdatter Viffert of the County of Havelse
1564-79 County Sheriff of Dalby Kloster (Then Denmark, now Sweden)

Lene Viffert was given ownership for life of Havelse and later granted the tenantcy of Dalby Kloster after the death of her second husband, Jacob Sehested til Havelsegård i Havelse Magle, but had to promise to marry Claus von Ungern til Käsel og Clausholm på Øsel, who was given the right of succesion after her death. (fik ventebrev). Her first husband was Basse Christoffersen Basse til Sørup. She (d. 1579).


Anna af Danmark og Norge, Kurfürstin von Sachsen

1553-85 Politically Influential Electress Anna af Danmark of Sachsen (Germany)

Reigned at the side of her husband, Kurfürst August von Sachsen (1626-86), with whom she lived a very harmonious marriage. She was especially when it came to the fights over religion from 1574, her opponents blamed her of  'Gynaecocracy', and she always took the side of the Lutherans in the fights with the Calvinists. In 1563 she intertwined in the negotiations between Denmark of Sweden together with her mother, Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg, and managed to end the long war between the two countries, she initiated that her husband took the side of her brother, Frederik II, and had Emperor Maximilian II. act as mediator in the conflict. She was also a very able trader and industrialist, and in 1578 her husband transferred the administration of all the Electoral Domains to her and she was a pioneer within modern agriculture. She was also knowable with medical plants, and even the Queen of Portugal asked for her help. In 1548 she was handed over the administation of her dowries in Weissenfels, Freyburg (or Sangerhausen). The daughter of Christian III of Denmark and Norway, she signed her letters, 'Anna, born as Royal Danish Stock, Electress of Sachsen.' She was mother of 15 children, and lived (1532-85).


Marie de Guise

1554-60 Regent Dowager Queen Marie de Guise of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

Married to James V of Scotland and regent for her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots. The daughter of Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise, she was also known as Mary of Lorraine. Before her marriage to James V in 1538, she had been married to Louis d'Orléans, Duc de Longueville, who died in 1537. When James died in 1542, shortly after his daughter's birth, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, became regent. By 1554, with French aid, Marie de Guise had replaced the ineffectual Arran as regent, and she made no secret of her desire to bring France and Scotland together. Meanwhile, Protestantism was spreading rapidly in Scotland, and Marie, though at first conciliatory toward the reformers, began a campaign of suppression. In 1559 the Protestants, exhorted by John Knox, rose against the regent and declared her deposed. She received French aid, but the Protestants, allied with the English, proved the stronger force. The civil war was concluded shortly after Marie's death by the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which ended the French domination of Scotland and opened the way for the establishment of the Protestant church. She lived (1515-60).


Juana of Spain

1554-55 Regent Infanta Juana of Spain

Acted as stand-in for her brother, Felipe II, who had been appointed regent of Spain by their father, Carlos I (Emperor Karl V), but who was in England some of the time with his wife, Mary I Tudor. Juana had returned to Spain after the death of her husband, the Crown Prince of Portugal, leaving her son, Sebastao behind. In 1555 their father abdicated in favour of Felipe. She founded a very rich monastery and remained influential till her death. She lived (1537-73).


 

1554-79 Queen Regnant Kalinyamat of Jepara (Indonesia)

Succeeded to the throne when her husband, R. Toyib or “Sultan Hadlirin”, was killed by Bupati Jipang. The commercial port gave wealth to the kingdom and she sent her combat fleet for Malacca to attack and destroy Portuguese in 1551 and 1574, but her forces did not manage to drive Portuguese away from Malacca. The daughter of Sultan Trenggono of Demak, she was originally named Retno Kencono. (d. 1579).


 

1554-55 Regent Dowager Abakyala Nannono of Buganda (Uganda)

The seventh wife of Kabaka Nakibinge Kagali, she acted as regent for 8 months after his death, pending the birth of her posthumous child, but when it showed out to be a daughter (Nono), her husband's son by his 4th wife, Kabaka Mulondo Sekaja, was elected king. She was daughter of Seggirinya, of the Dgo clan.


 

1554-1610 Sovereign Princess Marie de Créquy of Poix, Dame de Mareuil (France)

Granddaughter of Jossine, who was Dame de Poix around 1526. Marie married Gilbert de Blanchefort, Lord of Saint-Janvrin. She lived (1526-1610).


 

1554-56 Abbess Nullius Caterina Acquaviva of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Member of the Countly Family of Conversano and other territories in Puglia in the South of Italy at the time in the Kingdom of Napoli.


Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre et

1555-1572 Queen Regnant Juana III d'Albret of Navarra and Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchess of Albert, Comtesse de Foix-Béarn-Grailly, Périgod, de Rodez, d'Armagnac, Perche, Fezensac, de L'Isle-Jourdain, Porhoët and Pardiac, Viscomtesse de Limoges, Brulhois, Lomagne, Fezenzaguet, Cressey, d'Auvillars, Baroness de Castelnau, Caussade, Montmiral and Dame de La Flêche and Baugé (France and Spain)

Also known as Jeanne d'Albret, she grew up in France as a French princess. She married Antoine de Bourbon out of love but their marriage was unhappy because of his constant infidelities. He died just before she succeeded her father as Queen of Navarra. She converted to Calvinism en 1560 and favoured this faith in Navarra and Béarn as her other domains was under the suzerainty of the king of France. She was involved in the different wars of religion of the time, and in 1571 she made Calvinism the state religion in Béarn and Navarre, and in order to maintain and affirm her authority in her domains, she negotiated the marriage of her son Henri with Marguerite de Valois, sister of Charles IX. She died before the celebration of the marriage and the Saint-Barthélemy massacre on the French Protestants. Her son became king of France and trough him the post of Co-prince has passed on to the Presidents of the French Republic. She lived (1528-72). 


Abbess Charlotte of Jouarre

1565-71 Reigning Abbess Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Daughter of Louis III de Montpensier et de Jacqueline de Longwy. With the help of Queen Jeanne III de Navarre, she found refuge innHeidelberg and married Willem van Oranje-Nassau, Stadtholder of the Netherlands and had 6 daughters of whom Louise-Juliana, Catharina Belgica and Charlotte-Brabantine became regents after their husband's deaths, and Charlotte Flandrina (1579-1640) became Abbess de Poitiers. She lived (1546-82). 


 

1555-66 Reigning  Abbess-General Catalina Sarmiento of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As one of the only abbesses in the history of the Catholic church, the Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas de Burgos held quasi Episcopal powers.              

Anne Lykke

 

1555-56 Acting County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of Stege with the two Shires of Møn
1564-74 County Sheriff of the Church Servants in the County of the Shire of Gjerlev
1569-70 Acting County Sheriff of Spøtrup
1569/70-74 County Sheriff of the Counties of Medelsom and Sønderlyng with Spøtrup, Denmark

Anne Lykke til Demstrup administered Stege after her first husband, Anders Bentsen Bille til Søholm, was killed in the Feud of the Count and was in charge of Medelsom etc. after the death of her seond husband, to Otto Jørgensen Krumpen til Trudsholk, a member of one of the oldest noble families of the country and one of the most influential men of their time, who died without issue as the last male member of the family. She held Spøtrup as security for lones and exchanged it with Øtsløf Kloster in 1570. Her last husband was Claus Daa. 1574 she returned the letter of security for the Tenantcies to the king who dropped a case against her. Her branch of the family Lykke was also known as Lykke Munk til Overgaard. She (d. after 1574).          

1556-58/60 Co-Regent Dowager Empress Hamida Banu Begum of The Mughal Empire (India)

After the death of Emperor Humayun (1530-1556), who spend 15 years in exile 1540-55, his 14-year-old son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne, and Hamida Begum (perhaps also known as Maliam Anga) was part of the regency. She lived (1527–1604)


 

1556-64 Regent for the Governor Mah-Chehak Begum of Kabul, Afghanistan

Also known as Mah Čučak Bigum, she was regent for her son, Prince Mirza Muhammad Hakim (1553-56-85), son of the Moghul Emperor Humayum (1508-56), to whom she was a concubine.  She was murdered in 1565. 


Françoise de Brézé

1556-57 Regent Dowager Princess Françoise de Breeze of Sedan and Bouillon (France)

Took over the government after the death of her husband, Robert IV de Sedan, who was also created Duke de Bouillon. She was daughter of Diane de Portier, mistress of the French King. Françoise was also Countess of Maulevrier and had two sisters, Diane de Valois, who was Duchess of Chatellerault etc., and Louise de Breeze, Dame d'Anet. Françoise was mother of 9 children, and died 1557.


1556-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Dorothea af Danmark og Norge of Neumarkt in Pfalz (Germany)

After the death of her brother, Hans, in 1532, Dorothea von Dänemark und Norwegen was considered a serious contender to the Danish and Norwegian Throne by her Habsburg relatives, who still supported her father, Christian 2, who had been imprisoned and died in prison in 1559. Her mother, Elisabeth von Habsburg (Isabel of Spain), died 1526 and together with her brother and sister, she grew up at the court of her grat-aunt and aunt, the Governor Generals of the Netherlands, Margaret I and Maria. She was married to Friedrich II von Pfalz (1482-1556). After his death, she transferred her claims to the Danish throne to her sister, Christine, Regent of Lorraine from 1545. In spite of her Catholic relatives and the new Calvinist Elector of the Palitinate, she kept her Lutheran faith in her dowry where she lead a lavish life and remained in close contact with her Habsburg relatives for the rest of her life. She did not have any children, and lived (1520-80).


Sophie die Jagiellonin, Duchess of Braunschweig

 

1556-68 Politically Influential Duchess Sophie of Poland of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
1568-75 Sovereign Lady of Schöning and the Amt Jerxneim

Also known as Sophie die Jagiellonin, she was engaged in diplomatic activities both with her native Poland and the rest of Europe during the reign of her husband, Heinrich the Younger, she was also active in Politics, and an outstanding intellectual capacity and cultural personality. After her husband's death, and the accession to the throne of her stepson, she retired to her dowry, which she reigned as a sovereign with rights over administration, juridical matters, trade and a small army. She became extremely rich, and her sisters and her husband's relatives and later their descendants fought over the inheritance, which was not settled for another 100 years. The daughter of King Zygysmund I of Poland and Bona Sforza, she had no children, and lived (1522-75). 


 

1556-94 Princess-Abbess Maria Jacoba von Schwarzenberg of Buchau (Germany)

She was in dispute with the bishop of Konstanz and strongly maintained her own rights as ecclesiastical leader and the position of her territory. She was also promoter of religious and cultural affairs. In 1559 she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid), participated in the the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) 1569, represented by the Count of Fürstenberg in the Imperial Diet 1572 and 1576, and by the Truchess von Waldburg in 1577. She was daughter of Freiherr Christoph and Eva von Montfort, and lived (1515-94).


 

1556-57 County Sheriff Sidsel Andersdatter Bille of the County of Gårdstange and the Shire of Frost (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Sidsel Bille was widow of Niels Tønnesen Parsbjerg til Kulla Gunnarstorp, Lensmand of Vrejlev Len(d. 1556). She (d. 1566).


 

1556-80 County Sheriff Mette Hansdatter Lange Munk of Holmegård, Denmark

Mette Lange became in charge of the tenantcy after her husband, Iver Kjeldesen Juel, died the same year he became County Sheriff. She was later granted the tenantcy for life.


Catarina of Portugal

1557-62 Regent Dowager Queen Catarina von Austria of Portugal and the Algaves

Her husband João III died without leaving instructions about regency. A hastily convened council of nobles declared that it had been his wish that Queen Catarina should undertake the office of regent and she was duly appointed and governed in the name of her grandson, Sebastião (1557-78). She was daughter of Juana I la Loca and Emperor Maximillian. After Sebastião came of age at 14, she retired to a convent and lived (1507-78).


1557-80 Sovereign Countess Anna von Tecklenburg-Schwerin of Tecklenburg und Rheda 
1562-73 Regent of Bentheim
1566-72 Regent of Steinfurt-Wevelinghoven and Granau (Germany)

Succeeded father, Konrad von Tecklenburg-Ibbenbüren, and married to Everwin III von Götterswich, Graf von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1536-62), but she remained a staunch Lutheran when Everwin joined Catholism, and he tried to take over her territories and lock her in the tower of the castle of Tecklenburg, but the lords of the immediate county backed her. The situation was solved when he died of syphilis. After his death, she was regent in Bentheim and after the death Arnold III, also regent in Steinfurt. In 1580 she handed over Tecklenburg and Rheda to her son, Arnold IV von Bentheim-Tecklenburg. It is said about her that she had knowledge of healing plants and that she prevented the prosecution of witches in her territory. She lived (1532-82).


1557-.. County Sheriff Queen Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Denmark of Vejle Mølle
1558-66 County Sheriff of Holme Kloster
1559-71 County Sheriff of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans, Tørrild and ½ of Andst, the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fugelse and Musse, the Counties of Ravnsborgn and Åkær with the Shire of Had 

When her husband, Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1503-34-59) died, she withdrew to her dowry that she also administered as a fief-holder, Lensmand, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She was very influential as head of the family. She also held Als, Sundeved og Ærø in the landscape of Slesvig. She lived (1511-71)


 

Circa 1557-74 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Clausdatter Bille of the County of Kjølskegård, Denmark

Sidsel Bille was widow of Just Jacobsen Høeg Banner til Vang og Lergrav (d. 1557), who had first been married to Mette Mogensdatter Gøye.


 

1557 Abbess Nullius Barbara Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Daughter of Andrea Matteo III Acquaviva d’Aragona, Duke of Atri etc. (1457-1529),  and probably his second wife Caterina della Ratta, Countess di Caserta, Alessano e Sant’Agata (from 1488). Her italian title was Badessa di Santa Maria dell’Isola a Conversano dal 1558


 

1557 Reigning Abbess Magdalena von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Only reigned for a few months.


 

1557-68 Reigning Abbess Margrethe von Reischach von Hohenstofffeln of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter was a major landowner and also held lower jurisdiction in a number of surrounding villages.


Elizabeth I

1558-1603  Elizabeth I, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland (United Kingdom)

Daughter of Henry VIII Tudor and Anne Boleyn, she succeeded her half-sister Mary. she was very well educated (fluent in six languages). Her 45-year reign is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it a secure Church of England was established. Its doctrines were laid down in the 39 Articles of 1563, a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Although autocratic and capricious, she had astute political judgement and chose her ministers well. Her reign also saw many brave voyages of discovery, which prepared England for an age of colonisation and trade expansion, In 1588, aided by bad weather, the English navy scored a great victory over the Spanish invasion fleet of around 130 ships - the 'Armada' which was intended to overthrow the Queen and re-establish Roman Catholicism by conquest, as Philip II believed he had a claim to the English throne through his marriage to Mary I. She was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, and lived (1533-1603).


Infanta Maria

1558-61 Regent Infanta Maria de Austria of Spain

In charge of the government during the travels of her brother Felipe II in the Empire. She was married to Maximillian II von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor. Their son, Archduke Albrecht of Austria, Duke of Teschen, married the daughter of Felipe - Infanta Isabella, Governor of the Southern Netherlands. Maria lived (1528-1603).


Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin

1558-78 Politically Active Margravine Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)

The most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603) until her death. She lived (1540-78).


 

1558-64 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Gleichen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Several members of her family - of the Counts of Gleichen - were Princess-Abbesses and held other ecclesiastical offices.


Danish County Sheriff

 

1558 Acting County Sheriff Anne Ottesdatter  Rosenkrantz of the County of Skanderborg with the Shires of Framlev, Gjern, Hjelmslev, Sabro, Tyrsting, Vrads, Støvring, Hald, Onsild and Ning, Denmark
1561-67 County Sheriff of the County of Skjoldnæs

After the death of her husband, Albert Gøye, in 1558, Anne Rosenkrantz was left in charge of the family possessions. Her lands were scattered all over the country, but she managed to unify most of it, and she achieved the right to appoint the judges within her jurisdiction. Anne was involved in many disputes with her relatives, among others the sister-in-law Eline Gøye, and in 1561 she was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) of Skjoldnæs after Eline was removed from this position. In 1566 Anne was ordered to give up the fief again - but only pawed way for the newly appointed Lensmand the following year. She lived (1522-89). 


 

1558-67 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Jochumsdatter Beck of the County of Ruggård with the Shire of Skovsby, Denmark

Margrethe Beck was appointed jointly with her husband, Palle Christoffersen Ulfeldt (d. 1571) for a period of 20 years, but died after 9 years. Her husband then married Margrethe Clausdatter Brockenhuus. She (d. 1567).


 

Circa 1558-62 Acting County Sheriff Bege Pedersdatter Skram of Brinkgård, Denmark

Bege Skram til Stovgård was widow of Jørgen Hansen Juel. Apparently only one daughter, Karen Juel, survived. She (d. after 1562).



Margaretha II of the Netherlands

1559-67 and 1580-82 Stadholder Margaretha de Parma of The Netherlands 
1559-67 Governor of Franche-Comté
1572-86 Perpetual Governor of L'Aquila (Italy)

Also known as Madama or Margarita de Austria, her full title was Archduchess of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Princess of Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily. She was daughter of Emperor Karl V and his mistress Johanna van den Gheynst. Her first husband was Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Firenze (1510-37), the son of the Black servant Simonetta da Collavechio and Cardinal Giulio de Medici (the later Pope Clement VII), was finally assassinated a few months after their wedding in 1536. She then received the titles of Feudal Duchess of Borbona, Penne and Posta and Feudal Lady of Campli, Castel Sant'Angelo (now Castel Madama), Civita Ducale (now Cittaducale), Leonessa, Montereale and Ortona, Lady of Amatrice, Borbona, Posta which she held until her death. In 1538 she was married to Ottavio Farnese (1525-86), whose father was given the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza by his father, Pope Paul III. In 1545 she became mother of twins. Her half-brother, King Felipe II of Spain, appointed her Governor-General of the Netherlands, and she proved to be an able administrator, but resigned after the Duke of Alba's crushing of the Dutch opposition against the Spanish rule. She then returned to Italy and was governor of L'Aquila by her brother. Her son Alessandro Farnese was Governor-General of the Netherlands until 1580 when she replaced him. After his return, she was kept a virtual prisoner in Namur, until she was allowed to return to Italy in 1583 where she died three years later. She lived (1522-86).


Doamna Chiajna of Walachia

1559-68 Regent Doamna Chiajna of Walachia (Romania)

After the death of her husband, Mircea Ciobanul, who was Voivode of Wallachia in 1545-1552, 1553-1554 and in 1558-1559, she was regent for her son, Petru cel Tînăr (Peter the Young). She was daughter of Petru Rareş, ruler of Moldova.


 

1559-89 Princess-Abbess Lucia Hildebrand of Heggbach (Germany)

A former Prioress, she took over enormous depths during a period of bad harvests, hard winters, wet summers, epidemics of plague in 1564, 1572/73, 1574, 1579 and 1589 and on top of it all heavy "turk taxes". But her bad handling of the economy made the situation worse and the existence of the whole territory was endangered, and she had to resign from her post for the same reason. She lived (1523-1605).


1559-60 Acting County Sheriff Øllegaard Jacobsdatter Trolle of the County of Visborg with Gotland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Øllegaard Trolle was a major landowner, widow of Christoffer Hvidtfeldt, mother of 11 children, and lived (1513-78).


Anne Krognos

1559-62 and 1568-74 County Sheriff Anne Olufsdatter Krognos of Hundlund Kloster

Appointed after the death of her husband, Klaus Podebusk. During her second term in office she held the tenantcy as security for lones. (Pantelen).


1559-63 Joint County Sheriff Catharine Gregoriusdatter Ahlefeldt of Borgeby Len in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1565-82 Joint County Sheriff  of the County of Gladsaxe with the Shire of Albo, Denmark

First appointed joint County Sheriff together with her husband, Hans Spiegel til Borreby (d. 1599), who bought the fief and estate of Borgeby and then appointed as security for lones. She had first been married to Johan Stake and Lucas Krabbe. Her husband married Hilleborg Hansdatter Lindenov til Julskov (d. 1602), widow of Emmike Kaas after her death. She (d. 1582).


 

1559-... County Sheriff Mette Johansdatter Oxe of Ralsvig på Rygen (Germany)
1559 Acting County Sheriff of Boisø Kloster, Denmark
1566-68
County Sheriff of Ørslev Kloster

Mette Oxe acted in the name of her four sons after the death of her husband, Hans Barnekow, of an old Wendian noble family, who had been appointed hereditary tenant by the Duke of Pommern, it was confirmed by the Duke and King of Denmark in 1564. Was later granted the tenantcy of Ørslev Kloster. 3 of her sisters; Inger, Pernille and Sidsel also acted as County Sheriffs.


 

1559-60 Acting County Sheriff Lucie Mortensdatter of the County of Jonstrup, Denmark

Daughter of Morten Ebbensen til Gavnø, possibly of the Laale-family, and Benedikte Rubek, and took over the administration after the death of her husband, Christian Eriksen Pors (or Christiern).


 

Until 1559 Feudal Marchioness Diana de Cardona of Giuliano, Contessa della Chiusa, Baronessa di Borgia (Italy)

Second wife of Vespasiano I, Marchese di Sabionetta, Principe di Sabionetta, 1st Duca di Sabionetta, Conte di Roddi e Ricalta, Barone di Caramanico e Tutino, Marchese di Ostiano, Conte di Fondi, Duca di Traetto, Viceroy of Navarra an Valencia, Knight of Golden Fleece Order. She died upon the delivery of a child.


Catherine de Medici

1560-63 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine de' Medici of France
1562-89 Sovereign Duchess of Valois, Countess Auvergne and Boulogne

In 1533 she was married to Henri, Duke of Orleans, who became the French king in 1547. As Queen she was very influential in bringing aspects of Italian culture to France, such as their theatre and food. After her husband's death, she gained political power as regent for her sons. An ambitious woman, she actively involved herself in the political intrigues of the court, always trying to increase royal power. At first Catherine tried to reconcile France's opposing Catholic and Protestant factions as their violent disputes threatened national unity. But instead she initiated the massacre in 1570 of Protestants (the massacre of St Bartholomew). Succeeded her aunt, Anne de la Tour as Countess of Auvergne in 1524, and father Lorenzo II de Medici as titular Countess of Urbino 1519-21. Mother of 10 children, she lived (1519-89)


Unnamed Mughal Lady

1560-62 De-facto regent Maham Anga of the Mughal Empire (India) 

The chief nurse of Emperor Akbar, she gained influence after she convinced Akbar to dismiss his minister, Bairam. Her power began to wane in 1561, when Akbar appointed Atkah Khan as chief minister. Five months later her son, Adham Khan, Akbar's foster-brother, attempted to assassinate Atkah Khan, but was executed, and she died shortly after, and the emperor, who was now 19 ruled alone from then on. 

1560 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Duchess Maria von Sachen-Wettin of Pommern-Wolgast (Poland/Germany)
1574-83 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Pudagla in Pommern-Wolgast

After the death of her husband, Philipp I Duke von Pommern-Wolgast (1515-31-60) a Council of Regency took over the government for her son, Johann Friedrich (1542-60-1600). She was guardian for her sons who shared the inheritance of another relative, who abdicated in 1569; Bogislaw XIII von Pommern-Barth/Neuenkamp and later of Pommern-Stettin, Ernst Ludwig von Pommern-Wolgast, Barnim X von Pommern-Rügenwalde und Bütow and Kasimir VI, who was Evangelican Bishop of Cammin. She was also guardian for the daughters Amelia, Margaretha and Anna. The Duchy was hit by The Seven Years War (1563-70), which demonstrated how powerless the Duchy was. Lack of finances and of military power, forced it to remain neutral and thereby it ended up as a "playbill" between the foreign powers. Her Johann Friederich received the Imperial confirmation of his fief (kaiserliche Belehnung) at the Reichstag in Augsburg in 1566. She was daughter of Duke and Elector Johann von Sachsen and Margareta von Anhalt, and lived (1516-83).


 

1560-76 Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Countess Margarethe von Hoya of Diepholz (Germany)
1560-93 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Office of Auburg
1585-93 Regent of Diepholz

Following the death of her husband, Rudolf IX, a regency council took power under the leadership of Duke Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle in the name of her son Friederich II, and she managed to become part of the council, even though she had not been designated a seat from the beginning. Margarethe von Diepholz was also given the whole of the County as her dowry. In 1582 the Hoya-line died out and she tried to secure her inheritance without success, The same year her only grandson died and 3 years later her son followed. Nominally the county fell to Braunschweig-Lüneburg but in effect she managed to act as regent for her granddaughter, Anna Margarethe (1580-), possibly because Duke Wilhelm had become mentally ill. She reorganised and modernised the administration. The daughter of Jobst II von Hoya and Anna von Gleichen, she had been elected as Abbess of the Noble Chapter of Bassum in 1541, but remained at the court of her parents, and lived (1527-93).


Grania O'Mally

Circa 1560-circa 1600 Clan Leader Grania O'Mally of the West Coast of Camacht and Achill Island, Ireland
1565-1603 "
Pirate Queen"

Also known as Grace O'Malley or Gráinne Ni Mháille, she was only daughter of Dubndara O'Mally. Her husband, Donal O'Flatherty, leader of the neighboring clan, was killed and she managed to hold the besieged castle of the family. Imprisoned in 1578-79 and 1593 for piracy and her sons and son-in-law was also held prisoners by the British. Her fleet numbered some 20 ships, and her blatant piracy was seriously emptying the pockets of English merchants at Galway. She wrote a letter to the Chiefess of the Tudor Clan, Queen Elizabeth I, and was granted an audience in London, which resulted in the release of her relatives and the right to continue her activities on Sea and on Land - though under English flag. She lived (1530-1603).

Beatriz Clara Cova Inca, Señora del Valle de Yucay

1560-1600 Lady Doña Beatriz Clara Cova-Inca of Valle de Yucay, Peru

Only daughter and heir of the last Inca of Peru, Sayri Tupac and his sister and wife María Manrique Cusi Huarcay (circa 1531-after 1586). After her father's death, her possessions were administered by various Spanish guardians and she was placed in a convent, until her mother managed to get the pension she had been promised by her late husband and had found refuge at the residence of Cristóbal Maldonado. Beatriz later married Martín García de Loyola, Lord de Calatrava and their only daughter, Doña Ana María de Loyola Cova y Coya-Inca, was named "The Legitimate Representative of the past Sovereign Incas of Peru", Marquesa de Santiago de Oropesa and Adelantada del Valle de Yucay and Yupangui and Lady de Loyola in 1614. Beatriz lived (1558-1600)


 

Until 1560 County Sheriff Karen Gans of the County of Ydernæs, Denmark

Widow of Thomas Logen (or Lage), who died in the 1550s. Her second husband, Jacob Krafse became County Sheriff (Lensmand) 1560-circa 72.


Around 1560 Princess-Abbess Ludmilla de Bliziva of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Another version of her surname was von Bliziwa.

 

1560-61 Princess-Abbess Maria von Spiegelberg of Essen (Germany)

The counts of Spiegelberg had ruled their Small County, cantered around Coppenbrüg since around 1280. In 1494 they inherited the County of Pyrmont, but in 1557 the family died out in the male line. The fief was inherited by Braunschweig-Calenberg, but with the condition that the sovereignty was inherited in the female line to a sideline of the family of Lippe. In 1485 the county was inherited by the counts of Gleichen and in 1631 by Nassau-Oranje, who sold it to Hannover in 1819.


1561-99 Politically Influential Countess Katharina Vasa av Sverige of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1565-1610 Reigning Lady of Pewsum including the Manningaburg and the Mill of Pewsum
1599-1610 Dowager Lady of the Amt Norden, Berum, Woquard, Loquard and Campen

Katharin Wasa was influential during the reign of her husband, Edzard II von Ostfriesland and was an active participants with her brother-in-law, the joint ruler with her husband. She used her dowry to buy the Lordship of Pewsum and she extended the castle of Manningaburg. She was very active with charity work. When her husband died, she demanded the soverignty of the administrative offices she was given as her dowry, but her son, Enno III, maintained that she would only recieve the incomes from the lands as stipulated in her marriage contract, but she only accepted this after he sent 200 soldiers to the area. Mother of 6 sons and 5 daughters and lived (1539-1610).


 

1561-75 Princess-Abbess Irmgard III von Diepholz of Essen (Germany)

Pröbstin - or second ranking - in the Chapter until her election as its sovereign. Like Maria von Spiegelberg, she was catholic and that caused problems with the predominantly protestant City of Essen. In 1568 Irmgard applied to the imperial supreme court to resolve a wider, century-old dispute between the Abbesses and the Essen citizenry over the rights and responsibilities of the citizens. The judgement, which took 102 years to deliver, was ambiguous. The Abbess was declared the "sole authority and rightful princess of the state", to whom the citizens owed obedience as "subjects and members of the state". At the same time however the city was defined as a "civitas mixta" or free city of the German Empire, and therefore not a county, which would have meant complete subjugation to the aristocracy, nor a municipality without jurisdiction or statutory power. This judgement gave rise to continuing legal disputes, which carried on until 1803, when the state was finally secularised. Irmgard also took a keen interest in coal mining.


 

1561-69 Princess-Abbess Marguerite V de Noyelle of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The abbess of the chapter was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


 

Until 1561 Reigning Abbess Antoniette de Joinville of Faremoutiers (France)

Following the concordat de Bolgone, signed in 1516 between François I and Pope Léon X, the abbesses were named by the king. Her sister, Renée, was Abbess of St. Pierre until her death in 1602. The daughter of Duke Claude de Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche, she lived (1531-61).


1561-62 County Sheriff Karen Globsdatter Krabbe of the Counties of Amtofte , Amtofte Kloster and Thistedgård with the Shire of Hundborg, Denmark
1576-78 County Sheriff of the County of Voergård
1579 County Sheriff of the County of Vinderslevgård
Until 1586 County Sheriff of the County of Strekhals

Karen Krabbe til Nissum, Skovsgård og Voergård, or Karen Krabbe Glob, was married to Nils Hansen Skeel Nygård til Vinderslevgård, Ullerup, Merringgård, Nipgård, Skovsgård, Momtoftegård og Thistedgård (d. 1561). She settled the inheritance with her son-in-law Otto Banner and got Vinderslevgård in exchange. 1578 she and her daughter, Ingeborg Skeel, got the right to the juristiction of the Estate of Vorgård. Ingeborg was County Sheriff from 1585. She lived (1509-86).


1561... Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Nielsdatter Tornekrans of Bråde Len

Dorte eller Dorothea Tornekrans was widow of Niels Markvardsen Skiernov til Mejlgård (d. 1561), who had been granted the tenantcy for life by the Bishop some years before and confirmed by the king after the Reformation. She (d. earlist 1591).


1561-62 and 1562-72 Acting County Sheriff Magdalene Eriksdatter Banner of the County of Skivehus Len with the Shires of Lørre, Harre, Hindborg and Rødding, Denmark

Magdalene Banner was left in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Iver Krabbe. She (d. 1597).


1561-72 County Sheriff Jytte Presbjørnsdatter Podebusk of Vestervig Kloster, Denmark

Jytte Podebusk was widow of Knud Gyldenstierne (d. 1568), who held the tenantcy before her. She (d. 1573).


1561-62 Acting County Sheriff Mette Eriksdatter Hardenberg of Biskotorp, Denmark

Mette Hardenberg was widow of Didrik Henningsen Qvistzow til Rørbæk etc. (d. 1561). Mother of one daughter, Anne who died young. She (d. 1573).


Anne Glob

1561-62 County Sheriff Anne Albrechtsdatter Glob of Sebber Kloster and Asmild Kloster, Denmark

Anne Glob was widow of Jørgen Urne (d. 1560), and was appointed to both tenantcies for life. (d. 1562).


 

1562-65 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Hennekesdatter Rantzau of the County of Skodborg with Malt and ½ of the Shire of Andst, Denmark

Margrethe Rantzau was married to her relative, Jesper Hansen Rantzau, Amtmand in Flensborg and Lensmand in Schmoel, Skodborg, Haderslev and Tørning Len, and she took over the administration of one of his fief after his death.


 

1562-63 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Maltesdatter Viffert of the County of Viskumsgård with the Shire of Synderlyng, Denmark

Dorthe Viffert til Øls was widow of Peder Christoffersen Kruse til Ballegård, Ryomgård og Kjellerup. She lived (circa 1514-after 1563).


1562-63 County Sheriff  Else Holgersdatter Ulfstand of Ås Kloster in Halland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1563-64 County Sheriff of Svaløv Len
1565-69 County Sheriff of Øvid Kloster
1567-.. County Sheriff of Rørum Len, Denmark

Else Ulfstand administered the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Tage Thott, together with her sister, Thale Ulfstand, who was also County Sheriff of Hesselbjerg from 1595. Her daughter, Thale Thott, was County Sheriff of Lensmand of Åhus and Åsum in Skåne 1587-90. She lived (1520-73).


Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba

1562-1622 Politically Influential Empress Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba of the Mughal Empire (India)

As one of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar's three chief queens, she was politically involved in the court until Nur Jahan became empress. Like other few women at the Mughal court, she could issue official documents (farman), which was usually the exclusive privilege of the emperor. She used her wealth and influence to build gardens, wells, and mosques around the country. In 1586, she arranged a marriage of her son, Prince Salim (later Jahangir), to her niece, Princess Manmati (Manbhawati Bai), who was the mother of Prince Khusrau Mirza. Even though she remained a Hindu after her marrage, she was buried according to Islamic custom and was not cremated. Born as Rajkumari Hira Kunwari Sahiba - or Harkha Bai, she was the eldest daughter of Kacchwaha Rajput, Raja Bharmal, Raja of Amber, and lived (1542-1622)


1563-79 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Eisenberg
of Lippe (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Bernhard VIII (1527-36-63), she was in disputes with the other regents for her son Simon VI, mainly Count Hermann Simon zu Pyrmont (d. 1576). Her son was appointed Imperial Commissioner and was in charge of mediating hereditary disputes and gained more and more importance as the years went by. She lived (1524-83).


1563-1621 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Katarina Stenbock of Strömsholms Estate with the Shire of Snevringe , Fiholms Estate with the Parishes of Säby and Stora Rytterne, the estates of Tynnelsö and Magerö wit Aspö, the Parishes of Överselö and Ytterselö with Tosterö in the Parish of Strängnäs and the Estate of Kungsberga with the Parishes of Fogdö, Vansö and Helgarö, Sweden

She was engaged when king Gustav Vasa decided to marry her after the death of his previous wife, her aunt, Margareta Leijonhufvud. He was 37 tears older than he, and she was more his nurse than his wife. She was the first Queen Dowager to be named Riksänkedrottning - Dowager Queen of the Realm, and lived (1535-1621).


1563-circa 88 County Sheriff Anne Vernersdatter Parsberg of Derup
1580-81 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Øster Gårdstange and the County of Reving (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1580-93 County Sheriff of the Counties of Vram, Visby, Stibberup and Revinge, Denmark

Anne Parsberg was first married to Christoffer Gyldenstierne and secondly to Hans Jepsen Skovgaard til Gundestrup (1526-80), Councillor of the Realm and Lensmand of Helsingborg. 


 

1563-87 County Sheriff Margrethe Axelsdatter Urup of the County of Søfed (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Margrethe Urup til Ugerup was widow of Erik Madsen Bølle til Terløse, Elved and Orebygård and Lensmand at Tureby (d. 1562). She did not have any children. The local administration and juridical system was in the hand of a royal appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) who each administered a Len (fief or tenantcy). It was normally the local manor-owner, and if that was an unmarried woman she was in some cases appointed Lensmand in her own right, in other cases a woman administered the Len after her husband's death. 


 

1563-65 County Sheriff Ingeborg Andersdatter Bille of Øvid Kloster, Denmark

Jomfru Ingeborg Bille held the tenantcy as security for lones. She was a rich landowner and inherited Egedegaard from her two unmarried aunts, Ermegaard Bentdsatter and Birgitte Torbendsdatter Bille who had inherited the estate from their fathers, the brothers' Bent and Torben who owned it jointly. Both cousins died 1587, and from these three unmarried women - Jomfruer - the estate got the present name, Jomfruens Egede (Egede of the Virgin (or unmarried lady)). She (d. 1608).


 

1563-after 68 County Sheriff Lisbet Johansdatter Urne of the County of Klingstrup, Denmark

Lisbet Urne was widow of Peder Lykke til Skovsbo, granted the tenantcy for life. 1577 she married Johan Bockholt. She (d. 1584).


 

1563-91 County Sheriff Agnete Busksdatter Skenk of the County of Pandumgård with the Shire of Hornum and the Estate of Snorup, Denmark

Agnete Skenk til Brudagergård was widow of Jørgen Jørgensen Prip til Pandumgård len. She (d. before 1599).


 

1563-71 County Sheriff Ellen Pallesdatter Bang of the County of Lønborggård and Lønborg Birk

Ellen Bang was widow of Jørgen Hennekesen Kremon Rantzau til Kærgård og Lønborggård. 1570 she was permitted to keep the tenantcy for 8 years, but it was paid off the following year when she married the German noble Ernst von Reckenberg. Her third husband was
Mads Nielsen Skade.


Unnamed Lanna Queen

1564-78 Queen Regnant Wisuthatevi of Lanna
(Thailand)

Also known as Phra Nang Visuti, Wisutthi Thewi or Wisutthithew (Maha Tewi) she was youngest daughter of Phaya Ket and placed on the throne by the Burmese after King Phra Mekut was deposed, and married to King Burengnong, or Bayinnaung. of Hantawaddy and Pegu, who sacked Ayudhaya in 1569 and continued fighting until his death in 1581. Lanna became a vassal state required to pay annual tribute of gold and silver trees, and manpower as necessary in times of war. She was the last descendent of Mengrai to rule, and after her death, the Burmese sent their own princes to rule in Lanna. (d. 1578).


1564-1633 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Clèves-Nevers of Eu and Souveraine de Chateau-Renaud (France)

Successor of her brother, Jacques de Clèves. First married to Antoine de Croÿ, prince of Porcien and in 1570 to Henri de Lorraine, duc de Guise, who was assassinated in 1588. (1548-1633)..


Until 1564 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Sandizell of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Her relative, Moritz was Prince-Bishop of Freising until he resigned in 1566.


 

1564-79 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Ratzin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1219 the "reichsunmittelbare" - Imperial Immediate - convent came under direct Papal protection and in 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the convent immunity and during the reign of Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre. 1484 it was turned into a noble Ladies Chapter (Gräflicher Damenstift) with a seat and vote in the Diet of the Realm and the Princess-Abbess also sat on the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) in 1500, which was the Regional Assembly.


 

1564-70 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

As Fürstäbtissin she was member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly Member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly. She was also member of the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. She resigned in order to marry Count Wolfgang II von Barby. She was the youngest daughter of Johann von Anhalt-Zerbst and Margrethe von Brandenburg was succeeded by her niece, Anne Marie von Anhalt, and lived (1545-74).


1564-66 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Reventlow of the County of Åstrup, Denmark
1566-80
 County Sheriff of the County of Jegindø

Margrethe Reventlow was the second wife of Erik Krabbe (1510-64), and after his death, she was in charge of the fief until a new Lensmand (County Sheriff) was appointed. Held Jegindø as security for lones until it was paid off by Tyge Krabbe. She lived (1525-1606).


Johanne Rotfeld

1564-73 County Sheriff Johanne Nielsdatter Rotfeld of the County of the Shire of Hindsted, Denmark

Johanne Rotfeld til Eskær was widow of Hans Lykke, but apparently appointed to the tenantcy in her own right.


Karen Ged

1564-? County Sheriff Karen Jacobsdatter Ged of Gisleberg Len, Denmark

Karine or Karen Ged til Røsøholm og Jordbjærg was widow of Mogens Krabbe til Vegholm og Skillinge, and held the tenantcy as security for lones. (d. 1587).


Agnes zu Rietberg

1565-circa 76 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Rietberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband Count Johann II of Rietberg, Lord auf Esens, Stedesdorf und Wittmund (1541-1562) she acted as regent for her daughters, Armgard and Waldburgis. The Landgrave of Hessen occupied the county, and in 1565 the daughters were granted the fief (des Lehens erneut belehnt). In 1567 she granted Wittmund City Rights.


1564/65-82 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Margrethe Urne of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)

Entered the chapter in 1542 and "reigned as Abbess ably and well like no other abbess before or after her". There were complaints that the chapter was opened to anyone who wanted to visit, the canonesses fought openly and refused to comply with the rule or the abbess, many were drunk on a regular basis, drinking up the fourteen barrels of beer received each year as rent and more. It was also asserted that women's rooms were used as brothels for any young nobleman who wandered inside. She was daughter of Knud Urne til Søgård, and (d. 1582).


Armgard von Rietberg

1565-76 Hereditary Countess Armgard von Rietberg of Rietberg (Germany)
1576-84 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg

Also known as Irmgard, she was daughter Johann II and Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt. After her father's death, the Landgrave of Hessen occupied the county, but her mother protested and in 1565 she and her sister, Walburgis, were given back the fief. The latter received the Harlingerlands and Armgard received Rietberg. She was first married to Erich Count von Hoya (from 1568) and from 1578 with Simon VI. von der Lippe. She did not have any children and was succeeded as Countess by her sister, Walburgis.


Walburgis von Rietberg

1565-84 Lady Walburgis von Rietberg of the Harlingerland (Germany)
1584-86 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg

The two sisters were granted the territory three years after their father’s death, and in 1576 the inheritance was finally settled. Also known as Walburga, she was married to Count Enno III von Ostfriesland. After having given birth to two daughters she died two months after the birth of her only son, who only lived a few days. Her two daughters seem to have been taken in the care of her mother-in-law, Anna of Sweden. Walburgis was succeeded by daughter, Sabine Catharina von Ostfriesland (b. 1582) with her father as regent for a number of years. The younger daughter, Agnes, married Lord Gundacar zu Liechtenstein and Nicolsburg in 1603. The marriage-treaties resulted in various lawsuits - the last ended in 1835 - where the Princes of Liechtenstein claimed the County of Rietberg and they still use the weapon and title for sidelines of the family. Walburga was the last of the house of Werl-Arnsberg, and lived (1555/56-86)


 

1565-before 1609 Reigning Marchioness Anne de Croÿ of Renty (Belgium) 

Succeeded father, Guillaume and was first married to Emanuel de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny (d. 1590) and secondly to Philippe de Croy, Comte de Sole (d. 1612).


 

1565-75 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)

Also Abbess of Freckenhorst 1570, and of Borghorst 1572. She introduced the reformation after years of oppostion by her predecessor, whereafter Herford became a secular protestant Stift - the only one to be reformed. The other Protestant Chapters were Lutheran. She was daughter of Simon V, Count of Noble Lord zur Lippe and Magdalene von Mansfeld. Her sister, Magdalene was sovereign from 1586. She lived (1525-78).


1565-74 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Kapelgård, Denmark
1565-66 County Sheriff of the County of Tølløse
1565-71 Acting County Sheriff of the Counties of Kappelgården and Ringkloster
1571-72 County Sheriff of the County of Åkær
1572 County Sheriff of the County of Ydernæs

After her mother's death, Birgitte Gøye was brought up at the convent  Ringkloster by Skanderborg. Her relationship with her stepmother, Margrethe Sture, was very bad. 1537 she became Lady of the Chamber (Kammerjomfru) of King Dorotheas and became a close friend of Princess Anna, later electress of Sachsen. Married Councillor of the Realm, Admiral Herluf Trolle in 1544 after she had managed to break off another engagement. They had no children, but she was in charge of the upbringing of many young noble ladies who lived with her for numerous years. In 1564 she and Herluf founded Herlufsholm Boarding school for children of the nobility and she was its Chancellor 1565-67. In 1571, after she had lost her other fiefs, Dowager Queen Dorothea, gave her the tenantcy of Åkær by Horsens, but after the Queen's death, Birgitte also lost this possession, until she was given Ydernæs for life. She lived (circa 1511-74).


1565-66 Acting County Sheriff Mette Olufsdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark
1565-67 County Sheriff of the County of Strø in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

All her life, Mette Rosenkrantz was extremely rich, and together with her sister, Birgitte, she inherited the estate of Vallø, a very big possession, she administered Skarhult for her children of the first marriage with Councillor of the Realm Steen Rosensparre, and her second husband, Chancellor Peder Oxe, had given her possession for life of his enormous lands and the estates of Gisselfeld, Tølløse and Løgismose, which she could not inherit, since they had no children, and she won the cases his relatives raised against her disputing the legality of his transfers. As all other estate owners at the time she went through numerous disputes and court-cases not least because their lands were scattered over big areas, not one unit. She also inherited lands from her mother, Ide Munk (d. 1586), and was probably the biggest landowner of her time and a reformed the way the estates and farms were run. Mother of 3 children, and lived (circa 1533-88).


1565-85 County Sheriff Abel Sørensdatter Skeel of the County of Lundenæs with the Shires of Bølling, Ginding, Hammerum and Hjem and the County of Dueholm
1565
Acting County Sheriff of the County of Riberhus Len with the Shires of Gjørding and Skad, Denmark

Abel Skeel was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Hr. Niels Hansen Lange Munk til Kærgård, Fadersbøl og Visselbjerg. 1573 King Frederik 2 asked her to give one of the three bells of the Chapter of Dueholm to the Church of Sct. Clemens Kirke in Nykøbing Mors, as the old bells had been lost in the fire of 1560. She did not have any children, and (d. 1585).


 

1565-67 County Sheriff Elsebe Axelsdatter Brahe of the County of Fliginde (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Elsebe Brahe took over after the death of her husband, Hans Jepsen Skovgaard. She did not have any children her two fiancees prior to her marriage had both died.


 

1565-66 Acting County Sheriff Apollonia Frederiksdatter von Ahlefeldt of the County of Hagenskov with the Shire of Bog, Denmark

Apollonia von Ahlefeldt was widow of Joachim Brockdorff. She was daughter of Frederik von Ahlefeldt, of Pinneburg in Slesvig-Holstein and Catharine Henningsdatter Pogwisch. She was mother of one son, and lived (circa 1515-88).


 

1565-91 County Sheriff Inger Johansdatter Oxe of Lund Sankt Peders Kloster (Then Denmark, Now Sweden) and the County of Søllestedgaard, Denmark
1565-66 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbning with the two Shires of Falster

Inger Oxe was widow of Jørgen Brahe til Tostrup, who had been appointed County Sheriff of Dowager Queen Sophie, who held Lolland and Falster as her dorwy. As they did not have any chidren they became the foster parents of the later famous astronomer Tycho Brahe. Chief of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Sophie af Mecklenburg 1572-84. 3 of her sisters, Mette Pernille and Sidsel also were County Sheriffs. She (d. 1592).


 

1565-74 County Sheriff Pernille Johansdatter Oxe of the County of Korsør with the Shires of Flakkebjerg and Slagelse, Denmark

Pernille Oxe was appointed to the tenantcy in succession to her late husband, Admiral Otto Rud, who had died in a Swedish prison. The sister of Inge and Sidsel Oxe and the Chancellor Peder Johansen Oxe, she lived (1530-76).


1565-78 County Sheriff Ide Truidsdatter Ulfstand of Hassens Birk
1587 Acting County Sheriff of Marup, Denmark
1589-91 County Sheriff of Mørup in Halland (Then Denmark, now Sweden)

Ide Ulfstand was widow of Falk Gøye, she held Hassens as security for lones and exchanged Marup and Mørup with other properties in an agreement with Eiler Brokkenhuus. Granted Mørup with out any duties to the king when she followed Princess Anne to Sachen. She (d. circa 1604).


Around 1565 County Sheriff Birgitte Clausdatter Bille of the County of Svendstrup
1575-?
County Sheriff of the County of Ydernæs, Denmark

Birgitte Bille was widow of Christoffer Galle and held the tenantcy as security for lones (Pantelen). She (d. after 1613).


Pfalzgräfin Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern, Herzogin Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach

1566-86 Co-Guardian Duchess Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern of Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach (Germany)

Her husband, Duke Johann Friedrich II von Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach, (1529-95), had attempted to win back the dignity of Elector through taking up arms. He was defeated and imprisoned for life by the Emperor and Imperial Diet. She then lived with her brother-in-law, Johann Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, together with her two sons, Johann Casimir von Sachsen-Coburg (1564-1633) and Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Eisenach and after his brother's death also in Coburg (1566-1638), but later she set up her own court in the Zollhof zu Eisenach, in 1571 at the Castle of Wartburg and finally at the Castle of Eisenberg. In 1570 the Imperial Diet had reinstated her sons and named three electors: Friedrich III. von der Pfalz, August von Sachsen as Johann Georg von Brandenburg as their guardians and in 1572 the duchy was divided in a part for each son. 1578-81 they both studied at the University of Leipzig, and in 1586 they assumed the reigns in their duchies. Johann Friederich II was still imprisoned and died one year after her. Her two oldest sons died in infancy, and she lived (1540-94).


1566-1631 Dame Catherine Parthenay-L'Archevêque of Parthenay-Soubise and Mouchamp (France)

Also known as de Parthenay-Larchevêque, she was a poet, dramaturgist and mathematician and a center of the protestant culture in the North Eastern part of France. 1568 married to Charles de Quélenec Baron du Pont., who died during the Saint Barthelemew's Night in 1572. A few years later she married René II de Rohan Vicomte de Rohan, Prince de Léon, Comte de Porhoët, and took up residence in Bretange and developped a number of protestant churches. When her husband died in 1586 she concentrated on raising her 5 children and in 1627-28 she participated in the defence of the City of Rochelle against the armies of Cardinal de Richelieu.. After the fall of the city she was imprisoned at the Castles of Blain and Josselin. Her oldest son, Duke Henri II de Rohan-Soubise (1579-1638), became chief of the Huguenot Party together with Condé, Coligny and Henri de Navarre and was succeeded by his daughter, Marguerite de Rohan upon his death. Catherine was daughter of another Huguenot leader, Jean V (1512-1566) and Antoinette Bouchard (d. 1580), and lived (1554-1631).

Sidsel Oxe

1566-? County Sheriff Sidsel Johansdatter Oxe of the County of Broby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1571-92 County Sheriff of the County of Rødinge, Denmark 
1573-74 Dowager County Sheriff of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Gislum, Hindsted, Hornum, Horns, Hvetbo and Kære and the County of Viskumgård

Sidsel Oxe was daughter of Johan Oxe til Nielstrup and Mette Mogensdatter Gøye and was appointed tenant in her own right. When her husband, Councillor of the Realm, Erik Jørgensen Podebusk til Bidstrup died, she administered the tenantcy. He inheited Øster Velling Birk from his mother, Ermegård Andersdatter Bille, when she died 1564. In 1593 Sidsel was granted the jurisdiction of Øster Velling, giving her right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. She (d. 1593).


 

1566-68 County Sheriff Margrethe Nielsdatter Rotfeldt of the County of Ulvskov, Denmark

Margrethe Rotfeldt was widow of Hans Mandrupsen Holk, who defended Varberg Castle in Halland against the Swedish troops, but was run over and held prisoner with her and their 2 children. He died shortly after and they were freed the following year. She lived (circa 1540-75).


1566-68 County Sheriff Sidsel Eilersdatter Bryske of Vissenbjerg Birk, Denmark

Sidsel Bryske inherited the tenantcy from her brother, Antonius (Klausen) Bryske. She was widow of Eskild Gøye. She (d. 1573).


1566-76 County Sheriff Maren Eilersdatter Friis of the County of Vejstrupgård, Denmark

Marine or Maren Friis was widow of Claus Brockenhuus, she held the tenantcy for life. She (d. 1576).


 

1566-73 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Liechtenstein-Murau of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Possibly daughter of Otto von Liechtenstein-Murau (d. 1564) and Benigna von Liechtenstein (of the later Princes of Liechtenstein) (d. 1579). Her parents were not related.


 

1566-70 Reigning Abbess-General Inés Manrique de Lara y  Castro of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Daughter of Pedro Manrique de Lara y Sandoval, Count de Treviño, Duke de Nájera, Señor de Amusco, Navarrete etc., Chief Treasurer of Vizcaya, Chief Notary of the Kingdom of León, Capitain General of the fronteres of Aragón, Navarra and Jaén and the army of Navarra and Guiomar de Castro

Korean Queen

1567-68 Regent Dowager Queen Shim of Korea

Also known as In-sun Wang-hu, she was the widow of Myongjong (1534-1567), and adopted the third son of Prince Tok-hung, who then succeeded his uncle as Kun Jong-jon or Sonjo (1552-1608). She lived (1532-75).


 

1567-79 Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Johann von Mansfeld, she took over the regency for son Ernst VI (1561-1609). She was daughter of Duke Ernst I von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Sofie von Mecklenburg, and lived (1534-96).

1567-1625 Politically influential Queen Anna af Danmark of Scotland and England (United Kingdom)

The newest research shows that she was very influential during the reign of her husband, James VI of Scotland and from 1603 James I of England. She was a shrewd and powerful player in the court politics of Scotland and, later, England. Her influence can be seen in James's choices for advisors and beneficiaries of royal attention. She also developed an alternative court and sponsored many of the other artistic ventures in one of the most productive and innovative periods of English cultural history. James' and Anna's longstanding dispute over the raising of the heir, Henry, caused a major scandal of the time and was suspected as a plot against the king’s safety. In order to assert her own power, Anna actually forced a miscarriage upon herself; an event that is referred to in much hitherto unnoticed contemporary diplomatic correspondence. She lived (1574-1619)


Gørvel Fadersdatter

1567-70 Acting County Sheriff Gørvel Fadersdatter Sparre of the Counties of Vefre and Høgby, Denmark
1570-72 Acting County Sheriff of Helne Kirke in Land (Allehelgenes Kloster)
1574-81 Acting County Sheriff of the County Verpinge (Skåne)
1574-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Borgeby
1582-1605 County Sheriff of Börreringe Kloster and the Shire of Frost (Frostherred)
1586-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Sørby
1599-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Skøtsherred
1601-05 County Sheriff of the Counties of Hiöby and Lindholm in Skåne (Now Sweden)

Gørvel Sparre was one of the last members of the so-called "Nordic nobility" which existed during the Union between Denmark, Norway and Sweden as she had possessions in all three countries. She was an only child and inherited Norway's largest estate Giske from her mother's brother in 1537. During the The Count's Feud  1534-36 she was kept prisoner with her seven stepchildren at her second husband's estate, Varberg in Skåne, and also gave birth to her only son, who died 1548. She secured her possessions by giving large grants to the king, and in exchange she became Lensmand (County Sheriff) for life of Verpinge, and she were later given other fiefs to administer for the crown for life. She continued to grant most of her Norwegian estates to the crown, and in 1601 she appointed king Christian 4 as her sole heir after the death of her only child, Nils Ulfstad. In a number of her tenantcies, she also held pastorial rights. Married to the Swedish Councillor of the Realm, Peder Nilsson Grip (d. 1533), Truid Gregersen Ulfstand (d. 1445) and Lave Axelsen Brahe (d. 1567). She lived (circa 1509-1605).


Lensmand Tale Ulfstand

1567-.. County Sheriff Tale Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Rørum, Denmark
1595-99 County Sheriff of the County of Hesselbjerg in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Tale Ulfstand's husband, Poul Pedersen (Laxmand) den yngre til Stenholt, died 1557. At first she administered Rørum jointly with Else Ulfstand and later with Lisbeth Rosenkrantz. She owned the castles of Skabersjö, Häckeberga and Høgestad in Denmark and in the landscapes that was conquered by Sweden in 1658.


1567 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Clausdatter Podebusk of the County of Odensegård
1567-68 Acting County Sheriff of the Conty Stege with the two Shires of Møn, Denmark

Viveke or Vibeke Podebusk was widow of Evert Bildt. She held Herrested as security for lones. She was owner of Raunholt and Lindholm Castle and in 1580 was granted the jurisdiction of Raunholt, which meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines.). She (d. 1596).


Karen Banner

1567-79 County Sheriff Karen Eriksdatter Banner of the County of the Shire of Rugsø, Denmark
1580-82 County Sheriff of the County of Satsø
1582-1611 County Sheriff of the County of Orlofgård
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Jungshoved
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Vordingborg with the Shire Bårse, Hammer and Tybjerg

Karen Banner til Høgholt held the teantcy as security for a lone to her husband, Gregers Truedsen Ulfstand, who was County Sheriff 1548-80, and held the fief of Orlofgård after the death of her first husband Gregers Ulfstand and the fief of Jungshoved after the second, Henrik Lykke til Overgaard og Hverringe. She inherited the estate of Gisselfeld and Ryegård in 1588 after the death of Mette Rosenkrantz til Vallø, who had inherited it from her husband, Karen's uncle, Peder Oxe in 1575. (d. 1611).


1567-91 County Sheriff Birgitte Eilersdatter Rønnow of the County of Kirkeby, Denmark

Birgitte Rønnow was widow of Henning Jørgensen Qvitzow til Sandager, Rørbæk, Lykkesholm and Falde (1513-1569), who had first been married to Ide Thomesdatter Lange to Lydum (d. 1553). She (d. 1590).


 

1567-91 County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Friis of the County of Gudumlund, Denmark

Anne Friis held the biscopal fief for life until she handed it over to Jens Kaas. She was married to Chresten Krabbe, mentioned to Viumgård in 1592.


1567-1610 Princess-Abbess Maria Segesser von Brunegg of Gutenzell (Germany)

Considered one of the most important rulers of the territory. During the visitation in 1574, by the Abbot of Bodenseezisterze, who was in charge of the clerical affairs and responsible for the economic affairs, the 47 Heggbachers and other neighbouring convents were praised for their piety and it lasted another 50 years before the convent reforms were introduced. Another version of her name is Maria von Segesser aus Brunegg.

1567-90 Royal Abbess Magdalena von Habsburg of the Royal Chapter of Hall in Tirol (Königliches Damenstift Hall) (Austria-Hungary)

She founded the royal Chapter for royal and noble ladies that existed until 1783. She lived there with her two sisters, Margaretha and Helena. Daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I and Anna of Hungary, she lived (1532-90)

Anna Maria von Brandenburg, Herzogin von Württemberg

1568-circa 72 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna-Maria von Brandenburg–Ansbach of Württemberg (Germany)

Widow of Christoph (1515-50-68) and regent for son Ludwig (1554-68-93) together with her brother Margrave Georg-Friedrich of Brandenburg, Margrave Karl von Baden and Pfalzgraf Wolfgang von Zweibrücken. The mother of 12 children, she lived (1526-89).

Circa 1568-97 Sovereign Marquise Renée d'Anjou of Mézières, Countess de Saint-Fargeau (France)

The only child and heiress of Nicolas d'Anjou, marquis de Mézières and Gabrielle de Mareuil, she was married to François, Prince-Dauphin d'Auvergne, Duc de Montpensier (1582), duc de Saint-Argau (1572) and de Châtellerault (1582/84), who lived (circa 1542-92). She was succeeded by her son, Henri de Bourbon, duc de Montpensier, de Châtellerault et de Saint-Fargeau, prince souverain de Combes, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon, dauphin d'Auvergne, marquis de Mézières et chevalier des ordres du roi, gouverneur du Dauphiné et de Normandie, and lived (1550-97).


1568-80 Princess-Abbess Renée de Dinteville of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

Coadjutrice 1565-68 and elected Abbess because duke Charles III of Lorraine preferred an Abbess from the local nobility of the Duchy. 1579 was forced to accept Barbe de Salm as Coadjutrice of the Chapter. She was the issue of a noble family of high-ranking courtiers. 


 

1568-78 Reigning Abbess Marie III de de Bernemiscourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of Lord of Thieuloye and Lievin.


 

1568-92 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Goeberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The General of the Order of the Cisterciensers (Ordensgeneral) visited the chapter in 1573.


 

1568-69 Acting County Sheriff Rigborg Lauridsdatter Tinhuus of the County of Silkeborg, Denmark

Rigmor Tinhuus til Julskov was widow of Hans Johansen Lindenov. She was mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and (d. 1572).


1569 Queen Visutthikasat of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand) 

Also known as Thepkasattery or Khun Pirenthep, she was the last of the old ruling family, her husband, Mahathammaracha (Maha Tammaradschathirat or King Maha Thammaraja), Chief of the Sukhothai, was king (1569-90). She is not listed as Queen Regent in most chronologies, but the Thai National Museum in Bangkok list her as such.


 

1569-1623 Sovereign Princess Marie de Penthièvre of Martigues (France)

Created Princess after her father, Sébastien de Luxembourg, Duke de Penthièvre, was killed. She married Philibert-Emmanuel de Lorraine, duc de Meroeur (d. 1602). And their daughter brought Martigues to her husband, Cécar de Bourbon-Vendôme, legitimated son of Henri IV. 


Unnamed Belgian lady

Circa 1569-72 Sovereign Lady Jeanne de Mérode of Veulen (Belgium)

Her brother died in 1569, but the date of her accession has not been confirmed.


1569-84 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Anna von Hessen of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein and Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken (Germany)

After the death of her husband Duke Wolfgang von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken (1526-69), she became joint guardian for their fourth and fifth sons, Friedrich von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein (1557-97) and Karl (1560-) together with her brother Onkels Landgraf Wilhelm IV. von Hessen-Kassel, Kurprinz Ludwigs VI. von der Pfalz and her two older sons Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg und Johann I. von der Paflz-Zweibrücken. She was mainly engaged with her sons upbringing and education - in the orthodox Lutheran faith. She had a total of 13 children. Her sister, Agnes, was In-charge of the Government of Sachesen 1546-53 and Reigning Dowager Lady of Weissenfels and Weissensee 1553-55. Anna lived (1529-91).


 

1569-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Staufenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)

At the time of ther marriage to Johann von Münsterberg zu Oels in Slesia she was granted the Castle and Lordship of Frankenstein as her dowry with the approval of the Estates, but after her husband's death in 1565, her stepson sold the castle and she engaged in a dispute that lasted until 1577 when Emperor Rudolf II as King of Bohemia finalised a compromise. In the meantime her brother, Duke Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in Calenberg und Göttingen, granted her the Castle as her dowry, which she transformed into a hospital. She lived (circa 1516-80).


Katarzyna Jagiellonka

1569-83 Politically Active Queen Katarina Jagellonica of Sweden 

Originally named Katarzyna Jagiellonka, she was the youngest daughter of Sigismund I of Poland and Bona Sforza. In 1562 Katarina and the duke Johan (Brother to king Erik) got married, a marriage that was not blessed by king Erik. As a result Johan and Katarina was thrown in to jail at Gripsholms Castle. During their prison period Katarina gave birth to Isabella and Sigismund. 1566 Tsar Ivan in Russia demanded that Katarina Jagellonica would be extradited to him. King Erik liked the idea but As he was forced to abdicate in 1568 he didn't get the chance to realize the extradition. As Queen Katarina tried to re-establish the catholic church in Sweden. As she had good contact with (among other) Cardinal Hosius and her husband was interested in the new reforms, which had been carried out in the catholic church, she made good progress. Her death marked the end of the attempt to re-establish the catholic church in Sweden. She lived (1526-83). 


1569 Joint Leader of the Northern Rebellion Lady Jane Howard in England (United Kingdom)

Another of the rebellion-leaders. Her husband the 6th Earl of Westmoreland, Charles Neville, was another of the leaders of the failed rebellion. In effect she had more to do with raising the troops than he did. She was well educated but not the cleverest when it came to understanding political machinations. She was first to urge the rebels to rise up against the queen and yet she expected Elizabeth to pardon her when they failed. She hoped to arrange the marriage of her brother, the Duke of Norfolk, to Mary Queen of Scots and put them both on England's throne. Norfolk was executed for treason in 1572. Jane Howard lived under house arrest for the rest of her life, while her husband fled to the Continent and lived there in exile. She lived (1537-93).


 

1569 Joint Leader of the Northern Rebellion Lady Anne Somerset in England (United Kingdom)

One of the leaders of the Rebellion of the Earls of Northern England revolted against Elizabeth in order to restore Catholicism to England. The rebels hoped to free Mary, Queen of Scots from captivity. Queen Elizabeth put down the rebellion, and her troops killed 3. 000 of the rebels Lady Anne escaped to the Netherlands in 1570 and died here. Marred to Thomas Percy, 1st. Earl of Northumberland who had a very important role in the Rising of the North, he fled to Scotland once that rebellion was defeated, where he was captured by the Earl of Morton and handed over to the English government, and publicly executed in 1572. The Earldom went to her brother-in-law and the estates inherited by their four daughters. She was daughter of the Earl of Worcester, and lived (1538-91).


Tombstone of a Fürstäbtissin of Niedermünster, but the name and year of her death have disappeared from the wear of the centuries

1569-98 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Kirmbreith of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

As Reichsprältin (Imperial Prelate), the Fürstäbtissin had a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Holy Roman Diet (Reichstag), where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat) and she was also member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bavarian Circle (Bayrischer Kreis).

 

1569-circa 1601 Princess-Abbess Marie I van Hoensbroek of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

One of her ancestors, Knight Herman Hoen, was appointed Lord van Hoensbroek by Duchess Johanna van Brabant in 1388 for his service at war. The family were later given the title of Count.


 

1569 Abbess Nullius Isabella II Acquaviva of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

The list of Abbesses of the chapter is not complete and there are at least two different versions of the chronology of the reign of the Abbesses, and in an alternative list, she appears as ruler in 1621. She was another member of the family of the Counts of Conversano.


Last update 06.06.14

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