Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

WOMEN IN POWER 
1300-1350

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


 

1300-20 Sovereign Viscountess Alix II de Clermont of Châteaudun, Dame de Mondoubleau and Saint Calais (France)

Succeeded mother, Alix I de Dreux. Her first husband was Guillaume de Dampierre of Flanders, Seigneur de Tenremonde et de Richebourg - younger son of the Count Guy de Dampierre of Flanders - and the second Jean de Chalon, Seigneur d'Arly. In 1320 she resigned her title in favour of her son Jean de Dampirre-Flandres, who was succeeded by his oldest daughter, Marie, in 1325. Alix II (d. 1330).


 

1300-04 Reigning Abbess Adelheid II von Treidenberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Reichsstift - Imperial Immediate Chapter - had been placed directly under the authority of the king of Germany since 1002, and its royal protection and, immunity was confirmed un many later occations.


Around 1300 Chiefess Nang'oma of Bululi (Uganda)

Daughter of Kabaka Kato Kintu Kakulukuku, who founded the kingdom of Buganda around 1300.


 

13... Sovereign Princess Maria of Keos (Greek Island-State)

Succeeded father. From the 12th Century the island was colonized by Ionians from the mainland and named the island Keos - today it is called Tzia (Kea).


 

13....Minister Nayakuralu Nagamma of the Haihayas (India)

Born as a peasant, but rose to her post due to her abilities and enabled her master to gain victories. When one of the enemy kings declared that as a woman she was not fit to sit on military councils she challenged him to a duel. She lost but eventually victory belonged to her side.


 

1301-04 Regent Dowager Lady Sophia van Heusden of Horne (Belgium)

After the death of her husband Willem III (before 1282-1300/01) she took over the regency for her two sons Willem (1300/01) and Gerard I (1301-30-50). 


 

1301 Hereditary Countess Richardis von Bentheim of Tecklenburg (Germany)

Heir of her father, Otto V von Bentheim-Tecklenburg, and married Count Günzel VI von Schwerin.


Mahaut d'Artois

1302-29 Sovereign Countess Mahaut of Artois, Dame de Conches (Belgium - France)
1302-21 Regent Dowager Countess of Bourgogne 

Since her older brother, Philippe, she was the successor of her father, Robert II, under the suzerainty of the French king, rather than her nephew Robert, based upon proximity of blood. She was a forceful administrator and defeated revolts of the nobles and was engaged in disputes over the succession with Robert. After the death of her husband, Othon IV of Bourgogne (1248-1302), she governed the County. She was succeeded by her daughter, Jeanne II, Countess de Bourgogne since 1315, and Robert claimed the County again, but Jeanne was succeeded by Mahaut's sister - Jeanne III - after only one year. Mahaut lived (1268-1329).


1303-17 De facto Reigning Empress Violante degli Aleramici of Thessalonica (Greece)
1305-06 Sovereign Margravine of Monferrato (Italy)

Also known as Jolanda di Monferrato or Irene of Byzantium she married Emperor Andronikos II Palailogos, later Emperor of Constantinople, as his second wife in 1284 and became known as Yolanda, and was given Thessalonica as her dowry. She was in dispute with her husband over the future of their sons, as his sons by the first marriage were named as heirs. She wanted to have the Empire carved out in separate principalities for each of the three sons. They grew further apart when her husband married their five-year-old daughter to King Simonis Milutin of Serbia who were in his 50s and forced their oldest son to marry the daughter of his closest advisor even though she was of low nobility. In 1303 she packed her backs and took up residence in Thessalonica, which considered her own property. 1309 an attempt of reconciliation failed and she died in her territory in 1317. 1305 she had inherited Monferrato from her brother and the following year she passed the title to her second son, Theodore, who spend the rest of his life in Italy. She was mother of seven children.


 

Until 1303 Sovereign Countess Beatrice of Chiaggiolo (Italy)

Succeeded father and married Paolo Malatesta.


 

1303-10 Reigning Abbess Agnčs IV de Gloise of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

As Abbess she had great authority in the region, organising fairs and markets, dispensing justice, appointing priests, having the right to arbitrate in distribution of the lands.


Marguerite de Tonnerre

1304-08 Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Bourgogne of Tonnerre (France)

Daughter of Mahaut de Tonnerre and Duke Eudes de Bourgogne. The second wife of Charles I of France, Count d'Anjou et du Maine, Provence et de Forcalquier etc. King of Sicilia (1265), Titular King of Jerusalem (1267) and King of Napoli and Jerusalem (1265), she lived (1249-1308).


 

1304-11 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Touraine (France)

Successor of her father, Raymond VII and reigned jointly with husband, Bernard II de Comminges, who was succeeded by their son, Jean in 1335 and then by their daughter Cécile.


 

1304-14 Reigning Abbess Irmgard II von Köfering of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Köferingen is a village situated close to Regensburg.


 

1304-06 Feudal Baroness Giovanna de Chevereuse of Di Meta del Castello di Rutigliano (Italy)

Succeeded her father Anselmo, Seigneur di Rutigliano and di Sannicandro and her rights was approved by Carlo II d'Anjou of Napoli.


Margherita de Savoia

1305-06 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita de Savoia of Monferrato (Italy)

Had been very influential during the reign of her husband, Giovanni I, Lord of Ivrea and Astri (1277-95-1305) and was in charge of the government until her sister-in-law, Empress Yolanda of Constantinople, transferred the Margravate to her fourth son, Theodoros Palailogos. She (d. 1339).


 

1305-18 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Margaretha von Kiburg of the Linner Land (Burg Linn bei Krefeld) in Berg (Germany)

Widow of Dietrich VIII von Kleve and resigned the lordship in favour of her younger son, Johann, when she joined the Convent of Bedburg in Kleve.


 

1305-16 Countess Abbess Mechthild II zu Wohldenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Member of a German countly family.


 

1305-17 Reigning Abbess Mathilde II d'Auchy of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Also known as Mahaut.


 

1306-44 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Soissons (France)

Daughter of Hugues, she was married to Jean de Hainaut, Seigneur de Beaumont, Valenciennes and Condé, and was succeeded by Jeanne de Hainaut.


Elisabeth Ryksa of Poland

1306 Regent Dowager Queen Eliška Rejčka of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1306-35 Lady of Königsgrätz

Elisabeth Ryksa, Richenza, Richsa or Ryksa Elżbieta of Poland had been politically influential 1303-05 during the reign of her husband, Václav II of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, and regent from August till October, when she married Rudolf III of Austria, who was titular king of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland until his death one year later, but in reality Hungary and Bohemia was in an interregnum. Elzbieta married her third husband, Heinrich zur Lippe in 1315 and they continued as leaders of the Bohemian nobility against Queen Elisabeth. After his death in 1329, she withdrew to the Convent of Aula Sankt Marić in Brünn. She was daughter of King Przemysl II of Poland and Richeza, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, and lived (1288-1335).  


 

1306-... Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Czerska of Racibórz (Ratibor) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Duke Przemysław of Racibórz, she was regent for their son Leszek. She was daughter of Duke Konrad II of Czersk and Jadwiga, and lived (ca. 1270-1324)


 

1306-16 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Bussnang of Säckingen (Germany)

King Albrecht named her Princess of the Empire on 4 April 1307. She defended her rights against the citizen of Laufenburg in the Court of the City, and renewed the rights of the City of Bad Säckingen in 1316. She was member of a family of Lords from Thurgau in Switzerland that played an important role in the diocese of Konstantz.


1306-26 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d'Oiselay of Remiremont  (France)

Held the office of Doyenne and was Second-in-Command 1288-92 before becoming Secrčte; the canonnis in charge of the lighting of alter lights etc - the third highest-ranking officer in the chapter. And she received papal protection sometime during her term in office. She was daughter of Jean d'Oyselet, Seigneur de Flagey, the issue of an illegitimate branch of the Counts of Bourgogne. Other versions of her surname found in the original sources are d'Oyselet, Oiselet or Oizelay.


Unnamed Female Warrior

1306-26 Military Leader Lady Christian Bruce in Scotland (United Kingdom)

During the Wars of Independence and the reign of Edward I, Lady Bruce defended Kildrummy Castle when David of Strathbogie, who served English interests, besieged it. When he fell in battle it was left to his widow to defend (for seven months) the island fortress of Lochindorb against three thousand vengeful Scots." She was the sister of King Robert I and her sisters, Marjory Bruce and Mary Bruce, also took part in battles as did their brother's supporter, Isobel, Countess of Buchan.


1306 "Enthroner" Lady Isabel Macduff in Scotland (United Kingdom)

Exercised the right of her house, and brought the sanction of ancient usage to the ceremony, by leading King Robert the Bruce to the place of coronation. Her brother, Duncan, Earl of Fife, was an ally of the English and was married to Mary de Monthermer, niece of Edward I. of England. She was later captured by the English and placed in a cage on the walls of Berwick, while her brother and his wife were captured by Bruce and imprisoned in the castle of Kildrummie in Aberdeenshire, where the Earl died in 1336. Isabel was married to John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, was an ardent Scottish patriot. After four years she was rescued by Bruce's forces.


 

Ca. 1306-61 Hereditary Countess Hedwig of the Wildgrafschaft Dhaun and Grumbach (Germany)

Daughter of Konrad IV, Wildgraf in Dhaun und Grumbach and Hildegard von Hunolstein, she was first married to Rheingraf Johann I vom Stein, and secondly to Gerlach von Brunshorn.


1307 Dowager Empress Khanum Bulugan of the Yuan Dynasty in China

Widow of Temur Oljetu (Chengzong) who ruled (1294-1307) as successor to Khubilai Setsen Khan (Shizu) and acted as regent for her step-grandson Wuzong, also known as Khaishan, Hai San or Taji. She was born as Princess Bulukhan of the Baya'ud. 


 

1307-10 Queen Anna Přemyslovna of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

Daughter of King Václav II and his first wife Guta, and married to Heinrich von Kärnten in 1306, who was named the Deputy of her father. After the murder of her brother, Václav III, and the take over of power by her cousin Rudolf von Habsburg (son of her mother's brother, King Albrecht von Habsburg of Germany) - who married her stepmother Elzbieta Ryksa of Poland - she fled with her husband to Kärnten. After Rudolf's death, Heinrich was elected king of Bohemia - legitimized by her succession-rights. When they tried to marry her younger sister, Eliška to Otto von Berg, she refused and took the offer of the Bohemian nobility to join the opposition against Heinrich. In 1310 Eliška married Johann von Luxembourg who occupied Prague and Anna and her husband spend the rest of her life in exile in Kärnten. She did not have any children, and lived (1290-1313).


Eliška Přemyslova

1307-10 Opposition Leader Eliška Přemyslova in Bohemia
1310-25 Politically Influential Queen of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

Also known as Elisabeth of Bohemia, and after the death of her father, Václav II of Bohemia and Poland and the murder of her brother, Václav III she joined her aunt, Abbess Kunigunde (Kuhnuta) in the Convent of the Holy Georg at the Castle of Prague. She realized the weaknesses of her brother-in-law King Heinrich, and accepted the offer of the Bohemian nobility of clerics to marry another future ruler. In the summer 1310 she took part in the Assembly of the Land, which voted on the candidature of Johann von Luxemburg (1296-1346). He accepted the offer, and they married in September and returned to Prague in December the same year and deposed her sister and brother-in-law. She favoured a hard line against the opposition and because of her pressure her husband imprisoned the spokesperson of the Bohemian nobility, Heinrich von Lipá (Jindřich z Lipé) which led to civil war and almost cost them the crown and it was not until 1318 that peace was restored when her husband recognized the position of the nobility. Eliška was against this and was in opposition to her husband. She remained in Bavarian exile until 1325 and took part in her last political action - the abolition of the fiefs of the Slesian Dukes. But at this time she already lived apart from her husband, who took care of his duties in Europe, where their children were also distributed at various courts. Her last years was influenced by her lack of finances, which made her unable to maintain a court. Also known as Elizabeth, she lived (1292-1330).


 

1307-26 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d'Oyselet of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz  (France)

Neither the name of her predecessor or her successor is known.


Hedwig IV von Gernrode

1307-1317 Countess-Abbess Hedwig IV von Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

In the only known document from her reign is from 1311, where she sells one of the estates of the chapter in order to release the "church treasure" that had been handed in as security for lones.


 

1307-11 Reigning Abbess Mechtild von Hasenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Resigned from the post. Owned 2 estates together with her daughters Anna and Ita, who was canonesses in the chapter.


 

1307-13 Pretender Marguerite de Villehardouin of Achaia and Morea (Greece)

After the death of her sister, Isabelle de Villehardouin she claimed the principality, and again in 1313. When it proved unsuccessful, she transferred her rights to her daughter Isabelle of Sabran, wife of Ferdinand of Majorca. Her daughter's son, James the Unfortunate of Mallorca, was proclaimed prince of Morea in 1315 under the regency of his father, who conquered the principality between 1315 and 1316 but was defeated and executed by her niece Mathilda de Savoie and her husband, Louis of Burgundy, who was deposed the same year by King Robert of Napoli after Louis died.


Catherine de Valois

1308-46 Sovereign Dame Catherine II de Valois of Courtenay, Blacon and Montargie (France) and Titular Empress of Constantinople
1333-46 Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Greece)
1341-46 Governor of Kephalliena (Greek Island-State)

Inherited the title of titular Empress from her mother, Chatherine I de Courtenay (1283-1308), and was involved in the intrigues of the court of Giovanna I of Napoli and probably involved the murder of Giovanna's husband, Andreas of Hungary. She was married to Philippe II de Taranto, and all of her three sons succeeded him as Prince of Taranto. Robert was his eldest surviving son and succeeded her husband as Prince of Taranto. In 1333 he received the principality of Achaea by agreement with his uncle, Jean de Gravina. However the 13 year-old boy was deemed too young to reign alone and his mother became his co-ruler for the rest of her life. In 1339 she arrived in Achaea and took an active part in its government. She gave refuge to Nikephoros II Orsini of Epirus and supported him in his attempt to assert himself in his land against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Her presence in Achaea was no longer needed by the time Robert reached adulthood in 1341. She became Governor of Cephalonia and spent the last five years of her life in this responsibility. Robert was succeeded as Prince of Achaia by his wife, Maria II Zaccharia in 1364. Catherine was mother of 5 children and her father was Count Charles III de Valois, Anjou and Maine and titular King of Aragon and Sicily and Titular Emperor of the Byzantine Empire (by the right of his wife). She lived (1301-46).


 

1308-14 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Lusignan of La Marche and Sancerrez, Dame of Lusignan, of Couhe and de Peyrat and Heiress of Fougčres (France)

After the death of her two brothers  Hugues V (XIII) et Gui I, she inherited the territories, but but the County of Angoulęme had been sold by her and her sisters to King Philippe of France. She was first married to Elie Rudel, Seigneur de Pons with whom she had  Renaud IV de Pons (born before 1282–1308), married Isabeau de Levis by whom he had issue and Yolande de Pons (born before 1290–?) who was married Fouques III, Baron de Matha by whom she had issue. Yolande's second husband was Robert, Seigneur de Mathe. After her death, the French kingdom annexed La Marche. She lived (1257-1814)


 

1308-47 Princess-Abbess Jutta von Kranichfeld of Quedlinburg (Germany)

In 1320 she asked Duke Rudolf von Sachsen to renew the tenant-agreement thereby confirming the status of her independent territory. 1326 the cities of Halberstadt, Aschersleben and Quedlinburg made an agreement of mutual defence. During the fights between count Albrecht II. von Regenstein and the Bishop of Halberstadt, the count attacked Quedlinburg and the Neustadt in 1336, but his castle - the Gersdorfer Burg - was occupied and he imprisoned. After two years the Bishops of Quedlinburg reached a peace-agreement in which the Counts of Regenstein accepted the ”protection” of the city. Jutta was daughter of Count Volrad VIII von Kranichfeld and Countess Mechtild von Blankenburg, and lived (ca. 1285-1347).


 

1308-40 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV von Matzinger of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

The Ecclesiastical Territory included the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.


Unnamed Polish Queen

1309-12/14 Regent Dowager Duchess Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Gniezno (Poland)
1309-12 Regent of Glogau and Sagan (Głogów i Żagań)
1312-14 Regent of Poznan (Posen)

Also known as Matylda Brunszwicka, she took over the regency for her sons by Henryk I (III) of Głogów: Primko, Henryk IV, Konrad, Jan and Bolesław. The daughter of Duke Albrecht of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, she was also mother of four daughters Agnieszka, Katarzyna, Jadwiga and Salomea. She lived (ca. 1276-1318). 


1310 (April-June) Lieutenant Queen Blanche d'Anjou of Aragón (Spain)

Regent when her husband, Jaime II of Aragon, was on crusade on Almeria. The daughter of Carlos II of Napoli and Maria Arpad of Hungary, she was mother of 10 children, and lived (1280-1310).


 

1310-13 Co-Sovereign Princess Alix of Oroeos (Greek Island-State)

Her father Narzotto ruled (1247-64).


 

1310-22 Co-Sovereign Princess Maria of Oroeos (Greek Island-State)

Her father, Gaetano ruled (1264-80). The two Sovereign Princess were distant relatives.


 

1310-29 Sovereign Lady Sophia Berhout of Mechelen (Belgium)

Heir of her father, Floris Berhout, Lord of Mechelen or Malines (in French) a tradesman. She was the richest girl in Europe and very well educated both in economic and state affairs. She married Reinald, Count of Gelders and Züpten (1326-43) and helped him administer his lands and increase his wealth. She was mother of four daughters. and was succeeded by the oldest, Margaretha (1320-44).


 

1310-22 and 1326-1334 Sovereign Dame María Díaz de Haro I of Vizcaya (Spain)

Her father was the 7th Seńor de Bizkaia, Lopez Díaz de Haro III, died in 1288 and was succeeded by her brother, Diego López de Haro IV, who died the following year. The king of Castilla then usurped the seigneurity. He was succeeded by her uncle, Diego López de Haro II, who proclaimed her heir in 1307. In 1322 she resigned in favour of her son, Juan de Haro, and after his death she became signora once again. In 1334 she resigned in favour of her niece, María Díaz de Haro II. Dońa María I. (d. 1342).


 

1310-37 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I van Pietersheim of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeersel  (The Netherlands)

In 1310 Abbess Margaretha travelled to the pope in Avignon and obtained the position of sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Territory of Thorn.


 

1310-13 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Goritz of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The first abbess of the Chapter of Königsfelden and its surroundings. It acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.


 

1310-45 Reigning Abbess Hélissent I de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

But the Hundred Years War devastated the whole of Brie and the nuns were obliged to flee. The monastery and the Tower were burnt down and the church fell partly into ruins. Succeeded by niece, Hélissent II.


1311-30 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Dreux of Montfort (Montfort-L'Amauri) (France)

Succeeded mother, Beatrice de Montfort (1249-1311). She married her first husband, Alexander III of Scotland, in the autum of 1285, he died in march 1286 and one month later she gave birth to a still-born son, and therefore the Guardians of the Kingdom selected his granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway as Queen of Scotland. Yolande married Arthur II de Bretagne (1262-1312) in 1292 and had at least 6 children by him. She was succeeded by her son, Jean II, and lived (1263-1330).

 

1311 Reigning Dowager Duchess Jeanne de Châtillon of Athens (Greece)

Her husband, Gauthier V de Brienne had succeeded his uncle, Guy I de la Roche as Duke in 1308 - his mother, Isabella had died 1291. Her husband was killed in the Battle of Halmyros against the Catalan Company. She may have tried to hold the Acropolis of Athens against them but eventually surrendered it. She returned with her son, Gauthier IV, to France, though her retainers continued to possess Argos and Nauplia under Gauthier de Foucherolles. In April 1318, she and her father sent a request to the Republic of Venice seeking money and ships for knights and infantry to Negroponte or Nauplia. The request, however, was refused, as the Briennist vassals in Greece had turned to the Catalans in the meanwhile. The following year however, Gauthier of Foucherolles was still commending his vessals in the Argolid to remain loyal to her and her son. By constant petition to the King of Naples, the King of France, and the Pope, she kept her claim to Athens alive for her son until he was old enough to campaign for his rights in the Aegean. In January 1321, Philip V of France mediating the suit brought against her by her own son, who was suing for the payment of some of his father's great debt. She retained her ducal title until her death. Her tomb, in the church of Saint Jacobin in Troyes has the inscription Duchess d'Athčnes. She was the daughter of Gaucher de Porcien, Constable of France and (d. 1354).


 

1311-27 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline de la Roche of Veligosti and Damala (Greece)

The last heiress of the De la Roche family which had ruled the Duchy of Athens from 1204 to 1308. She was the daughter and heiress of Renaud de la Roche.  1327 married Martino Zaccaria, Lord of Chios, as his second wife. When he was captured and carted off to Constantinople by Andronicus III Palaeologus in 1330, she was allowed to go free with her children "and all they could carry." She may have been the mother of Bartolommeo, Margrave of Bodonitsa, and was probably the mother of Centurione I, Lord of Arcadia.


 

1311-22 Sovereign Marchionese Maria dalle Carceri of Bodonitza, Co-Heiress of a 6th of Euboea (Greece)

Upon the death of her husband, Albert Pallavicini, she succeeded to half of the marquisate of Bodonitsa. While she avoided submitting her principality to the Catalan Company, she could not avoid paying an annual tribute of four destriers. She was descended from a Lombard family of Verona that had come to Greece on the Fourth Crusade. She split the inheritance with her daughter, Gugliema and married Andrea Cornado, Baron of Skarpanto, who ruled jointly with her. She was a daughter of Gaetano dalle Carceri and also heiress of a sixth of Euboea. Her husband died the year after her and her daughter inherited the whole territory. (d. 1322).


 

1311-58 Sovereign Marchioness Guglielma Pallavicini of Bodonitza, Lady of Thermopylae, Co-Heiress of Euboea (Greece)

Sometimes refered to as Wilhelmina. The succession of all Latin fiefs in Greece was regulated at the time by the 'Book of the Customs of the Empire of Romania' by which, the inheritance was split between the widow and daughter. When her first husband, Bartolomeo Zaccaria died in 1334, she married Niccolň Zorzi, something that allowed her to remain in residence on Negroponte and to reconcile her claims to the castle of Larmena with La Serenissima's. They continued the annual tribute of four destriers made to the Athenian Catalans. Peace did not attend their house, however. Venice continued the dispute over Larmena and even sought the arbitration of the bailiff of Catherine II, Princess of Achaea, the legal souzerain of Euboea and Bodonitsa. The bailiff decided for Venice. This strained the marriage, with her accusing her husband of "cowardice and bias towards Venice. She further believed that he ignored the interests of her child by Bartolomeo, Marulla, in favour of his own offspring. She had saved a large amount of money for her daughter, but deposited in a Venetian bank. The marchioness was finally whipped into a fury by the execution of her relative Manfredo, ordered by her husband. While the execution had been legal, she stirred the people against Zorzi, who was forced to flee to Negroponte and then went to Venice and appealed to the Senate, which demanded the return of him to his position or the relinquishing of his property, which she held. She refused and the bailiff of Negroponte was order to sever all communication between Bodonitsa and the island. The Catalans, who had initially been asked to stay out of the fray, were now pressed by Venice to intervene for peaceful settlement, along with Juana I of Naples, head of the Angevins, and Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne, then a papal naval commander. This failing, Marulla's money was confiscated and Niccolň compensated from the funds. She still refused to readmit her husband to her court. Despite the pleadings of Pope Clement VI, she preferred to heed the advice of her own nationalist bishop Nitardus of Thermopylae. In 1354, Niccolň finally died and she immediately installed their eldest son, Francis, as co-ruler. With him ruling beside her, she was on good terms again with Venice and was included in the treaty subsequently signed with the Catalans. She died in 1358 and was succeeded by Francis and her other two sons, Giacomo and Niccolň III, also later ruled the Marquisate. (d. 1358).


 

1311 Sovereign Baroness Margherita di Savoia of Karytaena (Greece)

Marguerite succeeded her mother, Isabelle II de Villehardouin - Princess of Morea and Achaia in Karytaena, but the barony was taken over by the new rulers of the principality.


 

1311... Joint Sovereign Baroness of Chalandritsa (Greece)

1311... Joint Sovereign Baroness of Chalandritsa (Greece)

The two sisters, whose names have been lost, succeeded their father Peter Carker, and reigned jointly with the husband of the younger daughter, Martin Zaccarias (1311-45).


 

1311-56 Sovereign Baroness Niccola Foucherolla of Naupila (Greece)

The state was in the hands of the De La Roche family of Athena 1212-1311. She was succeeded by Vonna.


 

1312-ca. 16 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anastazja of Dobrzyń   (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Duke Siemowit, she became regent for her sons. She was daughter of Prince Lew of Halicz (in Ukraine).


 

1312/13-53 Sovereign Lady Mathildis van Wesemaele of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Arnold. Her mother Johanna van Loon probably acted as regent in the first years. Mathildis married Albrecht van Voorne, who died 1331 and Reinhoud van Kleef. Her daughter, Johanna van Voorne was Dame for some years until she again took over as regent until she abdicated in favour of a distant relative, Maria van Merksem van Wezemaal and her husband, Hendrik I van Boutersem. Mathildis (b. 1310).


 Mathilde d' Avesnes-Hainault of Achaia and Morea

1313 and 1316-31 Sovereign Princess Mathilde d'Avesnes-Hainault of Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica, (Greece) Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal (Belgium)

Also known as Mahaut, she was daughter of Isabelle de Villehardouin, who had been Princess of Achaia (1289-1307) until she was deposed. Her first husband,  Guido II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, Lord de Theben died in 1308 and in 1313 Philippe d'Anjou-Sicily, Principe di Tarento, transferred his rights to Achaia to her, on condition she transferred them to her second husband, Louis de Bourgogne. She refused the third marriage proposed by Philippe di Tarento, but was brought to Napoli from Morea by force and compelled to marry  Jean of Sicily, Conte di Gravina, but this marriage was annulled in 1321 for non-consummation. She continued to refuse to transfer her rights to Achaia to her new husband and appealed, unsuccessfully, to Venice and the Burgundy family for help. She was taken to Avignon where Pope John XXII ordered her to obey but then avowed her secret marriage with Hugo de La Palice. Her inheritance was confiscated by King Robert d'Anjou of Sicily for breaching the condition of the 1289 marriage contract of her mother, which required the king's approval for her marriage. She was imprisoned in the Castell dell'Uovo in Naples, accused of conspiring with her husband to murder the king, transferred to the castle of Aversa in 1328. Before dying, she bequeathed all her rights verbally to her cousin Jaime II King of Mallorca but made no testament. Her sister, Marguerite, was Lady of Karytaena from 1311. Mathilde had no children, and lived (1293-1331).


 

Around 1313 Reigning Abbess Hedwiga von Kuntzlau of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Thought the Abbesses ruled over a considerable territory, they did apparently not become Princesses of the Empire unlike many of the other Reigning Abbesses.


Until 1314 Regent Dowager Duchess Jelisaveta Nemanjic of Bosnia

After 1283 she was married to ban Stjepan Kotroman (died in 1314) of Upper and Lower Bosnia. They had six children. Regent of Bosnia until Apr 1314, after which she fled with her son to Dubrovnik. The daughter of King Stefan Dragutin of Serbia and Katalin of Hungary, she lived (1270-1331).


 

1314-27 Sovereign Countess Teresa de Entenza of Urgell, Co-Princess of Andorra, Vicountess of Ager and Lady de Alcolea de Cinca (Spain)
1324-27 Lieutenant of Aragón

Daughter of heir of Gombaldo, Baron de Entenza, Regent during the ilness of her husband, Alfonso IV de Aragón, but it is not clear whether she was a lieutenant earlier. There is no official privilege or other document naming her as lieutenant and because her husband was incapable of ruling she acted more as regent than a lieutenant. After her death, Alfonso married Leonor of Castilla (1307-59). Teresa lived (1300-27).


 

1314-17 Lady Eleanore de Clare of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)

Her mother, Princess Joan of England, was Lady of the two territories until 1307. Eleanore lived (1292-1337).


 

1314... Sovereign Countess Guillerma of Passava (Greece)

Succeeded husband Nicolas de St. Omer. 


 

1314-33 Reigning Abbess Euphemia von Winzer of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The chapter for noble ladies was an important convent closely associated with Obermünster also situated in Regensburg, the seat of the Imperial Diet.


Jeanne I de Franche-Comte

1315-30 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne I de Châlons of Franche-Comté and Bourgogne (France)
1329-30 Sovereign Countess of Artois, Flanders and Brabant (France and Belgium)

In Artois, she was known as Jeanne II. Succeeded Robert and married to King Philippe V of France, who succeeded to the throne in 1316, after having acted as regent for his late brother's posthumously born son, Jean I, who died after a few months. In 1314 she became involved in a scandal conserning various sexual excesses together with her sister Blanche and sister-in-law Marguerite (The Scandal de Tour de Nesle) and fell from grace and internated in the Castle de Dourdan, but released soon after on the quest of her husband, who would have lost Franche-Comte which was part of her dowry if they had divorced. Her husband died in 1322 and was succeeded by his younger brother as King. She suceeded both her father, Otto I of Bourgogne and mother, Mahaut d'Artois and was succeeded by the oldest of her five daughters, Jeanne II and III in all her possessions. She died of the plauge, and lived (1294-1330).


Unnamed Russian Princess

1315... Sovereign Grand Princess Maria Rurikova of Vitebsk (Belarus) 

Ruled jointly with Olgerd, who was Grand Prince 1316-77 and remained in Lithuania from 1345. He was succeeded by Juliana Rurikova. Maria (d. aft. 1326).


 

1315 Sovereign Baroness Marguerite Villehardouin of Akova (Greece)

Succeeded Marguerite de Passavas-Neuilly, and succeeded by Jezebel Villehardouin.


 

1315-16 Sovereign Baroness Jezebel Villehardouin of Akova (Greece)

Also known as Isabella, she succeeded Marguerite Villehardouin. Akova is situated in the Gortyna Region of Arcadia.


 

Until 1315 Sovereign Countess Maria I of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Reigned jointly with her husbands; Albert Pallavicini, Marchese of Boudonitza, who was killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes in 1311, and Andrea Cornaro. His sixth of the island of Eubśa, which he held by right of his wife, was captured in 1323 by his wife's first cousin Pietro dalle Carceri.


 

1315 Sovereign Countess Beatrice Pallavizzini of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Succeeded Maria I and reigned jointly with Jean de Maisy.


 

Ca. 1315-27 Sovereign Baroness Maria van Voeren-Montaigue of Ravenstein (Netherlands)
Held the small barony in the northeast of the Dutch province of Brabant, on the left bank of the Maas jointly with Jan van Valkenburg-Cleves 1328-56.

1316-17 Regent and Principal Minister Qutlug Sah Hatun of Persia and Iraq

After the death of her husband, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammed Uljaytu (1282-1304-16) the 8th Il Khan she ruled in the name of their son, 'Ala al-Dunaya wa 'l-din Abu Said (1304-1317-1335). The dynasty had reigned Persia, Iraq and China since Kublai Khan of Mongolia and China appointed his brother, Halagu (1256-1265) as tributary sub-ruler. With the death of Abu Sa'id the Il-lkhanid dynasty in Iran virtually came to an end.


 

1316 Reigning Dawlat Khatun of Luristan (Persia) (Iran)

Succeeded her husband, Izz al-Din Muhammad, the 13th sovereign of the Mongol Bani Kurshid dynasty, which ruled Luristan in south western Persia. She proved to be a poor administrator, and therefore she abdicated after a short period in favour of her brother-in-law, Izz al-Din Hassan.


 

1316-60 Sovereign Countess Béatrix de Bourbon of Charolais (France)

Daughter of Jean comte de Charolais, Seigneur de Saint-Just and Jeanne dame d'Argičs et de Calku and married to  Jean I comte d'Armagnac, who died 1373.


Clemence d'Anjou-Napoli

1316 Regent Dowager Queen Clémence d'Anjou-Napoli of France

When her husband Louis X (1289-1314-16) died she was pregnant, making it impossible to know Louis's successor until the time his child was born. If the child were a son, he would succeed Louis as king: had the child been a daughter, Louis would have been succeeded by his brother Philip V. (John I's half-sister Jeanne, as a female, could not succeed to the throne of France; she did, however, retain rights in the succession of Navarre). She was joint regent with her brother-in-law Philip for the five months remaining until the birth her child, who turned out to be male. But Jean I, only lived five days was succeeded by his uncle Philippe V.


 

1316-21 Sovereign Countess Beatrix of Geraki-Nivelet (Greece)

Succeeded husband Jean II. 


 

1317-38 Sovereign Countess Maruella da Verona of  The Second Triarchy of Euboea, Karystos and Aegina (Greek Island-State)

Also known as Maria, she was daughter of Bonifacio da Verona, Lord of Negropont, she was married to Alfonso Fadrique de Aragon, Count of Malta and Gozzo, Lord of Salona and of certain territories on Greece. She (d. ca. 1338)


 

1317-39 Sovereign Lady Margherita Orsini of Zakinthos (Zante) (Greece)

Heiress of half the lordship. She married Guglielmo II Tocco, Governor of Corfu 1328. She was daughter of Giovanni Orsini, Lord of Leukas and Count of Kefalonia and Maria Komnene Dukaina Angelina of Epirus. She (d. 1339).

 

1317-28 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Castilla of Limoges (France)

Married to Jean I, who was Duke of Bretagne from 1312. 1314-17 his brother, Gui VII, was count, until she took over as Countess. After her death, her husband was count again, until he was succeeded in 1341 by niece, Jeanne, who had succeeded his father (the said Gui VII) as Countess of Penthičvre in 1331. Isabella (d. 1328).


 

1317-58 Sovereign Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pôl (France)

Daughter of Guy I de Châtillon-sur-Marne (1254-1317) and Marie de Bretagne and married to Charles de Valois. She was mother of Marie (1309-32), Isabelle (1313-83), Blanche (1317-48) and Jean (d. 1344), and lived (1293-1358).


Gertrud II von Gernrode

1317-24 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis II von Boventhen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud, she was in dispute with the nobles von Hadmersleben over the churches in Ströbeck and Siestedt, and in order to have her rights recognized she had to give the patron rights over the church of Ammendorf as a tenancy. The financial difficulties of the chapter was so big, that she was unable to pay the annual "recognition fee" of the weight of 2 mark silver. She was also in dispute with the Princes of Anhalt over the supremacy of the territory.


 

1317-31 Countess Abbess Sophia II von Büren of Gandersheim (Germany)

The citizen of the city of Gandersheim bought their "eternal freedom" for 100 Silver Mark from the chapter in 1329, which enabled her to pay her depths by the Pope.


 

1317-32 Reigning Abbess Johanne de Rassenghem of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Held semi-bishopal authority and secular jurisdiction of her territory.


Margarethe von Görtz und Tirol

1318-63/69 Sovereign Countess Margarethe von Görtz und Tirol, Duchess of Kärnten (Austria)

Also Princess of Bohemia and known as "Die Maultasch". Married to Johan Heinrich von Böhmen von Tirol and von Mähren and afterwards to Ludwig V of Bavaria and Brandenburg. After the death of her son Meinhard in 1363, she gave to country to her daughter-in-law, Margarethe von Habsburg's family in Austria. Countess Margarethe lived (1318-63/69).


 

Around 1318 Burgravine Marie d'Enghien of Ghent, Lady of Zotteghen (Belgium)

Married to Guy de Dampierre, Lord de Richebourg (1286-1345) and mother of Alix, Heiress de Ricebourg (1322-46), who married Jean I de Luxembourg, Lord de Ligny.


 

1318-28 Princess-Abbess Adelheid von Ühlingen of Säckingen (Germany)

Held the office of Kellerin (In charge of the cellar) 1316-18. Member of a noble family from Schaffenhausen in Switzerland.


 

1318-24 Reigning-Abbess Guta von Bachenstein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Member of a German noble family, which were lords of various small territories.


Ingebjřrg Hĺkonsdotter

1319-24/30 Regent Dowager Duchess Ingebjřrg Hĺkonsdotter of Södermaland (Sweden)
1319-26 County Sheriff of Norra Halland, Älvsyssel, 5 Shires in Västergötland and Värmland and the Estate of Lödöse
1319-23 Regent of Norway
1330-50 Regent of Södre Halland

Also known as Ingeborg, she had her son Magnus VII proclaimed king in succession of her father, Hĺkon V of Norway, and ruled together with the council of state. After her husband, Duke Erik av Södermanland, Östergötland and Gotland had died in imprisonment, and his brother Birger had been deposed, she had her son elected as King of Sweden in 1319 with her grand-mother Helvig as regent here (she had first been regent in 1290). In 1321 the Regency Council’s chairman resigned and handed over the State Seals to her, which she possessed until a new chairman was elected the year after. She was Lady (Frue) in her own right of Vest-Gautland, Nord-Halland and Värmland in Sweden. Her son, Magnus VII Eriksson of Norway was king of Norway (1318-55), Sweden (1319-63) and of Skĺne (1332-60). His son, Hĺkon of Norway was married to Queen Margrethe of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Ingeborg was deposed as regent because of her despotic rule, but continued as regent for her younger sons Hĺkon and Knut Porse in Southern Halland  She lived (1301-60).


 

1319-20 Regent Dowager Margravine Agnes von Bayern of Brandenburg (Germany)

Her husband, Heinrich I, reigned after 1293 until 1308/09 and died 1318. After his death, she became regent for son Heinrich II the Child (1319-20), who succeeded his cousin Waldemar. In 1322 Ludwig V of Bavaria inherited the Margravate.


 

132..-29 Sovereign Princess Sophia Charitena of Cerigo (Kythera) and Cerigollo (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded husband.


 

1320-54 Politically Influential Empress Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1348 In charge of the Administration and Defence of Constantinople

1318 she married Jean Cantacuzene, Lord of Kalliopolis in Thrace. In 1320 he left her behind in the city of Didymoteichou while he took part in Andronikos III Palaiologos's rebellion against his grandfather, Andronikos II. She held the ford throughout the whole civil war that lasted until 1238, when Andronikos II abdicated. Also in charge of the defence of the city during the civil war against Anna of Savoia over the regency over Anna's infant son from 1341-43. Jean was proclaimed Emperor and crowned in 1346 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had taken side against Anna and the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the following year the new patriarch crowned Jean and Eirene. 1348 she was left in charge of Constantinople while her husband went on campaign against the Bulgarians. Six years later he abdicated and they both joined a convent. She was granddaughter of Tsar Jean II Asen of Bulgaria and (d. 1361/79).


Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland 

1320-39 Politically Influential Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland 
1334-39 Duchess Regnant of
Stary Sącz

Influenced the affairs of state during the reign of her husband king Władysław I Łokietek and her son Kazimierz III the Great. Her daughters were Elżbieta Łokietkówna, Queen of Hungary and Regent of Poland and Kunegunda, Princess regent of Świdnica. She took over the regency in Stary Sacz when her granddaughter, Konstancja z Świdnica, resigned to become a nun. Jadwiga was daughter of Prince Bolesław the Devout of Małopolska (Poland Minor) and the Hungarian Princess Jolanta-Helena, and lived  (1266-1339).  


 

1320-26 Sovereign Lady Adelheid van Leuven-Gassebeek of Breda (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Philips and reigned jointly with husband, Gerad van Rasseghem. In 1326 the lordship was occupied by the Duke of Brabant. She lived (ca. 1300-36).


 

1321-42 Queen Regnant Mbam Wad of Walo (Senegal)

The first of four successive Queens, she was followed by Queen Fijo Wad.


 

1321/4-1325 Regent Dowager Duchess Eufrozyna Mazowiecka of Auschwitz (Oświęcim) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Władysław of Cieszyn and Oświęcim, she ruled jointly with her son Jan I Scholastyk. She was daughter of Duke Bolesław II of Mazowsze and Kunegunda, and lived (1292-1329).


 

1322-38/39 Princess-Abbess Bertha von Pux of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Abbess of the Chapter had been a Prelate of the Realm in 1242 and member of the bank of the Swabian Prelates of the Realm in the Imperial Diet.


 

1322-23 Reigning Abbess Adellint of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

It is not known if she is identical with the in 1313 mentioned nun, Adelling Zimlich or with Ädellint, who is mentioned in 1355.


Lauretta von Sponheim-Starkenburg

1323-29 Regent Dowager Countess Loretta von Salm of Sponheim-Starkenburg (Germany)
1329-... Dame of Frauenberg

Governed the county alone for her son after husband's death. She managed to consolidate the family's reign of the county and created a flourishing economy. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dowry, where she had full regal powers.  (b. 1297).


 

1323-28 Regent Dowager Countess Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern of Görz (Germany)
1323-26 and 1335-38 Regent of Treviso (Italy)
1332-34 Captain General of Aquileia and Administrator of Friuli (Italy)

Following the death of her second husband, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, she was reigned in the name of her son, Johann Heinrich IV, Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). She was daughter of Duke Stephan I of Nieder-Bayern and Jutta von Schweidnitz, and lived (1302-60).


1323-29 Regent Dowager Margravine Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk of Meissen (Later part of Sachsen) (Germany)
1329-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of Gotha

When her husband, Friedrich I. von Meißen (1257 -1323) died, she became regent for their son, Friedrich II. Landgraf von
Thüringen und Markgraf von Meißen (1310-49).
She was daughter of Elisabeth von Orlamünde and Lord Otto zu Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, who died when she was 4 and after whom she inherited castles of Arnshaugk bei Neustadt an der Orla, Triptis, and Oppurg and lands in the area around Schleiz, and also mother of one daughter, Elisabeth (1306 -1367), who married Heinrich II. von Hessen. Elisabeth von Arnshaugk lived (ca. 1284-1359).


 

1323-29 Reigning Abbess Mechtild von Digisheim of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of a noble family, which started out as civil servants at one of the Duchal courts of Germany (Ministerialadel).


 

1323-41 Heiress Maria of the Duchies of Galicia and Lvov (Poland)

In 1323 her brother's Andrei of Galicia and Volynia and Lev II of Lutsk were killed, and she and her niece, Eufemia, Heiress of Volynia-Lutsk, inherited the lands. She was daughter of King Yuriy I of Galicia (1252-1301-08) and his second wife, Eufemia of Kujavia (d.1308), and was married to Prince Trojden I of Masovia (d. 1341). Her grandfather, Lev, had been king of Galicia 1269-1301 and he moved his capital from Galich (Halicz) to the newly founded city of Lvov/Lwow (Lemberg). She lived (before-1293-1341)


 

1323-49 Heiress Eufemia of the Duchies of Volynia and Lutsk (Poland)

Together with her aunt Maria, Heiress of Galicia-Lvov, she inherited the lands of the family, after her father, Lev II of Lutsk, and his brother, Andrei of Galicia and Volynia, were killed. She was married to Lubart Gediminovich of Lithuania (d. 1384).


1324-51 Sovereign Countess Johanna von Pfirt und Rougemont (Austria)

Daughter of Count Ulrich III von Pfirt and Jeanne de Bourgogne, and the heiress of vast lands in Austria and thereby added to the wealth of her husband, Albrecht von Habsburg, Count of Pfirt, Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and South Tyrol (1330-58). He suffered from rheumatics and was partly paralyzed at times, and she was left in charge of the government at those occasions and remained very influential. After 15 years of marriage, she gave birth to her first child at the age of 39 and had five other children in 1342, 1346, 1347, and 1348 and died two weeks after giving birth to the last at the age of 51. She lived (1300-51).


 

1324/26-47 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont of Remiremont  (France)

Daughter of Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d'Ariano and Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay, and lived (Ca. 1267-1347).


 

1324-60 Reigning Abbess Ludgard II von Bicken of Herford (Germany)

Another version of her name is Luitgard von Bickenem


 

1325 Sovereign Viscountess Marie de Dampierre-Flanders of Châteaudun, Baroness of Mondoubleau and Dame of Nestlé and Saint Calais (France)

Succeeded father Jean de Dampierre-Flanders, whose mother, Alix II had abdicated in his favour in 1320. Marie transmitted the Viscounty in favour of her sister, Marguerite, but kept the Barony of Mondoubleau and the Seigneurity Saint Calais. She was first married to Count Robert VIII de Boulogne et d'Auvergne and secondly to Ingeler I d'Ambroise, with whom she had four children, of which the three daughters reached adulthood. (d. 1355).


 

1325.... Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Dampierre-Flanders of Châteaudun,  Dame of Nestlé (France)

Succeessor of her sister Marie de Dampierre-Flanders. Married to Guillaume de Craon and mother of 7 children. Succeeded by son, Guillaume II de Craon. 


 

1325-33 Countess-Abbess Jutta von Oesede of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Dechaness (Pröpstin) of the chapter from about 1299. Her last known decree was an agreement between the chapter and Bishop Albrecht II. of Halberstadt, where she managed to have the  appointments of priests that she had made during the dispute with the bishop approved.


 

Until 1325 Princess-Abbess Bertha Walterin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm, and it thereby became the second Imperial Immediate - Reichsfreie - second richest Ladies Chapter in the City next to Niedermünster. The dates of the reigns of her successors are not known, but she was followed by Adelheid von Aerenbach, Katharina I von Murach and Agnes I von Wunebach, who reigned until 1374. The Abbess was both member of the Imperial Diet and Bavarian Assembly (Landtag).


 

1325-36 Politically Influential Baghdad Khatun of the Ilkhanate in Persia (Iran)

Bagdad was first married to Shaykh Hasan Buzurg, founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, whom she married in 1323. Two years later, they divorced on the orders of her uncle, Abu Said, the Ilkhan, and they married in 1327, and now enjoyed a period of unprecedented power as the harem favorite, even acquiring the honorific title of Khudawandigar [sovereign]. 1331-32, she briefly fell from grace because of accusations that she had plotted the assassination of Abu Said with her former husband, but in the following year she was restored to favour.  Another blow to her authority came in 734/1333-34, when Abu Sa'id married her niece, Dilshad Khatun, and elevated the latter to the rank of principal wife. She displayed her resentment at her diminished status and when, according to Ibn Battuta, Abu Sa'id died in 1335, she was accused of poisoning him and was beaten to death in her bathhouse either by order of his amirs or his successor, Arpa.


Isabella of England

1326-27 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella de France of England

When her brother, King Charles IV of France, seized the French possessions of her husband, Edward II in 1325, she returned to France and gathered an army to oppose her estranged husband, who was probably homosexual and neglected her in favour of his male favourites. In 1326 she landed with her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, at Suffolk with their mercenary army. King Edward's few allies deserted him were killed, and himself was captured and abdicated in favour of his eldest son, Edward III of England. She and Roger Mortimer became regents for him. After he came of age Mortimer was executed and she was allowed to retire to Castle Rising in Norfolk where she enjoyed a comfortable retirement and made many visits to her son's court. After her brother King Charles IV of France's death, Edward III claimed throne of France - and thus began what is known as the Hundred Years' War. Isabella was mother of four children, and lived (1292-1358).


Unnamed Maharani

1326-41 Reigning Rani Kotar of Kashmir (India)

After husband, Renchana's, death, she married his successor, Uddyana Deo. Soon a Tartar chief, Arwan, made an attack on Kashmir with his hordes. Uddyana Deo fled to Tibet, but Kota Rani stirred the local patriotism of the Kashmiris by an impassioned appeal, and the people in thousands gathered under her banner and inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Tartars. Uddyana Deo came back to rule until his death in 1341. At this time began the real struggle between Islam and Hinduism. Kota Rani tried to establish herself on the throne, but was defeated by the Muslim commander-in-chief, Shahmir, who mounted the throne, and the Rani killed herself. She was the last Hindu ruler of Kashmir.


 

1326-47 Queen Regnant Sariayakadevi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

Also know as Nayakadevi, Sari Nayak Devi or Satinayakadevi, she was an infant when her father, King, Rudra Malla, died. She was brought up by her grand-mother, Padu Malladeva, with her mother acting as regent. She was later known by the the title of Dewaladeviraj and was married to King Harishchandradeva of Banaras who was poisoned in 1336 after which his brother, Gopaladeva and Prince Jagat Simha of Mithila, kept her in detention. They thus appear to have occupied Bhadgaun. The followers of Jagat Simha then killed Gopaldeva. Jagat Simha reigned for some days, but he too was imprisoned eventually. Her daughter, Rajalla Devi, Rajalaxmi or Rajalaxmo, who was full claimant of the throne.


 

1326-65 Regent Dowager Queen Devala Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

When her husband, king Rudra Malla died without a male heir apparent in the throne, their infant daughter, Sariayakadevi, was declared as the heir to the throne of Thanthunim, and she became regent together with her mother-in-law, Queen Padumal Devi. Later she was also regent for her granddaughter, Rajalla Devi, who succeeded to the throne upon her mother's death in 1347.


 

1326-? Temporary Co-Regent Dowager Queen Padmalla Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

In charge of the education of her granddaughter, Sariayakadevi, and was joint-regent with daughter-in-law Devala Devi, which led to some tensions.


 

After 1326-80 Sultana Nur-Ilah of Kadah/Kedah and Pase/ Pasai (Indonesia)

A pair of gravestones, one written in old Javanese and one in Arabic characters, were found in the village of Minye Tujoh in Aceh with the appellation “Queen of the Faith…who has rights on Kadah and Pase.” Her father was Sultan Malikul Zahir Thani who ascended the throne in 1326.


1326-28 and 1328-29 Acting Vicar of Pisa (Italy)
1328-47 Consors Regni of the Holy Roman Empire
1345-56 Sovereign Countess Marguerite III d'Avesnes of Hainault, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland (Belgium and The Netherlands)

In Pisa she acted as representative of her husband, Ludwig IV the Bavarian, who was Duke of Bavaria 1294-1347, German King 1314, Count Palatine (Pfalzgraf) von der Pfalz 1317-1329, Lord of Pisa 1326-29 and Emperor 1328-47. She succeeded her brother Willem IV as Countess after a battle succession with two younger sisters and was officially handed over the fief by her husband, and she swore the oath of allegiance. After her husband's death in 1347 conflict broke out with her son Wilhelm. The dispute was settled in 1354 when she handed over Holland, Zealand and Friesland against a financial settlement and only remained ruler in Hainault. She lived (ca.1293-1356).


 

1326-29 Reigning Dowager Duchess Kunegunda of Schweidnitz-Fürstenberg (Świdnica) (Poland)

Held the Duchy after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Bernard of Świdnica, and was secondly married to of prince Rudolf of Sachsen from 1329. The daughter of Władysław I Łokietek and Jadwiga Kaliska, she lived  (1298-1331).


 

1326-46 Guardian Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Schweidnitz-Schlesien-Glogau of Pommern-Wolgast, Stolp and Stralsund (Poland)

Parts of the duchy were occupied by Mecklenburg after the death of her husband, Wartislaw IV. von Pommern-Rügen. The areas of Barth, Grimmen and Loitz paid homage to Heinrich II von Mecklenburg as their ruler (hüldigung). But Doch Stralsund, Greifswald, Anklam and Demmin joined her and her and her sons: Barnim IV of Pommern-Wolgast (1325-26-65), Bogislaw IV of Pommern-Stolp (ca. 1326-26-74) and the posthumously born Wartislaw V. Pommern-Stralsund (1326-26-90). King Valdemar of Denmark and Count Graf Gerd von Holstein joined forces with the two other guardians; the Dukes of Pommern-Stettin Otto und Barnim, and in 1327 Heinrich von Mecklenburg had to flee, even though the fighting continued another year. In the peace-agreement he handed back the landscape of Rügen though some of the territory remained in his possession as a security for the settlement. She was daughter of Duke Heinrich III. von Glogau and Mechthild von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, and lived (1290-1356).


 

1326-36 Regent Dowager Countess Alburgas von Bederkesa of Stotel (Germany)

Together with the Deacon Giselbert von Holstein she reigned for her sons Rudolf III. and Johannes III. after the death of her husband, Johannes II. She was the only daughter and heir of Sir Dietrich von Bederkesa, gen. Scheele, and inherited numerous estates from him. Also known as Abele van Betderkhesa, and lived (ca. 1290-around 1375).


 

1326-36 Reigning  Abbess-General Maria González de Agüero of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Commissioned the copying of the Codex Las Huelgas a music manuscript or codex from c. 1300 which originated in and has remained in the Cistercian convent of Santa María La Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos, in northwestern Spain, then Castile. It was rediscovered in 1904 by two Benedictine monks. The manuscript is written on parchment, with the staves written in red ink with Franconian notation. The bulk of material is written in one hand, however as many as 12 people contributed to it, including corrections and later additions. The manuscript contains 45 monophonic pieces (20 sequences, 5 conductus, 10 Benedicamus tropes) and 141 polyphonic compositions, 1 of which doesn't have music. Most of the music dates from the late 13th century, with some music from the first half of the 13th century (Notre dame repertory), and a few later additions from the first quarter of the 14th century.

 

1326-41 Abbess Nullius Maria d'Angiň of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Marie d'Anjou was daughter of Philippe II de Taranto, Prince of Corfu, Morea, Albania, Duke of Athens and Valaccia, Vicar of the Kingdom of Sicilia and Despot of Romania, and his first wife  Thamar Komnene Dukaina, Despota of Epirus (1277-1311). After their divorce in 1309 he married Catherine II de Valois, titular Empress of Constantinople, Princess of Achaia.


 

1327-59 Joint Sovereign Baroness Agnes de Charpigny of Vestitza (Vostitsa) (Greece)

Together with Wilhelmina (Guillermette) she succeeded Godfrey de Charpigny. Today Vestitza is known as Aiyon and it is situated at the North coast of Peleponnessus.


 

1327-59 Joint Sovereign Baroness Guillermette de Charpigny of Vestitza (Vostitsa) (Greece)

Ruled jointly with sister. Abdicated in favour of Marie de Bourbon (1359-63).


Anna von Österreich

Until 1327 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Habsburg of Slesia and Breslau (Śląsk and Wrocław) (Poland)

First married to Margrave Hermann I von Brandenburg-Salzwedel (Ca. 1280-1308) and mother of two daughters by him. Secondly married to Heinrich VI von Slesia-Liegnitz (1294-1335) and mother of Eufemia Ofka of Slesia-Breslaw, who married Boleslaw II von Oppeln and became mother of Jutta von Slesia-Falkenberg. Anna of Austria lived (1218-27).


 

1327-37 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde von Berg of Essen (Germany)

Prior to her election as sovereign of the territory, she was presented as a very well educated and cultured woman. During her reign, she engaged in quarrels with the neighbouring Duke of Jülich. She was daughter of Heinrich von Berg, Herr zu Windeck and Agnes von der Mark and related to Emperor Karl IV.


1328-50 Queen Regnant Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani Mahapati of Majapahit, Bhre Kahuripan at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Also known as Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi or Dyah Gitarj, she was daughter of king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay (1293-1309), she succeeded her half-brother, king Jayanagara (1309-28), who was assassinated. She was joint regent with her mother and aunt. And from 1330 Gajah Madah became patih or chief Minister of Majapahit, and ruled as regent. In 1331, she led the army herself to the battle field with the help of her cousin, Adityawarman to crush rebellion in the areas of Sadeng and Keta. The decision partly to resolve the competition between Gajah Mada and Ra Kembar for the army general position to crush Sadeng. She abdicated in favour of son, Rajasangsara Hayam Wuruk (1334–1389).


1328-50 Co-Regent Gayati Raja Patni Tribu of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Joint ruler with both her daughter and her sister, who was also widow of king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay. She was very influential until she withdrew  to a monestary to become a Buddhist nun. The kingdom was Based in eastern Java, and controlling at minimum that region and the island of Bali, some evidence suggests that it's influence was much wider, extending throughout much of modern Indonesia and parts of Malaysia. She lived (possibly 1276—1350)


 

1328-50 Co-Regent Tribhuananesshwari Dewi Java Vishnuvardhanida of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Widow of her relative, king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay, she was mother of king Jayanagara, and joint ruler with his successor - his daughter - together with her husbands second wife (her sister), Queen Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi Mahapati.


1328-49 Queen Regnant Juana II Capet of Navarra and Pamplona (Spain), Countess of Angoulęme, Mortain and a portion of Cotentin (Longueville)

In 1316 both her father King Philippe IV, brother Louis X the Hunchback and half-brother Jean I died. She was excluded from the succession in France, mostly because of doubts about her paternity. Her uncles, King Philip V of France (II of Navarre) and King Charles IV of France (I of Navarre), took precedence over the young girl on the Navarrese throne, even though it was inheritable by females. With regards to the French crown, several legal reasons were invoked by Philip V and later by Philip VI of France to bar her from the succession, such as proximity in kinship to Louis IX of France. Later, the Salic Law was construed as the reason.
After Charles IV of France died in 1328, she became Queen of Navarre through a treaty with the new king, Philip VI of France. She had to renounce her rights to the crown of France, and her grandmother's estates in Brie and Champagne, which were put into the French royal domain.. In compensation, she received the counties of Angoulęme and Mortain as well as a portion of Cotentin (Longueville). Later on she exchanged Angouleme for three estates in Vexin: Pontoise, Beaumont-sur-Oise, and Asničre-sur-Oise
. She signed her laws with the title: Nos, donna Johana, por la gracia de Dius reyna de Francia et de Navarra, et de Jampayne et de Bria condesa palaziana. Mother of 8 children, and succeeded by son, Carlos II, she died of the plague and lived (1312-49).


Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne of France

1328, 1338, 1339-41 and 1346-47 Regent Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne of France

Her husband, king Philippe VI de Valois (1293-1328-50), appointed her regent when he fought on military campaigns, first against Louis of Flanders and later several times during the Hundred Years War. Intelligent and strong-willed, her nature and power earned both herself and her husband a bad reputation, which was accentuated by her deformity (which was considered by some to be a mark of evil), and she became known as la male royne boiteuse ("the lame male Queen"), supposedly the driving force behind her weaker husband. One chronicler described her as a danger to her enemies in court: "the lame Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne...was like a King and caused the destruction of those who opposed her will.". She was also considered to be a scholarly woman and a bibliophile: she sent her son, John, manuscripts to read, and commanded the translation of several important contemporary works into vernacular French. She was daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and princess Agnes of France and the cousin of Countess Jeanne II of Bourgogne, who was married to King Philipee V of France. She was mother of 7 children and died of the Plague, and lived (1293-1348).


 

1328-92 Sovereign Countess Blanche de France of Beaumont (France) 

Daughter of Charles IV, Count de La Marche and King of France and Navarra (1295-1328) and his third wife, Jeanne d'Évreux (1310-71). She was married to Philippe duc d'Orleans, Count de Valois et Beaumont (d. 1375), and lived (1228-92).


 

1328-32 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella von Habsburg of Lorraine (Lothringen) (France)

Widow of Duke Ferri IV (Friedrich V) and regent for Rudolf or Raoul (1328-46). She (d. 1332).


 

1328-30 Princess-Abbess Jonatha von Donmartin of Säckingen (Germany)

Since she had not been elected with a clear majority, she was unable to inforce her authority over the chapter and Bishpop Rudolf von Montfort of Konstantz persuaded her to resign and withdrew the rigtht of free election from the chapter and appointed Agnes von Brandis as er successor.


 

1328 Reigning Abbess Katharina von Triberg of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Her family were lords of Triberg, but the family had died out in the male line in 1325 with the death of Burkard III, who had succeeded his uncle in 1311. He is buried in the choir of the Church of the Chapter. The Lordship of Triberg was awarded to the Lords of Hohenberg.


 

1329-53 Regigning Abbess Anna I von Winberg of Buchau (Germany)

In 1347 she Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian addressed her as "My Dear Princess" in a letter, but it was not until about 100 years that the position of Princess of the Realm was confirmed for the Abbess of the Chapter. She lived (1303-53).


 

1329 Reigning Abbess Benigna von Bachenstein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Second member of her family to rule the territory. Member of a family of knights and Lords of Barchenstein, Kupfezell and von Goggenback.


 

Before 1330 Queen Regnant Yodith I of Simien (Falsa) (Ethiopian Sub-state)

Succeeded husband and succeeded by daughter, Yodith II.


After 1330 Queen Regnant Yodith II of Simien (Falsa) (Ethiopian Sub-state)

Ascended to the throne after the death of her mother, Yodith I, and thereby became ruler of the mountainous region in northern Ethiopia.


Philippa de Hainault of England

1330 Regent Queen Philippa de Hainault of England

Her husband Edward III appointed her regent on many occasions when he was absent on the Continent. When the Scots invaded England as far south as Durham in1346, she raised an army, winning the battle of Neville's Cross, and taking the Scottish King David II Bruce (d.1371) prisoner. She was responsible for the introduction of weaving into England and the patron of poets and musicians. She survived the Black Death (1348) - but her daughter Joanna, en route to marry the Castilian Prince Pedro the Cruel, was struck down and died. She was daughter of Count Guillaume III de d'Avesnes of Hainault and Holland (d.1337) and Jeanne de Valois (d.1352). She had 11 children and lived (1311-69).


 

1330 Regent Dowager Tsarina Theodora Palaiologina of Bulgaria

After her husband, Tsar Michael Shishman, was defeated and killed by the Serbians, under Stephen Uros III, at the battle of Velbflzhd (Kiustendil) she assumed the regency for stepson, Ivan Stepan Shishman, who died in exile in Napoli. Her husband’s ex-wife Princess Ana Nead of Serbia soon deposed her. Theodora was daughter of Micahél IX Palailogos, co-emperor of Byzantium and Rita of Armenia.


1330-31 Regent Ex-Tsarina Ana Neda of Bulgaria 

After her brother had deposed her ex-husband, Michael III, she initially reigned in the name of her son, Czar Ivan Stephan, until she was removed herself. Her brother, Stephen Uros III, ruled Serbia and Bulgaria until 1355. Ana Neda was first engaged to Count Charles de Valois, but never married him. (d. after 1346).


1330-47 Sovereign Countess Jeanne III de France of Artois, Flanders, Brabant, Franche-Comté and Upper Burgundy (France and Belgium)

The daughter of Countess Jeanne I of Artois and Bourgogne and King Philippe V of France, she married to Eudes IV, Duc de Bourgogne, thereby uniting the two Bourgognes, which had been separated for 400 years. She was first succeeded by son, Philippe de Rouvres Bourgogne, Comte d'Artois and D'Auvergne, who succeeded his father in Rouvers and his grandmother in Franche-Comté etc. In 1361 he was succeeded by his cousin, Marguerite, daughter of Jeanne's sister by the same name. Jeanne II lived (1291-60).

 

Around 1330 Reigning Abbess Agnes von Habsburg of Königsfelden, Lady of Bözberg, Eigenamt and the City of Brugg (Switzerland)

A few years after death of her husband Andreas III of Hungary (d. 1301), she entered the Chapter in 1317 without taking the wow of a nun, and continued her political activities in favour of the Habsburgs. As advisor of Duke Albrecht of Austria and Representative of the Habsburg interests in the "Front-Austrian" lands, she acted as intermediary in the conflicts between the Habsburgs and the States of Switzerland etc. on various occasions throughout the years. She was daughter of King Albrecht of Habsburg and Elisabeth von Görtz-Tirol and lived (1281-1364).


 

1330-49 Princess-Abbess Agnes I von Brandis of Säckingen (Germany)

Appointed by Bishop Rudolf of Konstantz as the chapter had lost the right of free election because of misuse of secular powers. After the roman church burned down in 1343, she initiated new Gothic Church, and the same year Queen Agnes of Hungary acted as mediator in disputes between the chapter and the Town of Säckingen. During her reign a number of churches and parishes were incorporated in the chapter for financial reasons. She was the sister of Bishop Heinrich of Konstantz (1357-83) and Abbot Eberhard of Reichenau (1343-79), and daughter of Freiherr Mangold I von Brandis and COuntess Margaretha von Nellenborg.

 

1331-84 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Penthičvre of Penthičvre
1334
Sovereign Countess of Goëllo and Dame de  d'Avaugour

1341-84 Sovereign Duchess of Bretagne, Vicomtesse de Limoges and Dame de Mayenne, de l'Aigle and de Châtelaudren (France)

First succeeded her father Guy de Bretagne, in Penthičvre, then her grandfather in Goëllo (Her mother, Jeanne d'Avaugour, had died in 1327), and finally her uncle, Jean III, in Bretagne. Married Charles de Blois, Seigneur of Châtillon-sur-Marne, who became duke by the right of his wife. She was known as Jeanne "La Boiteuse" and lived (1319-84).


 

1331-ca. 36 and 1339-ca. 44 Regent Dowager Margravine Marie d'Artois of Namur (Belgium)

Widow of Jean I, she was regent for son Jean II, who went to Bohemia in order to succeed King Jean de Luxembourg as king, and therefore appointed her as regent in the Marchionate. Jean II was succeeded two of her other sons, and in 1339 by 13 year old Guilllaume I for whom she also acted as regent. 

 

1331-95 Sovereign Countess Jolanta van Flanders-Cassel of Cassel, Marle, Nogent, Bourbourg, Montmirail and Allauye (Belgium)
1344-52 and 1356-59 Regent of Bar (France)

Only daughter and heir of Count Robert van Flandern-Cassel (died in 1331). First married to Heinrich IV, Count of Bar (ca. 1312-44) and in 1352 Philippe d’Évreux, Comte de Longueville (1336-63). Her son, Eduard II of Bar, lived (1344-1352). Her second son was Robert I of Bar. In 1352-56 she fought for the regency with her sister-in-law, Jeanne. She lived (1324-95).

 

1331-33 Sovereign Lady and Steward Margaretha van Berthout of Mechelen (The Netherlands)

Succeeded the father of her mother Sophie de Berthout, Floris, with her father Reinald II the Black, Duke of Gelders, as Regent until the City Ličge asserted its rule of the lordship, which is also known as Malines in French. Margareta's father’s second wife was Eleonore of England, who was Guardian and Regent of Geldern (1343-44). Margareta married Count Gerhard von Jülich. 1333 she sold the Lordship and Stewardship of Mecheln to the county of Flanders. She lived (Ca. 1320-44).


 

1331-57 Countess Abbess Jutta zu Schwalenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Judith, she was daughter of Heinrich II von Waldeck, Count of Schwalenberg and Elisabeth von Kleve.


1332-33 Regent Dowager Empress Khanum Ptashali of the Yuan Dynasty of China

Leader of the Qagans, a Mongolian Dynasty that ruled most of China and surrounding territories, during the reigns of Irinjibal (Irincinbal) (1332) and Toghon Temur (1333-70). In 1368 the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuans after a period of internal revolt.


 

1332-67 Hereditary Countess Agnčs de Montbéliard of Montbéliard (France)

Oldest daughter of Renaud de Bourgogne comte de Montbeliard and Guillemette de Neufchâtel, she was the heir to the county after her mentally handicapped brother, Othenin. She was married to Henri de Montfaucon, who was invested with the title of Count by Emperor Ludwig IV of the Holy Roman Empire in 1339. 

1332-60 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Auvergne and Boulogne (France)
1349-50 Regent Dowager Duchess of Bourgogne and
Rouvers 
1356-58 Regent of Franche-Comté and Artois 

Succeeded father, Guillaume XII, and first married Duke Philippe de Bourgogne, son of Countess Jeanne II and III de France of Bourgogne and Artois from 1329. Philippe was killed at the siege of Aiguillon, and after the death of his father, Eudes IV in 1349, she became regent for her son Philippe I de Rouvres (1349-61). The following year she married Jean II de Valois, Count of Guyenne etc, and King of France (1350-64). Her son married Marguerite de Flanders, who succeeded as Countess in 1384, and her daughter, also named Marguerite, inherited the titles of Countess of Bourgogne and Artois in 1361. Jeanne lived (1326-60). 


 

1332-34 Duchess Regnant Konstancja z Świdnica of Stary Sącz (Poland)
1360-61/63 Duchess Regnant of Głogów

Very Politically Influential during the reign of her husband, Prince Przemko of Żagań, Ścinawa, Poznań and Głogów (Circa 1308-31), but after his death King Jan de Luxembourg of Bohemia invaded the Duchy. She lived with grandparents king Władysław I Łokietek and Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland in Krakow, until she handed over the Duchy of Stary Sącz to her grandmother and entered the convent of St. Clare and Abbes of Stary Sącz from 1350 until king Karl IV of Bohemia gave her Glogau back 10 years later. She was daughter of Duke Bernard of Świdnica and Kunegunda of Poland, former regent in the Duchy of Swidnica, and lived (Circa 1309-61/63).

 

Until after 1332 Abbess Nullius Franceschina della Torre of the Monestary of Aguileia (Italy)

Held temporal and secular authority over the territory and held semi episcopal authority. She was daughter of Florimonte della Torre.


 

1332-50 Reigning Abbess Hersende de Guisenes of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Granted the right to name her own confessor and chaplains. Daughter of Baudoin III, count de Guînes.


1333-63 Countess Elizabeth de Burgh of Ulster (United Kingdom)

Inherited the title and lands after the death of her father, William de Burgh. Her husband, Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, (1347-68), was Earl of Ulster 1352-68. Their daughter, Philippa, succeeded him. 


 

1333-40 Sovereign Princess Anna Melissinos of Dimitrias (Greece)

Succeeded Stephan as head of the area in southern Thessaly, beside the modern port of Volos. Pheres is the ancient town, while Dimitrias was a Medieval Principality and were a fief of the Duchy of Naxos.


 

1333-40 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth II von Eschen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Eschen is a city in the Principality of Liechtenstein.


 

1334-36 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Joigny, Dame de Mercoeur and (France)

Daughter of Jean II. and first wife of Charles II de Valois, Comte d'Alençon (1297-1346).


 

1334-48 Sovereign Dame María Díaz II de Haro of Vizcaya (Spain)

Became the "XVIII seńora soberana of Biscaia" upon the abdication of her aunt María Díaz de Haro I, who had reigned since 1310. She married Infant Juan Núńez de Lara (1313-50), son of Infant Fernando de la Cerda of Castilla and Juan Núńez de Lara. King Alfonso XI of Castilla had usurped the lordship in 1333 which resulted in internal warfare. Her husband was Seńor for one year after her death and was succeeded by their son, Nuńo de Lara and when he died in 1355 by their daughter, Juana. Dońa Maria lived (d. 1348). 


 

1334-37 Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina de La Tour du Pin of Piemonte (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Filippo I di Savoia, Lord of Piemonte and titular Prince of Achaia (by the right of his first wife, Isabella I de Villehardouin, Princess of Achaia.) she was regent for their son, Giacomo, who assumed the surname di Savoia-Acaia and title of Lord of Piemonte and Titular Prince of Achaia. As regent she signed decrees with the titulature: "Nos Katelina de Vianne, principissa curatris et curatorio nomine
Iacobi de Sabaudia principis Achaye primogeniti nostri". Catherine was daughter of Hubert I, Daupin of Vienne.
(d. 1357).


Gertrud III von Gernrode

1334-44 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis III von Everstein of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud Eberstein, had held the office of Pröbstin from 1302. She was member of an ancient noble family who were in charge of the Castle of Everstein in Polle by the river of Holzminden an der Weser.


 

Around 1334 Reigning Abbess Adelheid I of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The Chapter of Königsfelden was founded in 1310. It acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.


 

1334 Reigning Abbess Adelheid von Balgheim of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of a noble family, which started out as civil servants at one of the Duchal courts of Germany (Ministerialadel).


 

1334 Military Leader Countess Agnes Randolph of March and Dunbar in Scotland (United Kingdom)

Also known as Black Agnes, she was married to Patrick, fourth Earl of Dunbar and second Earl of March. In her youth she fought for the Bruce, but is better remembered for the later defence of her castle. In 1334 she successfully held her castle at Dunbar against the besieging forces of England's Earl of Salisbury for over five months, despite the unusual number of engineers and elaborate equipment brought against her. After each assault on her fortress, her maids dusted the merlins and crenels, treating her foes and the dreadful siege as a tiresome jest. She was daughter of the great Randolf, 1st Earl of Moray and in 1346 she inherited from her brother the Earldom of Moray and the Lordships of Annandale and the Isle of Man and lived (Ca. 1300-ca.69).


 

1335-39 and 1341-42 Regent Dowager Despina Anna Palaiologina Angelina Basilissa of Epiros, the County Palatine, the County of Kephalonia and the Lordships of Jannina, Bonditza and Leukas (Greece)

Poisoned her second husband, Jean II Dukas Komnenos Angelos, Despot of Epiros (1323-1335), who had murdered his brother, Nicolai II. They were sons of Jean II Orsini and Maria Komnena Dukaina of Epiros, daughter of the Despot Nikephoros Dukas. She immediately entered into negotiations with the Byzantine emperor, hoping to be allowed to reign unmolested. Instead she was replaced by an imperial governor 1342-49 and imprisoned in Constantinople. 1355 she married Ionannes Komnenos of Bulgaria, Despot of Serbia and Governor of Valona Kanina and Berat (d. 1363). She was daughter of Andronikos Palailogos Angelos, Byzantine Governor of Berat. She lived (ca. 1300-after 1357).


 

1335-48 Administrator Queen Chikai Tai of Tulunad in Karnataka (India)

Ruled the region on behalf of her husband, the Hoysala king Vira Ballala III, and seems to have continued her role even after her husband's death.


Queen Blanka af Namur of Sweden

1335-63 Reigning Lady Queen Blanka av Namur of Some estates  by the Göta River and the Castle of Lindholmen pĺ Hisingen (Sweden) and the Province and Castle of Třnsberg (Norway)
1343-55 Regent of Parts of Norway
1553-63 Reigning Lady
of the Province and Castle of Bohus and Marstrand with Älvsyssel (Sweden)

When her son, Hĺkon IV was named King of Norway, with her husband King Magnus of Sweden and Norway (1316-19-64-74) was named regent and appointed her to rule parts of Norway while he stayed in Sweden 1343-55. Hĺkon came of age in 1355 and Magnus was engaged in wars with their oldest son, Erik, who died of the plauge in 1359, his cousin Albrecht of Mecklenburg and the Swedish magnates. Even though he was most probably gay, they seemed to have a good relationship. Originally named Blanche, she was daughter of Jean de Dampierre of Namur and Countess Marie d'Artois, and lived (circa 1320-63).


 

1335 Reigning Abbess Ädellint of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Could be identical with Adellint, mentioned in 1322.


 

1336-45 Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes de Périgod of Durazzo e Gravina (in Napoli) (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Jean I d'Anjou-Sicile Duke of Durazzo (1294-1336) she took over the regency for their oldest son Charles de Durazzo d'Anjou-Sicile, Prince d'Archaďe (1323-48). Her husband had first been married to and divorced from Mathilde Mahaut d'Avesnes of Holland and Hainault Princess d'Archaďe and through her the title passed to Agnes’ son. She was daughter of Count Hélie VII de Talleyrand de Périgord and Brunissende de Foix-Béarn.


 

1336-40 Sovereign Duchess Anna of Ratibor (Racibórz) (Poland)

After the death her brother, Leszek, the king of Bohemia granted the Slesian Duchy to her and her husband, prince Mikołaj II of Opawa. She was a daughter of prince Przemysł of Racibórz and Anna, and lived (ca. 1296-ca. 1340).


 

1336-51 Reigning Abbess-General María Rodríguez de Rojasof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Abbess she was Head of the Lordships of Albillos, Alcucero, Arkanzón, Arroyak, Arrunquera, Arto, Barrio, Bercial, Can de muńó, Candasnos, Cardeńadijo, Castril de Peones, Cilleruelo de Hannoverquez, Congosto, Escobilla, Estepar, Fresno de Rodilla, Galarde, Gatón, Herramel, Herrín, La Llana, Lena, Loranquillo, Madrigalejo del Monte, Marcilla, Montornero, Olmillos, Ontińena, Palanzuelos de la Sierrra, Piedrahita, Quintana de Loranco, Quintanilla de San García, Sargentes de Loxa, Requena, Revenga, Revilla del Campo, Revillagodos, Rivayaz, Robredo, San Mamés, San Memel, San Quirce de Humada, Saniuste, Santa Cruz de Juarros, Santa Lecina, Santa María de Invierno, Sargentes de Loxa, Tablada, Tardajos, Tinieblas, Torralba, Torre Sandino, Urrez, Valdazo, Villa Gonzalo de Pedernales, Villabáscones, Villaneueva, Villanueva de los Infantes, Villarmejo, Yarto and Zalduendo.

Maria de Vianden

1337-1400 Sovereign Countess Maria of Vianden (Luxembourg)

Posthumous daughter of Henri II (1313-1337) and Marie Flandrine de Dampierre. In 1348 she married Count Simon III von Sponheim. The only of her children reach adulthood was Elisabeth von Spoinheim-Vianden (1365-1417). Elisabeth had no children and the county was inherited by the son of Maria's aunt Adelheid, Engelbert I von Nassau-Dillenburg. Maria lived (1337-1400).


 

1337, 1342 and 1380 Sultan Khadija of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Siri Raadha Abaarana and Sultana Khadeeja Rehendhi Kabaidhi Kilege, who ruled on three separate occasions, was one of the most memorable of the female leaders of the Maldive-Islands. Many people believe she came to power after murdering her young brother, and when she was overthrown by her husband in 1363, she killed him as well. In 1373, her second husband usurped her position. He suffered the same supposed fate as his predecessor. Triumphant over the dead bodies of her treacherous husbands, she ruled alone until she died in 1380. Her sister, Fatima, reigned as sultan (1379-81).


 

1337 Princess-Abbess Isolde von Wied of Thorn (The Netherlands)

In 1244 the first line of counts of Wied, of Altwied died out and a part of the possessions was inherited by the Counts of Grafen von Isenburg-Braunsberg who used the title of Count of Wied from 1388.


 

1337-78 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II van Heinsberg of Thorn (The Netherlands)

The first elected sovereign of the ecclesiastical territory. Numerous complaints against her reign reached the Bishop of Ličge, and during an inspection he found 12 and not the stipulated 20 Ladies of the Chapter, and on top of it all, three of the inhabitants were young girls. The incomes of the territory were not used for the maintenance of the Abbey, and furthermore Margratha's was absent very often. She was reprimanded but did not take it seriously. She was more Princess than Abbess. She was daughter of Gottfried, Lord of Heinsberg and Blankenburg and Mechtild von Looz.


The so-called Katharina-Daler, the coin that Katharina von der Mark struck as Fürstäbtissin of Essen

1337-60 Princess-Abbess Katharina I von der Mark of Essen (Germany)

Daughter of Engelbert II von der Mark and Matilda von Arenberg. Her sister, Margrethe, was Abbess of Münster.


A contemporary picture of an unnamed Persian queen

1338-39 Al-sultana al-radila Sati Bek Khan Khallad Allah mulkaha of the Mongols Il Khans Empires in Persia (Iran)

Also known as Sati Beg Hatun, her title meant: "The just sultana Sati Bek, may Allah perpetuate her reign". 1319 she was married to the Amir Coban, one of the most powerful individuals in the Ilkhanid court, but when he came into conflict with her brother, Ilkhan Abu Sa’id, she was returned to the Ilkhan, and her husband executed. After her brother's death in 1335, the Ilkhanate began to disintegrate. By 1336, she and her son Surgan had taken the side of the founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, Hasan Buzurg. After the latter seized control of western Persia, Surgan was made governor of Qarabag (in modern Azerbaijan), where they moved to. However, when a grandson of Coban, Hasan Kucek, defeated Hasan Buzurg in July 1338, she defected to his camp. Taking advantage of her family ties, Hasan Kucek raised her to the Ilkhanid throne in July or August of that year. Her nominal authority did not extend beyond the Chobanid domains of northwestern Persia. Hasan Buzurg, who still controlled southwestern Persia and Iraq, requested the assistance of another claimant of the Ilkhanid throne named Togha Temur. The latter invaded the Chobanid lands in early 1339. Hasan Kucek, however, promised her hand in marriage to him in exchange for an alliance. This proved, however, to be a ruse; the intent was merely to alienate Hasan Buzurg from Togha Temur. The Jalayirids withdrew their support, and Togha Temur was forced to retreat without gaining her. Meanwhile, Hasan Kucek was growing suspicious of her and her son. Realizing that she was too valuable to be removed completely, he deposed her and then forced her to marry his new candidate for the throne, Suleiman Khan.  Hasan Kucek was murdered late in 1343 and her son Surgan found himself competing for control of the Chobanid lands with the late ruler's brother Malek Asraf and his uncle Yagi Basti. When he was defeated by Malek Asraf, he fled to his mother and stepfather. The three of them then formed an alliance, but when Hasan Buzurg decided to withdraw the support he promised, the plan fell apart, and they fled to Diyarbakr. Surgan was defeated again in 1345 by Malek Asraf and they fled to Anatolia. Coinage dating from that year appears in Hesn Kayfa in her name - the last trace of her. Surgan moved from Anatolia to Baghdad, where Hasan Buzurg eventually executed him; she may have suffered the same fate, but this is unknown. (d. sometime after 1345).


The seal of Agnes von Hasburg zu Schweidnitz

1338-68 Reigning Dowager Duchess Agnes von Habsburg of Strzegom
1368-92 Reigning Dowager Duchess of  Schweidnitz and Jaur (Świdnica and Jawor) (Poland)

Her husband, Duke Bolko II of Świdnica and Jawor (1309/1312-1368) granted her Strzegom in 1338 and she reigned in Świdnica and Jawor after his death. Daughter of Archduke Leopold von Habsburg. After her death, her lands were incorporated in Bohemia. (d. 1392).


 

1338 Sovereign Countess Aneza d'Aunoy of Kyparissa (Greece)

Succeeded Gerard II and married Stephen the Black. The County is today known as Arcadia and situated in the southwestern Peloponnesus.


 

1338-77 Lord Marshal of England Margaret of Brotherton Plantagenet of Norfolk
1338-99 Territorial Countess of Norfolk (United Kingdom)

Jointly with the Lord High Constable she headed the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry, although the Earl Marshall's connection with heraldry came about almost accidentally. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, which was concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom, booty and soldiers' wages, and including the misuse of armorial bearings. The Marshall, as eighth Officer of State, has to organise coronations and the State Opening of Parliament. Norfolk was an autonomous fiefdom from the Norman conquest She was daughter of Thomas "Brotherton" and Alice de Hales. Married to John de Segrave and mother of (d. 1353) and mother of Elizabeth de Segrave (1338-75), and held the duchy jointly with her grandson, Thomas II de Mowbray (1366-97-99), the father of Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk. Margaret Plantagenet lived (ca. 1122-99).


Unnamed Countess

1339-50 Sovereign Viscountess Cécile of Touraine (France)

Daughter of Countess Marguerite. She succeeded brother, Jean, and reigned jointly with husband Jaime de Aragón, Count de Urgell, until his death in 1346. Cécile and succeeded by brother-in-law Guillaume Roger de Beaufort (1350-93), who was first succeeded by son and in 1417 by his daughter Eléonore. 


 

1339-50 Sovereign Baroness Luitgard of Rechteren (The Netherlands)

Succeeded Zweder I as head of the smaller Barony, until 1523 within the Bishopric of Utrecht, then within Gelders.


 

1339 Reigning Abbess Katharina die Schereberin of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Her sister Agatha and her relative Helena von Hinwill were nuns in the chapter.


1340-47 Regent Dowager Empress Anna de Savoie of Constantinople (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1350-65/66 De Facto Ruler of Thessalonica (Greece)

Widow of Andronikos III (1296-1328-41) and governed for son Jean V (1332-41—47-91) jointly with the Patriarch of the Orthodox war. A civil war followed with the pretender Jean VI Kantakuzenos (1347-54) who became emperor in 1347 when her son was deposed. She lived in Constantinople until 1350 when she moved to Thessalonica, which she ruled as her own portion of the empire until her death. She lived (1306-65/66).


 

1340-41 Empress Regnant Eirene Palaiologina of Trebizond (Turkey)

Also known as Irene Palaiologina, she was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III Palailogos and married to Emperor Basileios II Komnenos of Trapezunt. In spite of her precipitous actions, Irene found the cares of government beyond her and appealed to her father to send her a husband from amongst the Byzantine nobles, who would rule the Empire and help fight off her mounting enemies. However Andronikos III died on June 15, 1341 before he could answer his daughter's request, but it mattered little since she soon fell in love with her Grand Domestikos and split her court into factions by her unseemly favour of this man. The first round of the civil war began shortly after her accession. Three opposing parties had formed: first was that of herself, the family of Amytzantarants, and her Byzantine mercenaries provided courtesy of her father; second was of the opposing nobles under the Lord of Tzanich, the captain-general of the Scholarioi and a part of the imperial bodyguard loyal to the memory of their late Emperor, and the third party was that of the Grand Duke John the Eunuch of Limnia. The rebel nobles encamped themselves in the Monastery of St. Eugenios in the capital, but Grand Duke of Limnia decided to join her and helped her deal with the rebels. They bombarded the monastery, destroying it almost completely, and defeated the rebels in early July 1340. In the same time, affairs of the Empire went worse as the Turkmen attacked Trebizond and marched up to the walls of the capital itself. A first attack was repelled but the second could not be stopped by demoralized army of Irene, and the Turkmen set fire to much of Trebizond without being able to capture it. The catastrophy was exacerbated by the outbreak of an epidemic. The remaining nobles who had escaped the massacre in the Monastery of St. Eugenios, seeing that her incompetent rule would cause a catastrophy, decided to find a legitimate claimant to the throne in the person of the daughter of Alexios II, Anna Anachoutlou. They convinced her to abandon her monastic vows and acclaimed her Empress in Lazica. Irene, when she heard of the revolt, executed all of the nobles and prisoners from the St. Eugenian massacre, but it was of no avail. The Empress's unpopularity by now was so horrible that as soon as Anna arrived at the city walls Irene was deposed on July 17, 1341. She was later sent off to Constantinople and we know nothing further of her fate. She lived (ca. 1315-41).


Queen Helvig of Denmark

1340-74 Politically Influential Queen Consort Helvig von Slesvig of Denmark

By her marriage to Valdemar IV Atterdag (1340-75), her father gave her 1/4 of Jutland as dowry, which he had, in security for lones to the Danish kings and other royals who had engaged in a long civil war. Most of the country was in the hands of the Holstein Counts, but her dowry was a contributing factor to the fact that her husband managed to win back all the territory - giving him his by-name "Day again". Helvig must have acted as regent during her husband's many journeys abroad, but she also seems to have ended her days in a convent. She was the mother of Margrethe I of Denmark, and died (ca. 1374). 


 

1340-58 Princess-Abbess Fides von Klingen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

The head of the chapter had been Princess of the Empire since 1234 and acquired many possessions in Uri Schwyz and in Zurich throughout the years.


 

1340-41 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III de Gavre of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Succeeded by Elisabeth IV after about one year in office.


 

Before 1340-49 Princess-Abbess Dimudis of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Also known as Dietmut.


 

1340-57 Reigning Abbess Petrissa von Weidenberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The present church of the chapter was built during her reign. She was apparently member of a Bavarian noble family.


 

Around 1340s Legendary Princess Urduja of Tawalisi (The Philippines)

Ancient accounts say, was a 14th century woman ruler of the dynastic Kingdom of Tawalisi in Pangasinan, a vast area lying by the shores of the Lingayen Gulf and the China Sea. Pangasinan was an important kingdom then, and the sovereign was equal to the King of China. Legend has it that she was famous for leading a retinue of woman warriors who were skilled fighters and equestrians. They developed a high art of warfare to preserve their political state. The legend of Princess Urduja can be attributed to the famous story of Mohammedan traveller, Ibn Batuta of India, who was a passenger on a Chinese junk, which has just come from the port of Kakula, north of Java and Sumatra and passed by Pangasinan on the way to Canton, China in 1347.


 

1341 and 1341-42 Empress Regnant Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene  of Trebizond (Turkey)

A nun, but during the unsuccessful reign of Irene Palaiologina she had been persuaded by Trapezuntine nobles to abandon her monastic vows, and seize the crown. She was proclaimed empress in Lazica and advanced on Trabzon. Wherever she went, the people joined the revolt and when she, reinforced by the troops send by the Georgian king George V, arrived at the walls of Trebizond on July 17 1341 she was admitted without resistance and acclaimed Empress, while Irene was deposed and sent off to Constantinople on a western ship. For the moment, Anna ruled unchallenged, although she was actually a puppet in the hands of the ruling nobility. At the same time the people remained discontent, and the Turkmen plundered the countryside. Niketas and Gregory, the leaders of the Scholarioi, returned to Constantinople and convinced the government to give them Michael's young son, John, as a claimant to the throne of Trebizond. In September 1342, with the help of the Genoese, John's small forces (5 galleys) made their way to Trebizond. Although she and her courtiers prepared to defend themselves, they were sabotaged by a popular revolt. John's supporters took control of the city on September 4 1342 and crowned John III emperor. The Scholarioi executed many of their rivals, and she was strangled soon after her deposition. (d. 1342).


 

Ca. 1341-48/49 Sovereign Lady Johanna van Voorne of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Her mother Mathildis, was Sovereign Lady 1312/13-ca. 1349 and again 1351-53. Johanna married Jan van Vakenburg, who died 1352. They had no children, and Johanna lived (ca. 1325/30-48/49).


 

1341-51 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV de Liedekercke of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a Belgian noble, family, the Lords of Liedekercke.


 

1341-45 Politically Influential Empress Kossi of Mali

Became the spearhead of the opposition to her ex-husband, Emperor Souleyman (1341-45) and launced an unsuccesful coup against him, but he managed to supress the opposition. 


 

1342-47 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabetta di Carinzia of Sicilia (Italy)

Elisabeth von Kärnthen und Tyrol was also known as Isabella von Göerz, and she was regent for her son, Ludovico (1337-42-55)after the death of her husband, Pietro II. Of her other 8 children the two daughters, Costanza and Eufemia were regents respectively 1352-54 and 1355-57 for Ludovico and their brother Federico IV (1341-77). She lived (1298-1347).


 

1342-87 Sovereign Countess Blanche d'Aumale (France)

Inherited the realm of her father, Jean II and reigned jointly with husband Jean II d'Harcourt until he was killed in 1355. Succeeded by son Jean IV. 


 

1342-49 Reigning Abbess Isabeau II de Valois of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Great granddaughter of king Saint-Louis and daughter of Count Charles II de Valois, third son of King Philippe III France and Titular Empress Catherine I Courtenay of Constantinople (1274–1308) Her oldest half-brother, was king Philippe VI and her older sister was Titular Empress Catherine II de Valois of Constantinople. She lived (1305–1349).


 

1342-43 Queen Regnant Fijo Wad of Walo (Senegal)

She succeeded Queen Mbam Wad and was succeeded by Queen Dudu Wad.


 

1343-44 Queen Regnant Dudu Wad of Walo (Senegal)

Succeeded Queen Fijo Wad and was succeeded by Queen Dofo Wad.


1343-82 Queen Regnant Giovanna I d'Angiň of Napoli and Sicilia and Sardegna, Sovereign Duchess of Pouilles and Calabre, Princess of Capua, Sovereign Countess of Provence, Forcalquier and Piémont (Italy and France)
1374-76 Princess of Achaia and Baroness of Vostitsa (Greece) and
Titular Queen of Jerusalem

Also known as Joan or Johanna of Napels, Jeanne d'Anjou or Juanna. At the age of 17 she was crowned by her Grandfather, Roberto d’Anjou, and inherited a flourishing kingdom, however tormented by dynastic troubles. In 1342 Giovanna married Andrea of Hungary, who died two years later in consequence of a conspiracy, to which perhaps the Queen herself participated in. Her brother-in-law took his revenge invading Naples. In 1346 she had married her cousin Luigi d’Anjou of Taranto. Because of the invasion she flew to Avignon in Provence, in 1347 she sold the state to Pope Clemente VI who supported her as an exchange to hold back the Hungarian expansion in Italy.  After the death of her second husband, Giovanna got married with Juan of Aragon, who died very soon in consequence of an illness. Then in the same year she married a skilful captain, Otto of Braunschweig, to better defend her reign. She didn’t have any heir and this caused succession problems. Pope Urbano VI excommunicated her because she had backed up the Anti-Pope Clemente VII. Her cousin, Carlo of Durazzo of Taranto, invaded her reign also because she had appointed as her successor Louis I d’Anjou, brother of the King of France. Giovanna fell prisoner and Carlo imprisoned her in Muro Lucano, a small town in Southern Italy, and had her strangled in 1383. She lived (1343-83).


 

1343-66 Heiress Maria d'Anjou of Napoli, Countess of Alba (Italy)

Posthumously born daughter of Duke Carlo de Calabria and Maria de Valois, she was designated as heir to her sister, Giovanna I. First married to Charles d'Anjou, Prince of Durazzo, who was executed, she later murdered her second husband, Robert de Baux, Count d'Avellino in 1354 and the following year she married her last husband, Philippe II. d'Anjou, Prince de Taranto. Mother of ten children, who all died young and she died giving birth to the youngest. She lived (1328-66).


Eleonora van Gelders

1343-47 Dowager Duchess Eleonora of England of Guelders and Zutphen (The Netherlands)

Also known as Alianora van Woodstock, she was widow of Reinald II the Black, and regent for son Reinald III the Fat, Duke of Guelders (Gelder) and count of Zutphen (1333-43-61 and 1371). After his death her two stepdaughters engaged in a power struggle. She was daughter of King Edward II and Isabella of France, and lived (1318-55).


 

1343-45 Commander of the Montfort Faction Jeanne de Flanders of Bretagne (France)

Her husband, Jean de Montfort (who named himself Duke Jean IV), had taken up arms against his cousin, the reigning Duchess Jeanne de Penthičvre and her husband, Charles de Blois in 1341. When he died, she organized resistance to secure the rights of her son, Jean, who later became known as the 4th. In the siege of Hennebont, she took up arms and, dressed in armour, conducted the defence of the town, urging the women to "cut their skirts and take their safety in their own hands". She even led a raid of knights outside the walls that successfully destroyed one of the enemy's rear camps. Her forces captured Charles de Blois in battle. But she became insane and died in confinement, and her son grew up in England until he returned to Bretagne in 1364 and deposed his father's cousin the following year. She was the daughter of Louis, Count of Nevers and Jeanne of Rethel and the sister of Count Louis I of Flanders, and lived (circa 1295–1374).


 

1343 Reigning Abbess Adelheid Diepolt of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Member of a noble German family. 


 

1344-45 Queen Regnant Dofo Wad of Walo (Senegal)

The last of four successive Queens, she followed Queen Dudu Wad on the throne.


Unnamed Ethiopian Lady

Ca.1344-ca.52 Sultan Regnant Mo'at Laila of Ifat (East Shoa, Ethiopian Substate)

The Muslim sultanate situated in the northeastern Shewan foothills was one of the boarder-states threatening the Ethiopian state but it was about one hundred years later.


 

1344 Regent Dowager Queen Maria of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia) (Syria and Turkey)
1363-73 Politically Active

After Constantine IV of Armenia, who was the first Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was killed in an uprising in 1344 after two years in office, she took over the regency. The new king was a distant cousin, Constantine V of Armenia, who died of natural causes in 1362. She then married Constantine VI another distant cousin, who formed an alliance with Peter I of Cyprus, offering him the port and castle of Corycus. On Peter's death in 1369, Constantine looked for a treaty with the Sultan of Cairo. The barons were unhappy with this policy, fearing annexation by the Sultan, and in 1373 Constantine was murdered. The year before she had sent a letter to Pope Gregory XI requesting military help against the Moslems. After her husband's death, the Pope urged her to marry Otto of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Jeanne of Anjou, Princess of Tarent and Oshin Korikos (or Corycos), who was regent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1320-1329 during king Leo V's minority. He was rumoured to have poisoned King Oshin and was probably responsible for the deaths of Leo's father, Oshin's sister Isabella of Armenia and two of her sons. He and his daughter, Alice was assassinated in 1329 at the behest of her husband Leo V.


 

1344-50 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Soissons, Dame de Beaumont, Chimay, Valenciennes and Condé (France)

Daughter of Countess Marguerite and Jean, Seigneur de Beaumont. She married Louis I, Count de Blois and Dunois, Seigneur de Châtillon and Seigneur d’Avesnes, and was succeeded by son,  Guy II de Blois-Châtillon.


 

1344-48 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis IV von Hessnem of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud. From the thirteenth century onwards, the community suffered from debts, poor management by its abbesses, divisions within the chapter, the poor economic conditions of the later Middle Ages, and the aggressive territorial politics of the archbishop of Magdeburg and the bishops of Halberstadt. The community gradually lost both goods and tenants.


 

1344-47 Reigning Abbess Agatha Truchsessin von Messkirch of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

As Abbess she also held the overlordship and lower jurisdiction in the villages of Wald, Buffenhofen, Burrau, Dietershofen, Gaisweiler, Hippetsweiler, Kappel, Litzelbach, Otterswang, Reischach, Riedetsweiler, Ringgenbach, Rothenlachen, Steckeln, Walbertsweiler und Weihwang by the Bodenzee Lake and outside it's acctual territories of Igelswies, Ruhestetten und Tautenbronn Also Owned vineries in Wald Aufkirch, Goldbach, Sipplingen und Bermatingen, am Untersee auf der Insel Reichenau and in Allensbach.


 

Around 1345 Joint Ruler Empress Bendjou of Mali

When the noble ladies refused to show her the customary respect since she was of common origin, her husband, Souleyman, engaged in a battle with his ex-wife, Kossi, and her relatives as a reflection of a greater struggle for political power which escalated into a minor civil war - which he won, and she was able to take her customary place as joint ruler with the emperor.

Anna Świdnicka

1345-63 Sovereign Duchess Anna von Schweidnitz of Schweidnitz and Jauer (Świdnica-Jawor) (Poland)

Also known as Anna Świdnicka, she the only daughter of the Slesian Duke Henryk II of Schweidnitz (1312-26-45) and Katharina d'Anjou of Hungary (d. ca 1355) and as the wife of Emperor Karl IV (1316-78), she was Queen of Germany and Bohemia and Holy Roman Empress. As mother of the Imperial Heir, Wenzel, she was politically influential. She lived (1339-62).


 

1345-59 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Arbon of Schänis (Switzerland)

Possibly the first the first to use the title of Princess of the Realm, and throughout the centuries the Abbess claimed to hold that rank even though the chater newer acctually achieved the position of an Immediate Territory (Reichsabtei). She was daughter of Heinrich von Arbon and Wilburga. Her brother, Hermann, was Abbot of Pfäfers (1330-60).


 

1345-46 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I de Montpensier of Dreux and Braine (France)

Her father Pierre (1298-1331-45) was the last of three brothers to succeed each other as counts of Dreux since the death of their father, Jean II in 1309. Jeanne was succeeded by aunt, Jeanne II. She lived (1315-46).


 

1345-57 Reigning Abbess Hélissent II de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Succeeded aunt, Hélissent I.


 

1346-54/55 Sovereign Countess Jeanne II of Dreux and Braine (France)

The daughter of Jean II le Bon, she succeeded her niece, Jeanne I, and reigned jointly with husband Louis de Thouars (d. 1370). First succeeded by son and then by daughters Petronelle and Marguerite. Jeanne lived (1308-54/5).


 

1346-53 Regent Dowager Duchess Beatrice de Bourbon of Luxembourg

Governed in the name of Venceslas, whose half-brother was Emperor Karl of The Holy Roman Empire. 


Marguerite of Flanders

1346 Regent Dowager Countess Marguerite de France of Flanders and Rethel 
1361-82 Sovereign Countess Palatine of Bourgogne and Countess of Franche-Comté, Artois and Salins (The low countries)

Daughter of King Philippe V of France and Jeanne I d'Artois (1329-30). She married Louis II de Nevers, Count of Flanders and Rethel, who fell in battle in 1346 and was regent for their son, Louis II de Male (1330-84), and in her own lands, she succeeded the her sister, Jeanne II (1330-47)'s great-grandson as Marguerite I in 1361. She abdicated in favour of son, but remained politically active to her death. Her son was succeeded by her daughter, Marguerite II, in 1384. Marguerite I lived (1310-82).


 

1346-6.. Regent Dowager Duchess Marie de Blois of Lorraine (France)

After the death of her husband, Rudolf or Raoul, she assumed the regency for her son Johann or Jean I of Lothringen or Lorraine (1346-90).


1346-73 Politically Influential Abbess Birgitta av Vadstena in Sweden and Europe

Despite her similar affinity to a religious life, Birgitta was married at the age of 13 to Ulf Gudmarsson for her family's political advancement. The marriage proved to be a happy and pious union, bearing eight children and lasting nearly three decades. After her husband's death in 1344, she was received various religious revelations, founding her own order, and using her influence in religious and political matters. 1349-50 she travelled to Rome to petition with the Pope for the recognition of her domination, and she founded a religious order here. 1371 she embarked on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with her children. In Napoli her son, Karl Ulfsson, got entangled in a relationship with Queen Giovanna I, who wanted to marry him, but he died before anything came of it. Leaving the state, she handed the advice to Giovanna, that she should do something about the moral level. Stopping in Cyprus, she also gave advice to Queen Eleonora of Aragón. After four months in Jerusalem, they returned to Rome, where she died. 1374 the pope accepted the foundation of the Vadstena Convent - with both monks and nuns lead by Birgitta's daughter, Katharina av Vadstena.  The Holy Birgitta was declared a saint in 1391 and Katharina some years later. Birgitta lived (1303-73).


 

1347-85 Queen Regnant Rajalla Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

Also known as Rajalladevi, Rajalaxmi or Rajalaxmo, she was the daughter of Queen Sariayakadevi, and was brought up by her grandmother, Queen-Regent Devala. She was married to King Jaysthiti Malla of Bhadgaon, who invaded Nepal and ruled as Prince Counsort 1382-95, and described himself as the husband of Rajalladevi in many of his incriptions.


 

1347-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Jutta von Brandenburg of Coburg-Henneberg (Germany)

Inherited the landscapes of Coburg-Henneberg after her husband Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen's death. Her son-in-law - the husband of her daughter, Katharina von Henneberg, then inherited the territories and they became parts of Meissen and Thüringen, of which she was regent from 1381.


 

1347-53 Princess-Abbess Lutgard von Stolberg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Heinrich and Countess Jutta von Hadmersleben. (d. 1353).


 

Until 1347 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz  (France)

Succeeded her father, Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d'Ariano and Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay. She lived (ca. 1267-1312).


1348-79 Sultan and Maha Radun Malikat Rahandi Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands, Sultan of Land and Sea and Lord of the twelve-thousand islands

One of three daughters of Sultan Salah ad-Din Salih Albendjaly, who was succeeded by her brother. The vizier 'Abdallah al-Muhammad al-Hazrami married the sultan's mother, and had him put to death. Meanwhile, Khadija had married Jamal-ud-din, who managed to take over the reigns of power for his wife. As vizier he issued orders in her name. Succeeded by sister, Myriam.


 

1348-87 Sovereign Duchess Giovanna de Sicile-Duras of Durazzo (Italy)

Also known as Jeanne, she succeeded her father, Carlo di Durazzo, Duke di Durazzo, Lord of the Kingdom of Albania and Conte di Gravina, who was executed in 1348. She was married to her cousin Clarles Martel di Calabria, Louis de Navarre, Comte de Beaumont and Robert IV d'Artois, comte d'Eu, who was poisoned in 1387. The duchy was named after Durazzo in Albania, which used to be ruled by Napoli. Her mother was the former heir to the throne of Napoli, Princess Maria (1328-66) and her sister, Margherita, was married to Charles III, King of Naples and Jerusalem (1381-86) and Hungary (1385-86). She lived (1344-87).


 

1348-84 Sovereign Countess Margarete of Berg and Ravensberg (Germany)

Only daughter and heir of both her parents, Otto IV von Ravensberg-Vlotho and Margrete von Berg-Windeck, Heiress of Berg (d. 1339). After the death of her mother's brother Adolf IX, his widow, Agnes von Kleve, secured the succession for her. Margarete married Count Gerhard I von Jülich and was succeeded by her son, Wilhelm I (ca. 1848-1408). She also had two daughters, and lived (ca. 1320-84).


 

1348-after 1355 Reigning Dowager Lady Banass Jelena Nemanjić Šubić of Omiš, Klis and Skradin (Croatia)

When her husband, the magnate Mladen III Šubić, prince of Bribir, died, she tried to maintain rule over his cities on behalf of her infant son but was challenged by Hungary and Venice. Her half-brother Tsar Stefan Dušan sent troops to help her garrison Klis and Skadrin against Hungary in 1355. She was the daughter of king Stefan Uroš III Dečanski of Serbia.


 

1348-74 Countess-Abbess Adelheid III von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Daughter of Prince Heinrich IV von Anhalt-Bernburg and his wife Sofie. A document issued on August 5, 1352 recorded a donation of 30 Marks to the community by two of its canonesses, Agnes de Merwitz (referred to as a deaconess, decana) and Margareta de Warin (referred to as a concanonica) in order to rebuild a deserted home located close to the dormitory, which should serve as the summer dormitory.


 

Around 1348 Princess-Abbess Jeanne-Madeleine de Flachslanden of Andelau (France)

The l'abbaye d'Andlau in Franche-Comté was founded by Empress Richarde, the wife of Karl III the Great, which along the years came to own many lordships in Alsace and France. The Abbess held semi episcopal powers, was named by the Emperor or the King and had the title of Princess-Abbess from 1288.


1349-83 Queen Regnant Ilancueitl of Tecnochtitlan (Mexico)

Since her father Crown-Prince Iztahuatzin, had already died, she succeeded her grandfather, Teuhtlehauc (1337-49). She was married to Huehue Acamapichtli, "Toltec" King of Colhuacan, and succeeded by their son Acamapichtli, the first Aztec emperor (1372-91). The Aztec state based on what is now Mexico City, in the central plateau of Mexico. Originally vassals of the Tepanec in Azcapotzalco, they achieved independence in the late 1420's, and thereafter built an extensive empire throughout the region.


 

1349-55 In Charge of the Government Dowager Empress Irene of Trebizond
1355-67
Politically Influential

After the death of her husband, Emperor Basil, a palace coup followed and his first wife, Irene Palaiologina and her supporters seized power. She was then sent her off with her two young sons to Constantinople where they could be guarded by Irene Palaiologina's father, Andronikos III Palaiologos. Their time in exile seems to have been spent as witnesses of the palace revolutions taking place both in Trebizond and in the Byzantine Empire. When John VI Kantakuzenos won the Byzantine civil war, he overturned the weak and violent government of Michael and put her son, Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1338-90) on the throne. She seems to have struggled for power with the nobles and especially the Doranites family who unsucessfully revolted in the capital, while her son retired to the castle fortress of Tripolis for security. In 1351 she went with an expedition to Limnia with Michael Panaretos and seized the city from the lordly pretensions of Constantine Doranites. After the civil war ended, Irene seems to have played still some part in the government of Trebizond and in 1367 accompanied her son when her grandaugter Anna was married to the king of Georgia. She also was present at the baptism of her great-grandson Basil, renamed later Alexios IV of Trebizond. (d. after 1382).


 

1349-54  Princess-Abbess Katharina von Strettweg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Kärnten.


 

1349-53 Reigning Abbess Théophanie de Chambon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the double-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess. A total of 36 Abbesses.


 

1349-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Hohnstein of Greifenstein in Schwarzburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Günther XXI. von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, who worked as a diplomat in the service of Emperor Ludwig IV. Mother of a son and 4 daughters. (d. 1380).


 

1349-56 Princess-Abbess Anna III von Thulen of Säckingen (Germany)

A decree with her seal from 1355 has survived. Around 1350 the Lords von Schönau was appointed Grand Masters of the Chapter of City of Säckingen. Her family were Lords of Thulen and various other Lordships near Paderborn.


 

1349-65 Abbess Nullius Costanza I da Lecce of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory and among others exercised, through a vicar, semi-episcopal jurisdiction in the abbatial fief of Castellana.


 

1349-75 Politically Influential Queen Leonor de Sicilia of Aragon (Spain)

Became a powerful influence at the Aragonese court, replacing Bernardo de Cabrera as King Pedro IV's chief adviser. In 1357, faced with mounting opposition in Sicily, her brother King Federigo proposed that Athens and Neopatras be transferred to her in return for military help from her husband in Sicily, a proposal which was refused. She was the daughter of king Peter II of Sicily and Elizabeth of Carinthia and lived (1325-75).


 

Late 1340s-late 1380s Politically Influential Tsarina Sarah-Theodora of Bulgaria
There are some Greek and French sources claiming her to be a daughter of a Venetian banker, but sources agree that she was Jewish, having lived with her family in the Jewish Neighbourhood in Tarnovo, and converted to Christianity in order to marry Tsar Ivan Alexander, who divorced his wife of many years, Theodora of Wallachia, who was forced to become a nun. She became renowned for her fierce support of her new religion, the Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and was one of the instigators of a church council against the Jews. She also played a significant role in the separation of the Bulgarian Empire between her firstborn son Ivan Shishman and her step-son, Ivan Stratsimir, who was crowned co-emperor by his father, who made his elder son Despot of Vidin, which he declared a separate empire after his father's death. From now on, the relationship between the two Bulgarian Empires became cold and remained so despite the threat of the forthcoming Ottoman invasion. The date of her death is unknown, although some historians assume she died in the late 1380s. although she is widely known as Sarah or Sarah-Theodora, the name she wore before her conversion to Christianity is not mentioned in any historical source. Sarah, the name that she is known under, came from the tragedy Toward the Precipice, written by the great Bulgarian writer Ivan Vazov. Mother of at least 5 children. (d. ca. 1380s).

Last update 03.10.13

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