Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

  WOMEN IN POWER 
1500-1540

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


 

Around 1500 Queen Tlapalizquixochtzin of the City State of Ecatepec (Mexico)

The daughter of Prince Matlaccoatzin who was son of King Chimalpilli I, she married Emperor Moctezuma II Tenochtitlan (circa 1466-1520). Their daughter, Doña Francisca de Moctezuma, married Don Diego de Alvarado Huanitzin, the ruler of Ecatepec and Tenochtitlan, who was son of her sister, Tlacuilolxochtzin and his brother, Tezozomoctli Acolnahuacatl

 

Around 1500 Queen Sukda of Mandara (Cameroon)

She was the first ruler of The Mandara (or Wandala) tribe, which is located just south of Lake Chad in both northern Cameroon and Nigeria in savannah. The tribe also occupy a mountainous area where the Gotel and Mandara Mountains meet. This hot, tropical region has only 30 inches of rainfall each year, and the Mandara are among other tribes of Sudanic herdsmen who migrate seasonally with their animals, searching for fresh grazing lands. 


 

1500s Reigning Abbess Claire Motier de La Fayette of Montvilliers (France)

Daughter of VI Gilbert IV  Motier de La Fayette, Seigneur de Saint-Romain, de Hautefeuille and de Pontgibault and Isabeau. (b. 1482-?).


 

1500-.. Regent Patodhara Sodhaji Raniji Shri Asadi Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)

One of the many wives of Rana Raj Raydharji, she became regent when her grandfather, Thakore Shri Lakhadhirji II Samatsinhji Sahib, Thakore Sahib of Muli, installed her son, Raydharji, as ruler, when his two older half-brothers accompanied their father's funeral procession


 

1500-40 Sovereign Countess Marie d'Albret of Rethel, Sovereign Princess of Boisbelle-Henrichemont  (France) (Belgium)

Succeeded her mother, Charlotte de Bourgogne, as Countess of Rethel, and was married to Charles of Clèves, Count de Nevers (d. 1521) and succeeded by son, François de Nevers et Rethel, Duke of de Nevers (d. 1561) whose daughters shared the inheritance. Henriette de Clève became Duchess of Nevers-Rethel, Catherine de Nevers (1548-1633) Countess d'Eu and Marie de Nevers (1553-74) Comtesse de Beaufort. Her father was Jean d'Albret (d. 1524), and she lived (1491-1549).


 

From 1500 Sovereign Countess Anne de Chabannes of Dammartin (France)

Daughter of Jean VII de Chabannes, Count of Dammartin. 

 

Circa 1500 Sovereign Countess Lucretia Loredani of Ios (Greece)

Governed the island in the Cyclades located south of Naxos and north of Thera.


 

1500-15 Governatrice Dowager Lady Francesca Grimaldi of the Fiefs of Dolceacqua, Isolabona, Apricale and Perinaldo (Italy)

Following the death of her husband, Luca Doria, she became regent in his lands. She was daughter of Lamberto Grimbaldo, Councillor of Antibes and Cagnes, Sovereign Lord of Monaco and Roccabruna and Patrician of Genova.


1500-23 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Hessen-Marburg of Katzenelnbogen and ¼ of the County of Diez (Germany)

After her mother, Anna von Katzenelnbogen, died in 1494, the County was disputed among her and her sister, Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505), and a compromise was not reached until 1520. Elisabeth was married to Johann V Count of Nassau, Vianden, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Baron of Breda, Stadholder of Gelre and Zutphen 1504-1505, and lived (1466-1523).


Johanetta von Salm

1500-01 Administrator of the Tenantcy Dowager Burgravine Johanetta von Salm of Rheineck (Germany)

Following the tradition, she administered the fief for the remainder of the year following the death of her husband, Burgrave Jakob von Rheineck. Her son, Jakob II, reached the age of majority in 1508 and Archbishop Hermann of Köln granted him the fief of Rheineck. As he died without male heirs in 1539, Köln withdrew the fief, but his niece, Mezza, claimed the inheritance, it was not until 1571 after a court process, that her sons Johann and Wilhelm von Warsberg were declared as rightful heirs. Consequently Archbishop Salentin von Isenburg of Köln granted the Burgravate as a hereditary fief. Johnanette married Philipp Beissel von Gymnich in 1501. She was daughter of Wild- und Rheingraf Johann V. and Johanna von Salm, and lived (circa 1465-after 1516).


 

1500-? Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Paulsdorff of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Fürstäbtissin of the territory became a member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) when it was formed in 1495 by Emperor Maximilian I. The function of each Circle was primarily the administration of Imperial law and the maintenance of order, but the assemblies also served to assess local opinion and to direct regional efforts as circumstances dictated. She also had the right to a seat and vote in the College of Swabian Prelates in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), which met in Regensburg.


 

1500-26 County Sheriff Sophie Pederdatter Høeg Banner of the County Jungshoved, Denmark

Sophie Høeg til Maribo Sankt Jørgensgård was widow of Ebbe Mogens Galt, who was killed during the war in the Ditmarsk (Ditmarskertoget). Mother of 3 surviving children, she (d. 1531-).

 

1500-39 County Sheriff Anne Corfitzdatter Rønnow of Risby Birk, Denmark

Anne Rønnow til Fårevejle was widow of Erik Hardenberg,  who was killed during the war in the Ditmarsk (Ditmarskertoget).

Until 1500 County Sheriff Tale Arvidsdatter Baad of Majbølle Birk (The Denmark, new Sweden)

Tale Baad til Vasted in Halland held the tenantcy as security for lones to the king. She was widow of Laurits Follersen Knob til Gyllebo in Skåne. She lived (circa 1434-1500).

Unnamed Muslim Woman

15.. Princess Regnant Nur Begum of Hunza (Pakistan)

The daughter of Girkis Han, she ruled for 12 years in the mountainous region the Northern Areas of Pakistan adjoining the Sinkiang Autonomous Region of China. Her family ruled the area of Hunz for more than 900 years and the Hunzakuts are believed to be the descendents of five wandering soldiers of Alexander the Great. They speak Brushuski, an aboriginal language. She was succeeded by her nephew Ayaso I.


 

15.. Queen Putri Pinang Masak of Djambi (Indonesia)

Succeeded by husband, Paduka Berhale, as ruler of the East Sumatran kingdom. 


 

15.. Queen of Angoche (Moçambique)

Ascended the throne after the death of her brother and was succeeded by husband, Molidi. Today Angoche is a port-town in the Northern part of the country. 


 

15... Regent Dowager Lady María de la O Muxica y Herrera of Fuerteventura (Spain)

Regent for Fernando de Saavedra who was lord at the island in the Canary Islands. She (d. before 1592).


 

15... Legendary Queen Salamasina of Samoa, Queen of the Upolu, Savai'i, and Tutuila Islands

As a child she had been made Tupu O Samoa and Tafaifa (supreme monarch of Samoa) and held all four Paramount Titles in the island. According the legend, she was kind, just, and skillful in leading her country, making great effort and sacrifice to ensure peace for all. During her 40 years reign, there were no wars and people prospered. She was daughter of Vaeitoefaga and Tamalelagi. Through her mother she was the granddaughter from the king Tu'i Tonga of Tonga and through her father she descended from the High Chiefs of Samoa and Fiji. The late Paramount Ruler of Samoa, His Royal Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, was a direct descendant of her.


 

15...Princess Latutama, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

Daughter of Momo, Tu'i Tonga and Nua, Ma'itaki, former wife of Ngongokilitoto, of Malapo, and daughter of Lo'au, by a woman from Ha'amea. As Tu'i Tonga Fefine she held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers. She was forbidden from marrying any Tongan mortal, and her eldest daughter was styled Tamaha, the highest dignity on earth, to whom both her mother and grandfather, paid homage.


 

15..Princess Fatafehi, Tu'i Tonga Fefine, Tonga

Daughter of Tu'itatu'i, Tu'i Tonga. She probably held office towards the end of the century.


 

15... County Sheriff Else of the County of Næsby, Denmark

Widow of Christian Brun. Her successor, Hans Krafse, was in office until 1530.


Unnamed Ryazan Lady

1501-circa 10 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Agrippina Ivanovna Babicheva of Ryazan (Riazan) (Russia)

After the death of her mother-in-law, Anna she took over the government in the name of their son Ivan VI (1496-1500-16-34). In 1520 his cousin, Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow invited him into Moscow and imprisoned him immediately after the arrival. In 1521 during the unrest caused by an invasion of the Crimean Khan Mehmed I Giray, Prince Ivan Ivanovich fled into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania where he received a small town of Stakliškės into lifetime possession, and Ryazan was finally annexed by Russia. She was widow of Ivan V of Riazanj (1467-83-1500).


1501-24 Sovereign Countess Anne de la Tour Auvergne of Auvergne and Boulogne and Baroness de la Tour (France)

Elder daughter and eventually heiress of Jean III and Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme. 1505 she was married to her first cousin John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, the intermittent heir presumptive to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland, and its sometime Regent. As she did not have any children, the counties were inherited by her her infant niece, Caterina dei Medici of Urbino (born 1519), daughter of her late younger sister Madeleine and Lorenzo II, Duke of Urbino. She lived (circa 1495-1524).


 

1501-20 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d'Orléans of Bar-sur-Seine (France)

Daughter of Antoinette de Polignac and the king of France. She was legitimized by her marriage to Jean Aubin, Seigneur de Malicorne. Secondly married Jean de Longwy, Baron de Pagny.  


1501-05 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne II d'Anglure de Germainvilliers of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

In the beginning of the 16th century discipline was lax and the nuns, without the pope's consent, declared themselves canonesses. They did not take the vows and admitted only novices who could give proof of noble descent. She was Dame de Germainvilliers, and lived (1474-1505).


 

1501-35 Reigning Abbess Katharina zu Stolberg of the Chapter of Drübeck (Germany)

Mentioned as canoness at Chapter of Rohrbach the age of 6, mentioned there as Mistress of Songs (Sangmesterin) in 1491. During the last years of her tenure, the reformation influenced the life in the chapter in many ways. King Otto III confirmed the right to choose the abbess in 995, giving it a special position similar to the Chapters of the Realm of Gandersheim and Quedlinburg, but the chapter died out during upheavals of the Reformation, Peasant Wars and the Thirty Year War. By the end of the 17th century the chapter building came in the possession of the Counts of Stolberg-Wernigerode, and 1732 they founded a Protestant Ladies Chapter (evangelisches Damenstift). She lived (1463-1535).


 

1502-04 Despina Jelena Jaksić of Serbia
1514-20 Regent Dowager Despina

After the death of her first husband was Jovan Brankovic, despot of Sebia in 1493–1502, she was named as "Helena, Serbiæ despotissa" in a charter. They had 5 daughters and the post of despot was inherited by her second husband was Ivanis Berislavic in 1504. After his death, she conducted the affairs of state in place of her minor son, Stjepan Berislavic (1514 – 35).


1502-06 Politically Active Queen Anna de Foix-Candale of Hungary and Bohemia

Active during the reign of her husband Władysław II Jagiellończyk, and after his death, she fought to secure the Hungarian and Bohemian crown for her son Ludwik. She lived (1484-1506).  


 

After 1502-10 County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Grubendal  of Abildtorp Birk, Denmark

Margrethe Grubendal til Broholm was widow of Johan Fikkesen Fikkesen, County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Harritsborg. She later became Mistress of the convent of Skt. Jørgens Møn


Unnamed Indonesian Queen

1503-30 Queen Putri Kalunggu of Banja (Indonesia) 

Succeeded Pangeran Gangga who reigned for 45 years (1460-1505). The head of the government was however Patih Mangkubumi Lambung Mangkurat. The Hindu kingdom was situated in today's South Kalimantan.

Until 1503 Cacica Anacaona of the Maguana in Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic)

Sister of the chief Boechio Anacauchoa, king of Xaragua or Jaragua, and married to King Caonabo, king. When her husband was taken prisoner, sent to Spain and died in a sea voyage, she inherited the tribe of the Maguana.  She displayed confidence to maintain unity in the kingdom, fought to maintain peace and depose belligerence relating to the Christians. But but the Spaniards took their abnegation, their nobility and tolerance as a weakness and gratified their cruelty with unusual conniving, destroying their traditions, and they massacred her soldiers. The survivors fled from the tragic inferno.  The small Taino prince, Guarocuya, was saved by the tribal leader Tamayo and was delivered by el "Padre de las Casas"(a priest) to the Franciscans (catholic monks) of the Verapaz. Higuemota, (Ana de Guevara) daughter of Anacaona, Mencia, Anacaona's granddaughter tribal leader Hatuey and tribal leader Guarocuya escaped from the tragedy. Queen Anacaona was accused of being a traitor.  In September of 1503, she was hanged in the province of Xaragua.

Anna Radziwillowna of Masovia

1503-18 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Radziwiłłówna of Mazowsze (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Konrad III Rudy of the Masovian Piast Dynasty in 1497, Anna Radziwillowna was regent for her sons Stanisław and Janusz III. Her daughter was Anna, who ruled in Mazowsze-Bełz in 1526-29. Daughter of the Lithuanian nobles Mikalojus Radziwiłł the Old and Zofia Maria Monwind, and lived (1475-1522).


Elisabeth of Landshut

1503-04 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth of Bayern-Landshut (Lower Bavaria in Germany) 

As the daughter of Georg der Reiche of Bavaria-Landshut, she and her two sons with Pfalzgraf Ruprecht were heirs, but Duke Albrecht of Bavaria-München opposed their rights and it resulted in a succession war. Both she and her husband died in 1504 and the result was the reunion of the territory with Upper Bavaria. But her two sons became Princes of Pfalz-Neuburg. Elisabeth lived (1430-1504).


Unnamed German lady

1503-05 and 1529-43 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Hochberg of Neuchatel, Marquise de Rothelin (Rötteln (Switzerland)

Successor of her father, Philippe von Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg, Margrave of Badenweiler, Neuenburg and Rotelin, and was married to Louis d'Orleans-Longueville (d. 1516). She was first deposed by the French but was later reinstated, and introduced reformism in her lands in the 1530s. Both her and her husband's lands were inherited by their sons. She lived (1480-1543). 

Suzane de Bourbon

1503-22 Sovereign Duchess Suzane de Bourbon of Bourbon, Bourbonnais, Auvergne and La Dombes (France)

Daughter of Pierre III de Bourbon de Beajeau and the former regent of France, Anne de France, Vicomtesse de Thouars, who was initially regent in Bourbon. Suzane was married to Charles III de Bourbon-Montpensier, Duke of Bourbonnais, who claimed the inheritance after her death. This was disputed by her first cousin, Louise de Savoie, mother of king François I. Charles entered the service of Emperor Karl V and was declared guilty of leze-majesty, his feudal possessions forfeited to the crown and his personal estate confiscated, but through the intervention of the emperor he was later given his possessions back. She lived (1491-1522).


1503–circa 21 De-Facto Ruler Costanza d'Avalos of the Island Ischia, Duchess of Francavilla and Lady di Pomanico, (Italy)

In 1483 her husband, the governor of the island, Prince Federico del Balzo of Taranto, died. She had her brother, Inìgo d'Avalos, named governor and governed jointly with him. After her brother's death in 1503, she defended the island against the French, restoring it to the Aragonian owerlordship. She continued to rule together with her nephew, Francesco Ferrante, who married the famous poet, Vittoria Colonna, in 1509 and later also together with Alfonso d'Avalos and Costanza junior, and during her reign the Island became a famous cultural centre. She was (b. 1460).

 

1503-circa 1531 Joint County Sheriff Mette Joachimsdatter Hardenberg of the County of Kylderup, Denmark
Around 1506 County Sheriff of the County of the Shires of Saling and Sund
1520-circa 28 County Sheriff of the County of the Shire of Salling

Mette Hardenberg was first appointed jointly with her husband, Markvard Rønnov til Hvidkilde (d. 1506) . After some years she lost first Sunds and later also Salling, but later she recovered the latter tenancy together with her son, Eiler Rønnov after a few years, who had the right to Kylderup Len confirmed for himself and his wife, Anne Krabbe in 1531. (d. circa 1550).


Juana of Spain

1504-55 Queen Juana I of Castilla, Des Asturias and Galicia
1516-55
By the Grace of God, Queen of Castilla, Aragon, Leon, Sicily, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Indias, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Countess of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, Lady of Biscay and Molina, Duchess of Athens and Neopatria, Margravine of Oristano and Gocian (Spain)

Succeeded her mother, Isabel I in 1505 and father Fernando in 1516. Her father had nominated her as heir of all his possession with her son as regent, because of her mental instability, which is why she is known as Juana la Loca. Her husband Felipe I was king and regent 1504-06 and her son, Carlos I (and V of the Holy Roman Empire) became king in 1516. Juana lived (1479-1555).


Hedwig von Münsterberg

1504-31 Sovereign Princess Hedwig of Münsterberg, Duchess of Sagan (Żagań-Ziębice) (Then Germany now Poland)

Inherited the territories from her fahter, Duke Karl of Münsterberg, and was married to Margrave Georg the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1525 who then became joint ruler. He had inherited some lands from his first wife, Beatrix Frankopani (see 1504) and inherited Oppeln and Ratibor from a relative and later bought Jägerndorf - all duchies in Schlesia that is now a part of Poland. Hedwig was mother of two daughters, and lived (1477-1531). 


1504-10 Sovereign Lady Beatrice Frangepan of Gyula and Hunyad etc. (Hungary), Wraschin Krapina, Medved, Rokonok, Lukavec, Urbovec, Seni, Novigrad etc. (Croatia) and possessions in Austria and Slovonia

Also known as Beatrix Frangepani, Frangepán Beatrix or Beatrica Frankopan, she was heiress of vast lands in Croatia she also inherited the lands of her first husband, Duke Johannes Corvinicus, the son of King Matthias of Hungary. In 1509 she married Margrave Georg the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach with the stipulation that she was to remain in charge of her own lands and did not have to move to Germany. She probably died in childbed, and her husband inherited some of her lands. She lived (1480-1510).

 

1504-42 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Sarrebruck of Roucy (France)

Succeeded her father, Robert IV de Sarrebruck, and married to Antoine de Roye (d. 1515) and was succeeded by her son Charles de Roye.

1504-26 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita di Foix of Saluzzo, and the County of Carmagnola (Italy) 

Also known as Marguerite de Foix, she too over the reins after the death of her husband, Ludovico II del Vasto of Saluzzo, Count of Carmagnola from 1475 and Margrave of Saluzzo 1475-87) and (1490-1504), pretender of the Monferrato Margravate (through his mother Isabella del Montferrato (1427-75)) and Viceroy of Napoli 1503, in the name of her son Michele Antonio I (1495-1504-28). He was succeeded by his brother Gian Ludovico I, Abbot in Casanova del Villar San Costanzo, who was deposed the following year and was succeeded another brother Francesco Ludovico I, who was murdered in 1537 and succeeded by the fourth brother, Gian Gabriele I, Bishop of Aire, who renounced his ecclesiastic career and was deposed in 1548. Originally named Marguerite de Foix, she was daughter of Jean de Foix, Count de Benauges, who was created Earl of Kendal for services to England, but relinquished the title on opting for French nationality, and Margaret Kerdeston, Duchess of Suffolk. (d. 1536)

1504-18 Reigning Lady Elisabeth van Culemborg of Hoogstraten, Culemborg, Minderhout and Rijkevorsel, estates in Meer, Meerle, Meersel, Brussel and Mechelen (The Netherlands and Belgium)

Succeeded her father, Jasper van Culemborg (ca.1445-1504), Lord of Culemborg, Lienden, Honswijk, Ewijk, Goilberdingen and Hoogstraten, Governor of Leerdam and confidante of Emperor Maximilian of Austria. She extremely rich and married to  Antoon I van Lalaing (1480-1540), to whom granted many of her possessions and who was made Count of Hoogrraten in 1518 and in 1530 Deputy landvoogd of the Netherlands. They were succeeded by her husband's nephew, Floris van Pallandt, son of Everhard van Pallandt and Margaretha van Lalaing. She lived (1575-1555).


 

1504-12 Politically Influential Mette Iversdatter Dyre in Sweden 
1515-circa 27 County Sheriff of the County of Hørby
, Denmark

Mette Dyre, or Mätta Ivarsdotter in Sweden, was very influential during the regency of her third husband, Svante Nilsson Sture, who was Regent of Sweden for King Hans of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. She was Svante's assistant and advisor, and an influential power in the national counsel. In important questions the great men rather went to her than to her husband. In 1507 she defended Stockholm Castle and in 1510 she was his representative in Finland. After her husband's death in 1512 she was in dispute with her stepson, Sten Sture the Younger, about some of her dowry. In 1515 King Christian 2. Appointed Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Bishopal Fief of Hørby near Holbæk and as Chancellor of the Convent of Saint Agnete in Roskilde. Her first two husbands were the Norwegian Councillors of the Realm, Anders van Bergen (d. 1491) and Knut Alvsson (d. 1502). She lived (circa 1460-ca.1527).

1504-32 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth von Reuss zu Weida of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Canoness at Quedlinburg when the designated as successor to Scholastika von Anhalt, Margarethe von Warberg, refused to take up the position because of the ongoing process against the Bishop of Halberstadt caused by a dam that had flodded big parts of the territory's lands. Elisabeth used funds of her own to reach a settlement which compensated financially, but the daughter-convent of Frose had to be abandoned as it's lands was under water. In 1519 she send her preacher, Stephan Molitor to Worms, where he heard Martin Luther, in 1521 she introduced the Evangelical service and in 1523 she participated in the Reichstag von Worm, which laid the foundation of Protestant movement and she became the first Abbess of a Chapter of the Realm to join protestant faith. 1525 the inhabitants of the Stift revolted against her plans to raise taxes and revenues, but she prevailed. She was daughter of Heinrich XX zu Reuss von Weida and Agnes Schenkin von Landaberg. (d. 1532).


 

1504-20 Princess-Abbess Verena vom Feld of Baindt (Germany)

Many members of her family held high ecclesiastical office throughout the years.


 

1504-31 Princess-Abbess Gertrud von Regenstein und Blankenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Her election was confirmed by the Pope with the provision that she had to pay a yearly pension to the "contra-abbess" Katharina von Hohenstein, but she did not fulfil this part of her obligation. Three other women claimed the office during her reign. The ducal castle was expanded in 1528 and neighbouring hoses torn down to get a free shot at the chapter.


 

1504-36 "Contra-Abbess" Katharina von Hohnstein of Gandersheim (Germany)

In 1506 a compromise was reached with Gertrud von Regenstein-Blankenberg and she was named Dechaness and got a pension for life for resigning the post to which she had been elected at the same time as Gertrud. But as she did not get her pension the dispute continued. But in 1518 Duke Heinrich zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel forced a compromise between the two competitors for the office.


 

1504-54/57 Abbess Nullius Beatrice Acquaviva d’Aragona bof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Daughter of Andrea Matteo III and his first wife, Isabella Piccolomini Todeschini. Her father was 8th Duke d Atri, Count di San Flaviano, Lord di Forcella, Sant’Omero, Torre di Tronto, Poggio Morello, Cordesca, Castelvecchio, etc. Duke di Teramo and Martina from 1481, until they were confiscated in 1496. The same year he became 15th Count di Conversano in succession to his mother Caterina Orsini del Balzo natural daughter of Giovanni Antonio Orsini, Principe di Taranto, who succeeded to the titles of Contessa di Conversano, Signora di Casamassima, Turi, Casamassima, Bitetto, Gioa, Turi e Noci in 1456, which was confirmed in 1462. Beatrice was "Badessa del monastero di Santa Maria dell’Isola a Conversano".


 

1505-18 Regent Dowager Lady Mechteld van den Bergh of Bronckhorst and Borculo (The Netherlands)

After the death of her husband, Frederik van Bronckhorst en Borculo, she was regent for their son, Count Joost van Bronckhorst-Borculo, who married Maria van Hoya, but died without issue in 1553 leaving the possessions to his niece Ermgard van Wisch.


 

1505-07 Princess-Abbess Agnes II de Dammartin of Remiremont  (France)

At the time discipline in the chapter was lax and the nuns, without the pope's consent, declared themselves canonesses. They did not take the vows and admitted only novices who could give proof of noble descent.


 

1505-16 Reigning Abbess Walburga Buck of Gutenzell (Germany)

The Chapter was founded 1230 as a free worldly chapter for noble ladies.


 

1505-before 1557 Reigning Abbess Anna von Rotenstein zum Falken of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Reformed the territory's court system in 1533. The stewardship and Higher Jurisdiction of the vast territory was taken over by the Hohenzollern family in 1535 an Hohenzollern.


 

1506-14 Princess-Abbess Veronika von Radmannsdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.


 

1507-15 and 1518-30 General-Stadholder Margareta von Habsburg of the Netherlands 

First appointed regent by her father, Emperor Maximilian and acted as intermediary between him and his subjects in the Netherlands, negotiated a treaty of commerce with England favourable to the Flemish cloth interests, and played a role in the formation of the League of Cambrai (1508). Her nephew, Karl V, removed her from office but soon recognized her as one of his wisest advisers, and she was again governor of the Netherlands. In 1529, together with Louise of Savoy, she negotiated the Treaty of Cambrai, the so-called Ladies' Peace. Her mother was Duchess Marie of Bourgogne. Divorced from her first husband King Charles VIII of France, her second husband, Juan, the Crown Prince of Aragón and Castilla, died shortly after their marriage in 1497. In 1501 she married Duke Philiberto II of Savoie, who died three years later. She was also Countess of Artois, Bourgogne (Franche-Comté), Mâcon, Auxerre and Charolais, and Dame de Salins from 1493 as Marguerite III. She had no children, and lived (1480-1530).


Unnamed Ethiopian Queen

1507-16 Regent Dowager Empress Eleni of Ethiopia

Born as Jan-zela, she was one of the widows of Emperor Baeda Maryam I (1468-78), and was politically influential during the reign of her son, Naod I (1494-1507), and then became regent for grandson Lebna Dengel (also known as Wanag Sagad or Dawit II). (1994-1507-16). She was author of two works on theology and remained politically influential to her death in 1522.


 

1507-16 Junior Regent Dowager Empress Noad Mogassa of Ethiopia

After the death of her husband, Naod I, she was junior regent for son Lebna Dengel jointly with mother-in-law. She was the sister of Dori, the Bahr Negus - Ruler of Eritrea. (D. after 1527).


Bronze Head of Queen Mother Idia of Benin

1507-? Iyoba Idia of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Appointed to the position of Queen Mother by her son. Oba Ensigie (1504-50), after she helped pressing the attacking Igala back across the Niger River. Since then the Queen Mother was one of Benin's most powerful women. As a senior town chief she was a voice in palace affairs and rules at her own court. Though she is forbidden to see her son once he is crowned king, the Queen Mother is expected to support him spiritually. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked young men and has a whole court of officeholders. 


 

1507-53 Sovereign Duchess Luisa Borgia of Valentinos, Countess of Diois, Dame of La Mothe-Feuilly, Vaires and Neves (France)
1514-53 Dame de Chalus
1535-53 Duchess of Borgia (Navarra)

Also known as Louise, she was daughter of Cesare Borgia and in 1517, she married Louis II de La Trémoille, Vicomte de Thouars, (1476-1525) who fell in battle. Five years later she married Philippe de Bourbon-Busset, Seigneur de Chabannes and Busset (1499-1557), with whom she had 6 children. She lived (1500-53).

1507-14 (†) Guardian Dowager Duchess Charlotte d'Albret of Valentinos (France)

After the death of her husband, Cesare Borgia, she was regent for her only child, Luisa Borgia. Charlotte was daughter of Alain d'Albret, Count de Gavre, de Périgord et de Castres and Françoise de Blois dit de Bretagne, Countess de Perigord. Her brother Jean married Catherine de Foix, Queen of Navarra and was king there  (1483-1516). She was Dame de Chalus in her own right, and lived (1500-53).

 

1507-20 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Choiseul of Remiremont  (France)

Also known as Aleidis, she resigned in favour of Madeleine de Choiseul shortly before her own death.


Lensmand Anne Meinstrup

1507-18 and 1523-35 County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Meinstrup of the County of Højstrup, Denmark

Anne Meinstrup was also known as Anne Holgers, and was first married to Holger Eriksen Rosenkrantz til Boller and secondly to Jørgen von Ahlefeldt til Søgård, who was killed in battle in 1500. After this period she took care of herself and her own possessions, inherited from her parents. In 1507 she took over the fief of Højstrup as security (becoming Lensmand or County Sheriff) for a major lone she had given to King Hans. Around 1516 she was appointed Hofmesterinde (Mistress of the Court) of Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg. From the following year until 1522 she stayed in Northern Germany because she had criticized the relationship of King Christian 2 to his mistress Dyveke. After Christian fled the country, she returned and was re-appointed both Hofmesterinde and Lensmand. During the civil war, Grevens Fejde (The Count's Feud), she supported Count Christoffer, while her son, Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz, supported the later Christian 3., but was killed in battle in 1534. Some months later Count Christoffer had called for a meeting at the "Assembly in Ringsted", and here she was killed by peasant-soldiers. She lived (circa 1475-1535). 


 

1508-37 Sovereign Princess Adriana Crispo of Therasia, Nio and Ios (Greek Island-State)
1528-37 Princess Regnant of Antiparos

Succeeded her parents, Marco II and III of Ios and Santhorini and Lucretia Loredani, and co-ruled with her husband, Alessandro Pisani of Anaphi and Antiparos. Eventually succeeded her grandmother, Lucrezia Loredano (1446-1528) in Antiparos, which was conquered by the Osman Turks in 1537.


 

Until circa 1508 Arumpone We Tenri Gau Daeng Marowa Aru Majang (Makalappi) of Bone (Indonesia)

Successor of her father, La Saliwu Karampeluwe Pasodowakkae, and was followed by son La Tenri Sukki Mapajunge who ruled circa 1508-1535).


Isabella d'Este

1508-10 and 1516-25 Regent Margravine Isabella d'Este of Mantova (Italy) 

Before 1508 she reigned when her husband, Federico I Gonzaga, was away from the state, and since then she was regent during his captivity, afterwards during his illness and finally for son, Federico II Gonzaga, who was away from the state. She was very well educated. She was able to speak Greek and Latin as well as play the lute, sing, dance and debate. As regent she founded a school for young women where they had to observe a strict code of morals. She was a patron of the Arts and she also set artistic fashions and standards. She also wrote over two thousand letters in which she commented on everything from politics to war. Mother of 5 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (1474-1539).


Elisabetta Gonzaga of Urbino

1508-16 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabetta Gonzaga of Urbino (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, she was regent for their adopted child, Francesco Maria I della Rovere, the son of his sister. He was sickly and impotent, and they had no children, but she refused to divorce him and nursed him through his illnesses. 1502 Cesare Borgia occupied Urbino, and they went into exile until 1504.. Her court attracted writers, artists, and scholars, and she was involved in the power politics of her time. She in close contact with her siter-in-law of Isabella d'Este. In 1506 she reluctantly went with Lucrezia Borgia to Ferrara, where Lucrezia was married to Alfonso I d'Este. In June 1516 she was expelled from Urbino by Pope Leo X, who wanted to give the duchy to his nephew, Lorenzo de Medici. Together with her niece Leonora she found refuge in Ferrara where she died in Ferrara. The daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua and Magaret of Bavaria, she lived (1471-1526).


Kunigunde von Bayern

1508-10 Regent Dowager Duchess Kunigunde von Habsburg of Bavaria-Munich (Germany)

Married Albrecht IV of Bayern-München (1467-1508) against the will of her own father, Emperor Friedrich III, and when he died she became joint regent for son Wilhelm IV (1493-1508-50). She later joined the Convent of Pütrich, which she favoured. In spite of the resignation from the court she tried to influence the politics of the state as she acted in favour of the rights of her younger sons. She was in close contact with her brother, Emperor Maximilian I von Habsburg, and with other rulers and relatives in Europe. She was a political player in her own right and not only an "instrument" of her family, and lived (1465-1520).


Anna zu Hessen-Kassel

1508-09 and 1514-18 Regent Dowager Langravine Anna von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Hessen (Germany)
1510-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of Geissen, Grünberg, Borken, Felsberg, Wildeck and Rotenburg (from 1511)

Took over the regency for her husband, Wilhelm II, who was unable to govern because of syphilis, but after his death she was removed, as regent by the Estates in spite of his will, which named her guardian and regent. The Estates named their own regents, on the pretext that she was below the age of 25, but the real reason was the fight for power among the different groups in the society. She continued her fight to become regent for Philipp (1504-25) and spoke her case before the Estates; in 1510 she claimed her right to a seat and vote at the Diet of the Realm as the rightful guardian. The emperor sympathised with her, but did not back her, but she also presented her case at his court. Later that year she withdrew to her dowry, but because of internal disputes in the regency college she managed to be named regent. She called and chaired a Local Diet (Landtag) and an agreement was made. She named her own regency government and promised to report to the Estates once a year, but reigned independently. In 1518 she had emperor Maximilian I declare her 13 year old son of age, but the nobility continued the fight for power until it was finally defeated in 1523. She was daughter of Magnus II von Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Sophie von Pommern, also mother of a daughter, and lived (1485-1525).


 

1508-34 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Falkenstein of Säckingen (Germany)

Took over after after the resignation of her half-sister, Elisabeth III. She had originally been a canoness in Buchau, where she took part in the election of Barbara von Gundelfingen as Abbess in 1497. Emperor Karl V invited her to the Diet of the Realm, the Reichstag in Worm in 1520 and confirmed the privileges of the chapter the same year. Fought against all Protestant ideas and remained within the chapter when the citizen of Säckingen and Laufenburg who occupied it and attempted to take over the administration during the peasent's war. The Parish of Hornussen and the churches of Zuzgen, Sulz and Rheinsultz were all incorporated in the chapter during her reign. She was daugter of Thomas von Falkenstin und his second wife Amalia von Winsberg, and her family originated from Solothurn in Switzerland and Breisgau.


 

1509-15 Princess-Abbess Anna II Kobold of Heggbach (Germany)

Perhaps also known as Kobodin, she was born as daughter of a citizen of Ulm.


 Anna von der Borch

1509-12 Princess-Abbess Anna von der Borch of Kaufingen (Germany)

Called together with other nuns from Gehrden to introduce more sombre rules in Kaufingen. 1521 the Abbess of the Ritterschaftliche Stift Kaufingen in Hessen was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände. The chapter was abolished 1527/32 and incorporated into Hessen-Kassel. She was grand-daughter of Arnd von der Borch and Beate von Dreer, Heiress of Langendreer. (d. 1512).


1510-52 Governor Sayyida al-Hurra of Tetouán (Morocco)

Also known as Sayida Al Horra Bent Ali Ar Rachid, she was first confirmed as prefect and then appointed governor of the city state of Tetouán ("Hakima Tatwan"). She was the undisputed leader of the pirates in the western Mediterranean, and in 1520 captured the Governors wife and caused great damage to the Portuguese colonial shipping. She was married to Sultan Al-Mandri and after his death she married Ahmad al-Wattasi, who reigned (1524-49). After her first husband's death, she gained the title al-hurra (Sovereign Lady). She was member of the Andalusian noble family, Banu Rashid, who immigrated to Morocco after the Christian conquest of Muslim Spain. She was deposed in 1552. 


 

1511 (†) Regent Dowager Princess Elena Salviati of Elba and Piombino (Italy)

Widow of Iacopo IV, who had regained control of the territory after it had been occupied by Cesare Borgia, she acted as regent for her son Iacopo V, but died shortly after taking office. The position of regent was taken over by another relative.


Maria zu Jülich-Kleve-Berg

1511-39 Sovereign Duchess Maria of Jülich-Berg-Ravensberg-Heinsberg  (Germany)

Succeeded her father, Wilhelm IV. She married Johann III von Marck-Kleve and their duchies were united. She was a very devout catholic and was sceptic towards the liberal reforms of both her father and husband. One of her daughters, Anne of Kleve, married Henry the VIII of England. Maria lived (1491-1543).


 

1511-54 Reigning Dowager Lady Sybilla von Brandenburg of Bensberg in Jülich-Berg (Germany)

Widow of Duke Wilhelm III von Jülich and Berg (1475-1511), who had one daughter, Marie von Jülich und Berg (1491-1543), by his first wife, who married Johan III von Kleves (1490-1539). Sibylla did not have any children, and lived (1490-1524)


 

1511-15 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Anhalt of Quedlinburg (Germany)

She was daughter of Fürst Albrecht IV and Countess Elisabeth von Mansfeld. She probably resigned and died later the same year.


 

1511-13 Reigning Abbess Emerita Lutschern of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The Chapter acquired many possessions in Argau, Swabia and Alsace, but did apparently not have the dignity of Princess of the Empire (Reichsfürstin).


 

1511-.. County Sheriff Karen Nielsdatter Grubbe of the County of Snedinge, Denmark

Karen Grubbe was daughter of Niels Gruppe, who was appointed County Sheriff of the Bishop of Roskilde in 1500. (Bispelensmand). She was widow of Søren Daa, and apparently she bought the tenantcy from the bishop.


Germaine de Foix-Nemours

1512-16 Sovereign Duchess Germaine de Foix of Nemours, Countess of Foix-Béarn (France)
1526-37 Vice-Reine and Lieutenant General of Valencia (Spain)

Known in Spain as Germana, she was the daughter of Count Jean de Foix, d’Étampes and Vicomte de Narbonne and Marie d’Orléans, she succeeded her brother, Gaston. She was married to Fernando II the Catholic of Aragón as his second wife after the death of Queen Isabel I. They engaged in a power struggle over her lands until his death in 1516. Three years later she married Johan von Brandenburg-Ansbach (d. 1525), and one year after his death she married Fernando d'Aragon, Duca di Calabria (d. 1550) and they were appointed Virreina and Virrey of Valencia. She did not have any children, and lived (1490-1537).


Katharina von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, Gräfin und Regentin von Hanau-Lichtenberg

1512-14 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, she was regent for her 11 year old son, Philipp II, together with his grand-uncle, Johann V von Nassau-Dillenburg, who was sole regent until his own death 2 years later and then other relatives took over the government. She had secured the support of the nobility of the county and had it confirmed by the Court of the Empire (Reichskammergericht). She lived (after 1470-1514).


1512-15 Sovereign Duchess Françoise of Longueville, Countess of Montgomery and Tancarville (France) 

Natural daughter of king François II of France, and married to the Viscount de Melun, who died 1512. 


Queen Margaret of Scotland

1513-14 Regent Dowager Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

After her husband, James IV of Scotland, was killed, she became regent for her infant son, James V, but her marriage in 1514 to Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, led to the loss of the regency to John Stuart, duke of Albany, who soon obtained custody of the king. She fled to England, but returned in 1517, during James Stuart’s absence, and shortly thereafter she became estranged from her husband. Her son was proclaimed king in 1524 and was for several years virtually a prisoner of her husband. In 1527 she obtained a divorce and soon married Henry Stuart, later Lord Methven. The following year her son escaped from her ex-husband and joined her and her new husband, and they were for a time his chief advisers. A plan of of hers for a meeting between her brother Henry VIII of England and her son led James to accuse her of betrayal in 1534. They were further estranged by James’s refusal to allow her to divorce her third husband. For long periods Heiress Presumptive to the English throne, and lived (1489–1541).


Queen Catherine of England

1513 Governor of the Realm and Captain General of the King's Forces Queen Catherine of Aragón of England, Wales and Ireland (United Kingdom)

Following the death of her first husband, Prince Arthur of England, she married his brother Henry VIII. When he went to France on warfare she was appointed regent. She had authority to raise troops and to make appointments, and was provided with a council headed by Archbishop Warham, the lord chancellor. And she led the English troops against the invading Scots at the Battle of Flodden (in Northumberland) and, afterwards, sent over to her husband, in Flanders, a grim reminder of her achievements there: the blood-stained tunic of dead James IV of Scots. In 1520, however, the she went to France alongside Henry and was present at the great meeting of the 'Field of the Cloth of Gold'. Of her four children only the later Queen Mary I survived. In 1533 Henry divorced her and broke with the Catholic church, she was deprived of her titles as Queen of England and was forced to revert to 'Princess Dowager of Wales'. She was kept in confinement but never remained long in one place, for she enjoyed great popularity throughout a Country and there were fears of an uprising in her favour.  She was daughter of Queen Isabel I of Castilla and Ferdinand of Aragón and initially heir to her father, but her sister, Juana La Loca, inherited both Countries. Catherine lived (1485-1536).


 

1513-29 Joint Ruler Queen Burecca of The Maldive Islands

Also known as Buraki Rani, she was educated in the martial arts and out-shone her younger brother and sister. She had expected to succeed her grandfather to the throne. However several years after Siri Bavana Sooja died, it was her brother who came to the throne as King Siri Ananda Sultan Ali V (1512 -13) after several other reigns in between. She quarrelled with her brother, fled the Maldives, and travelled east to the Kingdom of Aceh (known to the Maldivians as Asey Cara) on the island of Sumatra. There she completed her education and perfected her martial arts before returning home to depose her brother. Her fleet entered Malé harbour in the dead of night. She fought a duel with her brother on the square inside the royal palace complex, several hours before dawn that morning. She slew her brother and ascended the throne to rule jointly with her husband King Siri Dhammaru Bavana (Sultan Mohamed the Black). It was his third accession to the throne. In spite of her ambitions, and unlike several other women who occupied the throne, she did not take the title of Rehendi or Sultana. Instead she took the title of Ranin or Queen Consort. 


 

1513-50 County Sheriff Else Pederdatter Thott of the County of the Shire of Sund, Denmark
1521-47 County Sheriff of the County of the Shires of Nørvang and Hønborg with the Shire of Elbo
1521-25
Acting County Sheriff of Vester Herred
Until 1550 County Sheriff of Krarup and Rynkeby

Else Thott til Alnarp was first married to Claus Krummedige and secondly to Thomas Nilsson (Lange), and was granted Krarup and Rynkeby for life. Her son, Karl Lange, paid it off after her death and kept it for life. She (d. 1550).


 

Until 1513 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth zu Dhaun-Kyburg of Elten (Germany)

Daughter of Johann IV, Wild- und Rheingraf zu Dhaun und Kyrburg and Elisabeth von Hanau.


Until 1513/14 Cacica Loíza Aldea near the Cayniabón River (Puerto Rico)

Also known as Yuisa, she was a Taino cacica (female chief) when the Spanish Conquistadores invaded Puerto Rico and enslaved the Taino Indians, who lived in the islands of the Carribean. They never adapted to slavery and most of the Taino men were killed. Many of the women lived on as wives of the spanish sailors. She entered a relastionship with the mulatto conquistador Pedro Mejias, possibly to protect her people, but some felt she was a traitor and she was killed (1513/14). About 100 years later the small town that grew up in the area was named Loíza Aldea.


1514-15 (or 1515-20) Acting Governor Maria Alvarez de Toledo y Rojas of Hispaniola/Las Isla Espanola (Dominican Republic and Haïti), Acting Vicereine of las Indias Occidentales (West Indies)

Her husband, Diogo Colón, 1. Duke of Veragua, was Vice-roy 1509-14 and 1520-23, and she also held the title of Vicereine of the West Indies. She was stand-in for her husband when he was in Spain 1515-20, and remained in close contact with the Queen of Spain, Isabel de Portugal, and her husband Emperor Charles V (1516-56). She was daughter of Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 1st Lord de Villora and Maria de Rojas, and mother of 5 children. Her youngest, Isabel Colón, was married to don Jorge de Portugal, Count de Gelves y Mayor de los alcázares de Sevilla. Maria lived (circa 1490-1549).


 

1514-23 Princess-Abbess Margaretha III von Mindorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark. During her reign the new gothic church was finished.


Claude de France

1514-24 Sovereign Duchess Claude de France of Bretagne, Countess d'Étampes 
1514-17 Sovereign Duchess of Berry (France)

Eldest daughter of King Louis XII of France and successor of her mother Anne as Duchess of Brittany. The same year she married her cousin, who because of the French salic law succeeded her father as king François I. In 1532 the personal union of France with Brittany was made definitive. Their oldest son became duke and was succeeded by his brother, François in 1536. Her life was spent in an endless round of annual pregnancies. Her husband had many mistresses but was usually relatively discreet. She imposed a strict moral code on her household, which only a few like her lady-in-waiting Mary Boleyn chose to flout. Another lady-in-waiting was Anne Boleyn, who later married Henry VIII of England. Claude was short in stature and afflicted with scoliosis that gave her a small hunched back. She was mother of 7 children, among other King Henri III, Duchess Marguerite de Valois de Berry, and Queen Madeleine of Scotland, and lived (1499-1524).


Renee de France

1515-75 Sovereign Duchess Renée de France of Chartres, Countess of Gisoirs et de Montargis (France)

Also known as Renata di Francia. Her mother, Duchess Anne of Bretagne, who had always fought fiercely to keep the state independent of the French crown, tried to will the duchy to Renée, but her father King Louis XII ignored this and instead granted Brittany to his successor, the husband of her sister, Francis I, King of France. In return for renouncing her claims to the duchy of Brittany, she was granted the duchy of Chartres. She was married in 1528 to Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara who ruled 1534-59. After his death she returned to France because she was on bad terms with her son Alfonso II and settled in Montargis. She was mother of 4 children, and lived (1510-74).


 

1515-50 Sovereign Princess Isabelle-Louise de Bourbon of Carency (France)

Her brother, Betrand died in 1515 as the last male of the line. The following year she married François de Perusse d'Escars, Seigneur de La Vauguyon. Their son Jean de Perusse d'Escars (d. 1595), knight of the Saint-Esprit in 1578, made comte de La Vauguyon in 1586, continued the use the title Prince de Carency.


1515-24 Joint Sovereign Duchess Filiberta di Savoia of Nemours (France)

Also known as Philiberte de Savoie, and her husband, Giuliano de Medici (circa 1478-1516), had been created joint holders of the duchy. Her brother, Philippe, Comte de Geneve, was given the duchy in 1516. She was daughter of Claude de Brosse and Duke Philippe I de Savoie, and lived (1498-1524).


Alfonsina Orsini

1515-19 De-facto Governor Alfonsina Orsini of The Republic of Firenze (Italy)

As mother of the de facto ruler of Florence, Lorenzo II de' Medici, she was able to govern during his absence. She was involved in the strategic planning of Florence's war with the French and the plans for making a treaty as well as her oversight of Pope Leo's entry into Florence in November 1515. She was the daughter of Roberto Orsini, Conte Tagliacozzo and Catherine San Severino and married to Piero "il Unfortunato" de' Medici, who lived 1503. Apart from Lorenzo, she was mother of Clarissa de' Medici, and lived (1472-1520).


 

1515-26 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Ellenbog of Heggbach (Germany)

In 1525 Heggbach was raided by the peasant’s war (Bauernkrieg) that covered parts of Germany at the time. A daughter of a citizen of Augsburg, she entered the chapter in 1487 and some of her brothers were also clerics.


Fürstäbtissin Anna II zu Quedlinburg, née Gräfin von Stolberg-Weiningsrode

1515-74 Princess-Abbess Anna II zu Stolberg-Weiningsrode of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Elected to the office when she was scarcely 13 years old, she introduced Lutheranism in all the houses under her jurisdiction. The choir service in the abbey church was abandoned, and the Catholic religion wholly abrogated. The monastic offices were reduced to four, but the ancient official titles retained. Thereafter the institution continued as a Lutheran sisterhood till the secularization of the abbey in 1803. Anna II was daughter of Botho III von Stolberg and Countess Anna von Eppenstein, and lived (1504-74).


 

1515-43 Reigning Abbess Madeleine d'Orleans, batard d'Angoulême of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Continued the renovation and rebuilding of the chapter amidst the wars raging in France. She was daughter of Comte Charles d'Angoulême et de Perigord, and she received her half-brother, King Francis I, twice at the Abbey. The year after her death, the nuns had again to leave the Abbey during the war against Charles the V. She lived (circa 1496-1543).


 

 

1515-44 County Sheriff Alhed Jørgendatter Urne of the County of Farum with Farumgård, Denmark


Jeanne de Valois

1516-20 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne d'Orléans of Valois (France)

Granddaughter of Louis d'Orléans (1392-1407) the son of King Charles V of France. She succeeded her relative, king François of France, and married to Charles de Coëtivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520). 


1516-49 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite d'Orléans-Angoulême of Berry 
1525-49 Duchess of Alençon and Rodez, Comtesse d'Armagnac, du Perche, Pezenac, de L'Isle-Jourdain, Porhoët, Pardiac, Viscomtesse Fezenzaguet, Brulhois, d'Auvillars, Baroness de Castelnau, Caussade, Montmiral and Dame de La Flêche and Baugé
(France)

Sister of Francis I of France, and first married the Duke of Alençon (d.1525) and in 1527, Henry d'Albret (titular king of Navarra). With a strong interest in Renaissance learning, she was much influenced by Erasmus and the religious reformers of the Meaux circle, who looked to her for patronage and protection. She encouraged agriculture, learning, and the arts, and her court was the most intellectual in Europe. The patron of men of letters, including the heretical poet Clément Marot, she was a prolific writer of long devotional poems, dramas, secular poems, and the celebrated Heptaméron, a collection of stories on the theme of love. She lived (1492-1549).


1516-22 Regent Dowager Duchess Margaretha von Münsterberg-Oels of Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)

Widow of Ernst and regent for Johannes II von Anhalt-Dessau (1504-51). She was a respected ruler, and corresponded with Martin Luther, but remained a devout Catholic and refused to accept the reformation, but after her death, her sons jointed the Protestant movement. She lived (1473-1530).


Unnamed Maharani

1516 Rani Regnant of Quilon (India)

Quilon or Kollam in Karalla is an old seaport town on the Arabian coast. The state had a sustained commercial reputation from the days of the Phoenicians and the Romans. The port of was frequented by the Chinese, Arabs and the Nestorian Christians from Alexandria, it was regarded by the Arab author, Ibn Batuta, as one of the major five ports, which he had seen in the course of his travels during a period of twenty-four years, in the 14th century. The rulers of Kollam (Desinganadu) and China, exchange embassies and there was flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam.  


 

1516-67 Ruler Puteri di Dalam Petung of Pasir (Indonesia)

Oldest daughter of a mythical woman, who married a Prince of Grisee - a priest-principality on Java. She married Abu Mansyur Indra Jaya, who introduced Islam in Pasir. She was succeeded by her son, Aji Mas Pati Indra, as ruler of the principality in East-Borneo/Kalimantah


 

1516-28 Reigning-Abbess Katherina von Waldburg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The last reigning Abbess of the Ecclesiastical Territories of Königsfelden, which had vast possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace which was secularized as part of the reformation, and its possessions in Aargau were annexed to Bern and the possessions in Swabia and Alsace were sold in 1528.


 

1516-26 Princess-Abbess Walburga Buck of Gutenzell (Germany)

Since 1521, the Ladies of the chapter (stift) charged the Hofmeister with the task of taking part in the Schwäbian Circle of the Imperial Diet in their name. At the time the Stift ruled over eight settlements with 1.189 inhabitants.


 

1516-28 County Sheriff Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott of the County of Medelsom and the Shire of Sønderlyng, Denmark

Birgitte Thott til Valø acted after the death of her second husband, Niels Eriksen Rosenkrantz. She (d. 1528).


 

1517 Sovereign Lady Dorothea Papinga of Jever (Germany)

Daughter of the Frisian chief, Edo Wiemken of West-Friesland, she and her 2 sisters succeeded their brother, Junker Christoph. Count Enno II of Friesland tried to incorporate Jever into his domain, he occupied the territory, and held the three sisters imprisoned in the castle, where she died shortly after.


 

1517-36 Sovereign Lady Anna Papinga of Jever (Germany)

Joint heiress of Jever with her two sisters. In 1531 the Lord Boring von Oldersum sided with the two sisters and secured the land for them. 


Maria von Jever

1517-75 Sovereign Lady Maria of Jever, Rüstringen, Östringen and Wangerland (Germany)

After the death of her two sisters, and the removal of the West-Frisians, she became sole ruler of the area, with the title of Erbherrin. Also known as Fräulein or Miss Maria, she concentrated on the consolidation and expansion of the Jever-territory and with support from the Emperor she maintained her demands in the Ostfrisean lands and the Frisian village developed into a modern territorial state. She never married and after her death the territory was inherited by her mother's family; the counts of Oldenburg. She lived (1500-75).


 

1517-35 County Sheriff Karen Bentsdatter Bille of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hattinge, Nim and Vor, Denmark

Karen Bille took over the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Henrik Knudsen Gyldenstierne. 7 of her 22 children survived, and she lived (circa 1470-1540).


Bona Sforza

1518-56 Politically influential Queen Bona Sforza of Poland and Lithuania
1524-57 Sovereign Princess of Bari, Rossano, Crottaglie, Ostuni and Monteserico (Italy)

Her mother, Isabella de Aragon, had provided her with an excellent education. She read classic masterpieces and studied law and history and was fluent in Spanish and Latin. She married the 51-year old recently widowed King Sigmund I of Poland. It did not take long before she got involved in politics and economics, and she spent a lot of energy on recovering royal properties that had been in the hands of creditors. She also increased the revenues and raised taxes, and remained familiar with the current affairs of Bari and Rosano that legally remained in her hands. Emperor Felipe II was putting a great deal of pressure on her to pass her properties in Apulia and Calabria to Spain. In 1556 she returned to Italy and was warmly welcomed by her people, but one of her favourite advisors, Gian Baptista Pappacoda, was a Spanish spy. In November 1557 she turned very ill and she could not return to Poland as planned. Pappacoda tricked her to change her will in favour of Felipe II. When her health improved, she tried to change the will, but she was poisoned by Pappacode. She lived (1494-1557).


Anne d'Alençon of Monferrato

1518-30 Regent Dowager Margravine Anne d'Alençon of Monferrato
1533-36 Possible Regent of Monferrato (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Guglielmo IX Secondo Lazzaro (1494-1818), she ruled in the name of her son, Bonifacio IV (1512-18-30), who was succeeded by uncle, the former Bishop Giangiorgio Sebastiano, (1488-1530-33). After her oldest daughter, Maria, had been divorced from Federico II Gonzaga, Anne arranged the marriage between Federico and her second daughter Margherita, who transmitted the claims of the Margravate to her husband, who was appointed Marchese of Monferrato in 1536. Anne might have acted as regent in the remaining period. She was also Dame de La Guerche and lived (1492-1562).


 

1518-29 County Sheriff Drude Claudatter Krummedige of the Counties of Skibelunde, Hoby and Vester Ulslev, Denmark

Drude Krummedige was widow of Christian Rantzau, former County Sheriff of Nyborg, who had been granted the tenantcy for the liftime of both of them in 1516. She had first been married to Otto Krumpen.


Sigbrit Willumsdatter

1518-23 De-facto In charge of the Customs Sigbrit Villoms in Denmark
1519-23 "Second in Command" in Denmark
1522-23 De-facto Leader of the Treasury

Generally known as Mor Sigbrit, she was a Dutch tradeswoman who moved Norway and managed a trading company in Bergen of a substantial size. Her daughter, Dyveke, became mistress of the later Christian 2 of Denmark around 1509. When became king in 1513 they moved with him to Copenhagen and Sigbrit's influence grew. Dyveke died suddenly in 1517 - rumoured to have been poisoned. Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg appointed her as her Chief of Court and she also acted as midwife of the king's children. Her brother was a pharmacist and she was knowledgeable about medicine. She was also left in charge of the government when Christian was abroad. 1522 she was given a so-called "General receipt" (generalkvittering), that made her de-facto a kind of Minister of Finance. When the king was deposed in 1523 for his dictatorial rule, she went with the family to the Netherlands where they tried to gain support for the king's return. One of the conditions was that Christian had to part with her. From then on, nothing is heard of her. Sigbrit Willoms also wrote her surname as Villumsdatter.


 

Before 1519 Queen Regnant Azcasuch of Tepetlaoxtoc (Mexico)

Also known as  or Azcaxóchitl, she was Cihuatlatoani (queen) of the pre-Columbian Acolhua altepetl of Tepetlaoztoc in the Valley of Mexico, in succession to her husband, Cocopin, and she was succeeded by her grandson, Diego Tlilpotonqui, who ruled when the Spanish arrived in 1519. She was daughter of daughter of King Nezahualcoyotl of Texoco, who ruled 1431-72.


 

1518-20 Pretender Fiorenza Sommaripa of Paros (Greece)
1520 Princess Regnant

Daughter of Gasparo di Sommaripa and Maria Sanudo of Naxos. The Principality was confiscated by her brother-in-law Duke Giovanni II after the death of her husband, but she was restored after pressure from Venice.


Machessa Souverena Riccairda Malaspina di Massa e Carrara, Signora di Massa dei Malpasina, Carrara, Avenza e Moneta

1519-56 Sovereign Margravine Ricciarda IMalaspina of Massa and Carrara, Lady of Massa dei Malpasina, Sovereign Lady of Carrara, Avenza e Moneta, (Italy)

Inherited the possessions of her father, Alberico II Malpasina. After the death of her sister, Eleonora, she got papal dispensation to marry her close relative, Count Scipione Fieschi. After his death in 1520 she married Lorenzo Cybo - the nephew of Pope Leon X. 1525 Emperor Karl V formally invested her with the fief of Massa e Carrara and the Malaspina territories in 1529. She was an intelligent woman who maneuvered her state during the political turmoils of Italy, but preferred to reside in Rome and Firenze, and in her absence Cardinal Innocenzo Cybo was in charge of the government. Succeeded by son Giulio Cybo-Malaspina, and lived (1497-1556).


 

1519-possibly 21 Acting County Sheriff Johanne Henriksdatter Sparre of the County of Holbæk with the Shires of Merløse and Tudse, Denmark

Johanne Sparre til til Haglösa took over after the death of her first husband Erik Pedersen Bille, later she married Aage Axelsen Brahe til Sireköpinge. She (d. 1568).


 

1520-30 Queen Regnant Rangitamanjakatrimovavy of Hova/Imerina (Madagascar)

Also known as Rangita, she succeeded her father Ratsimisytoazy, and was succeeded by her daughter Rafohy. The Merina or Hova Dynasty later became rulers of the United Kingdom of Madagascar.


 

1530-40 Queen Regnant Rafohy of Imerina (Madagascar)

Successor of her mother, Rangitamanjakatrimovavy, who reigned the Hova dynasty from 1520, and was succeeded by king Andriamponga.


Magalena von Öttingen, Regentin von Montfort-Tettnang

1520-25 City Regent Dowager Countess Magdalena von Öttingen of Montfort-Tettnang (Germany)

After the death of her husband Count Ulrich VII, she was named regent of the city (Stadtregentin). In 1521 Emperor Karl V gave her Blutbann as a fief and in 1525 she was faced with a peasant uprising. Her second husband was Count Johann I von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg (d. 1529). After her death, Emperor Karl V gave the county as a fief to her nephew, Hugo XVI von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg, Count of Montfort-Tettnag, who was first married to her granddaughter, Maria Magdalena von Schwarzenberg zu Hohenlandsberg (1510-43), the oldest of the 14 children of her daughter, Eva von Montfort-Tettnang (1494-27). Another of Eva's daughters, Maria Jakobe (1515-94) was Princess-Abbess of Buchau. Magdalena lived (1473-1525).


Kristina Gyllenstierna

1520 Rebellion Leader Kristina Gyllenstierna in Sweden

The daughter of Nils Eriksson Gyllenstierna (member of the Swedish Council of the Realm) she married Sten Sture in 1511 and Sten Sture was elected regent the following year. From the age of 21 she took part in the national counsel and showed a remarkable knowledge and maturity. In 1520 her husband died of the damages he had got at the battle of Bogesund, and in may the same year she manned the Stockholm and defended the city, with success, against the Danish troops under command of Christian II. In September she had to capitulate and surrendered Stockholm to the Danish king. This was the beginning of the infamous 'Stockholm's bloodbath'. She was imprisoned at Stockholm Castle where she stayed until November 1521 when she was brought to Denmark. 1524 she could return to Sweden, country which now where ruled by the Swedish king Gustav Vasa, the son of her half sister Cecilia of Eka. She once again tried to get involved in politics, but in 1525 she reached a settlement with her nephew, and married Johan Turesson Tre Rosor (a member of the national counsel) in 1527. He died in 1566. She had a son with Svante and one with Johan, and lived (1494-1559).


 

1520-65 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Limburg-Stirum of Herford and Gerresheim (Germany)

Also known as von Limburg-Styrum, she had been Koadjutorin 1515-20, and was the first to be appointed Princess of the Empire of the territory in 1523. She was strong opponent of the Protestantism which lead to various disputes with the city of Herford, which joined the new faith in the 1520's. She was daughter of Count Adolf von Limburg and Elisabeth von Reichenstein Her sister Agnes was Abbess of Freckenhorst and Metelen, (d.1570) and Katharina was Abbess of Borghorst (d.1572). Anna resigned and lived another 20 years before her death in 1585.


 

1520-29 Princess-Abbess Anna VII Schlaibegg of Baindt (Germany)

The Chapter and City of Baindt were closely connected during the centuries, but the Peasant’s Uprising (Bauernkrieg) of 1525 the abbey was burned down.


 

1520-22 Princess-Abbess Marguerite III d'Esne of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of an ancient North-French family.


Tombstone of a Fürstäbtissin of Niedermünster, but the name and year of her death have disappeared from the wear of the centuries

1520-69 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Aham of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Influential in Regensburg, the frequent meeting place of the imperial diet from 1532, and from 1663 to 1806 it was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet - where she was member of the Bench of Bavarian Prelates. Barbara was member of an old Bavarian noble family.


 

1520 and 1544 Princess-Abbess Madeleine de Choiseul of Remiremont (France)

The fact that she was selected by her predecessor and not by the ladies of the chapter as the rules stipulated, caused some protests, and she resigned in favour of Nicole de Dommartin, who resigned shortly after in favour of Marguerite d'Haraucourt. This on the other hand was contested  by Marguerite de Neufchâel, who appointed Madeleine as Coadjutrice when she prevailed in 1528 after years of incertanties. After Madame de Neuchâtel's death, Madeleine was Princess-Abbess for a few months' before being succeeded by Madame d'Haraucourt.


 

1520-? Princess-Abbess Nicole de Dommartin of Remiremont (France)

Her election as successor of Madeleine de Choiseul, was contested by Marguerite de Neufchâtel, Abbess of Baume, and she soon resigned in favour of  Margureite d'Haraucourt, but Madame de Neufchâtel prevailed in 1528, and appointed Madeleine de Choiseul as coadjutrice.


Contemporary picture of a Turkish Sultana seen by a western artist

1520-34 Gülbehar Hatun Mahidevran Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Hafsa Hatin or Aisha Hafsa Khanum acted as Queen Mother of her son, Süleyman the Magnificent after the death of her husband Selim I. She may have been daughter of Mengli Giray Khan of the Crimean Tatars, and lived (1494-1534).

1521-22 Regent Queen Anna Jagiellonka of Austria
1539 Regent of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia

The daughter of king Wladislaw II Jagiello of Hungary and Bohemia and Anne de Foix-Candale. Since 1521 a wife of Ferdinand von Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, since 1526 Anna and Ferdinand were king and Queen of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia. She lived (1503-47).  


 

1521-50 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Pommern of Lüben (Lubin) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Georg I von Brieg (Jerzy of Brzeg) (1495-1521), she held the Slesian Principality as her dowry. She lived (142-1550).


Anna von Brandenburg, Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Schwerin

1521-47 Reigning Lady Anna von Brandenburg of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
1547-67 Reigning Dowager Lady

The wife of Albrecht VII of Mecklenburg she was given the territories (Städte und Ämter) as her dowry for life.  Her husband died in 1547 and she moved to the renovated castle of Eldenburg. She was a devout Catholic, but in 1559 her son, Johann Albrecht I expelled the monks and priests from her lordship, which was the only place in Mecklenburg that had not joined the reformation up to then.


 

1521-32 Regent Dowager Queen Njai Tjili of Ternate (Indonesia)

Reigned for sons Deijalo and Bohejat. In 1532 Prince Kaitjil became sultan.


Fürstabtissin Margarethe II zu Essen, geb. Gräfin von Beichlingen

1521-34 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Beichlingen of Essen (Germany)

During the 14th century the organisation of the Chapter and its surrounding got more character of an actual state. Margarethe II was member of the very ancient Countly family of von Beichlingen, which was one of the most important families of Thüringen.


 

1521-39  Princess-Abbess Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

The 9th of the 11 children of Friedrich II von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Hedwig von Württemberg, she was titular ruler of the chapter all of her life, and was succeeded by her 7-year-old sister, Klara, and lived (1521-39).


 

1521-.. County Sheriff Mette Borkvardsdatter Skinkel, Harridslevgård
1527-39/42 County Sheriff of Odense Møntergård
, Denmark

Mette Skinkel til Torpegård and Åsum, was also known as Skinkelsdatter, and was named successor to Harridslevgård tenantcy (fik ventebrev) in 1514, and took over after the death of her husband, Tjelluf Eriksen Bjørn (Tilluf Eriksøn). She was later granted Odense Møntergård for life. She (d. 1539/42).


1521-28 County Sheriff Sophie Jørgendatter Rud of the County of Isolte  in Halland (Then Denmark, now Sweden)

Sophie Rud, who was also known as Rudsdatter, was appointed jointly with her husband, Tyge Brahe and took over the administration after his death in 1523. Her second husband, Erik Madsen Bølle,  was Lensmand 1528-63. She (d. 1551)


 

1521-after 26 County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter of the County of Thurø, Denmark

Jomfru Anne (which was the denotation for an unmarried noble lady) was granted the island south of Svendborg, in 1526 it was noted that she was not to "interfere with the local peasants" (ikke befatte sig med bønderne).


1522-39 Sovereign Countess Paula Ludovica Torello of Gaustalla (Italy)

The County which Paola Ludovica Torello della Guastalla had inherited from her father, was claimed by another branch of the family, and the affair was carried before Pope Clement VIII and Emperor Charles V. She settled the matter by disposing of her estates to Fernando Gonzaga, thereby also increasing her resources for the religious foundations she had in mind. In 1536 she entered the Angelicals, a congregation that she had founded, taking the name of Paola Maria. Later she established or assisted in the establishment of several other religious houses in various parts of Italy. When Paul III imposed the cloister on the Angelicals, she instituted another community, also at Milano. Like the Angelicals, they were under the direction of the Barnabites. The members, known as Daughters of Mary, dedicated themselves to the care of orphans of noble family, eighteen being provided for in the endowment.  She was married 2 times and lived (1499-1569).


 

1522-49 Princess-Abbess Adrienne I de Saint Omer of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Her family were lords of the city of St.-Omer in Belgium. 


 

1523-.. Regent Patodhara Waghelji Raniji Shri Kalyandi Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)

7th wife of Rana Raj Raydharji, she took over the regency after his death in the name of their son, Shri Shaktimant Jhaladipati Mahamandleshwar Rana Sriraj Mansinhji Ranoji Sahib, Rana Raj Sahib of Halvad.


Roxelana of the Ottoman Empire

1523-58 De-facto Ruler Kadin Hürrem Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Western sources refer to her variously as Roxelana, Rosa, Rosanne, Rossa, Ruziac or La Rossa. She is generally believed to have been enslaved during raids by the Crimean Turks on Ukraine and Galcia during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, and presented to the Ottoman palace. Of the diverse theories about her ethnic origin, it is most likely that she was Russian or Polish, and there is evidence that she considered herself to be Polish. She became Süleyman the Magnificent's premier wife, the birinci kadin. To ensure that one of her own sons would succeed to the throne, she did everything in her power to turn Süleyman against his eldest son and heir Mustafa, and also conspired to bring about the execution of Grand Vezir İbrahim Paşa, who supported Mustafa. She persuaded Süleyman to appoint Rüstem Paşa grand vizier - he was married to their daughter Mihrumâh. From her letters written to Süleyman when he was on campaign, we learn that she advised him on political matters. The letters of congratulation and gifts she and her daughter sent to the Polish King Zigsmund II, and the correspondence between Hürrem and the sister of Shah Tahmasp of Iran, are cited as evidence of her influential role in politics and foreign affairs. During her later life, she became more concerned with charitable works and founded a number of institutions, becoming the first woman to endow a mosque complex in Istanbul. She lived (circa 1507-58).


 

1523-40 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth von Hohengeroldseck of Buchau (Germany)

In 1497 she was Canoness and participated in the election of her predecessor. In 1524 the territory became a member of the Swabian League (Schwäbische Bund) and member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank - Bench of the Lords Spiritual of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Swabian Circle) - the regional assembly. She signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) in 1529, and participated in the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) in 1531 and in the Reichstag of Worms with the Prelates of Swabia 1535 and was represented in the Imperial Diet by the Counts of Swabia in 1536. According to the older literature she was driven out of the Chapter for a period during a peasant revolt. She was daughter of Gangolf von Hohengeroldseck and Kunigunde von Montfort and lived (before 1480-1540).


 

1523-43 Princess-Abbess Barbara I von Spangstein of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.


1523-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Queen Sophie von Pommern of Denmark of Lolland and Falster, County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the two Shires of  Falster in Denmark and Lady of the Administrative Units of Kiel and Plön (Slesvig-Holsten)

The islands of Lolland and Falster was given to her as a dowry (Livgeding) when her husband, King Frederik I ascended to the throne in 1523. In Lolland and Falster she appointed her own County Sheriffs to take care of the administration of the minor tenancies. She also held the German Castles and Administrative Units of Kiel and Plön and adjourning areas in Holsten (Schloss und Amt von Kiel und Plön) as part of her dowry. She lived (1498-1568).


 

1523-... County Sheriff Inger Ottesdotter Rømer of the Counties of Fosen, Edøen, Romsdal and Søndmøre and Tønsberg, Norway
Until 1555 County Sheriff of the County of Romsdal and Rejns Kloster, Denmark

Inger Rømer til Austått by Tronhjem was married to Niels Henriksen Gyldenløve, who was send to The Netherlands to accompany Elisabeth of Habsburg back to Denmark, where she would marry King Christian 2. After his death she managed to keep most of his tenancies. Only Vardøhus she had to give up to her son-in-law Erik Ugerup, married to Anne. She later got Tønsberg as security for loans (Pantelen). And she managed to acquire the famous estate of Giske and even though it rightfully belonged to Carl Knudsens' female heirs. She also tried to get her hand on the estates that had been owned by the late Inger Erlandsdatter Losne, even though it belonged to a branch of the Danish Rosenkrantz-family. Finally she also became "Mistress" (Forstanderinde) of the abbey of Rejns and thereby in charge of its rich estates during the reformation. In the 1530s she was involved in disputes with the Archbishop who got the upper hand and she sought refuge at Austått. 1533 she had to give up to Giske and later the Losne-Estates also went to the rightful heirs. Mother of 5 daughters who all married high ranking and influential Danish nobles. She drowned at a sea journey together with her daughter Lucie and granddaughter Gunhild. (d. 1555). 


 

After 1523-circa 29 County Sheriff Lene Ludvigsdatter Rosenkrantz of Lunde with several parishes in Mors, Denmark

Lene Rosenkrantz til Estrup was widow of Thomas Iversen Juel, who was in office from 1520. The tenancy was paid off by her son Iver Juel after her death. She (d. 1529).


Elisabeth af Danmark

1523-26 Politically Active Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg of Denmark

Accompanied her husband, Christian 2. (1481-1513-23-59) of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, in exile, and she was active at the European stage, working for his reinstatement. In 1524 she spoke in his favour at the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in Nürnberg. He later tried to reclaim the throne, but was taken captive and died in imprisonment. She was daughter of Queen Juana la Loca and king Felipe de Austria of Castilla, and lived (1501-26).


 

1524-31 County Sheriff Ingeborg Predbjørnsdatter Podebusk of the County of Gårdstange (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)

Ingeborg Podebusk was in charge of the fief, which was also known as Gardsstange, after the death of her husband, Councillor of the Realm Tønne Vernersen Parsberg til Harrested og Ørtofte. During the The Count's Feud  (Grevens Fejde) her estate was burned down by the peasants. She was mother of one son, Verner Tønnsen Parsberg, and (d. 1542).


 

1524 Acting County Sheriff Karen Steensdatter Gøye of the County of Skivehus with the Shires of Nørre, Harre, Hindborg and Rødding, Denmark

Karen Gøye was in charge after the death of her husband, Niels Pedersen Høeg Banner.


 Françoise d'Alençon de Beaumont-Maine

1525-50 Sovereign Duchess Françoise d'Alençon of Beaumont-Maine, Princesse d'Alençon (France)

Succeeded brother, Charles IV, who had no children with his wife Marguerite d'Orléans-Angoulême, Duchesse de Berry. Françoise was married to François d'Orléans, Duc de Longueville and to Charles IV de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme. Her sister, Anne d'Alençon, was Dame de la Guerche and married to Guillaume Paléolouge, Marquis de Monferrato, and lived (1492-1562). Françoise lived (1490/91-1550). 


Circa 1525-50 Lady Isabel Xipaguazin Moctezuma of Tacuba (Mexico)

Originally named Tecuichpo, Techichpotzin, or Tecuichpotzin, Princesa Isabel, was daughter of Moctezuma II (1466-1520), who was the last emperor of the Aztecs (1502-20), who ruled the grand city of Tenochtitlán, and after her cousin, Cuauhtémoc, was executed, she was considered heiress of the Aztec empire, and married two conquistadors, Alonso de Grado and Pedro Gallego de Andrada. King Carlos I of Spain named her Holder for perpetuity of the Lordship of Tacuba - which largely corresponds with the historic centre of the City of México. She was mother of 7 children and founded the Spanish noble house of the counts of Moctezuma, and lived (circa 1510-50)


 

1525-55 Princess-Abbess Ursula II Muntprat von Spiegelberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

In 1525 the people of the Gasterland in the Schänis Area joined the reformed faith and the Chapter was briefly suspended in 1529, but after the victory of the Catholic areas around Kappel in 1531 they were forced back to the catholic faith, the confederates (eidgenossen) assembled and discussed the affairs of the Chapter in 1551 and 1552. Her family originated kn Konstantz and in 1535 she lost a court case about the inheritance from their parents to her parents Hans Heinrich Muntprat von Spiegelberg.


 

1525-29 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor de Sosa de Mendoza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of the Chapter held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination and issued licenses authorizing priests within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privilege also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

1526-29 Sovereign Princess Anna of Mazowsze-Bełz (Poland)

Księżna Anna Mazowiecka succeeded her father, Duke Konrad III. Her mother was Princess Anna Radziwiłłówna, and she lived (1498/1500-after 1557).  


 

1526-33 Reigning Dowager Countess Anna von Schönberg
 of Schaumburg (Germany)

Took over the castle (Die Schaumburg auf dem Nesselberg) and surrounding territory as her dowry after the death of her husband, Anton, the last count to reside in the castle and territory as her dowry after the death of her husband, Anton, the last count to reside of the castle.


 

1526-35 Acting Governor Isabel Manrique, Isla de Margarita (Venezuela/Spanish Possession)

Together with her husband, the judge of the High Court of Santo Domingo, Marcelo de Villalobos, she had been installed in the island since 1512. In 1525 he obtained, by pact with the Spanish Crown, the Governorship of Margarita, but he passed away the following year, and she asked for the rights of governorship to be transferred to her daughter, Aldonza. Isabel appointed a number of governor-lieutenants, but continued to take care of her daughter's interests until she married in 1535.


 

1526-32 Princess-Abbess Walpurgis Bitterler of Heggbach (Germany)

Member of a Noble family from Basel in Switzerland, she died of breast cancer.


 

1526-28 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Stottingen of Gutenzell (Germany)

In 1526 the peasants attacked the Chapter and looted the rooms and the same year the citizen of Biberach wanted to introduce the reformation but did not succeed.


1527-28 Regent Dowager Queen Maria von Habsburg of Bohemia-Hungaria
1527 Presided over the Hungarian Assembly (December)
1530 Presided over the Austrian Landtag (January)
1530-55 General-Stadholder of the Netherlands
1530-58 Governor of Franche-Comté (France)

At the age of 17 she married King Lajos II Jagello of Hungary, who was 15. Four years later, the Turks over-ran half his kingdom, including the capital, Budapest and he was killed at the battle. She fled west, taking the Hungarian treasury with her, and called the Assembly which elected her brother, Archduke Ferdinand von Österreich as king of Hungary. In 1530 she Presided over the Landtag in his name. Her brother, Karl V, appointed her Governor of the Netherlands after the death of their aunt, Margaretha and she was also put in charge of Franche-Comté. Maria was granddaughter of Duchess Marie of Burgundy, had no children, and lived (1505-58). 


1527-35 Sovereign Duchess Giulia da Varano of Camerino (Italy)

Succeeded to the title when her father died of plague, but was deposed by a male relative.  Married to Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke di Urbino (1514-74), and lived (1523-47).


1527-35 Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina Cybo of Camerino (Italy)

 GReigned in the name of her daughter after the death of her husband, Giovanni Maria da Varano, Lord and 12th Pontifical Vicar of Camerino and Count since 1503 Duke of Camerino, who was deposed in 1521, reappointed the following year and confirmed by papal bull with the right of succession for their daughter in 1524, She was daughter of Franceschetto Cybo - the natural son of pope Innocenzo VIII and Maddalena de' Medici lived (1501-57)


1527-circa 75 Governor-in-absentia Aldonza de Villalobos Manrique, Isla de Margarita (Venezuela/Spanish Possession)

Normally known as Aldonza Manrique. After her father's death, her mother, Isabel Manrique, had the king transfer the governorship to her in 1527 - with the condition that while she was under age or was unmarried, the governorship was held by "a man with appropriate age", and her mother therefore appointed a number of governor-lieutenants.  In 1535 she married the conqueror Pedro Ortiz de Sandoval, who came to Santo Domingo from Peru. In 1539 the Council of the Indians confirmed her rights, but she did not take over before 1542, when she and her husband ruled as lieutenant-governors.  There are no documents evidencing she ever travelled to the island, and it cannot be taken for granted that her husband did it either. After her husband's death in 1546, she retained the title of Governor of Margarita, but continued to live in Santo Domingo, until her daughter, Marcela, got married aged 14 with Juan Gómez de Villandrando, who became the new lieutenant-governor on her behalf. In 1561 the island was invaded, and Marcela's husband killed. In 1565 she travelled to Spain with her daughter and two grandsons, and requested to the Council of the Indians the island Governorship to be transferred to one of those, Juan Sarmiento de Villandrando. The petition was accepted after 10 years, after she had already died. She lived (circa 1520-75).


 

1527-29 Reigning Viscomtesse Anne de Rohan of Rohan, Porhoët and León (France)

Succeeded her brother, Jacques . I. de Rohan 16e vicomte de Rohan, vicomte de Léon, comte de Porhoët ((1478-1527). She was married to her cousin, Pierre II de Rohan-Gié, seigneur de Blain, de Frontenay, de La Marche et de Gié, vicomte de Carentan (d. 1525). She was succeeded by their son.  She lived (1585-1529)


 

1527-47 Princesse-Abbesse Magdalena de Choiseul of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)

As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor's deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the citizens of the city with her advice. She resigned from the post as sovereign of the ecclesiastical state and 74 lordships in northern France. She resigned from her position.


Isabel of Spain

1528, 1529-33, 1535-36 and 1538-39 Regent Queen Isabel de Portugal of Spain

In charge of the government during her husband emperor Carlos (V) of the Holy Roman Empire (1516-56)'s travels in the Empire. She governed the country and her children with a strong hand. When she died following a miscarriage, her husband was heartbroken, and he collected all the paintings that were done of her and had more commissioned to keep the memory of her alive. She was granddaughter of Ferdinand and Isabel I and mother of 6 children - among others king Felipe II (Husband of Queen Mary of England). She lived (1503-39).


 

1528-42 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Freyberg of Gutenzell (Germany)

The Chapter was founded in 1230 and started the process towards independence as a princely territory in the Holy Roman Empire in 1417.


 

1528-44 Princess-Abbess Marguerite III de Neufchâtel of Remiremont  (France)

Since 1520 she had contested the appointment of Madeleine de Choiseul, the election of Nicole de Dommartin and her resignation in favour of Marguerite d'Haraucurt but in 1528 she finally gained the upper hand, and then appointed Madeleine de Choiseul as coadjutice. Marguerite's  sister, Bonne, succeeded their brother, Thibaut XI, as Dame de Neufchatel in 1500/04 and lived until 1515. Her younger sister, Elizabeth de Neufchatel was Dame de Chatel-sur-Moselle, etc, They were children of Claude, Lord de Neufchatel, etc, Vicomte de Baume, Governor of Luxembourg and Burgundy, Marshall of Burgundy, etc. and Bonne van Bolchen. Marguerite lived (circa 1480-1544).


1528-51 County Sheriff Pernille Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Jungshoved and Roskilde Agnete Kloster, Denmark

Pernille Gøye was widow of Anders Ebbesen Galt til Tyrrstrup, Rubjerggård og Skumstrup (d. 1529). She was granted the tenantcy for life in 1528. Her second husband, Birger Trolle, was County Sheriff of Roskilde Agnethe Kloster circa 1546-71. She lived (1506-52).


1528-70 Feudal Duchess Isabella Colonna of Traetto, Contess di Fondi and Ceccano, Lady of Paliano, Olevano, Serrone, Zancati, Morulo etc, Acquaviva, Maranola, Carpello, Sperlonga, Monticelli, Imola, Pastena and S. Chigia, Capranica Prenestina, Genzano, Genazzano, Guliano, Montecmopatri, Sgurgola, Nettuno, Ciliano, Castel Mattia, Supino, San Lorenzo, San Vito, Ceccano, Ofi, Falvaterra, Sonnino and Vallecorsa (Italy)

Official heiress of Traetto and Fondi, where she was confirmed by Emperor Karl V in 1532, and pretender to the other fiefs. Fist married to Lodovico II Gonzaga, 3rd Count di Sabbioneta (1500-32) and then to Philippe de Lannoy, Prince de Sulmona. She lived (1513-70).


1529-30 Regent Dowager Sultan Dudu of Janupur (India)

After the death of her husband, Muhammed, she was regent for Galal Han, who was deposed in 1533. Under her family's reign, the state became the home of Islamic culture and refuge for men of letters. She was killed in 1530. 

Juliana zu Stolberg-Wernigerode, Gräfin von Hanau-Münzenberg, Gräfin von Nassau-Dillenburg

1529-31 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Juliana zu Stolberg-Wernigerode of Hanau-Münzenberg (Germany)

When her first husband, Philipp II von Hanau-Münzenberg (1501-29), died she was one of the guardians for her son, Philipp III (1526-61). The youngest daughter was born 2 days after her husband died. 2 years later she married one of the other guardians, Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Dillenburg, and moved with her children to Dillenburg. When her sons joined the Dutch battle against the Spanish from 1566, she was engaged and gave advice to all of them. She had 5 children with her first husband and 12 with the second. The daughter of Count Botho zu Stolberg and Anna von Eppstein-Königstein, she was sister of Princess-Abbess Anna II of Quedlinburg, and lived (1506-80).


 

1529-35 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV Brock of Baindt (Germany)

In 1521 the Princess-Abbess was mentioned as an Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände - the territories of the Realm.


 

1529-36 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor Sarmiento of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

She was the Supreme Head of the congregation consisting of the monasteries of  Torquemada, Gradefes, Carrizo, Perales, San Andrés de Arroyo, Santa Maria de Otero, Cañas y Fuencaliente, Villamayor de los Montes, Renuncio, Barría y Avia and the temporal territory of Vileña.


 

1529 Hereditary Countess Irmgard von Sayn of Limburg an der Lenne and Broich (Germany)

The daughter of Count Johann VIII zu Sayn (1493-1529) and Otille of Nassau-Saarbrücken, she was married to Wirich von Daun-Falkenberg.


 

1529-31 County Sheriff Sophie Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Hagenskov, Denmark

As Lensmand (County Sheriff) Sophie Gyldenstierne til Buckenhagen acted as the king's representative and was in charge of various aspects of the local administration. She was widow of Bendix von Ahlefeldt til Haseldorf og Gelting (1418-1517), mother of Anne Benedictsdatter von Ahlefeldt (1515-50), and (d. after 1531).


1529-35 Politically Influential Queen Anne Boleyn of England (United Kingdom)

Her father, Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, was a diplomat and as a child she was offered a place at the court of Margareta of Habsburg, Regent of the Netherlands. She later became a lady-of-waiting to Queen Claude of France and of Queen Catherine of Aragon when she returned to England. In 1525 Henry VIII also fell in love with her and began his pursuit, she refused until he proposed marriage to her sometime in 1527. She managed to have Cardinal Wolsey, who opposed their marriage, removed from power in 1529, and she became the most powerful person at Court where she had a great say over appointments and political matters. She clashed heads with the king’s new chief minister, Sir Thomas More, who was a bitter enemy of religious freedom and reform. When the Pope refused to accept their marriage, she suggested that he should follow the advice of religious radicals like William Tyndale who denied Papal Authority and believed that the monarch should lead the Church of his own nation. When the devoutly Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury died, Anne had her family’s chaplain – Thomas Cranmer – appointed to the vacant position. She also facilitated the rise of Thomas Cromwell, who became the king’s favourite new adviser, though she would later regret this. During this period, she also played an enormous role in England's international position, by solidifying the French alliance. She established an excellent rapport with the French ambassador, Giles de la Pommeraye. She was appointed Marchioness of Pembroke before their secret marriage in 1532. In 1533 a public wedding was conducted and Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen in time for Anne’s coronation in May 1533 and the "break with Rome. In September her only daughter, the later Queen Elizabeth, was born. The marriage soon began breaking down and she had miscarriages in 1534 and 1536. Henry began a relationship to Jane Seymour and in order to be able to marry her, he accused her of adultery and had her executed. She lived (circa 1507-36).

 

1530-40 Queen Regnant Rafohy of Imerina (Madagascar)

Successor of her mother, Rangitamanjakatrimovavy, who reigned the Hova dynasty from 1520, and was later succeeded by king Andriamponga.


1530-circa 38 Rani Abbakka Devi Chowta of Ullal (India)

Sources and historical analysis confirm that there were three Abbakkas: mother and two daughters, who fought against the Portuguese Army, but the folklore treats all three Abbakkas as one great queen and a brilliant personality; Abbakka Mahadevi or Rani Abbakka. She was married to a neighbouring local king of Bangher, but the marriage did no last long, and the husband thus nurtured revenge against her and later on joined the Portuguese to fight her. The Portuguese had made several attempts to capture Ullal, but she had repulsed each of their attack. The first attack by the Portuguese in south Kanara coast was in 1525, when they destroyed the Mangalore port. She was alerted by the incident and started preparing herself to protect her kingdom. 


 

1530-33 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Rud of the County of Roskilde Vor Frue Kloster, Denmark 

Anne Rud married Rigsråd Henrik Krummedige, who was Councillor of the Realm in both Denmark and Norway. In 1502 she was in charge of the defence of the Norwegian boarder-castle Båhus in his absence. She was an extremely able land-owner, farmer and trader. Since 1531 she also had possession of a number of minor fiefs in Norway, administered by her son-in-law, married to her only daughter, Sofie. She left an extensive correspondence with her daughter, son-in-law and other relatives, and according to the custom of the time, she were in charge of the upbringing of her grandchildren, before her death in 1533. 


Lene Hak

1530 Acting County Sheriff Lene Christoffersdatter Hak of Næsby Birk, Denmark

Lene Hak til Egholm was the sole heir of her family, as her father, Christoffer Hak, was the last male of the family. She was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Hans Krafse. The mother of two surviving children, she (d. 1551).


Unnamed Indian Queen

Until 1530 Queen Tlaxco Cihuapilli of Xochimilco (Mexico)

In march of 1530 Queen Cihuapilli Tzaptzinco peacefully offered her surrender to a Spanish conquistador, who took possession of the land in the name of his Majesty Emperor Charles V. during 20 days he toured the surrounding towns and quickly received their allegiance. The Aztec Kingdom was originally situated in what is today the centre of Mexico City.
 

1531/38-61 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline de Longwy of Bar-sur-Seine (France)

Succeeded her mother, Jeanne of Angoulême, Countess of Bar-sur-Seine (c.1490- after 1531/1538), the illegitimate half-sister of King Francis I of France. Her older sister, Françoise de Longwy, Dame de Pagny and de Mirebeau (c.1510- after 14 April 1561), succeeded their father, Jean IV de Longwy, Seigneur de Givry, Baron of Pagny and of Mirebeau (died 1520). The middle sister, Claude Louise de Longwy, was Abbess of Jouarre. Jacqueline was the first wife of Louis de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier, Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon and Dauphin d'Auvergne, they had 5 children, and she lived (before 1520-61).


 

1531-36 Pretender Caecilia of Paros (Greek Island-State)
1536-37 Princess Regnant

Successor of her father, Nicolo II (1520-31), she reigned jointly with her husband, Bernado Sagredo (d. 1603). The state was conquered by the Osman Turks 1537, and among the captured was the future Sultan Valide Nurbanu. Caecilia (d. 1543).


 

1531-... Sovereign Countess Guyonne XVII of Laval (France)

Daughter of Guy XVI and Charlotte de Aragon. She was originally named Catherine Anne de Laval, but took the feminized version of Guy upon her succession. She married Claude de Rieux, and was succeeded by their daughter Renée in 1547, who took the name Guyonne XVIII.


 

1531-78 Princess-Abbess Katharina I von Bodman of Lindau   (Germany)

The Fürstäbtissin of the Ecclesiastical Territory had been member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Swabian Circle) the Regional Assembly since 1500 with a seat in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). Her family was Lords (Freiherren) of Bodman, Espasingen, Wahlwies, Freudental, Langenrain and Liggeringen.


 

1531-77 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV van Brederode of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Obtained papal dispensation since she was only 17 at the time of her election. The abbesses no longer used the nun's habit and in 1544 and 1549 Emperor Karl V confirmed, that Thorn was a separate entity outside the Netherlands, and also declared that the Abbey belonged to the Westphalian Circle within the Diet of the Realm. Margaretha seems to have been the first to use the right of the principality to make it's own money - and she was accused of using base metal in the coins.  She was daughter of Waleram II, Lord of Brederode and Vianden, Burgrave van Utrecht and Anna von Neuenahr.


 

1532-39 and 1539-44 Regent Dowager Countess Ippolita Cybo of Cajazzo, Serre and Persano (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Roberto Robert Ambrogio da Sanseverino, Markgrave of Colorno, it seems that she was first regent for her sons and then for her daughter Maddalena Sanseverino Cybo (d. 1551), who was married in 1539 to Giulio Cesare Rossi di Parma Riario-Sforza, Conte di Cajazzo. Ippolita was daughter of Francesco Cybo, Count Palatine of the Lateran, and Maddalena de' Medici., and lived (1503-62).


 

1532-43 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Hessen of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Neuburg (Germany)
1541-43 Joint Regent of the Duchy

After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig II, she was regent for son, Wolfgang, jointly with her brother-in-law, Ruprecht. In 1541 her son was granted the fief of the realm (reichslehn) and two years later he officially took over the government, and in 1557 his childless relative, Pfalzgraf Ottheinrich of Pfalz-Neuburg, formally abdicated in his favour. In 1541 she married Georg Count Palatine von Simmern (Pfalz-Simmern) (1518-69) and lived (1503-63).


 

1532-48 Princess-Abbess Anna I Reuss von Plauen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The chapter was mismanaged during her reign and marked by internal disputes and the Archbishops of Magdeburg and Bishops of Halberstadt perused a policy of acquiring the lands of the Stift. 1544 the possessions of the once so powerful and rich community had fallen back to 5 villages and a limited amount of land. In 1549 she gave the city of Gernrode the right of "lower court" 10 years after it had required the privilleges of a town. She was daughter of Heinrich III Reuβ von Plauen, Burgrave von Meiβen, Landvogt von Niederlausitz and Barbara von Anhalt, and lived (1506-48).


 

1532-39 Princess-Abbess Maria zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

Because of the dispute following the double-election of two Abbesses in 1504, her father was able to have her appointed without an election even though she was a minor and newer set foot in the chapter. The administration was taken over by ducal civil servants. She lived (1527-39).


 

1532-39 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I Hauptmann of Heggbach (Germany)

Initiated extensive renovations of the central buildings of the chapter. Her father, Hans Hauptmann, was Secretary of the Abbey of Salem. One brother was Priest in Griesingen and another brother citizen of Lindau.


 

1532 County Sheriff Sophie Predbjørnsdatter Podebusk of the County of Malmøhus with the Shires of Oxle, Ingelstad and Jærestad and the County of Högby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1532-40 County Sheriff of the County of Ellinge, Denmark
1538-40 County Sheriff of the County of Isløf

Sophie Podebusk administered the tenantcies after the death of her husband, Albert Jepsen Ravensberg, who had been invested with the fief in 1529. She was later given Isløf for life. (d. 1540).


 

1532-4.. County Sheriff Eline Henningsdatter Godov of the County of Rønnebæksholm, Denmark

Eline Godov was widow of Henrik Gøye til Gisselfeldt, County Sheriff of Korsør 1516-23, Royal Stadholder in Sweden 1522, Stadholder of Sjælland 1522 when Christian 2 left the country. 1524 he had to surrender Copenhagen to Frederik 2 and went abroad for some years, until he joined Frederik 2 and was given Vordingborg as a tenancy 1525 and finally Councillor of the Realm at the time of his death. In 1537 she was given 13 farms in Rønnebæk and 11 in the surroundings. She was mother of 3 children, and (d. after 1551).


1532-59 County Sheriff Elline Stensdatter Bille of Fredsgård with Tømmerup at Halsnæs, Denmark

Eline or Elline Bille was widow of Bispelensmand Morids Skave (d. 1532), who was appointed Holder of the Tenantcy of the Bishop of Roskilde circa 1520. After the reformation in 1536 she is granted the fief for life by the king who had taken over all the estates owned by the Catholic Church (Krongods). She (d. 1559).


 Yelena Vasilevna Glinskaya

1533-38 (†) Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Yelena Vasilevna Glinskaya of Russia

Елена Васильевна Глинская or Elena Glinskaya, assumed power in the name of her 3 year old son Ivan IV, later known as "the Terrible". Her brother-in-law, Yuri, challenged his rights to the throne, was arrested and imprisoned in a dungeon. She deposed a member of the regency-council, Prince George III of Dimitrov, and had another brother-in-law killed, but a short time afterwards she suddenly died, almost surely poisoned. A week later her confidant, Prince Ivan Obolensky, was arrested and beaten to death by his jailers. She was not very interested in her son, who was left to the care of Agrafena Oblenskaya, who was imprisoned in a convent, and he was neglected during the rest of his upbringing. She lived (circa 1506-38).


Marchesa Margherita Paleologo del Monferrato 

1533-66 Margravine Margherita Palaiologina of Monferrato 
1540-50 Regent of Mantova
1540-60 Sovereign Countess of Carmagnola (Italy) 

In 1530 her brother, Bonifacio IV (1512-18-30), had been succeeded by their uncle, the former Bishop Giangiorgio Sebastiano, and she and her older sisters became heiresses presumptives. After her sister Maria had divorced Federico II di Mantova and entered the Convent of Casale, Margherita took over her claims to the Margravate and married Federico, who was given the title of Margrave of Mantova in 1536. After his death she became regent for their son Gugliermo jointly with brother-in-law, Cardinal Ercole. She lived (1510-66).


Walburga von Brederode, Gräfin und Regentin von Bentheim und Steinfurt

1533-53 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Brederode of Bentheim and Steinfurt (Germany)
1553-68 Reigning Dowager Lad of the Office and Castle of Gronau in  Bentheim-Steinfurt

Her husband, Arnold II von Bentheim-Steinfurt died after 3 years of marriage and left her in charge of the government in the name of her son. She took over the castle of Gronau as her personal income in 1537. After her death, her daughter Agnes was in dispute with Anna von Bentheim-Steinfurt (Regent of Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda) over the possession until 1571. She lived (1512-68).


 

Until 1533 Sovereign Princess Louise de Coëtivy of Mortagne-sur-Gironde, Countess de Taillebourg, Baroness de Royan (France)

Her father, Charles de Coetivy, was styled prince of Mortagne in 1487. She married Charles de La Trémoïlle, prince de Talmon in 1501. She lived (1481-1533).


1533-77 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Brandenburg of and Administrative Unit and Town of Tribsee in Pommern (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)

Second wife of Georg I von Pommern (1493-1531) who died after 1 year of marriage. Mother of one daughter, Georgia (1531-74), who later married Stanislaus Latalski Count von Labischin, Stardost von Inowrazlaw und Schlochau. Margareta settled her dowry with her stepson, Phillip, and moved there in 1533. She was daughter of Elector Joachim von Brandenburg and Elisabeth of Denmark, and lived (1511-77).


 

1533-36 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Redwitz of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not certain who she was elected to succeed.


 

1533-45 Reigning Abbess Antoniette I de Noyelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Succeeded her relative, Adrienne de Noyelle.


 

1533-36 County Sheriff Hilleborg Pedersdatter Bille of the Counties of Kirkendrup and Fremmeløv, Denmark

Her husband, Laurids Tinhuus Skinkel, whose mother, Margrethe Friis, held the tenancy 1480-1502, had it confirmed for both of them for life in 1523, and she took charge after his death. Their daugther, Anna Skinkel married Frans Brockenhuus, who took over after her death. She lived (1474-1536).

Unnamed Laotian Lady

1534 or 1547 Regent Dowager Queen Maha Tewi of Lan Xang (Laos)

King Photisarath, who reigned (1520-1547), was devoted to Buddhism but failed to eradicate animism and witchcraft. To improve trade with Siam and Annam he moved his capital to Vientiane. After Chiangmai's line of kings was ended by assassination in 1543, Photisarath accepted the crown for his young son Sethathirat and sent a regent. Siam's King Phrajai led an army but was persuaded by her to return home. After Photisarath died in 1547, Sethathirat had to go back to Lan Xang to prevent his brothers from partitioning the kingdom, and Phrajai invaded again. She fought back, and the Siamese army retreated and was routed by the Laos army. Sethathirat managed to withstand Burmese invasions, first by fleeing to Ayutthaya and then by moving his capital to Vientiane in 1563. After he died in 1570, Burmese king Bayinnaung had Sethathirat's brother Oupahat put on the throne in 1575, replacing Sethathirat's father-in-law Saensurin.


 

1534-34 Acting Governor Ana Pimentel of the Capitania de São Vicente (Brazil)

Her husband, Martim Afonso de Sousa, arrived in Brazil and explored the country in 1531. He founded the first formal Portuguese settlement in the village of São Vicente, and in 1533 he left her in charge of the administration as he left for Portugal. The following year the captaincies system was introduced and she became the Acting Capitana, and besides sugar cane plantations, she also stimulated cattle breeding in the region. Her husband never returned to Brazil.


 

1534 Joint Sovereign Lady Rosina von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)

The daughter of Alexanders II von Wildenstein, she inherited half of the Lordship. Succeeded by husband, Karl von Welden.


 

1534-52 Joint Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Amalie von Leisnig zu Penig of Schönburg and Hertenstein, the Lordships of Glauchau, Waldenburg and Lichtenstein, and the Estates of Hohnstein, Lohmen, Wehlen and Kriebstein (Germany)

As part of the guardianship for her sons, Johann Ernst, Georg, Hugo and Wolf she was able to expand the possessions that her husband, Ernst II, had collected: The secularized Convent of Remse, the Lordship Klösterle in Bohmia and Rochsburg in Sachsen. In 1542 Lutheranism was introduced in the lordships.


 

1534-49 Reigning Lady Constanza Sarmiento de Herrera y Peraza of Fuerteventura and Parts of Lanzarote (Spain)

Reigned jointly with her cousin and husband, Pedro Fernandez de Saavedra, af after the death of her father, Sancho de Herrera (Died 23 October 1534). Her granddaughter, Constanza de Herrera Rojas y Béthencourt, succeeded to the title of Second Marquesa of Lanzarote in 1568. Her mother was Catalina de Escobar de las Roelas, and she lived (1460-1549).


 

1534-51 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Montfort-Rotenfels of Essen (Germany)

As the territory got more character of an actual state, three estates developed like in other German States, with the Ladies of the Chapter constituting the First Estate. The Second Estate was the Male Canons in the Male Chapter and the Third Estate was constituted by the Office-Holders (Ministerials) of the Chapter and State, who were of low nobility. The three estates were constituted the members of the Landtag (Local Diet). She was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Countess Anna von Zweibrücken, and her sister, Margarete II, was abbess of Buchau (1540-56/59).


 

1534-43 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde II von Geroldseck und Sulz of Säckingen (Germany)

Kellerin (In charge of the winery) when the Election Chief appointed by the Bishop of Konstantz proclaimed her the winner of an election, during which the different factions within the chapter asked their relatives for assistance, the government of Vorderösterreich and the Bishop tried to influence the result. The disputes within the chapter continued during her reign. She was daugter of Gangolf von Hohengeroldseck und Sulz, Lord of Hohengeroldseck and Schenkelzele and Countess Kunigund von Montford. (d. 1543).


1534-75 Reigning Abbess Louise I de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

A woman of sincere but gloomy piety, and during her tenure the order suffered many losses at the hands of the Protestants, who even besieged the great abbey itself, though without success. Many nuns apostatized, but twelve more houses were reformed. She was daughter of Marie de Luxembourg, Sovereign Countess of Saint Pôl, Ligny, de Marle, Soissons and Conversano, Sovereign Princess of Condé-en-Brie etc. (1472-82-1546) and François de Bourbon, Count of Vendôme.


1534-36 and 1555-56 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Jepsdatter Friis of the County of Ørum with 4 Shires in Thy, Denmark

Either known as Karen or Kirstine Friis, she took over the tenantcy after husband, Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz til Boller was killed in battle during the civil war known as The Count's Feud  (Grevens Fejde). Also acted as Lensmand after the death of second husband, Gabriel Gyldenstjerne, who had become the next County Sheriff. Mother of one daughter, Else Holgerdatter Rosenkrantz. She (d. 1565).


 

1534-35 Joint County Sheriff Anna Markvardsdatter Rønnov of the County of Ruggård with the Shire of Skovsby, the County of Løgismose and the City of Skelskør, Denmark

Anna Rønnov til Løgismose was appointed together with her her husband, Johan Jørgensen Urne, who died in 1537 in prison and was deprived of his possessions because of his in role the civil war (Feud of the Count). Her mother, Mette Hardenberg was County Sheriff of Sallng and Sunds Herreds from around 1506. (d. before 1572).


 

1535-37 Sovereign Baroness Caecilia Sangredo of Naupila (Greece)

Reigned Jointly with Bernardo Sangredo. The island had been in the hands of Venezia 1531-35.


 

1535-83 Princess-Abbess Anna VIII Wittmeyer of Baindt (Germany)

In 1560 the church of the chapter got a new arch in the late gothic style, and in 1573 the General Abbott Nicholas I Bucherat demanded that the chapter and its rules were reformed.


1535-36 Acting Country Sheriff Kirsten Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of the Shire of Gislum, Denmark

Kirsten Lykke took over the administration after the death of her father, Councillor of the Realm, Peder Hanssøn Lykke. Together with her sister, Anne, she inherited Nørlund. But together with her second husband, Christoffer Urne, she bought her sister's part. After his death in 1566, she ran the estate alone until her own death. (d. 1570).


1535-37 Acting County Sheriff Mette Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Ravnsborg, Denmark

Mette Gøye was daughter of Mogens Gøye til Krenkerup and after the death of her husband, Johan Oxe til Nielstrup, she acted as County Sheriff or Lensmand until her own death one year later. Mother of 1 daughter, Pernille Johansdatter Oxe (b. 1530).


 

1535 Acting County Sheriff Ellen Andersdatter Gøye of Vissenbjerg Birk and the County of Æbelø etc., Denmark
1556 Abbess of Maribo Kloster

Ellen Gøye was married to Jørgen Henningsen Quitzow til Sandager and Jerstrup, Rugård og Æbelø, who was Chancellor of the Realm 1537-44, until his death. She became the first Abbesses of the Lutheran Chapter for  Noble Ladies Maribo, which was opned 20 year after it's Catholic predecessor was closed during the reformation. As Abbess she functioned more or less as a local County Sheriff (Lensmand) and held the jurisdiction of those who lived at the large estates of the Chapter. She was mother of 2 children, and (d. after 1558).


 

1535-53 County Sheriff Cecilie Nielsdatter Lange Munk of the Parish of Hillerslev, Denmark

Cecilie Lange (Also known as Sidsel) was widow of Anders Reventlow til Søbo, who was in office from 1527 until his death 1535. The tenantcy was owned jointly by the brothers, Jacob and Knud Reventlow 1553-61.


 

1535 Acting County Sheriff Inger Olufsdatter Falster of Øster Thisted Birk, Denmark

Inger Flaster was widow of Laurids Madsen Vasspyd til Ålestrup and Rudbjergård and Judge in Lolland. It is not known when he took office, but he followed Karen, who held it as security for loans sometime in the begining of the 1500s. Mother of several children. She (d. after 1551).


 

Before 1535 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Jasińska of Małogoszcz, Poland

Held the office of starościna niegrodowa  jointly with her husband.


 

1535-37 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Słupska of Małogoszcz, Poland

Appointed by the king as administrator of the area.


 

1536-39 Queen Bakwa Turunku of Zaria and Abuja (Nigeria)

Succeeded grandfather king Nohir Tuknariki, succeeded first by son-in-law Karama then by two daughters, Amina and Zaria.


1536-41 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna of Münsterberg of Sagan in Slesia (Poland)

Also known as Anna of Schlesia-Sagan, she was married to Prince Karl I Albrecht of Münsterberg-Oels (1476-1536) (Karel z Minstrberka) and reigned in Münsterberg after his death. She lived (1483-1541).


 

1536-40 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Magdalena von Mansfeld of Lippe (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Simon V, she became guardian for her 8-year-old son, Bernhard VIII, the 15. Noble Lord to Lippe and 2. Count to Lippe (Edler Herr und Graf zur Lippe), and Count Adolf von Schaumburg, Koadjutors von Köln, Count Jobst von Hoya were regents until 1538. She lived (1509-40).


 

1536-42 Princess-Abbess Wandula von Schaumberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not certain who succeeded her, but Barbara II von Sandizell reigned until 1564.


 

1536-39 and 1543-55 Reigning  Abbess-General Isabel de Navarra y Mendoza  of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Member of a sideline of the royal family of Navarra.

 

1536 Acting County Sheriff Karen Nielsdatter Lange Munk of the County of Holmegård, Denmark

Karen Lange (also known as Karine) was widow of Kjeld Iversen Juel (d. 1536), who was appinted County Sheriff of the Bishop Tenantcy (Bispelensmand) of Holmgaard in Bølle Herred by his brother, Bishop Hartvig Juel of Roskilde. She (d. 1555).


 

1536-37 County Sheriff Sophie Olufsdatter Gøye of the County of Havelse, Denmark

Sophie Gøye was appointed county sheriff by the local bishop (Bispelensmand). After her death, the tenantcy reverts to the king. Probably widow of Henning Venstermand, who exists in the records until 1496. She (d. 1537).


Reichsfürstin Margaretha von Aremberg

1537-99 Margarethe von der Marck, by the Grace of God, Countess of Arenberg 
1576-99 Sovereign Princess-Countess of Arenberg (Germany)

Also known as Margaretha or Marguerite de La Marck d'Arenberg, she succeeded her brother, Robert III, as the sole heir of the Dutch House van der Marck. She was married to Jean de Ligne, Baron de Barbancon, who was named Reichsgraf von Arenberg in 1549 - he died in battle in 1568, and she vigorously defended her territory from invading forces. In 1571 emperor Maximillian II confirmed the "Reichsunmittelbarkeit" - position as an Imperial immediacy, which meant that the territory was under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord and therefore had the right to collect taxes and tolls and held juridical rights. In 1576 both she and her son were granted the title of Reichsfürst/in (Gefürstete Gräfin or Fürstgräfin). She was given the right to mint her own money, and though she was of Dutch birth, she was very preoccupied with the governing of her German realm. Among others she fought against witch-hunts and backed industry and education. She lived (1527-99).


 

1537-60 Sovereign Duchess Adrienne II of Estouteville (France)

Daughter of Jean III, Seigneur d'Estouteville, and married François de Bourbon-Vendôme, Duc d'Estouteville and Count of Saint-Pôl, and was succeeded by daughter, Marie de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl, Countess of St. Pol from 1546. She lived (1512-60).


1537-57 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth zu Hessen of the Castle, City and Administrative Unit of Rochlitz, the Castle and Administrative Unit of Kriebstein with the cities of Waldheim and Hartha in Sachsen (Germany)

Also known as Elisabeth von Rochlitz, she received the lordships as dowry after the death of her husband, Johann zu Sachsen (1498-1537). She was the first territorial ruler in Germany to give her citizen freedom of confession and conscience, but her father-in-law, Duke Georg of Sachsen, "makes sure" that she is excommunicated, which meant that all citizen were declared free and she was no longer under princely protection. But she accepted the Evangelical preacher Magister Schütz aus Kassel, who was send to her lordship by her brother, Landgrave Philipp von Hessen, who had already introduced the reformation in her lands. She was a very effective administrator and developed her fief economically and culturally. She lived (1502-57).


 

1537-40 Sovereign Countess Anne de Husson of Tonnerre, Dame de Husson, d'Ancy-le-Franc, de Laignes, de Cruzy, de Chassignelles and de Ravières (France)

Succeeded nephew, Louis IV de Husson and married to Bernardin de Clermont, vicomte de Tallart, succeeded by daughter, Louise de Clermont, and lived (1475-1540).


 

1537-circa 54 Lady Regnant Anna von Haracourt of Bettingen, Dollendorf, Fischbach, Falkenstein and Everlingen (Germany)

Already old when she inherited the "Haracourt Inheritance" from the last male of the family, Count Wilhelm von Haracourt-Dollendorf-Brandenburg. Her daughter Anna von Solm, Heiress of Dollendorf (d. 1557), married as his second wife, Count Jakob von Manderscheid-Kail, and Anna von Haracourt declared that her granddaughter, Anna von Manderscheid (1630-61) should be her sole heir, but in the end the inheritance was divided among the Manderscheid-Kail and Solm families. 


1537-65 Sovereign Duchess Anne de Pisseleu of Étampes (France)

Created Duchess jointly with husband, Jean de Brosse. She was mistress of King François I.


 

1537-4. County Sheriff Christence Jensdatter Ulfstand of Krønge Birk, Denmark

Christence Ulfstand was widow of Tønne Tønnesen Viffert. She later withdrew to Skt. Clara Kloster (Convent). The mother of 4 children, she (d. before 1545).


 

1537-40 County Sheriff Maren of the County of Holbækgård, Denmark

Widow of Anders Jacobsen Bjørn, who had been granted the tenantcy for both of them for life in 1527.  Her background is unknown.


 

Until 1537 County Sheriff Anne Jonsdatter Viffert of Bækmark Mølle, Denmark

Anne Viffert was widow of Markvard Eilersen Juel (Krabbe-Juel). Held the Mill as a tenantcy from the bishop of Ribe, and handed it over to her son, Bertel Juel just before her son. She (d. 1537).


Maria Salviati

1537-43 Politically Influential Maria Salviati of Firenze and Toscana (Italy)

Instrumental in ensuring that her son, Cosimo I de' Medici was chosen to succeed her cousin, Alessandro de Medici, who had been assassinated, by predicating her right to be involved in deliberations to choose a new ruler on her authority as the young’s man mother- Her husband, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, had died in 1526. She was the daughter of Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici and Jacopo Salviati, and lived (1499-1543).


Unnamed Maharani

Circa 1538-68 Rani Regnant Abbaka Devi of Ullal (India)

Succeeded Queen Abbaka Devi Chotwa, also known as Bucadevi I, and allied herself with Malabar Kings and feudal lords, challenging the Portuguese invasion into Mangalore. For three decades, she defied the Portuguese supremacy refusing to pay tribute to them. However, at the famous siege of Mangalore in 1568, the she and her Moorish allies suffered a crushing defeat by the Portuguese army. She was finally arrested and jailed. However, she revolted in the prison and died fighting.


 

Around1538 Governor Dildar Agha Begum of Bulandshahr (India)

An inscription from Bulandshahr records the construction of a mosque 1538 by Neki Khan during the governorship ('amal) of a lady named Begam Dildar Aghacha, the 7th wife of Emperor Babur of India.


Katharina von Schwarzburg

1538-67 Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Katharina von Henneberg-Schleusingen of Rudolstadt in Schwarzburg (Germany)

Known as Katharina the Brave (die Heldenmütige) for her opposition against the Duke of Alba. She was widow of Heinrich XXXII, Graf von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg-Rudolstadt, daughter of of Wilhelm VII and Anastasia  von Brandenburg and mother of 3 surviving daughters and 3 sons who died as children. She lived (1509-67)


 

1538-51 County Sheriff Ide Thomesdatter Lange of Estates in Vester Herred, Lydum etc., Denmark

Ide Lange was widow of of Morits Jepsen Sparre til Svanholm (d. 1534), who had first been married to Karine Pedersdatter Høeg Banner. Ide secondly married Henning Jørgen Qvistzow til Sandager.


1539-44 Acting Governor Inés de Bobadilla, Cuba (Spanish Colony)

Left in charge of the government when her husband, Hernando de Soto (1496/1500-42), left for an expedition during which he died in 1542. Two years later Juan de Avila was appointed governor.


 

Circa 1539-51 Reigning Countess Maddalena Sanseverino of Cajazzo, Lady of Serre and Persano (Italy)

Apparently she succeeded her brother. Her mother, Ippolita Cybo had been regent from 1532 and took over again after a few months in 1551. Married to Giulio Cesare Rossi in 1539, who became Count of Cajazzo (d. 1554) and was succeeded by son. She lived (circa 1520-1551).


 

Around 1539 Sovereign Countess Cathérine de Silly de la Roche Guyon of Rochefort, Dame de La Roche-Guyon (France)

Daughter of Charles de Silly and Philippe von Saarbrücken-Commercy and married to François de Rohan, Vicomte de Fronsac (d. 1559), who after her death married Renée de Rohan, who was the sister of Louis VI de Rohan, the husband of his daughter, Léonore, who succeeded her at a nok know time.


 

After 1539-83 Sovereign Countess Léonore de Rohan of Rochefort (France)

Succeeded her mother Cathérine at a not known time, and married to Louis VI. de Rohan (1540-1611), Prince de Guéméné, Comte de Montbazon etc., Her sister, Jacqueline inherited the title of Dame de Gié, and the youngest, Françoise-Diane, was Dame de Gillebourg. Mother of several children and lived (1539-83). 


Eleonora Alvarez de Toledo

1539-62 Temporary Regent Duchess Eleonora Alvarez de Toledo of Firenze and Toscana (Italy)

Her husband, Cosimo I de' Medici (1519-74), left her in charge of the government during his frequent absences from the Duchies. She encouraged the arts, encouraged the Jesuit order to settle in Florence and also founded many new churches in the city. She was interested in agriculture and business, helping to expand and increase not only the profitability of the vast Medici estates, but also through her charitable interests the lot of the peasantry. She was daughter of the Viceroy of Naples, Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the, Lieutenant-Governor of Carlos V, and Maria Osorio-Pimentel, 2, Marquessa de Villafranca, and lived (1522-62).


 

1539-47  Princess-Abbess Klara von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

In 1542 the Sclamalkaldic League forcibly introduced Protestantism to the area. In 1547 her father, Duke Heinrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, reintroduced the catholic faith, but only a few years later Lutheranism was permanently introduced by her brother, Duke Julius of Braunschweig (1528-1589). She was appointed in succession to her sister, Maria, who was Fürstäbtissin all her life (1521-39). Klara or Clara resigned in order to marry Duke Philipp II von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (d. 1596). She lived (1532-95).


 

1539-53 Princess-Abbess Veronica Berenike Krel of Heggbach (Germany)

Her surname might also have been Kröhl. In August 1546 an Evangelical ordinance banned the ladies of the chapter to pray in the choir, to celebrate mass and take communion, but in December the Chapter is granted freedom of religion. She lived (1487-1559).


1539-43 Reigning Abbess-General María Esparanza de Aragón y Larrea of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Natural daughter of Fernando II the Catholic - the husband of Isabel I de Castilla. She lived (1477-1553).

 

1539-46 County Sheriff Inger Torbernsdatter Present of Rude and Stærrede, Denmark

Inger Present was in charge of the former bishop-tenantcy (bispelen) which now belonged to the crown after the reformation. She was widow of Erik Daa.


 

1539-44 County Sheriff Karen Hansdatter Breide of the County of Svendstrup, Denmark

Karen Breide til Kjeldet was bispelensmand - appointed by the bishop. She was married to Gunde Lange til Bregninge, Bølling og Holmegård (d. 1564). She was mother of 5 children, one of whom was Dorthe Lange, who was County Sheriff of Kalø in 1596. She (d. 1551).


Last update 06.06.14

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