Women in power 1350-1400

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

Unnamed Nigerian Queen

Around 1350 Queen Argoye of Zamfara (Nigeria)

Also known as Algoje, she was succeeded by Karafau. The state was created before 1200. 1764-1804, Zamfara was annexed by Gobir and in 1902 it was split between France and the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria.


1350 Princesse-Abbesse Simonetta de Vara of Remiremont  (France)

Another version of her name was Symonate de Varre.

1350-66 Princesse-Abbesse Eléonore de Châlon of Remiremont  (France)

Also known as Aliénor, she was the 10th child of John II de Chalon and Alix de Bourgogne.


1350 Reigning Abbess Gerhild von Krenkingen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Apart from a number of estates and villages, the chapter also owned vineries in Wald Aufkirch, Goldbach, Sipplingen und Bermatingen, am Untersee auf der Insel Reichenau and in Allensbach.


1350-65 Reigning Abbess Isabelle I de Herzelles of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

The Abbey was in constant dispute with the local bishop over supremacy over the internal affairs.


1350-57 Politically Influential Queen Maria of Portugal of Castile (Spain)

After the death of her husband, king Alfonso XI, she was very influential in the government of her son, king Pedro the Cruel, who began to reign at the age of sixteen. She controlled him, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Juan Alfonso de Albuquerque (her favourite) and became attached to María Díaz de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. She turned him against Albuquerque and joined the rebellion against her son, but when it collapsed, she returned to Portugal in 1357. She lived (1313-57).


1351 Reigning Abbess Anna Boller of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Since 1227 the Abbey had been place directly under the Emperor as a Realm of the Holy Roman Empire. 


1351-80 Princess-Abbess Mathilde van Leeuwenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a Dutch noble family.


1351-61 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Fernández de Herrera of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The abbess held the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privilege also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


1352-54 Regent Princess Constanza of Sicily (Italy)

Unmarried daughter of Pietro II of Sicily (1337-42) and Elisabeth of Carinthia and Tirol (regent in 1342), she was regent during the reign of her brother Luigi, who was king 1342-55. Her sister Eufemia was regent for their other brother, Federico from 1355. Constanza lived (1324-55).


1352-58 Sovereign Princess Simona Fadrique de Aragón of Tinos (Thenos) (Greek Island-State)

Succeeded her husband, Giorgio Ghisi, Lord of Tinos and Mykonos. She was daughter of Alfonso Fadrique de Aragon, Count of Malta and Gozzo, Lord of Salona and of certain territories in Greece,  (d. 1335/39)  - the son of King Federico of Sicily (1299-1337), and Lady Marulla of Aegina et cetera, the daughter of Bonifacio da Verona, Lord of Negroponte.


1352-58 Dowager Duchess Katharina Subić of Brieg and Ohlau (Brzeg-Oława) (Then Germany, now Poland)

The Polish version of her name is Katarzyna Subić. Held the duchy as her dowry after the death of her husband, Bolesław III. She was daughter of the Croatian ban Mladen II.


1352-56 Regent Jeanne de Bar of Bar (France)

The daughter of Count Henri III of Bar, she was regent for her nephew Robert. She fought for the regency with her sister-in-law, Jolanta van Flanders-Cassel. She had been married to John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey until an annulment in 1315. Her mother was Eleanor of England, daughter of king Edward I of England, and she lived (1295-1361).


1352-54 Sovereign Lady Philipotte van Kleef of Valkenburg (Belgium)

Also known as Philippa, she succeeded brother, and reigned jointly with husband, Hendrik van Vlaanderen, Lord van Ninove, as vassal of the Duke of Brabant.


1353-71 Reignign Abbess Adelheid II von Lupfen of Buchau (Germany)

Daughter of Count Konrad von Lumpfen and Elisabeth von Liebenstein, and was a nun in Rottenmünster around 1346.


1353-73 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Mangey of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. A Prior under the control of the Abbess commanded the monks in the double-convent.


Circa 1353-90 Sovereign Lady Maria van Wesemaele of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Succeeded her distant relative, Mathilde, and her husband Hendrik van Boutershem was joint lord until his death 1371 after which her son, Hendrik II was joint lord, until he was succeeded by his granddaughter, Johanna, in 1419. Maria lived (circa 1330-90).


1354-59 Acting Governor Jelena Subica of Bosnia

Regent for the ban (governor) Tvrtko I (1353-77/91), who succeeded her husband, Stjepan II Kotromanic, initially with Prince Vladislav as regent. After his death she took over as regent. 


1354 Acting Duchess Margareta von Bayern of Croatia

After the death of her husband, Stephen, Duke of Transylvania, Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia (1332-1354), she held the principality shortly until his relative, Carlo Dancki of Napoli, took over the reigns. 1357/58 she married Gerlach von Hohenlohe. She was daughter of Emperor Ludwig IV of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Upper and Lower Bavaria, King of Italy, King of Germany and his second wife, Margaret of Hainault, Countess of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland (1311-1356), she did not have any children and lived (1325-1374).


1354/5-1357 Reigning Dowager Duchess Małgorzata Morawska in Beuthen (Bytom) (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Bolesław of Bytom, she held the Duchy as her dowry, though her reign was disputed. Also known as Margaret of Moravia, she was daughter of Johan von Sternberg.


1354-62 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Schrapelau of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Edlen (the noble) Buchard von Schrapelau and Luitgard Gans von Wittenberge und Pereberg. Resigned in 1362, died two years later.

1355-1404 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne III of Brabant, Limbourg, Derby and Larche  (Belgium)

Johanna van Brabant succeeded her father, Jan III van Brabant and had to confirm the privileges of the large citys of the Duchies. She engaged in a war over the succession with her brothers-in-law, Lodewijk II van Male, Count of Flanders, and Duke Reinoud III van Gelre, which hit the territories hard financially. 1371 her second husband, Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg was taken prisoner. She had first been married to Willem IV of Holland, Zeeland and Hainalut. Her sister Marguerite de Brabant-Limbourg was Dame of Mechelen and Antwerpen, and she abdicated in favour of her daughter, Marguerite III of Flanders, who died shortly after. Jeanne lived (1322-1406). 


1355-1401 Sovereign Princess Maria Palaiologina of Lesbos (Greek Island State)

Her brother, Emperor Ióannés V Palaiologos, Emperor of Byzantium, gave her the island as dowry when she married Baron Francesco Gattilusio, patrician of Genoa, Archon of Lesbos. In 1384 her husband and two oldest sons were killed by an earthquake and. Their only surviving son, Jacopo, reigned under the name of Francesco II until his death 1403. She lived (circa 1330/35-circa 1401).


1355-57 Regent Princess Eufemia of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)

The unmarried daughter of Pietro II (1337-42) she was regent for brother, Federico III, Duke of Athens and Neopatras (1341-55-77), who was succeeded by daughter Maria in 1377. Their mother, Elisabeth von Kärnthen was regent 1342 and their sister, Constanza had acted as regent 1552-54 for their brother King Ludovico. Eufemia lived (1330-59).


1355-58 Sovereign Lady Juana Núñez de Lara I of Vizcaya and Lara  (Spain)

Assumed the title after the death of her brother, Núño, who had succeeded their mother, María Díaz de Haro II and their father Juan Núñez de Lara, and. After she was assassinated during the civil war between Pedro I the cruel and Enrique II de Trastámara, her husband, Tello de Castilla, Lord of Aguilar y Castaneda, kept the lordship until 1370. Her sister, Isabel claimed the position as titular sovereign Lady, but Pedro I de Castilla usurped the territory 1358-66 and then her husband, Tello of Aragón was seigneur until 1370, when he was succeeded by her father's sister, Juana II. Juana I was murdered, and lived (circa 1333-59). 


1355-56 Regent Dowager Tsarina Helena of Bulgaria of Serbia
1355-59 Reigning Dowager Lad
y of The Ser Region (between the lower Vardar and the Mesta) and the Chalcidic Peninsula

On the death of her husband, Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, she was regent and reigned her dowries in the Southeastern part of the former Serian Empire until she  became a nun under the religious name Elisaveta in 1359, but continued to play an active role in politics. She was the daughter of Sratsimir of Kran and Petritsa and the sister of Tsar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria. She (d. 1374).


1355/56 Acting Governor Irina of Serbia of Thessaly (Croatia)

After the death of her first husband, the Serbian Governor of the Province, Gregorios Preljub, she attempted to retain control of Thessaly in the name of her minor son Tomo Preljubović, but in 1356 she was displaced and forced to return to Serbia by Nikephoros II ex-Lord of Epirus. Here she married Radoslav Hlapen, the ruler of Vodena, who took Thomas Preljubović under his wing and in 1367-84 he was Despot of Epirus. She was the daughter of tsar Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia and Helena of Bulgaria.


1355-81 Princess-Abbess Gertrud I von Hanau of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Hessen in Germany.


Around 1355 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Leiningen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

As Abbess of the Chapter, she was Lady of possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace, but did apparently not have the dignity of Princess.


1356-57 Regent Princess Caima Cam Todorita Bals of Moldova

Bogodan was The Gospotar - ruler - of the principality of Moldova (1356-74).


1356-60 Sovereign Countess Isabella de Brienne of Brienne, Lecce and Conversano, Dame de Ramerupt and Titular Duchess of Athens, Claimant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem et cetera  (France, Italy and Greece)

After brother, Gautier de Brienne, was killed in the battle by Poitiers, she and her husband, Gautier IV d'Enghien, Seigneur de Tubize et Lembeek, the family possessions in France and Italy. She was the only daughter of Duke Gautiers V de Brienne and Jeanne de Châtillon, who had ruled the Duchy in 1311. She divided her numerous possessions among her numerous sons during her lifetime, and 1384 her granddaughter, Maria d'Enghien inherited some of the possessions. Isabella lived (ca.1300/05-60).


1356-58 Sovereign Countess Clara von Freiburg of Freiburg, Lady of Lichteneck und Nimburg (Germany)

Only daughter and heir of Count Friedrich von Freiburg and Anna von Baden. She succeeded her father, but resigned the county after two years of succession-war with her uncle, Egino IV. Married to Gottfried II von Tübingen, Count Palatine of Böblingen. She lived (circa 1320-68).


1356-79 Princess-Abbess Margarethe I von Grünenberg of Säckingen (Germany)

Her election ended in a draw but she was inagurated by the Bishop of Konstantz after the resignation of the other candidate, Anna von Brandis. 1356 she agreed not to sell any possessions of the Chapter without the accept of the other canonesses. The new Gothic church of the city was inaugurated 1360 and she mended the relationship between Glarus and Säckingen in 1373.  She was possibly daughter of Freiherr Johann I von Grünenberg and Clementia von Sigau. Her brother, Mark, was Abbot of Einsiede (1364-76).


1356-57 Reigning Abbess Judenta von Hohenfels of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of the family of Counts of Hohenfels in Bavaria.


1357-84 Sovereign Countess Adelheid von Wittgenstein (Germany)

Succeeded her brother, Werner IV, the last male of the family and together with her husband, Salentin von Sayn-Homburg, they founded the new line, and he used the title of Count von Sayn zu Wittgenstein from 1361. He descended from the Counts of Sayn, who owned the Offices and Lordships of Hachenburg and Altenkirchen, and his father inherited Homburg from his mother.


1357-58 Countess Abbess Ermengard zu Waldeck-Schwalenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Ermengardis, she was first a nun at Mariensee, and later succeeded her sister, Jutta, who ruled in Gandersheim 1331.


1357-61 Reigning Abbess Margaretha I Gösslin von Altenburg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Gössl is a town near Salzburg in Austria, not far from Regensburg in Bavaria.


1358-61 Titular Lady Isabel de Lara of Vizcaya and Lara (Spain)

Succeeded her sister, Juana I, as sovereign Lady, but Pedro I de Castilla usurped the territory 1358-66, when her brother-in-law became Sovereign Lord. Isabel was married to Infant Juan of Aragon, Lord of Elche (d. 1358). And like her sister, she was murdered and lived (circa 1335-61).


1358...Sovereign Princess Tommasa Orsini-Angelo-Comneni of Tessaglia (Italy)

Confirmed as Princess the year after her father was assassinated. She was daughter of Niceforo II, Despot of Epiros and Tessaglia, Count of Cefalonia and Zante, Governor of Aenos and Maria Cantacuzena of Byzantine. Married to Prince Simeon Uros of Serbia (d. 1371).


1358-62 Reigning Dowager Duchess Agnethe von Sagan of Brieg and Ohlau (Brzeg-Olawa) (At the time Germany, now Poland)

Also known as Agnieszka, she was daughter of Duke Henryk II Wierny of Żagań (Sagan) and Matilda of Bavaria. Her first husband, Duke Leszek of Racibórz died in 1336, and between 1341 and 1345 she married Duke Ludwig von Brieg (Ludwik I of Brzeg), who gave her half of his land and cities as her dowry in 1358. With Ludwig she had 6 children: Henryk, Wacław, Małgorzata, Jadwiga, Katarzyna and another daughter. She lived (1312/1321-1362).


1358-70 Co-ruler Duchess Agnes von Lichtenberg of Münsterberg (Ziębice) (At the time Germany, now Poland)

Also known as Agnieszka, she ruled in the Slesian Principality together with her sons Bolesław II (1358-1410) and Henryk II (1358-circa 66/85) after the death of her husband, Mikołajs. Mother of 5 children. (d. 1370).


1358-98 Princess-Abbess Beatrix von Wohlhusen of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

1373 she approved the second "Sworn letter of Zürich" (Dem Zweiten Geschwornen Brief Zürichs) that limited the powers of the mayor of Zürich after the rein of the Brunschen.


1359-62 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Several members of her family were heads of the chapter.


1359-64 (†) Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Aleksandra of Russia, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev

Ruled in the name of son, Dimitri IV Donskoï (or Donskoy), who succeeded his grandfather, Ivan II (1353-59) She (d. 1364).


1359-63 Sovereign Countess Marie I de Bourbon of Vestitza (Greece)
1364 Governor of Kephallenia and Corfu (Greek Island States)
1364-70 Sovereign Princess of Achaia and Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)

Daughter of Louis I de Bourbon and Marie d’Avesnes of Hainault, and succeeded the Baronesses Agnes and Guillermetta (Wilhelmina). First married to Guido de Lusignan, Prince von Galilaea (d. 1346) and secondly to the son of Catherine II de Valois, Robert II. d'Anjou, Titular Emperor of Byzantine and Prince of Achaia (1333-64), whom she succeeded as Princess of Achaia. She sold the Baronies of Vostitza and Nivelet to Nerio Acciaiulo, Duke of Athens and Vicar-General in Corinth. Mother of one son, Hugo de Lusignan (circa 1335- 1385/86) and two daughters, and lived (1315-87).


1359-1402 Countess Abbess Luitgard III zu Hammerstein of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Lutgard. During her reign the chapter became more and more under the influence of the Dukes of Braunschweig


1360-78 Sovereign Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pôl (France)

Daughter of Jean de Châtillon (1292-1334) and succeeded brother, Gui (d. 1360). She was married to Guy de Ligny and Charles de France, Count de Valois et cetera. And lived (1293-1358).


Before 1360 Regent Al Udar al-Karimah Shihaab ad Din Salaah of Yemen

In charge of the government during the absence of her son, Sultan Sayf al-Islam al-Mujahid ‘Ali ibn al-Mu‘ayyad Hizbir al-Din Da’ud, who reigned 1322-63, on warfare in Egypt (at a time not known to me). During her reign she built schools and mosques, established both internal security, justice and administrative order. Is also said to have gone secretly from house to house of the poor, seeking to learn their needs and giving them generous gifts. The translation of her title is Vice-Regent, Lordly Lady of Piety, Goodness, Sharp Intelligence, Decisive Resolve, Calm Forbearance, and Supreme Political Acumen Patroness of Scholars and Upright Men of Religious Piety Champion of the Poor and Needy, and she (d. 1360).


1360-70 Princess-Abbess Irmgard I von Broich of Essen (Germany)

Her family was first mentioned in 1093 under the nobleman Burkhard von Broich, who renovated the castle that was built around 880. Her family inhabited the Castle in Mülheim an der Ruhr until the main line died out. at the beginning of the 16th century.


Around 1360 Princess-Abbess Margaretha of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

The Abbess of was named Princess-Abbess in 1348 with the right to crown the Queens of Bohemia.


1361-1405 De facto Co-Ruler Duchess Anna of Ratibor (Racibórz) (Poland)

In effect joint ruler with her husband, prince Jan of Racibórz, and after his death in 1380/82; she stayed in power as Co-ruler with her son Jan II. Daughter of prince Heinrich V of Głogów-Żagań and Anna of Płock, mother of 3 children, and lived (before 1350-after 1405).


Until after 1361 Heiress Hedwig of the Wildgrafschaft Dhaun und Grimace (Germany)

Married to Rheingraf Johann I vom Stein and Gerlach von Brunsholm and Gerlach von Brunshorn - and the foremother of the Salm-Dhaun family.


1361 Reigning Abbess Heilwig von Bentheim of Herford (Germany)

Succeeded Ludgard II von Bicken, who died in 1360, but was only in office for a short while.


1361-74 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth I von dem Berge of Herford (Germany)

Her surname also seems to have been spelled v.d. Berghe.


1361-67 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor Rodríguez Barba of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her full titulature was "noble lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the said royal abbey, and of all the contents, churches, and hermitages of its filiation, of the villages and places under its jurisdiction, seigniory, and vassalage, in virtue of Bulls and Apostolical concessions, with plenary jurisdiction, privative, quasi-episopal, nullius diacesis."


1361-65 Reigning Abbess Margaretha II Punzinger of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Bavarian noble family who lived in and around Regensburg. Perhaps her surname was Pinzingerin and in that case she was the second of her family to be head of the chapter and territory.    


1361-65 Reigning Abbess Jeanne I de Frolois of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Cousin of the de Noyers' Abbesses. Perhaps her sister Alix was also Abbess.


1362-71 Sovereign Duchess Fiorenza I Sanduro of Naxos et de L'Archipel (Greek Island State)

After she succeeded her father, Giovanni I (1341-61), Venice vetoed her potential second husbands, first the Genoese lord of Chios, then Nerio Acciaiuoli future Duke of Athens, anxious to increase its influence over the duchy by arranging a suitable match for her.  She was kidnapped by Venetian agents, taken to Crete and blackmailed into marrying her cousin Niccolo Sanudo as her second husband, and he was granted the title Duke on his marriage and after her death, he continued to govern the duchy as avogier on behalf of her son by her first husband, She had first been married to Giovanni dalle Carceri, Lord of Euboea (d. 1358), Niccolo II dalle Carceri, who was murdered in 1383. She (d. 1271).


1362-75 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Hackeborn of Quedlinbug (Germany)

Daughter of Edlen Albrecht von H. and Countess Richza von Schrapelau. (d. 1375)


1362-1400 Princess-Abbess Agnes von Wildenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

She sold the church treasure of Nuolen, a parish within her jurisdiction. Reached a compromise with the canonesses about the incomes from Benken. The area was under the overlorship of the Habsburg until 1388 when they lost the majority of the possessions in the Schänis Area. Daughter of Freiherr Heinrich II von Wildenberg.


From 1362 Hulufira Nilüfer Valide Sultan of Anatolia and Rumalia (Turkey)

After the death of her husband, Sultan Orkhan Ghazi, she became Sultana Valide during the reign of her son, Sultan Murad Hudavendigar Han. According to some sources she had acted as regent during the military campaigns of her husband, whom she married in 1299. She was daughter of the Bey of Yarhisar (b. 1283).


1364-84 Reigning Dowager Lady Rikardis Schwerin-Wittenburg of the Island of Als med Sønderborg with several shires in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) in Slesvig (Denmark)

Widow of Valdemar 3, who was King of Denmark 1326-30 and Duke of Slesvig 1325- 26 and 1330-64. He was 11 years old when the Council of the Realm chose him as successor of the deposed King Christoffer 7, with his mother's brother, Count Gert 3. von  Holsten-Rendsborg as regent. This led to civil war and peasent's uprisings, and Christoffer was reinstated and Valdemar became Duke of Slesvig. She was mother of two sons, Valdemar (circa 1338– 60) and Henrik who inherited the duchy. She (d. circa 1384).


Until 1364 Burgravine Isabeau D'Antoing, Heiress of Antoing (Belgium)

Also known as Isabelle, she was married Infant Alfonso of Castilla e León, de la Cerda, Lord de Lunel, Governor de Languedoc (1310-27).


1364-70 Countess Isabelle de Pierrepont of Roucy (France) 

Succeeded father, Robert II and married to Louis de Namur. 1370 she sold the County to Louis d'Anjou en 1370, but his uncle started a process, and after a process which lasted 20 years, the Parlement de Paris judged in her favour.


1364-75 Co-Sovereign Princess Catharina Michieli of Keos (Greek Island-State)

Together with sister she succeeded father, who came from a Venetian family. 


1364-75 Co-Sovereign Princess Angelina Michieli of Keos (Greek Island-State)

Also known as Kea. With the fall of Constantinople to the Franks, Michael Akominatos, the Metropolitan of Athens, took refuge on the island in the monastery of Prodomos where he stayed until he died. The island was captured by the Venetians and recaptured by the Byzantines in 1278. In 1296 it fell to the Venetians again and built a castle on the ancient acropolis of Ioulis.  The two sisters were succeeded by Maria da Coronia.


1365-90 Queen Regnant Nyilak of Alur (Uganda)

Succeed her father, king Kyebambe (circa 1330-65), as ruler of the kingdom in mountainous Alur Region.  She married Opodhu and mother of Nyipir (Giipir) (1390-1450).


1365-68 In Charge of the Government Queen Leonor de Gandia de Aragón of Cyprus, Titular Queen Consort of Jerusalem (Israel)
1369 Co-Regent of Cyrus

Her husband, Pierre I de Lusignan, who had been away on various expeditions since 1365, returned to Cyprus in 1368, he retaliated on the nobles who had been her favourites during his absence, and behaved with such haughtiness and tyranny that he alienated the sympathy of his barons and even of his brothers. In January 1369 a body of nobles assassinated him with the concurrence of his brothers. His son Pierre, a boy of thirteen, succeeded to the throne under the regency of his uncles, Jean, prince of Antiochia, and Jacques, constable of Cyprus. She quarrelled with both of them, who had both been concerned in the assassination of her husband. She first welcomed the invaders as a means of avenging the murder of her husband, but when she saw that the Genoese were bent on destroying her son's kingdom, she joined the other royalists and took refuge with Jacques, the constable of Cyprus, in the Kyrenia castle. It was not until 1374 her son was reinstated on the throne. She lived (1333-1416)


1365-91 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth III zu Rhein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a noble Bavarian family, with alternative versions of the name being von Rain, von Rhein or zu Rhein.


1365-75 Reigning Abbess Jeanne II de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Former Treasurer of the chapter.


1365-77 Abbess Nullius Constanza II da Bari of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.


1365-77 Co-Sovereign Countess Petronelle de Thouars of Dreux (France)

Also known as Perenelle de Thouars, she was daughter of Jeanne II (1309/9-46-54/5) and succeeded her brother, Simon, jointly with two sisters. In 1377 the three sisters sold the County to the king of France. She was first married to Amaury de Craon (d. 1373) and secondly to Clément Rouault (d. 1397) . She (d. 1397).


1365-77 Co-Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Thouars of Dreux (France)

First married to Thomas de Chemille and secondly to Guy Turpin, seigneur de Crisse, she (d. 1404).


1365-77 Co-Sovereign Countess Isabeau de Thouars of Dreux (France)

Ruled jointly with two sisters and married to Guy de Nesles (d. 1352), Ingelger d'Amboise and finally to Guillaume d'Harcourt (d 1400).


1365-73 Politically Active Queen Maria of Lesser Armenia

In 1372 she send Pope Gregory XI a letter requesting military help against the Moslems. The following year her husband, King Constantine V, was murdered, and the Pope wanted Marie to marry Otto of Braunschweig. In 1374 Levon VI was crowned king of Cillician Armenia or Armenia Minor. Her background is not known.


1365-1418 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Joinville of Vaudémont (France)

Succeeded father, Henri V and first married to Jean I de Châlon, seigneur de Montagu, secondly to  Pierre, comte de Genève and finally to Ferry I de Lorraine (1368-1415). She lived (1354-1418).


1365-87 Reigning Abbess Isabelle II de Ghistelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Member of a Belgian seigneurial family.

Unnamed Princess

1366-92 Sovereign Princess Juliana Rurikova of Vitebsk (Belarus)

At the time of Vitebsk was a principality within Lithuania. She was succeeded by Jogaila Wladyslaw Gediminas.


1366-71 Regent Khanum Beng Shi of China

For the pretender Ming Sheng of the Yuan Dyasty.

Bona de Bourbon


1366-67, 1383 and 1391-93 Regent Countess Bona de Borbone of Savoia, Moriana Chablais, Aosta, Ivrea,  Susa, Baugé, Romont, Faucigny, Vaud, Gex, Nice and Geneva (Italy, France and Switzerland)

Also known as Bonne de Bourbon, she was first in charge of the government when her husband, Count Amedeo VI of Savoy during his absence on crusade. He then desingated her as regent for their son, Count Amedeo VII, in 1383, who in his turn had desingated her as regen for his son Amedeo VIII in 1391, which led to a dispute with her daughter-in-law, Bonne de Berry, and she renounced her role in May 1395 and retired to Mâcon. She was daughter of Duke Pierre
I de Bourbon and Isabella de Valois. She lived (1341-1402).


Around 1366-74 Princesse-Abbesse Eléonore de Châlon of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor's deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the bourgeois of the city with her advice. She was the 10. child of John II de Châlon and Alix de Bourgogne. There is a gap in the list of sovereigns of the Abbey until 1501.


Around 1367-74.. Princess-Abbess Elisabeth of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

Mentioned in a number of documents together with the Prioress Bohunka and custrix Agnes. In 1370 Agnes is Prioress and in 1374 Dorothea is Prioress


 1367-80 Reigning Abbess-General Estefanía de la Fuente Almexía of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Both temporal and secular ruler of vast territories in Castilla and Leon.

Unnamed Mexican Queen

Circa 1368-79 Queen Ehuatl-Ycetzin of Quauhtitlan (Mexico)

Ruled the Aztec state in Central Mexico.

Unnamed Laotian Lady

1368 Brhat Pada Samdach Sdach Brhat Rajangsa Brhat
Parama Lambangasa Rajadhiraja Nang Keo
Lot Fa Kaeng Kangya of Lan-Xang (Laos)

Her husband, Samdach Brhat Agna Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Ganahudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara, was King of Lan Xang (1353-71) until he was deposed. She was a fervant Buddhist, and, according to Siamese sources daughter of the King Sri Chandraratta of Cambodia (d. 1368) 


1368-71 Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Pommern-Stettin (Poland)

After the death of her husband she took over the regency for her three sons; the joint Dukes of Pommern-Stettin: Kasimir IV (circa 1351-72), Swantibor I (circa 1351-1413) and Bogislaw VII (circa 1355-1404). She was daugther of Heinrich II. von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen and his first wife Jutta von Brandenburg, and lived (1318-71).

Agnes von Habsburg

1368-92 Hereditary Countess Agnes von Habsburg of Fürstenburg und Schweidnitz (Austria)

Succeeded husband, Bolko II, and after her death, the country went to Bohemia.


1368-84 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Mechtild von Geldern of the Linner Land (Burg Linn bei Krefeld) in Berg (Germany)

First married to Godert von Leon, Herr von Millen und Eyck and secondly to Johann I Graf von Kleve, and appointed Amtmann Heinrich von Stünkede to take care of her interests. She lived (circa 1325-84)


1368-81 Territorial Countess Philippa Plantagenet of Ulster (United Kingdom)

Only child of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster, whom she succeeded as 5th Countess in 1468. Her father was the second son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and therefore she was heiress presumptive from 1477 to her cousin until her own death, she married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March (circa 1351-81) in about 1368. As a result of her seniority in the line of succession to the throne of the Kingdom of England and her marriage into the powerful Mortimer family, her descendants eventually succeeded to the throne as the House of York under Edward IV. She lived (1355–82).


1368-69 Reigning Abbess Judel of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

In the 14th Century the chapter and its vast possessions was under the Stewardship of Württemberg which also held the higher juridstiction.

Empress Xiao He

1368-98 Politically Influential Empress Ma of China

Also known as Xiao He, she assisted her husband, Zhu Yuanzhang of the Ming Dynasty, in both his military activities, the management of his household and the decisions he made in institutional matters and in managing his civil and military subordinates. She influenced his decisions on a wide range of issues from the punishment of senior officials and merchants whom he suspected of treason to the treatment of prisoners forced to do corvee labour. She took a personal interest in the welfare of the students at the National University at Nanjing, and sponsored the setting up of the “Red Plank Granary” to dispense grain as part of a stipend for the students and their families.

Jeanne de Bourbon

1369/73-82 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Bourbon of Lyonnais et Forez (France)

In 1350 she married king Charles V of France (1338-64-80). His reign was marred by the Hundred Years' War, but Charles' army scored some victories and defeated the army of the King of Navarre. He declined to be drawn into a crusade. Nonetheless, dissatisfaction with his rule was such that at one point the Mayor of Paris, Etienne Marcel, led a revolt against Charles that forced the king to flee the city. A strong supporter of the arts, Charles had the Louvre restored and improved and in 1367 created the first royal library in France. Mother of three children, and lived (1338-78).

1369-1403 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne II d'Aigremont of Remiremont  (France)

In 1371 an act stated that there were 21 ladies in residence. Her long reign contributed to the development and stability of the chapter. She was member of a noble family from present day's Belgium.

1369-94 Claimant to the Throne and Titular Queen Constanza of Castilla (Spain)

Daughter of King Pedro I of Castilla and Léon, who was murdered in 1369. Since her brother had died in 1362 and her sister was a nun, she and her husband since 1371, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, perused the throne of her father, though unsuccessfully. Their only son died as an infant and their only daughter, Catalina de Lancaster (1372-1418), married King Enrique III of Castile (1379–1406) of the Trastamara line and was regent 1406-18. Constanza lived (1354-94).

Elisabeth Lokietkowna of Poland

1370-75, 1376-77 and 1378-79 Regent Dowager Queen Elżbieta Łokietkówna of Poland and Dalmatia

As regent Queen Elisabeth or Erszébet had the official title Regina Senioris Poloniae and 1370-80, she was in fact joint ruler with her son, Louis d'Anjou of Hungary, and officially appointed regent during his stays in Hungary after he inherited the kingdom after her brother, Kazimierz III of Poland (1309-33-70). She had already been very influential since he succeeded her husband, Karol Robert, as king of Hungary in 1342. She had gained the upper hand at court and for several decades she acted as a sort of co-regent, and even the Hungarian barons were afraid of her. She was a fanatical catholic and founded countless religious churches and convents. Of her 7 children, the second son, Andreas married his cousin, Joanna I of Napoli and was Duke of Calabria until he was murdered by his wife in 1345. She lived (1305-80). 


1370-81 Sovereign Lady Juana Mauel II of Vizcaya, Villena, Escalona, Penafiel and Lara (Spain)

Had succeeded her niece Blanca, as Lady of Villena, Escalona y Penafiel in 1361 and succeeded Tello of Castilla in Vizcaya, who was the husband of her brother's daughter, Juana Núñez de Lara I, as señora soberana. Juana II was married to King Enrique II of Castile (1333-79) and after her death, the Basque Country was incorporated into Castilla and later Spain. She was daughter of She was the daughter of the Infante Juan Manuel of Castile (1282-1349) and his second wife Blanca Núñez de Lara de La Cerda, mother of several children, and lived (1339-81).


1370-73 Khanum Regnant Tulun Beg of the Golden Horde in Russia and Serbia

Member of the Ak Urdu Dynasty and followed Mohammed Buluq-Khan, who only ruled in 1370 and died 1379. She was succeeded by Arab Shaykh of the Arab Shaykh Dynasty. The Golden Horde was the Western division of the Mongol Empire, subject to the Great Khans at Karakorum, and ruling most of Russia.


1370-1412 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Nassau of Essen (Germany)

After her election she created uproar by demanding that the City Council and Citizen should pay homage to her according to an old custom that had been forgotten. In 1372 she had sovereign status of the Chapter as a Realm in the Empire was confirmed and in 1399 she and the city agreed on a settlement on the distribution of powers. Daughter of Johann von Nassau-Hadamar and Elisabeth von Wied. She (d. 1413).


1370-83 County Sheriff Helene Olufsdatter Lunge of the County of Bjernedegård with Stormandsgården, Denmark

Helene Lunge was widow of Evert Moltke, she followed her husband as holder of the tenantcy appointed by the Bishop of Roskilde (Bispelensmand). She lived (circa 1540-83).

Saint Catherine of Siena

1370-80 Politically Influential Saint Catherine of Siena in France and Italy

An Italian mystic and diplomat, a member of the third order of the Dominicans. In 1370 she began to take part in the public life of her time in response to a vision, sending letters to the great of the day. She went to Avignon and exerted decisive influence in inducing Pope Gregory XI to end the “Babylonian captivity” of the papacy and return to Rome in 1376. She helped bring about peace between the Holy See and Florence, which had revolted against papal authority. In the Great Schism, she supported the Roman claimant, Pope Urban VI, and worked vigorously to advance his cause. She also advocated a crusade against the Muslims. In 1375 she is supposed to have received the five wounds of the stigmata, visible only to herself until after her death. She became the centre of a spiritual revival and a formidable family of devoted followers gathered around her. Though she never learned to write, she dictated hundreds of letters and a notable mystic work, commonly called in English The Dialogue of Saint Catherine of Siena or A Treatise on Divine Providence. She was canonized in 1461 and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970. The daughter of Giacomo Benincasa, a Sienese dyer, Catherine from early childhood had mystic visions and practiced austerities; she also showed the devotion to others and the winning manner that characterized her life. At age 16 she entered the Dominican order as a tertiary and lived at home, and lived (1347-80).




1371-79 Sovereign Duchess Mechtild of Gelders and Zutphen
1372-79 Countess of Zutphen, Regent of Over- en Neder Betuwe, de Bommeler en Telewaarden en de Veluwe (The Netherlands)

After her brother, Reinhald III's death she was declared Duchess in her own right by the States of Gelders, but was deposed. She continued to reign as Countess of Zutphen until she was deposed by her nephew in 1377, but did not resign the titles until 1379.  Married to Count Godfried van Looz en Chiney (d. 1342), count Johan I von Kleve. (d. 1368) and Jean de Châtillon, then count of Blois. She lived (circa 1325-84).


1371-1402 Reigning Abbess Anna II von Rüssegg of Buchau (Germany)

Her background is not clear and other versions of her name are Ruseck, Rünsegg or Riinseck. She was elected 25.7.1371 and inaugurated by the bishop of Konstanz at 5.9. 


Around 1371 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Goldenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Her family had been lords of Mörsburg since 1363 and remained in charge of the castle until 1569 when the Lords von Hallwyl auf Hegi took over. In 1587 Zürich bought the stewardship.




1371-72 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Vendôme of Vendôme and Castres (France)

Just an infant, she succeeded  her father, Bouchard VII de Vendôme (1345-64-71), and since her mother, Isabelle de Bourbon, had died in childbed, she reigned under the regency of her grandmother, Jeanne de Ponthieu, but died after a few months. Succeeded by aunt, Catherine. Lived (1371-72).




1371-72 Regent Dowager Countess Jeanne de Ponthieu  of Vendôme and Castres (France)

After the death of her son, Bouchard VII de Vendôme, she was regent for her granddaughter, Jeanne de Vendôme  until her death after a year. She was widow of Jean VI de Vendôme, comte de Vendôme (1354-64) and her daughter, Catherine de Vendôme took over as ruler in 1372. She (d. 1376). 

1372-1412 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Vendôme of Vendôme and Castres (France)

Succeeded her niece, Jeanne, and reigned jointly with husband, Jean VII de Bourbon-La Marche, Count de La Marche until his death in 1393. He was the brother of Isabelle de Bourbon, who was married to her brother, Bouchard. Her son Louis I was count (1403-15). Catherine (d. 1412).


1372-83 Titular Duchess Maria of Gelders and Zutphen (The Netherlands)

Fourth daughter of Reinald II and Sofia de Berthout van Mecheln, Countess of Mecheln. She married to Duke Willem II/VI of Jülich (d. 1393), and was a contestant for the title after the death of her brother, Reinald III. Her sister Mechtild was also declared Duchess, but Maria's side prevailed and her son, Willem III, was named duke by the Holy Roman Emperor, Karl IV in 1372. Maria's daughter, Johanna, was heiress to the Duchy of Gelders. Maria (d. 1397).

Serbian Queen

1372-89 Dowager Princess Milica Eugenia Vratkovic of Rudnik (Serbia)
1389-97 De-facto Ruler

Regent for son Stefan Lazarevic both during his minority and when he came of age. She was very wise and tactical in the difficult times during the Turkish invasion.  

Unnamed Lady from Auvergne

1372-1416 Sovereign Countess Anne d'Auvergne of Lyonnais et Forez (France)

The daughter of Béraud II, dauphin d'Auvergne (1333-99) and Jeanne de Forez and succeeded her maternal uncle, Jean II, as Countess of Forez, and was married to Louis II duc de Bourbon, Count de Forez and Prince de Dombes (1337-1410). She lived (1358-1416). 

1373-94 Joint Sovereign Countess Isabelle of Neuchâtel (Switzerland)
1375-94 Sovereign Countess of Neuchâtel and Cerlier, Dame de Vercel, Genz, Dandans, Flangebouche, Vernier-Fontaines, Baclains, Ballaigue,de Vuillafans-le-Neuf, de la garde du Val de Morteau,  Vannes, Balm, de Lugnorre, Jorissens and Provence

When her father, Louis I de Neuchatel died, she inherited his  possessions, jointly with her sister, Varenne, but she managed to take over the whole county. Since she did not have any children with her two husbands: Count Rodolphe IV de Nidau and Jacques de Vergy, seigneur d'Autrey, she was succeeded by her nephew, son of her sister Varenne. She lived (circa 1535-93)

1373-75 Joint Soverign Countess Varenne of Neuchâtel (Switzerland)
1373-80 Baroness du Landeron

Inherited the county jointly with her sister, who managed to take over most of the territory after a few years.  whose son, Conrad IV de Fribourg, called "de Furstemberg", inherited the county. Her daughter, Anna von Freiburg (1374-1427) was married to Rudolf III Von Baden-Hachberg von Zähringen and their grandson, Rodolphe IV de Hochberg, became Count of Neuchatel in 1458. She lived (1359 - 1380)


1373 Reigning Abbess Adélaïde de Ventadour of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was one of the wealthiest in Europe.


1373-93 Reigning Abbess Eléonore II de Parthenay of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Held the office of Abbess of St-Jean de Bonneval-lès-Thouars before she came to Fontevraud. She was daughter of Jean I, sire de Parthenay, de St-Christophe et de Semblançay, gouverneur de Saintonge and Marie de Beaujeu (Forez).

Until 1374 Princess-Abbess Agnes I von Munebach of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The dates of the reigns of her two predecessors are not known, but she was followed by Adelheid von Aerenbach, Katharina I von Murach as head of the Territory of the Realm.


1374-1400 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Parsberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the Chapter immunity and during the reign of Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre.


1374-1400 Countess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Walde of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

A member of the family of the Lords of Walde.


1374-1409 Reigning Abbess Hildgund von Oetgenbach of Herford (Germany)

Head of the large Benedictine convent in northwestern Germany, just north of the Teutoburger Wald. The establishment was granted Princely status in the 12th century, with a seat on the Imperial Diet. Aside from the convent, the town of Herford was an Imperial Free City and a member of the Hanseatic League.


1374-83 Reigning Abbess Irmengard von Hohenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Member of the ancient Countly family of Zollern-Hohenberg in Swabia. 


Circa 1375-circa 1400 Queen Regnant Kukaniloko of Oahau in Hawai'i (USA)

11th Alii Aimoku - and the first Mo'iwahine or supreme female ruler because her father, Piliwale, had chosen her as his successor rather than let the position fall to a male of junior lineage. She married Luaia, the great-great-grandson of Hanalaa, the 4th Alii Aimolu of Maui, and was succeeded by daughter, Kalaimanuia.


1375-93 Sovereign Countess Blanche de France of Valois (France)

Succeeded husband Philippe (1344-75). She was daughter of King Charles IV, and lived (1328-92).


1375-1426 Countess Alix de Baux of Avellino, Vicomtesse de Turenne and Dame de Baux et cetera (France)
1404-26 Countess of Beaufort
Reigned in succession to her brother, Jean de Baux. She was daughter of Raymond II de Baux, Sire de Baux, Count d'Avellino and Jeanne de Beaufort (1351-1404), married Odon de Villars, titular Count of Geneva (d. 1413) and in 1418 she married Count Konrad IV von Freiburg und von Neuenburg (d. 1424). She lived (circa 1367-1426).


1375-...  Sovereign Countess Maria da Coronia of Keos (Greece)

Succeeded Angelina.


1375-83 Princess-Abbess Anna IV Hundpis of Baindt (Germany) 

The first abbess to become Princesses of Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin) in circa 1376, and thereby sovereign ruler of her Ecclesiastical Territory with a vote in the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots), which a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. She was member of the noble family of Von Hundpis, who owned castles in Amtzell from the 14. to the 16th century.


1375-83 Reigning Abbess Marguerite I de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Succeeded by sister, Marie.


1375-1403 Titular Queen Isabel of Mallorca and Ibiza, Reigning Countess of Roussillon and Cerdeanya (Spain)

In Catalan known as Elisabet, she was daughter of King Jaime III of Mallorca et cetera. (1315-24-49), who was killed fighting against the king of Aragon who had retaken Majorca during the 1340s, labelling him as "a contumacious vassal". She succeeded her brother, Jaime VI (husband of Queen Joanna I of Napoli (1326-82)) to the titular dignity and lived in her family's possessions in Southern France at Chateau de Gallargues. Her first husband was Margrave Giovanni II of Montferrato (1313-72) and the second Konrad von Reischach zu Jungnau. She was mother of four sons (3 of whom became Margraves of Monferrato) and a daughter by her first husband, and one son by the second. She lived (1337-after 1403).

Margrethe I

1376-87 Regent Dowager Queen Margrethe I Valdemarsdatter of Denmark and Norway
1387-1412 Reigning Queen (Master and Mistress) of Denmark, Sweden and Norway

Youngest daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark. At the age of ten she was married to King Håkon VI of Norway, son of Magnus II of Sweden and Norway. Their son Olaf, born in 1370, was elected King Olaf II of Denmark in 1375 at the death of Margrethe's father, with her as regent. After her husband's death shortly after her son also became Olaf IV of Norway. After Olaf's death in 1387 the Estates in Denmark elected her as "Full-mighty Master and Mistress of All the Real" for life. The following year she became regent of Norway. In 1388 the Swedish nobility dethroned their king Albrecht of Mecklenburg, and elected Margrethe as their reigning Queen instead. She chose her sister's daughter's son Erik of Pommerania as her successor, who became king in 1389, but Margrethe remained the real ruler. She founded the union of Kalmar, which in the case of Sweden would last until 1523, and with Norway until 1814. In 1410, Margrethe tried to reinstate Danish overlordship over Schleswig, which caused a war with the Counts in Holstein. She travelled to the conflict area, and died there in 1412. She lived (1353-1412).


1376-1443 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Comminges (France)

Married to Count Jean III d'Armagnac.


1376-14.. Sovereign Lady Fiorenza Sanudo of Milos and Kimolos (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded father. From 1383 she reigned jointly with her sister Maria. They were daughters of Fiorenza Sommaripa of Milos et cetera, and Jacopo I of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, and she married Giovanni Michiel, Co-Lord of Seriphos, and then Francesco I Crispo (+1397), Venitian Patrician and Lord by the right of his wife of de Milos and also inherited Naxos and the Lordships of Santhorini, Andros, Astyphalea, Delos, Ios, Paros and Amorgos.  She lived (1410-14...).


1376-79 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Hackeborn of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Edlen Albrecht and Countess Richza von Scharpelau. (d. 1375).

1377-1402 Queen Regnant Maria of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1377-79 Duchess of Athens and Neopatria and Titular Queen of Jerusalem

At the age of 15 she succeeded her father, King Federico with Artale of Alagona as regent. 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 she married Martin the Younger of Aragon and two years later they returned together with his father, Martin the Old, King of Aragon, and Maria received the crown by the Sicilian Barons. As king and Queen they used the titluatures; "Nos, D. Martin, e duenya Marya, per la gracia di Dios, roy e reyna de Sicilia, e de los ducados de Athenes e de Neopatria duque e duquessa, e nos infante don Martin, del mult alto D. Pedro, de buena memoria, roy d'Aragon fillo, e per la gracia di Dios duque de Monblanc, Conte de Luna e senyor del marquesado e de la ciutat de Sagorbe, governador general per lo mult alt senior D.Jean, rey d'Aragon, ermano e senyor nostro muyt car, en tut sus regnos e terras, coadjutor de la dicha reyna en lo regimento del regno e ducados sopredichos, e padre e legitimo administrador del dicho rey." She died without an heir, and lived (1361-1402).

Unnamed Russian Princess

1377... Sovereign Grand Princess Juliana Rurikova of Vitebsk (Belarus) 

Reigned in succession to Olgerd, who was Grand Prince 1316-77 and remained in Lithuania from 1345. Also known as Yolyana Aleksandrovna of Tver.


1377-88/before 94 Sovereign Countess Marie de Brienne d'Enghien of Argos and Nauplia (Greece)

Succeeded father Guy III de Brienne and reigned jointly with Pietro Cornaro (d. 1388) and Pasquale Zane (d. 1392). In 1388 the county was conquered by Venice. She (d. bf. 1394).


1377-1400 Sovereign Lady Herzlaude of Gross-Rappoltstein und Hohenach (Germany)

Married to Heinrich III Graf von Saarwerden. She kept her paternal inheritance but transferred the lordships of her husband to his brother, the Archbishop of Köln, Friederich III von Saarwerden. She willed her own possessions to her second husband, Count Johann I von Lupfen-Stühlingen. She lived (1372-1400).

Fürstäbtissin Margarete zu Quedlinburg, née Countess von Scharplau

1377-79 Princess-Abbess Margarete von Schrapelau of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her sister, Agnes III. reigned (1354-62). Margarete (d. 1379).


1377-circa 88 Territorial Countess Margaret Mormaer of Mar, Lady Garioch, Chief of the Clan of Mar in Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

Inherited the titles from her brother, Thomas Mormaer, 9th Earl of Mar (circa 1330-1377). She had married William, first Earl of Douglas, who was succeeded by their son, James. 2. Earl of Douglas and Earl of Mar and Garioch in right of his mother, and when he fell, leading the Scots at the battle of Otterburn. he was succeeded by her daughter, Isabel, who became owner of the Earldom of Mar and the Lordship of the Garioch and became the owner the unentailed lands of the House of Douglas.

Countess Joan of Kent, Dowager Princess of Wales

1377-85 Politically Influential Dowager Princess Joan of Kent of Wales in England, Hereditary Countess of Kent, Baroness Wake de Lydell (United Kingdom)

Her husband, Edward, Prince of Wales died in 1376, and the following year her son succeeded as King Richard II, who reigned under Council of Regency until he came of age in 1390. Joan was daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, youngest son of Edward I, and Margaret de Wake, 3rd. Baroness Wake of Lydell, whom she succeeded upon her death of the plague. She early gained wide note for her beauty and charm and became known as the Fair Maid of Kent. Her marriage to the earl of Salisbury was annulled on the grounds of a pre-contract with Sir Thomas Holland, whom she then married and became mother of four children. Upon the death of her brother in 1353 she became Countess of Kent in her own right. In 1361, after Holland's death, she married Edward the Black Prince, by whom she had two sons, Edward (1365–70) and Richard. In 1378 she was instrumental in halting proceedings against John Wyclif, though there is insufficient evidence to determine if she accepted his doctrines. As long as she lived, she was probably the principal influence on her son Richard II. She lived (132885).


1379-81 Sultan Myriam Raadafati Kambadi Kilege of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Queen Siri Suvama Abaarana. Her sister, Sultan Khadija, reigned three times beginning in 1337. Myriam was the last of the Lunar Dynasty and was deposed by a Moslem cleric by the name of Fagi Mohamed son of Kaeumani Kaulhannaa Kilege of Maakuratu, who was succeeded by his daughter Daainu Kambaa in 1383.


1379/80-1422 Princess-Abbess Klaranna von Hohenklingen of Säckingen (Germany)

The territory suffered from the freedom fight of the Swiss against Habsburg-Austria and in 1409 the she granted the cities of Säckingen and Laufenburg as fiefs to the Duke of Austria, and thereby they came totally under the influence of the Habsburgs, but 1417 she had King Sigisumd confirm the rights and liberties of the chapter. She was daughter of Freiherr Walter von der Hohenklingen, Lord zu Stein and Countess Kunigunde von Fürstenberg, and her sister Anastasia was Princess-Abbess of the Fraumünster 1412-29.


1380-1405 Princess-Abbess Irmgard II von Kirchberg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

1384 the City of Quedlinburg joined the Association of Cities of Low Saxony (Niedersächsischen Städtebund). In 1396 the City Council succeeded in acquirering the Stewardship over the Chapter from Count Ulrich von Regenstein. She was daughter of Burggrave Albrecht von Kirchberg and Countess Elisabeth von Orlamünde. She lived (1350-1405).


1380-86 Princess-Abbess Aleide II de Ligne of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


1380-96 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca de Herrera of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abedesa she was also Head of the subsidiary parishes of Bercial and Lorilla

Katharina von Henneberg

1381-90 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Henneberg of the Osterland, Landsberg, Pleißnerland, Orlamünde, Kahla, Jena und Naumburg (Saale) (Germany)
1381-97 Reigning Dowager Lady of
Coburg and Weißenfels

Ruled in the name of sons Friedrich, Wilhelm and Georg, who divieded the margravates of Thüringen and Meissen with their uncles after the death of her husband Margrave Friederich, who had named her as the regent in his will. Her father Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen (d. 1347) named her heir of Coburg together with her mother Jutta von Brandenburg (d. 1453) and 3 sisters, while the rest of the Henneberg territory went to his brother Johann. The surviving sons, Friedrich IV (1370-1428), Wilhelm II (1371-1425) and Georg (1380-1402) later inherited Thüringen and Meissen from their uncles. She lived (1334-97)


1381-after 98 Princess-Abbess Katharina von Truthan of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The chapter was the only in the Austrian lands which enjoyed immunity and the status of an Imperial Immediacy.


1381-86 Politically Influential Queen Margherita d'Angiò-Durazzo of Napoli (Italy)
1386-1400 Regent Dowager Queen

Very influential during the reign of her husband and nephew Carlo III Durazzo, who succeeded her father, Andreas of Hungary, as king and was also king of Hungary 1386. He was killed same year and she took over the government in the name of her son Ladislao di Durazzo (1386-1414) who was later succeeded by his daughter, Giovanna II. Margherita was daughter of Duke Carlo di Durazzo and the former heir to the throne of Napels, Princess Maria of Napoli (1328-66) and her sister Giovanna, was Duchess of Durazzo 1348-87. She lived (1347-1412).

1382-85 and 1386-95 Queen Regnant Maria of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Cumania, Bulgaria

Mária was crowned as rex Hungariæ, and was the second of three daughters of Louis I the Great of Hungary from the House of Angevin (Anjou). Mary became Queen of Hungary after her father's death in 1382 (her elder sister Catherine died four years earlier). Her mother and the Palatine Miklós Garai ruled the country. Many noblemen of Hungary were opposed to them and they helped Charles of Durazzo (Charles III of Naples, Charles II of Hungary) to become King of Hungary in 1385. Sigismund to whom she was betrothed rescued her from captivity. Sigismund took revenge on the murderers of her mother. From 1387 officially Maria and her husband were joint rulers of Hungary but in fact he ruled alone. In 1410 Sigismund was elected Holy Roman Emperor, two years after she married Barbara Cilli, and their daughter, Elisabeth and her husband became Queen of King of Bohemia and Croatia-Dalmatia in 1437. She lived circa 1372-95).


1382-86 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabeth of Bosnia of Hungary

Assumed the regency without difficulty after her husband's death, but the political elite was divided over whom Maria should marry, She worked for a marriage between her daughter and Louis d'Orléans of France. The Polish nobles insisted that their ruler should reside permanently in their kingdom. At first Elisabeth considered taking up arms, but in March 1383 she accepted the accession of her younger daughter, Hedwig (Jadwiga) as Queen of Poland. In August 1384 some of the Hungarian nobles renounced their allegiance to her. She was under threat from both Sigismund of Luxembourg - whom her husband had designated as Maria's husband - and Carlos d'Anjou of Durazzo-Napoli, who was offered the Hungarian throne. Elisabeth was forced to abandon the idea of the French marriage and accepted that Maria married Sigismund, but it was too late in December 1385 Maria abdicated and Carlos became king, but in February the following year he was deposed, he was wounded and died. Elisabeth again seized the reigns of power and immediately rewarded those who had been loyal to her daughter. In April 1386, king Wenceslas of Bohemia brought Sigismund to Hungary, and by the Treaty of Györ the queens were forced to accept him as prince consort. A riot had broken out in Slavonia and Elisabeth thought that the presence of Maria would calm the situation. She was wrong, her small army was slaughtered, and the queens were imprisoned at the bishop of Zagreb's castle, and this marked her fall from power, and in January 1387 Elisabeth was strangled in her prison.  Elisabeth was daughter of Stefan Kotromanić, Ban of Bosnia and Elżbieta of Poland, and lived (ca.1340-87).


1382-94 Regent Dowager Countess Helena Asanina Kantakouzene of Salona (Amphissa) (Greece)

Also known as Helena Kantakouzena, she was regent for daughter after the death of her husband, Louis Fadrique, until she was killed by the Turks who had invaded the city of Salona. She was daughter of Matthaios Asanes Kantakuzenos ex-co-Emperor of Byzantium & his wife Eirene Palaiologina (d. 1394). 


1382-94 Sovereign Countess Maria Fadrique de Aragón of Salona, Burgravine of Siderokastron  (Greece)

The daughter of Count Luis Fadrique de Aragón of Malta, Gozzo and Salona  (d. 1381/82) and Despotina Helene Asenina Cantakuzene (d. 1394), she was engaged to Geoffroy and Bernaduc de Rocaberti, to Stefan Dukas Nemanjic of Serbia, and to Matheu de Moncada. The Turks, under Sultan Bayezid I, besieged Salona in early 1394. The Greek Orthodox Bishop of Salona opened the city gates to them as he was anxious to dispossess her and her mother, whose administrative abuses had been excessive. She was taken for the Sultan's harem, but he refused her, and she died in prison at Adrianople shortly after. She lived (circa 1370-95)


1382-? Sovereign Dame Marie de Sully of Boisbelle-Henrichemont, Dame de Sully et Craon (France)

Daughter of Louis, Seigneur de Sully (d. 1382) and Isabeau, Dame de Craon, she first married Guy VI de La Tremoille, Count de Guines in 1382. He died in Rhodesin 1398 and secondly to Sire Charles I d'Albret, Count de Dreux, Baron de Sully, constable of France, who was killed at Agincourt in 1415.

Beatriz of Portugal

1383 Titular Queen Beatriz of Portugal

Also known as Brites, she was married to king Juan of Castilla, and after her father, Fernando I's death, she claimed the throne of Portugal between 22 October and the middle of December 1383, but was deposed by the Còrtes, who chose her uncle as king. Her son Fernando I of Aragon and Sicily, who was married to Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque. Beatriz lived (1372-circa 1410).

Leonor of Portugal

1383 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor Tellez de Menezes of Portugal

First married to João Lourenço da Cunha, Lord of Pombeiro and in 1371 she married king Fernando I, which caused a war with Castilla as her husband broke an engagement with Enrique II's daughter. During the later years of their marriage, her husband was very ill and had to withdraw from the government, which was left in her hands. After his death, she was appointed regent for their daughter, Beatriz, who was married to Juan I of Castilla. She was very unpopular because of her pro-Castilian politics, and people did not trust the promises of autonomy, and as she gave her lover, Juan Fernández Andeiro, Count von Ourém, much power, she was deposed after only six weeks by a riot of the artisans of Lisbon in favour of her husband's illegitimate half-brother, João de Avis. Mother of one son by her first husband and two by her second, who both died as infants. She was daughter of Martim Afonso Telo de Menezes and Aldonça Anes de Vasconcelos, and lived (circa 1350-86).


1383-88 Sultan Malikat Daainu Kambaa Radafati Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Fatima, she was daughter of Sultana Myriam, who was deposed by Fagi Mohamed in 1381. Daainu was deposed by her husband who ascended the throne as Sultan Abdulla II and reigned a month and a half before being assassinated by Osman of Fehendu. 

1383-1404 Judicissa Eleonora de Capraia of Arborea and Gallura, Countess of Goceano in Sardinia (Italy)

Defeated the rebels that had killed her brother, Ugone III, and she reigned as giudicessa in the name of her infant son Federigo. For the next 4 the state was at war with Aragon, which lost much of its possessions to her and was trying to reclaim the island. She obtained almost all of the island during this war. After rallying Sardinian forces, she was able to negotiate a favourable treaty. Federigo died during this war, and was succeeded by her younger son, Mariano V. An alliance was formed with Genoa, and Arborea maintained its independence until 1409 or 1410. She composed the Carta de Logu, a body of laws which came into force in  1395. They were considered to be far in advance of the laws of other countries, the penalty for most crimes being a fine, and the property rights of women were preserved. Many of these laws remained in force in Sardinia until 1713 and others until Italian unification in 1861. She was daughter of Mariano IV of Arborea and Timbora de Roccaberti, married to Brancaleone Doria, a Sardinian nobleman, in order to strengthen local alliances, and mother of a number of children. She died of the plague and lived (circa 1347-1404).


1383-? Sovereign Duchess Fiorenza II Sanduro of Naxos et de L'Archipel (Greek Island State)

Succeeded Niccolo II dalle Carceri, the son of her cousin, Fiorenza, after he was murdered by her husband, Francesco Crispo, Baron of Astrogidis in Eubœa and Duke of Naxos  by the right of his wife. She had succeeded her father, Marcolino Sanudo as Lady of Milos when he died after 1376.


1383-1437 Sovereign Co-Baroness Maria Crispo of Milos (Greece)

Reigned jointly with her sister, Fiorenza, whose reign began in 1376. They were daughters of Fiorenza Sommaripa and Jacopo I of Naxos and of the Archipelagos. Maria married Andrea Dandolo, and lived (1406-37).


1383-.. Sovereign Countess Maria II Sanudo of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)
1389-1414 Sovereign Princess of Antipatos and Andros (Greek Island-State)

Circa 1389 Sovereign Baroness of Naupila 

Granted the island of Andros as a fief, but was deprived of Andros by Francesco Crispo who bestowed it on his son-in-law Pietro Zeno, bailie in Eubœa, in an effort to increase his influence on the island.  She was compensated by the island of Paros on condition that she would marry Gasparo di Sommaripa. Venice granted her 1/3 of the island of Eubœa, and here she and Gaspar Sommarippa reigned as heads of Parts of Euboea and the Barony of Naupila, an island in the central Cyclades, west of Naxos, and south of Delos and Mykonos. Today it is known as Paros. Her descendants continuing to hold this part under Venice until the Ottoman Turks invaded the island in 1470. She was daughter of Duchess Fiorenza I Sanudo of Naxos and her second husband, Niccolo Sanudo, Duke by the right of his wife. She (d. 1426).


1383-92 Princess-Abbess Christina II Holbein of Baindt (Germany) 

The Abbey was founded 1227 it's Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373.


1383-86/96 Reigning Abbess Marie I de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
1386/90-06 Reigning Abbess of Montivilliers

As Madame Abbesse, she exercised ecclesiastical jurisdiction in 28 parishes in Normandy, including Saint-Paul and Eauplet by Rouen. She (d. 1396).


1383-94 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Hornstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of an ancient noble framily from Sigmaringen near Wald.

Jadwiga of Poland

1384-99 Queen Jadwiga of Poland and of the Lands of Crakow, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Leczyca, Kujawia, and Hereditary Lady of Pommerania

Her official title was “Hedvig Rex Poloniæ”, and she was the youngest daughter of king Louis of Hungary and Poland and Elizabeth of Bosnia. She was brought up at the royal court in Buda. In 1378 she was betrothed to Wilhelm von Habsburg and spent about a year at the imperial court in Vienna. She was well educated and polyglot, interested in arts, music, science and court life, and was also known for her piety. When her father died in 1382, the Hungarian throne was inherited by her older sister, Maria. The lords of Lesser Poland did not want to continue the personal union with Hungary and therefore chose her as their new monarch. After two years of negotiations with Jadwiga's mother and a civil war in Greater Poland (1383), she finally came to Kraków and was crowned King of Poland. As a monarch, she probably had little actual power, but she was actively engaged in her kingdom's political, diplomatic and cultural life. In 1387 she led a military expedition to re-conquer the Duchy of Halych and in 1390 she began to correspond with the Teutonic Knights. She gave much of her wealth to charity, including foundation of hospitals; she founded the bishopric in Vilnius and resorted the Academy of Kraków, since called Jagiellonian University in honour of her and her husband. Her engagement to Wilhelm of Habsburg was broken off, and instead she married Jagiello, Gand Duke of Lithuania, in order to unite Poland and Lithuania and to convert the Lithuanians to Christianity. She was said to be a blonde, blue-eyed beauty, and an exhumation performed in 1976 showed that she was unusually tall for a medieval woman (180 cm). Her only daughter, Elizabeth Bonifacia, died one month after her birth, and Jadwiga died soon after. She lived (1374–99).

Marguerite III de Mâle

1384-1405 Sovereign Countess Marguerite III de Mâle of Flanders, Artois, Countess Palantine of Bourgundie (known as Franche-Comté), Marchioness d'Anvers, Dame of Antwerpen, Mechelen and Malines (Belgium and France)
1384 Countess of
1384-1402 Countess of Rethel,
1404 Sovereign Duchess of Brabant and Limburg

Also known as Margaretha de Dampierre, she was daughter of Louis de Male of Flanders - she inherited his lands and those of her grandmother, Marguerite de France, Countess of Bourgogne and Artois, and first married to Philippe le Hardi de Rouveres, Duke de Bourgogne, who died after 6 months. Her second husband was Philippe, Duke de Bourbon, and she became famous as patron of fashion, art and art crafts. She inherited Brabant and Limburg after the abdication of her aunt, Johanna. Margaretha lived (1350-1405).  

Marriage of Maria and Ladislo

1384-1414 Sovereign Countess Maria d'Enghien of Lecce (Italy)
1406-07 Sovereign Princess of Taranto
1434 Countess of Conversano

Her father, Giovanni d'Enghien, had received the County of Lecce from his mother, Isabelle de Brienne, and she succeeded her brother, Pietro. A year later she was married for political reasons to Raimondello Orsini del Balzo, Count of Soleto. It was a serene period, during which, their government was dedicated to commissioning architectural works and establishing, in Lecce, “Concistorium principis”, a civil court. However the peace did not last long, in fact in 1405 king Ladislao, worried about the power Raimondello held, decided to invade. He was killed in 1406, and this enabled the Princess to begin the most romantic chapter in her life. King Ladislao tried to gain power over the city, however he had underestimated the strength of Maria and his quest was unsuccessful. He began to court her and tried to attain power in this way. The next year they were married, but according to some chronicles their union was not at all happy and she lived with the constant knowledge of his indifference to her. Ladislao died in 1414 and his cruel sister, Giovanna II, tried to imprison the new Queen but she was liberated by Giacomo Della Marca. After this she returned to Lecce and passed over power to her son, Giovanni Antonio Orsini del Balzo, and retired from public. She lived (1367-1446).


1385-91 Reigning Dowager Despotess Komina Musaki of Valona (Vlora) (Albania/Montenegro)

Took over the principality after the death of her ex-husband Balsa II of Zeta. In the southern parts of the country (nowadays Northern Albania) From 1387 as an Osman Turkish vassal. When her daughter, Rudjina, married she retired to a convent in Ksenija.  

1385-94 Dowager Despina Maria Angelina Dukaina Palaiologina of Ioannia (Greece/Albania)

Daughter of Tomaida Orsini, daughter of Joannes Dukas Komnenos Angelos Orsini, Despot of Epirus and Simeon Uros Palaiologos, Tsar of the Serbs, Greeks and Albania. Her first husband Thomas Comnenus-Preljubović, was Despot of Ioannina, the capital of Epirus in northern Greece, until he was murdered in 1384. The population of Ioannina acclaimed Maria as ruler. She used the title of basilissa, female form of basileus. She summoned her brother John Uroš Doukas Palaiologos (now monk under the name Joasaph) to advise her in the affairs of state. John Uroš suggested that Maria marry Esau de' Buondelmonti, one of the Latin noblemen captured by Thomas in 1379. There is an allegation, that Maria was already enamoured of the captive before the murder of her husband, and that this affair had resulted in the assassination of Thomas. The following year she married Esau Buondelmonti-Acciaiuoli, who also became Despot of Jannina (†1411). She lived (1350-94).


1386-1416 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Vaudemont, Dame de Joinville (France)

Succeeded father, Henri V de Vaudemont. Her mother was Marie de Ligny de Houdanc.


1386-1417 Princess-Abbess Catherine van Halewyn of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Her surname was also spelled De Halluwin. 


After 1386 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth de Geroldseck of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)

Awarded Jean de Wangen with the fief of the Castle of Wangenburg. 


Until 1386/90 Reigning Abbess Marguerite de la Rivière of of Montivilliers
Reigning Abbess of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

During her second tenure, she was known as Marguerite II. She (d. between 1400 and 1418).


1387-91 Countess Giacoma d'Aragona of Malta

Also known as Giovanna she was member of the Argonese royal sideline of Farique de Aragon. Guillermo d'Aragona (a grandson of king Federico of Sicily, born as Fadrique of Aragon) was count around 1377. She held the county as a fief of the Aragonese ruler of Sicily, and was succeeded by Guillermo Raimondo de Moncada.


Around 1387 Princess-Abbess Cunka of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

The St. Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag, Sankt-Georg Kloster or Sv. was the oldest convent in the Bohmian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada.


1387-95 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Fiennes of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Held semi-bishopal authority and secular jurisdiction of her territory.


1387-1434 Politically Influential Duchess Aleksandra of Mazowsze (Poland)

Dominant during the rule of her husband Siemowit IV. She was sister of Great Prince of Lithuania and king of Poland Władysław I Jagiełło, and lived (circa 1371-1434).


1388-95 Lieutenant Queen Violante de Bar of Arágon (Spain)

Wielded considerable administrative power during the frequent illnesses of her husband, Juan I of Aragón. She transformed the Aragonese court into a center of French culture, and especially cultivated the talents of Provençal troubadours. In the face of her husband's unwillingness or inability to act in the face of demands for reorganisation of the royal household and other administrative reforms from urban deputies in the Cortes which met at Monzón in Nov 1388, she made compromise proposals which averted the crisis. Also known as Yolande de Bar, she wa mother of 3 children: Violante of Aragon (Titular Queen of Aragon from 1411), Jaime and Antonia. She was daughter of Robert I, Duke of Bar and Marie of Valois and lived (circa 1365-1431).


1388-97 Hereditary Countess Jutta von Diez of Diez (Germany)

Daughter and heiress of Count Gernard VII von Diez and married to Adolf Graf von Nassau-Dillenburg (1362-1420) and mother of one daughter, Jutta  (d. 1424).


1388 Reigning Abbess Katharina Gieringer of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Head of the chapter for noble ladies, which was situated in Rottweil am Neckar in the Schwarzwald (Black Forest) in Württemberg.


Circa 1388-1408 Territorial Countess Isabel Douglas of Mar, Lady Garioch, Chief of the Clan of Mar in Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

In 1390, Robert III. granted to his brother-in-law, Sir Malcolm Drummond, Lord of Mar in right of his wife, the 11th Countess, a licence to erect a tower on the lands of Castletown of Braemar. The King, in 1393, granted to Sir Malcolm by charter, forty pounds sterling per annum from the great custom of Aberdeen, until the King shall give him forty pounds worth of lands. In 1402 he was murdered by Alexander Stewart. In the summer of 1404 Alexander Stewart captured her castle and forced her to sign a charter on August 12, 1404. She revoked the charter later that year, but on marrying him, she gave him the earldom for life; the King confirmed her last action the next year. She lived (c. 1360-1408)


From 1389 Regent Dowager Countess Margareta von Berg von Bayern of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault  (The Netherlands)

Governed in the name of her son Willem VI of Bayern, who was governor of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault (1389-1404) and afterwards count after Marguerite III's death - he was succeeded by niece, Jacobäa of Bavaria. Margareta lived (1363-1414).


1389-97 Princess-Abbess Margaretha III van Horne-Perwez of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Principality of Thorn. Not much is known about her reign.


Around 1390 Princess-Abbess Elsa of Elten (Germany) 

Named as "Eerwoerdige und Hocgeborene vorstinne vrow Elsa" in a document. Dispensed both high and low juridstiction and held hunting rights in her territories. Also held the right to appoint and dismiss clerics, and the right to excommunicate or ban clerics was reserved to the Pope, not the Bishop of Utrecht.


1390-95 Abbess Nullius Francesca d'Angiò of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

A member of the ruling d'Anjou-family of Napoli.


1390 Guardian Dowager Countess Anna zu Mecklenburg of Holstein-Plön (Germany)

The widow of Count Adolf VII of Holstein-Plön (who reigned 1358-90), she made a treaty on behalf of King Albrecht von Mecklenburg of Sweden and Duke Johan of Mecklenburg, which transferred the regency of Sweden, Mecklenburg and the Counties of Mecklenburg, Schwerin and Rostock, to king Albrecht's brother. She signed the treaty together with Abbot Johan Doberum, 14 Mecklenburgian knights and various Mayors. 

Anabella Drummond

1390-1401 Politically Influential Queen Anabella Drummond of Scotland (United Kingdom)

Very powerful during the reign of her husband, Robert Johan Stuart of Kyle, who was partly paralyzed. In 1398 she had her son, David, Duke of Rothsay appointed regent. Her husband was succeeded by second son, James I. She lived (1350-1401).


1390-95 Politically Influential Queen Leonor de Castilla y León of Navarra in Catilla (Spain)

Left her husband, Carlos II of Navarra (1361-1425), with her 4 daughters in 1390, returning to Castile where she lived at Valladolid and played an active political role. She opposed her nephew Enrique III King of Castile, forming the League of Lillo together with her half-brother Fadrique de Castilla Duque de Benevente and cousin Pedro de Castilla Conde de Trastámara. King Enrique besieged her in her castle at Roa [mid-1394] and obliged her to return to her husband in February 1395. Crowned Queen of Navarre at Pamplona 3 Jun 1403. And later had one more surviving daughter, and two sons and a daughter who died as infants. She was daughter of Enrique II of Castile and doña Juana Manuel de Castilla, Señora de Villena, Peñafiel y Escalona. She lived (circa 1363-1415/16).


139..-circa 1400 Sovereign Countess Johanna van Hoogstraten of Cuyk (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Jan V. When she died circa 1400 without any children the country returned to Gelders. It was now a contested territory between Gelder and Brabant until the middle of the 16th century when it fell to Nassaus.


Until 1391/92 Political Advisor Julianna Twerska in Lithuania

Functioned as advisor for her son Władysław II Jagiełło, king of Poland and the Great Prince of Lithuania.  

Foelkeldis zu Ostfriesland

1391-1409 Regent Dowager Chiefess Foelkeldis of Ostfriesland (Germany)

After her husband Ocko fell in battle in 1391, she was regent for sons Widzelt (d. 1399) and Keno II (1391-1417).


1391-1410 Reigning Abbess Sophia von Daching of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Regensburg was the seat of the Imperial Diet and the Chapter and Territory of Niedermünster was one of the most influential and prestigious.

Isabeau of Bavaria

1392-1419 Regent Queen Isabeau Baverie of France
President of the Council of State 

In 1392 her husband, Charles IV had the first of 44 fits of insanity, which were to last until his death in 1422, and would make him unable to reign. Isabeau was given large lands in Normandie, around Paris and in Champagne as a security, and officially declared regent during the "absence" of her husband. From 1395 she actively engaged in politics, and arranged the marriage of her children in very young age. Her advisors, the brother's of her husband, Philippe de Burgundy and d'Orléans, engaged in a fierce power struggle, which almost resulted in a civil war. In 1402 she took over the control of the taxation and at 26.4.1403 she became President of the Council of State and took over the management of the Government. One year later Louis died, and she reigned jointly with Philippe. After the birth of the last child, she removed totally from Charles, who became more and more violent and dangerous. In 1407 her position was reaffirmed in an official act, but her husband's cousin, Jean placed his followers in all the central positions. 1411-12 a civil war broke out between the Burundians and Orleans. In 1415 her 18-year-old son, Louis, took over the government, and soon after the English attacked France. After Louis' death, his brother, Jean (Married to Jakobäa of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland) was regent until his death two years later. She then was in charge again, and appointed Jean without Fear as Governor of the French Kingdom. In 1419 and 1420 she met the English king, Henry V and negotiated a peace-treaty. After the death of her husband, she lived alone, plagued by rheumatism and immobile because of her heavy weight. Originally named Elisabeth von Bayern, she was mother of 12 children, and lived (1370-1435).


1392-94 Destine Elena Utopia of Raja (Albania)

Wife of Carlo Topia (1360-66, 1366-88 and 1394) and was deposed by the Ottoman Turks. (d. 1410).


1392/95 Sovereign Viscountess Alix of Dreux (France)

Succeeded her father, Etienne Gavin I, Seigneur de Bossart, Vicomte de Dreux (1330-92) and married to Mace de Gemges. She lived (1364-94).


Circa 1392-1418 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Anna of Lithuania

Married to Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. In 1392 she signed “The Agreement from Ostrowo”, promising that her husband would be loyal for Poland, for Queen Jadwiga and her husband king Władysław. Anna died in 1418.


1392-94 Princess-Abbess Fida Hundis of Baindt (Germany) 

As Fürstabtissin she was sovereign ruler of the principality and had a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


Around 1392 Princess-Abbess Gunegundis of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

The chapter of St. Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag, Sankt-Georg Kloster or Sv. was the oldest convent in the Bohmian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada.


1393-1404 Regent Dowager Duchess Maddalena Visconti of Lower Bavaria (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Friedrich, Duke of Bayern-Landshut (1375-1393), she took over the reins for their son Heinrich XVI the Rich (1386-93-1450). She was daughter of Lord Barnabas Visconti of Milano and Beatrix della Scala di Verona, and lived (circa 1366-1404).


1393-1417 Sovereign Countess Marie de Baux of Orange (France)

Succeeded father Raymond IV and joint ruler with husband, Jean I de Chalons-Arlay, who died of the Plague in Paris. Succeeded by son Louis II de Châlon).

1393-97 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Liegnitz of Sagan-Glogau (Żagań-Głogów) (Poland)
1393-1409 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Sagan, Krossen,  Bobrowice, Naumburg am Bober Świebodzin (Żagań, Krosno, Nowogród Bobrzańsk)

Also known as Jadwiga Legnicka. After the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Heinrich VI, of Sagan, she reigned for sons in Glogau and held the other territories as her dowry. The daughter Duke Wacław I of Leonia, she lived (1351/57-1409). 


1393-98 Regent Dowager Countess Bona di Berry of Savoia, Moriana, Chablais, Aosta, Ivrea,  Susa, Baugé, Romont, Vaud, Gex, Nice and Geneva, Dame de Faucigny and de Carlat (Italy, France and Switzerland)

Also known as Bonne de Berry, she fought her mother-in-law, Bona de Bourbone, who had initially become regent after the death of her husband, Count Amedeo VII of Savoy, Aosta and Moriana (1383-91) and Count of Nice (1388-91). But after two years she as able to take over the regency for her son, Amedeo VIII who was Count of Savoy, Aosta, Moriana, Nice and Geneva, who later became the 1st Duke of Savoy (1416-34) and Prince del Piemonte (1418-34) until his abdication 1434, when he became a religious hermit, later antipope and biship. She was daughter of Duke Jean I of Berry and Jeanne d'Armagnac and lived (1362-1435).


1393-1431 Reigning Abbess Blanche d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Cousin of king Charles VI of France.


1394-95 Sovereign Duchess Francesca Acciaiuoli of Athens (Greece)
1394-? Lady of Megara and Sikyon [Basilicata]
1429-? Lady
of Santa Mavra and of Vonitza

In some lists of the Dukes of Athens she is listed as successor of her father, Nerio I Acciaiuoli, who was Lord of Corinth, ca.1370-1394. But she surely received the Lordships of Megara and Sikyon under the will of her father. Having inherited the political ability of her father, she advised her husband, Carlo I Tocco, Count of Kefalonia, Duke of Leukadia, in his councils, who had inherited Corinth in 1394 on the death of his father-in-law despite the latter's arrangement with his other son-in-law Theodoros Palaiologos who unsuccessfully besieged the town in the same year but finally captured it in 1396. She inherited the island of Santa Mavra and the fortress of Vonitza when her husband died. From 1395 until 1402/5 the Duchy was occupied by Venice until her illegitimate brother, Antonio I, took over as duke 1402/05-35. Her sister, Bartolomea Acciaiuoli, received Corinth as part of her dowry.


1394-95 Co-executor Gismonda Acciaiuoli of the Duchy of Athens (Greece)

Appointed co-executor under the will of her brother Nerio in 1394, so long as she remained in Greece.


1394-1406 Sovereign Countess Blanche of Dammartin (France)

Daughter of Charles, Count of Dammartin, who died after 1368, and Jeanne, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun, and married Charles Bureau, Seigneur de la Riviere, who died 1429.

Jeanne II d'Auvergne et Bouloge

1394-1424 Sovereign Countess Jeanne II d'Auvergne and Boulogne (France)

Succeeded father Jean II (1386-94), and reigned jointly with husband, Duke Jean I de Berry, Duke d’Auvergne, Count de Poitiers, and after his death in 1416 with George de la Trémoille, Comte de Guines, Baron de Sully. She became famous for saving the life of her nephew, King Charles the Mad, during the disastrous Bal des Ardents ("Ball of the Burning Men"). She was succeeded by her cousin, Marie I, and lived (1378-circa 1424).


1394–97 Marguerite of Enghien of Brienne (France)

Succeeded her father, Louis and reigned jointly with her husband, John, Lord of Beauvoir.


1394-1445 Sovereign Baroness Johanna van Wassenaer-Polanen of Breda with Polanen, Geertruidenberg, Hoge Zwaluwe, Naalkdwijk, Niervaard, Klundert and de Lek, Lady of Cuijk (The Netherlands)

As the only child of Jan III van Polanen, she inherited vast lands and a huge fortune. She married Engelbert van Nassau-Siegen (1370-1442) and lived (1392-1445).


1394–1442 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Jülich of Hardegsen in Braunschweig-Göttingen (Germany)

Widow of Otto I of Braunschweig-Göttingen (circa 1340-94). She was mother of 4 children, and lived (circa 1364-1442).


1394-1400 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Wiellin of Baindt (Germany) 

The abbey was founded 1227 as a Cistercian Convent (Zisterzienserinnen-Klosters), and the free worldly chapter for noble ladies became Princesses of Empire in about 1376.

Serbian Queen

1395-98 Reigning Queen Jelena Gruba of Bosnia

Her husband, Stephen Dabiša, had designated King Sigismund of Hungary, the husband of his relative, Queen Mary of Hungary, as his successor. The Bosnian nobility refuzed to recognize Sigismund as king and installed her as the new monarch. It was during her reign that the Bosnian nobility grew in power independently from the crown. Amongst them were the famous Dukes Sandalj Hranić and Hrvoje Vukčić and Prince Pavle Radenović that ruled their own demesnes independently from the Queen. Her demesne was a small territory in central Bosnia, while she lost the suzeiranity over the territories of Usora in the valley of the river of Sava. Though she lost some territory and control over nobility, Jelena's reign saw successful trade with the Republic of Dubrovnik.In 1398 she was replaced with Stephen Ostoja. It is unclear why she was replaced. It is possible that her brothers were gaining too much wealth and influence during her reign and the rest of the nobility didn't like it. She continued to reside at the court as queen dowager. Sources refer to her as the most serene and mighty lady Gruba. (d. after 1399.)

Unnamed Spanish Queen

1395-97 and 1398-99 Regent-Governor Queen Maria López de Luna of Aragón (Spain)

Her husband, King Martin I, was king of Aragon (1395-1410) and in 1409 he succeeded his son as King of Sicily, where he reigned one year. Their son, Martin the Younger's wife Maria of Sicily, inherited the kingdom in 1377 but 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 they married and two years later they returned together with Martin I. After her death in 1402, Martin the Younger, married the later Queen Blanca II of Navarre (1391-1425-42). Maria succeeded her father Lope de Luna as Countess of Luna.  (d. 1406). 


1395-1418 Reigning Abbess Agnès de Nieppe of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Succeeded by Marie I de la Chapelle.


1395-97 Reigning Abbess Katharina von Heudorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Head of the important teritorrial chapter in Swabia.


Circa 1395-1405 County Sheriff Gertrud Pedersdatter Grubbe of the Counties of Horsetofte and Ellinge, Denmark

Gertrud Grubbe held the very small estate as a tenant as the Bishop of Roskilde. She was so-called Bispelensmand. She was married to Erik Barnumsen til Skarsholm (d. 1367). She ( d. circa 1405)


1396-1420 Sovereign Despina Rudjina Balsha of Kanina, Lady of Valona
1414-17 Dowager Despotess of Valona (Albania)

Also known by the titles of kraljica (Slavic), Quin (Albanian) or Regina (Latin), she was daughter of Balsa II Balsic (Balshic), Lord of Zeta and Durazzo, who was killed in 1385, and Domnina Asen Komnenos, Despotess of Valona. Married to Merxa Zarkovic in 1391 and became Despotess-consort of the state after her mother retired. In 1417 the Osman Turks conquered her lands. (d. after 1421). 


1396-97 Lady Bartolomea Acciaiuoli of Corinth (Greece)

Received the lordship as dowry upon her marriage of Theodoros I Palaiologos, Despot of Morea, son of Emperor Ioannes V of Byzantinum. But as the lordship went to her brother-in-law, her husband besieged Corinth and finally acquired Corinth it in 1396, after Venice mediated the release of Pedro Bordo de San Superano, whom he had captured, but he sold it in 1400 to the Knights of St John. She was daughter of Nerio Acciaiuoli, Duke of Athens, Baron of  Vostitza and Nivele (d. 1394) and Agnese Saraceno and her sister, Francesca inherited the lordships of Megara and Sikyon in 1394. She (d. 1397).


1396-1430 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Díez de Orozco of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas she held quasi-episcopal powers and ruled a large territory at the same time.


1396-1446 Abbess Nullius Francesca d'Enghien of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Sister of  Maria d’Enghien who was Countess of Lecce (1384-1414), Princess of Tarento (1406-07) and wife of King Ladislao of Napoli.

Henriette von Württemberg

1397-1443 Sovereign Countess Henriette of Montbéliard (France)
1419-26 Regent Dowager Countess of Württemberg (Germany)

Succeeded father as Countess of Montbelliard or Mömpelgard in Burgundy. After the death of her husband, count Eberhard V, she took over the regency for son Ulrich. She lived (1387-1444).


1397-1404 Sovereign Countess Marie de Coucy, Soissons and Marle (France)

Oldest daughter of Count Enguerrand VII, she sold the territory to Duke Louis d’Orléans and might have been murdered. Her only son with her late husband, Heinrich, Hereditary Count of Bar, Robert, died in 1415 and trough his daughter, the territory went to the House of Luxembourg-Ligny. Marie lived (1366-1411).

Serbian Queen

1397-1412 De facto Ruler Mara Brankovic of Kosovo 

Widow of Vuk Brankovic (circa 1371 - 1397), she reigned together with her sons, until the final conquest by the Ottoman Turks.  


1397-1420 Reigning Dowager Duchess Katharina von Oppeln in Zielona Góra and Kożuchów (Poland)

Also known as Katarzyna Opolska, she held the territories as her dowry after the death of her husband Heinrich VIII of Sagan.


1397-1446 Princess-Abbess Mechtildis van Horne of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Only 17 when she was elected abbess, and therefore she needed a special Papal dispensation to take over the position, as the minimum age was normally 30 year. She was mainly interested in the temporal side of her position, and during most of her reign she was busy with inheritance-disputes with the Counts of Loon, and in 1440 it even came to a regular war. In 1446 she abdicated in favour of Jacobäa van Heinsberg-Loon, but remained titular Abbess till her death. She lived (1380-1459).


1398-1412 Sovereign Countess Isabelle of Foix, Vicomtesse of Béarn and  Co-Princess of Andorra, Viscomtesse de Castellbó (et cetera), de Marsan, du Gévaydan et de Lautrec (France and Spain)

Succeeded brother, Mathieu V de Foix-Castelbon, and ruled jointly with husband, Archambaud de Grailly, who allied himself with the English and Navarrians against the French and was engaged in the 100 year war. As a result the territory of Foix was occupied by the French at one point, and in 1402 her husband and two sons swore an oath of allegiance to the king of France and Archambaud was named Captain-General in Languedoc in 1412


1398-1404 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Bussnang of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

The noble von Bussenang family had many clerical members - Abbots of St. Gallen and high officials by the bishop of Konstantz and Zürich and other parts of Switzerland. 


1398-1416 Reigning Abbess.....von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The stewardship and higher jurisdiction came into the posession of the family of Werdenberg in 1399. The Abbess held the lower jurisdiction.

Joan of England

1399-1402 Regent Dowager Duchess Juana de Navarra of Bretagne and Montfort (France)

After Jean IV's death, she was regent for son Jean VI until she married king Henry IV of England as his third wife and became known as Joan of Navarra. Accused of conspiracy by her stepson Henry V King of England, imprisoned at Pevensey Castle, but released in 1425 by King Henry VI. She lived (circa 1373-1437).


1399-1421 Princess-Abbess Aloisia von Herbersdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of the Austrian family of Counts of Herberdorf.


1399-1425 Politically Influential Princess Anna of Poland in Poland

Her father, Casimir III of Poland (1309–1370), was suceeded by his nephew, Louis of Hungary, who was again succeeded by his daughter, Jadwiga. When she died in 1399 her husband, Władysław IV Jagiełło, Grand Duke of Lithuania looked for a new wife among the heirs to the kingdom of Poland, and he was married to her yongest daughter, Anna of Celje and had one daughter, Princess Jadwiga of Lithuania, in 1408, with him. Anna died in 1416 without further surviving children and her granddaughter was married to Margrave Friederich II of Brandenburg Template (1413–1471), and she and a party of nobles wanted her granddaughter and her husband to succeed Władysław at least in Poland, instead of his sons by his fourth wife, but when she died, Jadwiga was without any strong relatives to support her position and she died 1431  without any issue, allegedly by poison. She had first married the Slovenian count William of Celje (Cilli) (1361–92) and secondly Duke Ulrich von Teck (d. 1432). She lived (1366–1425).

Last update 24.06.14






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