Woman Heads of State and Government

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


A list of female heads of state and chiefs of government of Independent States and Self-ruling Territories from the 20th century

Also see Reigning Queens and Empresses and Female Governors General,
 Female Presidents, Woman Premier Ministers and
Woman Premier Ministers of External Territories

17.12.1917-09.03.1918 Acting Head of the Government Evheniya Bohdanivna Bosch, Ukraine

Евгения Богдановна Бош, Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh, or Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh was People's Commissioner of Inteir, and it was regulated by a number of documents that the holder of this office was the Acting Head of the Executive Power. She had been a socialist activist from 1890s, Head of the Kyiv Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Worker’s Party (RSDRP) 1911-12 until she was imprisoned and a deprived of civil rights and exiled to Siberia for life. After the revolution she became Secretary of Regional Committee of RSDRP(B). She resigned from the government in protest to the Brest-Litovsk Peace, according to which Soviet Russia occupied Ukraine. Afterwards she worked on different party and Soviet posts outside Ukraine. When the pain of her disease became unbearable, she committed suicide. She was of German-Jewish origin, and she originally named Gotlibovna Maysh, and lived (1879-1925).

06.04.1940-11.10.1944 Head of State Khertek Anchimaa-Toka, Peoples Republic of Tannu Tuva

As Chairperson of the Presidium of the Parliament, the Little Hüral, Khertek Amyrbitovna was the Head of the state which became Independent in 1921, a People's Republic in 1926, was incoroprated into the Soviet Union in 1944. She had held various jobs in local administration and the party administration, Chairperson of the Women Department of the Central Committee of  the Tuvinian People's Revolutionary Party 1938-1940. Married to the First Secretary of the TPRP, Salchak Kalbakkhorekovich Toka in 1940, Deputy Chairperson of Oblast Executive Committee 1944-1961 and Deputy Chairperson of the Council of Ministers of Tuva 1961-1972. She lived (1912-2008).

Sirimavo Bandaranaike

21.07.1960-27.03.1965 Prime Minister Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike, Sri Lanka
29.05.1970-23.07.1977 Prime Minister
14.11.1994-10.8.2000 Prime Minister

Chairperson 1960-93 and 1993-2000 President of Sri Lanka Freedom Party, 1965-70 and 1988-94 Leader of The Opposition, 1976 Chairperson of the Association of Non Aligned Nations. As Prime Minister, she also held the posts as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Defence, Finance etc, and before her appointment to Prime Minister in 1994, she was Senior Minister without Portfolio (Second in Cabinet) in her daughter, Chandrika's cabinet. She was the widow of Solomon B., Premier of Ceylon 1956-59 until he was assassinated. Her father Mr. Ratwatte was a Senator. She is mother of three children. She lived (1916-2000).

19.01.1966-24.03.1977 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, India
14.01.1980-31.10.1984 (†) Prime Minister

President 1959-60 and 1966-77 Leader of the Congress Party. She was Minister of Information 1964-66 and member of Rajya Sabha 1964-67 and of Lok Sabha 1967-77, 1978 and 1980-84. In 1975 she declared a stated of emergency and ruled as a dictator. She lost the 1977-elections and imprisoned. After her release she was leader of Congress (I) 1978-84 and as Premier she also held posts of Minister of Foreign Affairs, Defence, Finance, Home Affairs etc. Killed by Sikh bodyguard. She was daughter of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (1947-64(†)), married to Feroze Gandhi in 1942. Her younger son Rajiv Ghandi, was Prime Minister (1984-89(†)). She lived (1917-84).

31.10.1968-24.02.1972 Acting Head of State Song Qingling, China
06.07.1976-05.03.1978 Joint Acting Head of State
1979-1980 "Honorary President"

Born into a rich Christian family, she was educated in the USA. In 1927-29 Member of Government Council, 1929-49 Leader of Opposition against her brother-in-Law President Chiang Kai-chek and 1948 Honorary Chairperson of the Kuomintang, 1949-54 Deputy Premier Minister, 1954-59 Vice-Chairperson of The Peoples' Republic (Deputy Head of State), 1954-76 and 1975-78 Vice-Chairperson of the National People’s Congress, Vice-Chairperson of China People’s Consultative Consultative Conference, CPPCC. In 1968-74 the Post of Chair of the Republic was vacant and she and the other Vice-Chairperson, Dong Biw shared the Presidential Powers. In 1976 the Chairman of the NPC died and the 21 vice-chairmen, including Song, acted as collective heads of state until 1978 when a replacement was elected. 1980 she was Chairperson of the 3rd Session of the National People’s Congress. Soong Qingling was widow of Sun Yat-Sen, Provisoric President of China in 1911. Her sister Soong May-ling (b. 1897) played a crucial role as wife of Chiang Kai-chek, President of China till 1945 and of Taiwan 1945-75. And her brother, T. V. Soong, was Premier Minister in Taiwan. A third sister was a business magnate. She lived (1893-1981).

17.03.1969-10.04.1974 Minister President Golda Meïr, Israel

Ambassador to USSR 1948-49, Minister of Labour 1949-56 and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1956-64, 1964-69 Secretary General and 1969-74 Leader of Labour. When she became Foreign Minister her last name was hebrewnized. She was born in Russia as Golda Mabovic and later immigrated to USA. Mother of two children and she lived (1898-1978).

01.07.1974- 24.03.1976 Executive President Maria Estella Martínez de Perón, Argentina 

Isabel Peron was Vice-President and President of the Senate 1973-74. As Executive President she was also head of the Cabinet. Chairperson of Partido Justicial, The Peronist party 1974-85, removed by a coup d'etat and in Prison 1976-78, Exile in Spain 1981-93. She was married to General Juan Peron, who was President two times. (b. 1931-).

03.01.1975-07.04.1976 Premierministre Élisabeth Domitién, Central African Republic

As Premier Minister she was also Deputy Head of State and acted as President on occasions when President Bokassa was abroad. Also vice-President of the ruling Social Evolution Movement of Black Africa (MESAN) 1975-79. She criticized the plans of her cousin, Jean Bedel Bokassa, who had been chief of state since 1966, who wanted to become emperor, and in effect he sacked her. After his fall from power in 1979 she was imprisoned and tried in February 1980. She later became an influential businesswoman in Bangui, Married to the chief of the Mobaye Canton-Mayorship. She lived (1925-2005).

...08-1977-...09.1977 Minister President Lucinda E. da Costa Gomez-Matheeuws, The Netherlands Antilles (Self Governing Dutch External Territory)

Minister of Health and Environment, Welfare, Youth, Sports, Culture and Recreation 1970-77 and in 1977 Minister Presidente and Minister of General Affairs. She was also Vice-President of The Nationale Volkspartij 1971-76 and around 1995 Member of the Raad van Advies, the Council of Advisors. She is the widow of Dr. M.F. da Costa Gomez (1907-66), Premier of the state 1951-54. She lived (1929-2016).

03.05.1979-22.11.1990 Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, United Kingdom of Great Britain

MP 1959-90, Parliamentary Secretary of Pensions and National Insurance 1961-64, Secretary of State of Education 1970-74, Shadow Minister of Environment and Housing 1974-75, Shadow Special Minister of Finance and Public Expenditure 1975, Leader of The Conservative Party 1975-90, Leader of Her Majesty's Opposition 1975-79. As Prime Minister she was also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister of the Civil Service.  In 1990 she was Created Baroness Thatcher of Kestaven and became a member of the House of Lords. Mother of twins. She lived (1925-2013).

01.08.1979-3.01.1980 President of the Council of Ministers Dr. Maria de Lourdes Ruivo da Silva de Matos Pintasilgo, Portugal

Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo was Secretary of State of Social Affairs 1974,  Ambassador to UNESCO 1975-79,  Minister of Social Affairs 1974-75,  Member of Council of State 1979-86 and Presidential Candidate in 1986. Member of the European Parliament 
1979-86. Unmarried. She lived (1930-2004).

17.11.1979-18.07.1980 Interim Executive President Lidia Gueiler Tejada, Bolivia 

As President she was also Head of the Cabinet. Lidia Gueiler was member of Parliament 1956-64 and afterwards in exile for 15 years. Circa 1978 Subsecretary for Agriculture, 1978 President of Cámara de Diputados. Acting President of the Congress and acting Deputy Head of State 1978-79.She was President of Partido Revolucionario de los Izquierda Nazional Gueiler 1979-94, Exile in France 1980-82, Ambassador in Embassy to West Germany 1982-83, and to Venezuela 1983-86 and since 1993 She was deposed by the 129th Coup d’etat in the history of Bolivia, shortly before elections was due. She lived (1921-2011).

21.07.1980-14.06.1995 Prime Minister Dame M. Eugenia Charles, Dominica

Leader of Dominican Liberty Party 1964-94 and 1974-80 Leader of the Opposition. During her tenure as Premier she was also Minister of External Affairs, Finance, Trade and Industry, Defence, Minister of Information and Public Relations. In 1992 she was Knighted by Queen Elizabeth of the United Kingdom, the former Head of State of Domenica. Unmarried and lived (1916-2005).

01.08.1980-01.08.1996 President Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, Iceland 

In 1972-80 Director of Iceland’s National Theatre was the world’s first democratically elected female President. Since 1996 she has been involved in a wide range of international humanitarian and cultural organizations. She was a divorcee and mother of an adopted a daughter. (b.1930-).

04.02.1981-14.10.1981 Minister of State Gro Harlem Brundtland, Norway
09.05.1986-16.10.1989 Minister of State
30.11.1990-25.10.1996 Minister of State

Minister of Environmental Protection 1974-79, Deputy Leader 1975-81, Deputy Parliamentary Leader1980-81, Leader 1981-93 and Parliamentary Leader, Parliamentary Leader of Arbeiderpartiet, Labour, 1980-81 and 1989-90 Chairperson of the Foreign and 1989-90 of the Finance Committees, From 1998 Director General of the World Health Organization, WHO, and Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations. A medical doctor, daughter of Gudmond Harlem (1917-88) a former Minister and mother of 4 children. (b. 1939-).

01.04.1981-01.10.1981 Captain Regent Maria Lea Pedini Angelini, San Marino 

Every 6th month The Consiglio Grande e Generale elects two Captain Regents, who acts as Heads of State and Government and the Parliament. From circa 1991 she has been Director in Ministry of Government and Foreign Affairs, since 1995 Ambassador in the Ministry to Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland etc. (b. 1954- ).

21.09.1981-17.011.1993 Governor General Dame Elmira Minita Gordon, Belize

Commissioner of Belize City 1970-77

15.02.1982-15.02.1987 President Agatha Barbara, Malta 
Labour M.P 1947-82 and for long periods the only woman in Parliament. Minister of Education and Culture 1955-58 and 1971-74 Labour, Welfare and Culture (Third in Cabinet) 1974-81. In the last period she was Acting Prime Minister on various brief occasions. She resigned as President 2 years ahead of time because Labour lost the 1987-elections. She lived (1923-2002).  

24.03.1982-25.03.1985 President of the Government  Lucette Michaux-Chevry, Guadalupe (France)

As President of the Regional Council she was also Chief of Executive Council. 1986-87 Secretary of State and 1993-95 Minister Delegate of Foreign Affairs in the French Government, 1987-95 Maire de Gourbreyre, and from 1995 Maire de Basse-Terre, 1992-2004 President of the Conseil Regional (Parliament),(b. 1929-)

15.05.1982-15.05.1986 Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Milka Planinc, Yugoslavia

Secretary of Treönjevka People’s Assembly 1957, Secretary   of Cultural Affairs of the City of Zagreb 1961-63, Croatian Secretary for Education 1963-65, President of Assembly 1967-71, Leader of the Communist Party in Croatia 1971-82. She lived (1924-2010)

01.04.1984-01.10.1984 Captain Regent Gloriana Ranocchini, San Marino 
01.10.1989-01.04.1990 Captain Regent

Member of the Parliament. (b. 1957-).

14.05.1984-29.01.1990 Governor General The Rt. Hon. Jeanne Sauvé, Canada

Minister of State of Science 1972, 1974-75 Minister of Environment, 1975-79 Minister of Communication and Culture and 1980-84 Speaker of the House of Commons. She lived (1922-93).

14.05-16.05.1984 Acting Head of State Carmen Pereira, Guinea Bissau 
Member of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) since 1962 and later Political Commissioner for the Southern Front, and only female member of the 24 members Committee Executivo da Luta (CEL). In 1973-84 Deputy President of Assembléia Nacional Popular, 1975-80 President of the Parliament of Cap Verde (which was in union with Guinea Bissau at the time) 1981-83 Minister of Health and Social Affairs 1984-89 President of Assembléia Nacional Popular, 1989-94 Member the Council of State and 1990-91 Minister of State (Deputy Premier) for Social Affairs. She acted as head of state after João Bernardo Viera, Head of state since 1980, was elected President in 1984. In 1999 he was deposed after a military coup d’etat. (b. 1937-).

Maria Philiberta Liberia-Peters

18.09.1984-01.01.1986 Minister President Maria Ph. Liberia-Peters, Nederlandse Antillen (Self Governing Dutch External Territory)
17.051988-25.12.1993 Minister President

Health Councillor 1977-78 and Lieutenant-Governor of Curaçau 1982. Minister of Economy 1982-83 and 1984-86 also, Minister of General Affairs and the Interior, Health and Environment. She resigned as Premier after she had lost a referendum on the autonomy of Curaçau. She was also Chairperson of the Nationale Volkspartij/Partido Nashional de Peuplo (PNP) 1984-98 and 2002-04. (b. 1941-).

25.2.1986-30.06.1992 Executive President Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino, The Philippines
Cory Aquino became leader of the opposition after the murder of her husband Ninoi Aquino in 1986, and was brought to power by the so-called "People Power", which protested about President Marcos's attempts to remain in power. She was also Head of the Cabinet. 1998 among the senior advisors of the new President Estrada. During her term in office she fought off 8 attempted coup d'etats. Constitutionally barred from running for re-election. Mother of 4 children. She lived (1933-2009).

05.10.1987-30.12.1987 Prime Minister Princess Stella Margaret Nomzamo Sigcau, Transkei (Nominally Independent Homeland in South Africa)

Minister of Education 1970-73, the Interior (Including Industry, Trade and Tourism) 1973-78, Internal Affairs 1979-81, Post and Telecommunication 1981-87, Leader Transkei National Independence Party in 1987, Minister of Public Enterprises 1994-98 and of Public Works 1998-2006 in the Government of South Africa for ANC. She was daughter of Chief Botha Jongilizwe Sigcau of East-Pontoland (1912-78) who was President of Transkei (1976-78) and the mother of four children. She lived (1937-2006).

02.12.1988-06.08.1990 Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Pakistan
19.10.1993-05.11.1996 Prime Minister

Co-Chairperson 1984-94 and Leader of Pakistan People's Party 1994-2007, in house arrest 1977-84 and in exile 1984-86. She also held the Portfolios of Defence, Atomic Energy, Finance, Economy, Information and Establishment. Both in 1990 and 1996 she was removed from office by the President on charges of corruption and later convinced. Returned to Pakistan in 2007 after 10 years in exile in United Kingdom and Dubai to contest elections in January 2008, which she was widely expected to win, but was killed by a suicide bomb in December 2007. . She was daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the former President and Prime Minister, who was executed after the coup d’etat in 1979. Her three children were born in 1988, 1989 and 1993. She lived (1953-2007).

13.03.1990-07.02.1991 Acting President Ertha Pascal-Trouillot, Haiti 

She was the first female High Court Judge 1986-90, and became acting President during the turbulent political situation in Haiti in a period where one Coup d’etat followed the other. Soldiers attempting a coup held her hostage on one occasion. (b. 1943-).

17.03.1990-10.01.1991 Minister President Kasimiera Prunskienė, Lithuania

Deputy Premier and Minister of Economy 1989-90 and one of the leaders of the struggle for independence. She became leader of the government after the declaration of independence at 11.3.90, which was internationally recognized at 6.9.91. In 1991 Chairperson of Democratic Party, and from 1995-2001 Chairperson of Women’s Party, 1996-2000 Group Chairperson of the independent MP’s, and Chairperson of the Peasants and New Democratic Parties Union 2001-04. Presidential Candidate in 2002, 2004 and 2009 and Minister of Agriculture 2004-08. (b. 1945-).

05.04.1990-02.10.1990 Acting Head of State Dr. Sabine Bergmann-Pohl, East-Germany 

As President of the People's Chamber she was acting as the last Head of State of the German Democratic Republic, DDR/GDR before the reunification. After the reunification she was Federal Minister without Portfolio for the New Bundesstates 1990-91 and Parliamentary State Secretary of Health 1991-98. Mother of two children.  (b. 1946-).

25.04.1990-10.01.1997 Executive President Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, Nicaragua
In 1979 Doña Violeta was member of the Ruling Junta after the overthrow of the Somoza-dictatorship but left because of disagreement with the Sandinistas. 1979-90 Publisher of the opposition newspaper La Prensa after the murder of her husband, opposition leader Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal. As Executive President she was also Head of the Cabinet and Minister of Defence. She did not run for re-election. (b. 1929- ).

20.11.1990-21.03.1996 Governor General Dame Catherine Tizard, New Zealand

In 1983-90 Mayor of Auckland. Her daughter, Judith Tizard became a Minister in 1999. Also Commander-in-Chief and President of the Executive Council. (b. 1931-)

03.12.1990-12.09.1997 President Mary Robinson, Ireland 

In 1969 she was appointed Professor of Law, 1970-90 she was Labour-senator, Assistant Secretary General and United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights 1997-2002 and since then director of the Ethical Globalization Initiative, a new venture established to support human rights. Mother of two children. (b. 1944-).

20.03.1991-30.03.1996 Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia, Bangladesh
01.09.2001-29.10.2006 Prime Minister

Vice-Chairperson of The Nationalist Party 1982-84 and Leader since 1984. Her husband, President Zia-ur-Rahman, was Premier Minister 1976-77 and President 1977-81 until he was assassinated. Khaleda was detained seven times during nine years of autocratic rule. In the face of mass upsurge spearheaded by the seven-party alliance, led by Khaleda, and the eight-party combine, led by Hasina, Ershad resigned in 1990 and handed over power to neutral caretaker government, bringing an end to his nine-year autocratic rule. During her first tenure as Premier she was also Minister of Defence, Establishment, Cabinet Diversion and Planning, Information Energy and Resources. 1996-2001 Leader of the Opposition. Resigned in October 2006 to prepare for the elections later in the year, but the military took power. Her sons, Tareque Rahman and Arafat Rahman Koko were arrested on corruption charges in March and April 2007, and In September the same year she was herself charged with corruption and the military supported care-taker government tried to pressure her into exile. The charges against her was dropped in 2008. (b. 1945- ).

01.10.1991-01.04.1992 Captain Regent Edda Ceccoli, San Marino 
Member of the leadership of Partito Democratico Cristano Sammarinese.

15.05.1991-02.04.1992 Premier Ministre Edith Cresson, France

Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, External 1981-83, Trade 1983-84, Industry 1984-86, European Affairs 1988-90. She was European Union Commissioner for Science, Research, Education and Youth 1995-99. In march 1999 she brought along the downfall of the EU-Commission as she refused the step down after a rapport had demonstrated that she was responsible of nepotism and mismanagement. (b. 1934-).

08.07.1992-26.10.1993 Minister President Hanna Suchocka, Poland

As Minister President she was also Vice-President of the National Security Council. Member of Solidarity in 1980 and member of the Sejm 1982-85 and again 1989-2002 for various parties. 1991-97 member of Committee for Foreign Affairs and the Constitutional Committee. Vice-President of the Council of Europe 1991-92. In 1994 she was co-founder of the new Freedom Union (UW, liberal and social democratic) and member of it's leadership. The following year she was candidate in the party's primary for Presidential candidate, 1997-2000 Minister of Justice and Procurator-General. 1999 official Polish candidate for the office of the secretary general of the Council of Europe. Since 2002 Ambassador to the Vatican. Unmarried. (b. 1946-).

25.01.1993-15.09.1994 Premier Marita Petersen, The Faeroe Islands (Føroyar/ Færøerne) (Self Governing Danish External Territory) 

A former Leader of the Teacher's Union, she was Minister of Justice, Education Culture and Church Affairs 1991-93. As Premier she was also Minister of External Relations, the Underground, Administration and Public Wages. Chairperson of the Social Democrats 1993-96, Chairperson of the Lógting (Assembly) 1994-95 and 1998-2001 substitute member of the Danish Folketing. She lived (1940-2001). 

01.04.1993-01.10.1993 Captain Regent Patrizia Busignani, San Marino 

1983-90 President of Partito Socialista Unitario. From around 1997 she was Chief of the Parliamentary Group of Socialisti per le Riforme.  

25.06.1993-07.03.1996 Minister President Tansu Çiller, Turkey

Assistant Professor 1974-83 and 1983-90 Professor of Economics at Bosphorus University. Minister of State and Chief Economic Coordinator 1991-93, Deputy Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1996-97. She was Deputy Chairperson 1990-93 and 1993-2002 Chairperson of DYP, The True Path Party. On 1.6.97 Premier Minister Erbakan, leader of the Islamic Party resigned in order with the purpose of her taking over as Premier, but President Demirel chose Meshut Yilmaz, who managed to form a government among others because of defections from her party. Mother of two children. (b. 1946-).

25.06.1993-04.11.1993 Prime Minister A. Kim Campbell, Canada

Executive Director, Office of British Columbia Premier 1985-86, Progressive Conservative MP 1988-93, Minister of State (Indian Affairs and Northern Development) 1989-90, Minister of Justice and Attorney-General 1990-93 and Minister of Defence and Minister of Veteran Affairs in 1993. As Prime Minister, 1993, she was also Minister responsible for Federal-Provincial Relations. She was leader of the Progressive Conservative party, 13.06.1993-13.12.1993, resigning after the party lost all but two seats in the House of Commons in the 1993 election in spite of gaining about 16% of the vote. She became a lecturer at Harvard University and has been Consul General of Canada in Los Angeles since 1996. Married with a stepdaughter. (b. 1947-).

10.07.1993-11.02.1994 Premier Ministre Sylvie Kinigi, Burundi
27.10.1993-05.02.1994 Acting Head of State

By the time of her appointment as Premier she was Head of the Economic Planning Office in the President’s Office. During the Civil War the President was killed and as the highest ranking remaining official, she became Acting President (27.10.93-5.2.94). After her resignation she left politics and joined the Burundi’s Commercial Bank. (b. 1952-).

18.07.1993-07.05.1994 (†) Premier Ministre Agathe Uwilingiymana, Rwanda 

Minister of Education from 1992 till her appointment as Premier. On the 06.05 1994 the Hutu President Habyarimana was killed together with his Burundian colleague, Cyprien Ntaryamira, when their plane was rocketed on its way to Kigali airport. Agathe, a Hutu, was killed by the Tutsi Presidential guard together with her family and 10 Belgian soldiers, the day before she was supposed to step down as Premier Minister. The two killings sparked off the civil war and genocide of approximately 1 million Hutus and Tutsies. Mother of about 6 children. She lived (1953-94).

25.12.1993-28.12.1993 Minister President Suzanne Camelia-Römer, Nederlandse Antillen (Self Governing Dutch External Territory)
14.05.1998-08.12.1999 Minister President

Suzi Römer (Suzanne Francisco Coromoto Camelia-Römer) had been Minister of Justice since 1992 when she became acting Premier after the resignation of Mrs. Liberia-Peters. 1999-2002 Vice-Premier and Minister of Economy and the National Recovery Plan, and 1998-2002 Leader of the Partido Nashional di Pueplo (b. 1959-). 

19.8.1994-14.11.1994 Prime Minister Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, Sri Lanka 
14.11.1994-19.11.2005 Executive President

Vice-President 1984-86 and President of Sri Lanka Maha Jana Party 1984-86, Leader of United Socialist Alliance 1988 and since 1993 Leader of People’s Alliance and Deputy Leader of Sri Lanka Freedom Party, 1993-94 Chief Minister of the Colombo Province and in a few months in 1994 Prime Minister. As Executive President she was also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and held the Portfolio of Defence and Finance and Planning 1994-2001 and was Minister of Defence, Information and Interior from November 2003. She is the first person in the world to be daughter of two premier ministers, Solomon and Sirivamo Bandaranaike and the first to have appointed her mother to the post of Prime Minister. Her husband politician Vijaya K. was assassinated 1988, and during the Presidential campaign in 2000 she survived an assassination-attempt but lost vision in one eye. She was not allowed to stand for re-election in 2005. She is mother of 2 children. (b. 1945-).

16.10.1994-25.01.1995 Interim Minister President Reneta Ivanova Indzhova, Bulgaria

Also know as Reneta Injova she was leader of an interim government consisting of technocrats. Her Deputy Premier, Minister of Economy and Finance was Hristina Vucheva. In 1995 she was mayoral candidate in Sofia, 2001 Presidential Candidate and the same year she became Chairperson of the Democratic Alliance. (b. 1953-).

06.06.1990-19.12.1995 (†) Governor General Dame Nita Barrow, Barbados

Head of a number of national and international nurse-organizations, North American President of the World Council of Churches 1983-91, President of the World YWCA 1975-83 and worked with the WHO before becoming Ambassador to the UN, Cuba and the Dominican Republic 1986-90, candidate for the post of UN General Assembly President in 1988. She was the sister of  Errol W. Barrow (1920-87), Prime Minister 1966-76 and 1986-87. She lived (1916-95).

07.11.1995-27.02.1996 Premier Minister Claudette Werleigh, Haïti

An economist, she became Minister of Social Affairs 1990-91, Minister of Foreign Affairs 1993-95 and was Executive Director of the Washington Office of Haiti 1993. Later an UN official. (b. 1946- ),

23.06.1996-15.7.2001 Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed, Bangladesh
06.01.2009- Prime Minister

Her father, Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-72-75), and most of her family was killed during a military coup in 1975 when she and her sister were abroard. Returned to Bangladesh in 1981, President of the Awami Leauge from 1981, Opposition Leader 1986-87 and 1991-96 and 2001-06. In 1983, she formed the 15-party alliance to launch a movement to oust General Ershad from power and was in and out of prison throughout the 1980s and was under house arrest a few times. Her party, along with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, led by Begum  Khaleda Zia, was instrumental in the movement against the military rule. 2007 she was arrested on corruption and murder charges, but was allowed to go to USA for medical treatment in 2007 though the military supported care-taker government tried to pressure her into exile. Returned in November 2008 to lead her party in the election campaign, which her party won overwhelmingly. Married to the nuclear scientist Dr M. A. Wazed Miah and mother a son, Sajeeb Wazed Joy, and a daughter, Saima Wazed Putul, who both lives in the USA. (b. 1947- ).

Biljana Plavsic

19.07.1996-04.11.1998 President Biljana Plavsic, Republic of Srpska, (Bosnia-Herzegovina)

1992-94 Member of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1994-96 Vice-President of Srpska. In 1998 she lost the bit for re-election as the first female incumbent President ever. 2002 she was convicted for war crimes during the Bosnian war. (b. 1930-). 

03.09.1996-02.08.1997 Chairperson of the Council of State Ruth Sando Perry, Liberia 

Ruth Sando Fahnbulleh Perry was a senator 1985-96. Appointed to chair the Council of State preparing the transfer to democracy after many years of civil war. From 1999 Ruth Perry was 1. Vice-Chairperson of the Organization for African Unity. She lived (1939-2017).

09.02.1997-11.02.1997 Acting Executive President Rosalia Arteaga Serrano de Fernández de Córdova, Ecuador

A former minister, she was Vice-President 1994-98 and Presidential Candidate in 1998. She was inaugurated as Acting President after her predecessor was removed from office but two days after the Congress nominated someone else. As Executive President she was also Head of the Cabinet. Presidential Candidate in 1997. (b. 1953-).

17.03.1997-22.12.1997 Prime Minister Janet Jagan, Guyana
19.12.1997-11.08.1999 Executive President

As Premier Minister she also held the title of 1. Vice-President and she was Minister of Mines. Her political career started in 1950 and she held many positions. In 1997 her husband, Dr. Cheddi Bharat Jagan, died, and she was chosen to replace the Premier who succeeded Mr. Jagan as President. Janet was chosen as her party's candidate in the following Presidential elections, which she won. Afterwards she re-appointed the former President to the post of Prime Minister after being sworn in as President. She was born as Janet Rosenberg in Chicago, mother of two children and lived (1920-2009).

17.09.1997- Governor General Dame C. Pearlette Louisy, St. Lucia

Teacher, administrator, Vice-Principal and then Principal of St. Lucia's College. (b. 1946-)

11.11.1997-11.11.2011 President Mary McAleese, Ireland 

Professor of Law and 1993-97 Pro-chancellor of University of Belfast, the first person from Northern Ireland to be elected President of Ireland. During the 1997-elections 5 candidates were female and there was only one token male candidates finishing a distant last. 2004 she was returned unopposed for a second term. (b. 1951-).

08.12.1997-10.12.1999 Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, New Zealand

Minister of Women's Affairs 1990-98, Social Affairs 1990-93, Minister of Health 1993-96, Transport, State Services and State-Owned Enterprises, Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance 1996-97. As Premier she was also Minister in charge of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service. She ousted then Prime Minister Jim Bolger as leader of the National Party and after his resignation she became leader of the government. 1999-2001 she was Leader of the Opposition. Mother of two children. (b. 1952-).

27.03.1997-10.12.1998 Premier Pamela Felicity Gordon, Bermuda (Self Governing Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Parliamentary Secretary of Community Development, Culture and Youth 1992, Minister of Youth, Sport and Recreation 1992-96, Environment, Planning and National Resources 1996-97. As Premier she was also Minister of Information and Attorney General. She was former Deputy Chairperson and was elected to succeed the previous Premier after his resignation. She was Leader of the United Bermuda Party 1997-2001 and leader of the Opposition 1998-2001.  (b. 1955-).

31.08.1998-23.09.1998 Acting Prime Minister Anne Enger Lahnstein, Norway

Acting Premier during Kjell Magne Bondevik's sick leave because of stress and psychological problems. She was Deputy Leader 1983-91, Parliamentary Leader, 1989-91 and Leader of The Centre Party 1991-99. 1. Deputy to the Prime Minister and Minister of Culture of the centre-right-government 1997-99, Vice Chairperson of the Defence Committee of Stortinget 1999-2001 and Governor of Østfold since 2003. (b. 1950-).

10.12.1998-29.07.2003 Premier Jennifer Meridith Smith, Bermuda (Self Governing Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Deputy Opposition Leader 1994-96, Opposition Leader 1996-98 as Leader of the Progressive Labour Party, PLP. As Premier she also held the Portfolios of Education and Human Affairs. Her own party ousted her just three days after she led it to an historic General Election victory. (b. circa 1948-).

01.01.1999-31.12.1999 President of the Confereration Ruth Dreifuss, Switzerland 
A former trade union-leader, she was Councillor of Interior in 1992-2002 and Vice-President 1998-99. (b. 1939-).

01.04.1999-01.10.1999 and 01.04.2008-01.10.2008 Captain Regent Rosa Zafferani, San Marino 

Director in the Department of Finance, Budget and Programs before she was elected to the Consiglio Grande e Generale in 1998. Secretary of State of Health, Social Security and Provision 2002-04, Secretary of State of Public Education, University and Cultural Institutions from 2004 and  2005-06 also in charge of Internal Affairs. (b. 1960 in USA.

03.05.1999-10/18.05.1999 Acting Minister President Irena Degutiené, Lithuania
27.10.1999-03.11.1999 Acting Minister President

Medical Doctor, 1994-97 Vice-Minister of Health and Minister of Labour and Social Affairs 1997-2000, Deputy Speaker of the Seimas 2008-09 and from 2012, Speaker 2009-12. (b. 1949-).

17.06.1999-08.07.2007 President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Latvia

Born in Latvia and grew up in refugee camps in Germany, went to school in French Morocco, University studies in Canada. Retired from the Universite de Montreal in 1998, after being a professor of psychology there since 1965 and involved in various scientific and administrative committees, among others as Vice-Chairperson of the Science Council of Canada. She moved to Latvia as Director of the newly created Latvian Institute in Riga. Candiate for the Post of Secretary General of the United Nations in 2006. Married to her fellow countryman, Imants Freibergs, also exiled in Canada, who moved to Latvia in October 1999. Mother of a son and a daughter. (b. 1937-).

22.07.1999-30.07.1999 Acting Minister President Tuyaa Nyam-Osoryn, Mongolia

A former journalist and director in the Foreign Ministry, she was Minister of Foreign Affairs 1998-2000 and appointed acting Premier after her predecessor's resignation. (b. 1958-).

01.09.1999-01.09.2004 Executive President Mireya Moscoso Rodrígez, Panama 

Since 1991 President of the Arnolfist Party, 1994 Presidential Candidate. As Executive President she is also head of the Cabinet, and she is the first female President to have officially appointed a First Lady - her sister, Ruby Moscoso de Young. She was constitutionally barred from running for re-election. Mireya was first married to President Rodriguez de Arias Madrid (1901-88) who was President of Panama 1940-41, 1949-51 and 1968. Married to Mr. Gruber 1991-97 and mother of an adopted a child. (b. 1946-).

07.11.1999-27.09.2005 Governor General Adrienne Poy Clarkson, Canada
First Governor General of Asian origin. Broadcaster and Journalist, Agent-General of Ontario in Paris 1982-87. She married her longtime partner John Saul (b. 1947-) shortly before taking office. Mother of three children. Born in Hong Kong as Ng Bing Tse, which was changed to Adrienne Poy. (b. 1939-)

10.12.1999-19.11.2008 Prime Minister Helen Clark, New Zealand

MP since 1981. Chairperson of the Foreign Affairs and Defence Select Committee 1984-87, Minister of Housing and Conservation 1987-89, Deputy Premier and Minister of Labour and Health 1989-90, Deputy Leader of Labour and of the Opposition 1990-93 and Leader of Labour of the Opposition 1993-99. As Prime Minister she also held the Portfolio of Arts and Culture and Security Intelligence Service and Ministerial Services. Candidate for UN Secretary General in 2016. In 1981 she married Dr. Peter Davis. No children. (b. 1950-).

01.03.2000-01.03.2012 President Tarja Halonen, Finland 

Member of Parliament 1979-2000, 1984-87 Chairperson of the Social Affairs Committee and Member of the Presidium of the Parliament, 1987-1990 Second Minister of Health and Social Affairs (Health Minister) and 1989-1991 Minister of Nordic Co-operation, 1989-91 Co-leader of Soumen Sosialidemokraattinen Pulolue, The Social Democrats. 1990-1991 Minister of Justice 1995-2000 Minister of Foreign Affairs. The position as President is very powerful - especially concerning foreign politics. Mother of one daughter. In August 2000 she married her partner trough a decade, Pentti Arajärvi. They did not live together before they moved into the Presidential palace. Mother of one daughter. (b. 1943-).

01.04.2000-01.10.2000 Captain Regent Maria Domenica Michelotti, San Marino 

Former lecturer at San Marino University and Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale since 1998.  She is widow and her married name was Casadei Michelotti. Mother of two girls (b. 1952-).

20.01.2001-30.06.2010 Executive President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, The Philippines 

As executive GMA is also Head of the Cabinet. 1987-1989 she was Assistant Secretary and 1989-92 Undersecretary of Trade and Industry and Senator 1992-98. Secretary of Social Development and Welfare 1998-2000 and The President charged her with the leadership of the Cabinet Meetings. In 2000 she resigned from her cabinet-post after President Estrada was accused of accusations. In January 2001 he was forced to vacate the presidency and she succeeded him. 2002 and from 2003 also Minister of Foreign Affairs, 2003 and 2006-07 Minister of Defence. 2004 she was re-elected to the post of President. In 2011 she was arrested on charges for electoral fraud. Daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal and Dr. Evangeline Macaraeg-Macapagal, mother of two sons and a daughter (b. 1947-).  

02.02.2001-02.02.2005 Governor Sila Maria Calderón Serra, Estado Libre Asociado de  Puerto Rico (Self Governing External Territory of the United States of America)

As governor she was Leader of the Governor. She was Chief of Staff of the Governor 1985, 1986-90 Secretary of Interior, 1988-90 Secretary of State and Deputy to the Governor and 1996-2001 Mayor of San Juan (The Capital). Since 1999 she has been President of Partido Popular Democrático. She did not seek re-election. (b. 1942-)

03.03.2001-04.11.2002 Premier Ministre Mame Madior Boye, Sénégal

Former assistant to the Attorney General of the Republic, judge and first vice President of the Regional High Court in Dakar and former President of the Court of Appeal in Dakar. Councillor to the Supreme Court of Appeal and Minister of Justice and Keeper of the Seals in 2000-2001. In 2002 she took over as Minister of Defence after the former incumbent resigned after almost 1.000 persons died in a ferry-disaster. (b.1940-).

22.03.2001-04.04.2001 Acting Governor General Dame Sian Elias, New Zealand
04.08.2006-23.08.2006 Acting Governor General
23.08.2011-31.08.2011 Acting Governor General 31.08.2016-28.09.2016 Acting Governor General
As Chief Justice of New Zealand since 1999, she is the first deputy of the Governor General and acts in her place when she is abroad or otherwise incapacitated. Her official title when she acts as Governor General is Administrator of the Government. (b. 1949-).

04.04.2001-04.04.2006 Governor General Dame Silvia Cartwright, New Zealand

In 1989 she became the first female Chief Justice of a District Court and in 1993 the first woman in the Supreme Court. She was also Commander-in-Chief and President of the Executive Council. From 2006 one of two international judges on Trial Chamber of the Cambodian War Crimes Tribunal. (b. 1943-).

23.07.2001-20.10.2004 Executive President Megawati Sukarnoputri, Indonesia

When Megawati Setyawati Soekarnoputri became leader of the Democratic Party in 1993, she triggered the opposition against President Quarto. In 1999 her party won the most seats in the Parliament, but Abdulrahman Wahid was elected President. This caused serious riots all over the country and she was elected vice-President the following day. In August 2000 the ailing President Wahid charged her with the running of the daily business of the government and state and she chaired the cabinet meetings. At the 23rd of July he was ousted and she inaugurated as President. In 2004 she lost her bid for re-election. Ibu Mega, as she is known, is daughter of Indonesia's founding father Sukarno, is married for the 3rd time and mother of 3 children. (b. 1946-).

11.07.2002-31.07.2002 Acting Prime Minister Chang Sang, South Korea

Appointed Acting Prime Minister upon her designation, which was vetoed by the parliament at the 30.7 and about one month later the parliament also rejected President Kim Dae Jung's nominee as her successor. She holds a doctorate in philosophy from Princeton Theological College in the United States. She has been President of Ewha Women's University since 1996. (b. 1939-).

03.10.2002-16.07.2003 Prime Minister Maria das Neves Ceita Batista de Sousa, Republic of São Tomé e Príncipe
23.07.2003-18.09.2004 Prime Minister

Maria das Neves worked as a civil servant in the Ministry of Finance and in the African Development Bank. 1999-2001 Minister of Economics, Agriculture, Fisheries, Commerce and Tourism, 2001-02 Minister of Finance and 2002 Minister of Industry, Commerce and Tourism.  Vice-President of the National Assembly since 2010 and Presidential Candidate in 2011. (b. 1958-).

03.06.2002-06.09.2002 Acting Governor General Monica Jessie Dacon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

As Deputy Governor General since 2001, she acted during the ilness and death of the Governor General until a successor was appointed. Acting Governor General on numerous occations. (b. 1934-).

30.12.2002-04.02.2004 Acting President Natasa Micic, Serbia 

As President of the Assembly since 2001, she became Acting President since the attempt to elect a President failed twice. She continued her duties as Chairperson of the Parliament.  (b.1965-).

17.04.2003-24.06.2003 Minister of State Anneli Jäätteenmäki, Finland

1991-94 and 1999-2000 Deputy Parliamentary Leader and since 2000 leader of Suomen Keskusta/Centern i Finland, 1994-95 Minister of Justice. In 2003 Speaker of the Parliament. On 18.06 she tendered in her resignation application after it was revealed that she had used confidential material to aid her election campaign and then lying about how she had got the documents. The Assistant Prime Minister conducted her duties until 24.06. (b. 1955-).

28.06.2003-15.12.2003 President of the Council of Ministers Dr. Beatriz Merino Lucero, Peru

Senator 1990-92, Member of the Congress 1995-2000, Vice-Presidential Candidate 2000 and Superintendent of the National Tax Administration before becoming a very popular Prime Minister, until she was sacked by the extremely unpopular President. (b. 1949-).

11.09.2003-03.06.2004 Minister-President Mirna Louisa-Godett, Nederlandse Antillen (Self Governing External Territory of The Netherlands)

Sister of the Leader of Frente Obrero Liberashon 30 di Mei (FOL) Anthony Godett, who could not become Premier because he was charged with and later convicted for corruption and fraud. Married to a member of the Legislature for FOL, Johnny Louisa. She became head of a coalition government. (b. 1954-).

01.10.2003-31.03.2004 Captain Regent Valeria Ciavatta, San Marino
Member of the Grand and General Council for the Alianza Populare since 1993 and Chairperson of the Council Group from 2002. As Captain Regent, she was joint head of a state with a man, and also President of the Parliament and Head of Government. Mother of twins. (b. 1959-)


23.11.2003-25.01.2004 Acting Executive President Nino Burjanadze, Georgia
25.11.2007-20.01.2008 Acting President

As Chairperson of the Parliament 2001-08 she took over after former President Eduard Shevardnadze was forced to resign as result of a "velvet revolution" after he rigged the parliamentary elections and in 2007 she aced as President again as the incumbent, Mikheil Saakashvili, resigned to run in the January 2008-elections. President of Burjanadze-Democrats 2003-08 and of Democratic Movement - United Georgia since 2008 and Presidential Candidate in 2013 Candidate in 2013. She did not run for Parliament in 2008. Her surname is also transcribed Burdzhanadze. Mother of two children. (b. 1964-).

17.02.2004-16.01.2010 Prime Minister Luísa Días Diogo, Moçambique
Head of Department in the Ministry of Finance 1986-89, National Budget Director 1982-89 in Ministry of Planning and Finance, worked in World Bank 1993-94. 1994-2000 Vice-Minister and Minister of Planning and Finance 2000-05. Mother of three children. (b. 1958-).


06.07.2004-08.07.2004 Acting Joint Head of State Barbara Prammer, Austria

As Vice-President of the National Assembly she assumed the Presidential duties together with the two other members of the Presidium, when the outgoing President died two days before his successor was to take office in July. She was a former Federal Minister, President of the Nationalrat from 2006 until her death and a leading member of the Social Democrats of Austria, SPÖ She lived (1954-2014).

12.05.2004-02.06.2004 Acting President of the Government Radmila Sekerinska, Macedonia
18.11.2004-17.12.2004 Acting President of the Government
As Vice-President of the Government and Minister without Portfolio for Euro-Atlantic Integration 2002-06, she acted as Head of Government from the former Prime Minister Crvenkovski's Presidential inauguration until election of Kostov as new Prime Minister. She already presided over government sessions and signed documents since Crvenkovski became candidate for President, as he 'renounced' his Premiership during the campaign, but he never officially stepped down. In November she was again appointed Acting Premier after her predecessor resigned, but lost the party internal election for the post of Prime Minister and Leader of the Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (SDSM). (b. 1972-).

24.01.2005-08.09.2005 Prime Minister Yuliya Tymoshenko, Ukraine
18.12.2007-11.03.2010 Prime Minster
Her name is also transcribed as Yulia Voldyrovna Timoshenkno. She is former Co-Leader of the Hromda party, Director of United Energy System 1998-2000, In 2001 she was charged with corruption but later acquitted. Leader of the Fatherland's Party 2000/01-05 and of the Bloc Tymoshenko from 2005. In June 2006 a Coalition deal was signed designating her as Prime Minister, but one of the parties broke out. Narrowly defeated in the 2010-presidential elections and afterwards her coalition in parliament broke up and she was defeated by a motion of no confidence. The following year she was sentenced to seven years in prison in what is widely seen as a political trial, but fried after the uprising in February 2014. (b. 1961-).
01.04.2005-01.10.2005 Captain Regent Fausta Simona Morganti, San Marino
In 1974 she was one of the first three women elected to the Consiglio Grande e Generale. 1978-83 and 1988-92 Minister of State of Culture, Education and Justice, In the late 1990s Leader in Partito Progressista Democartico Sammarinese and Chief of the Parliamentary Group from around 1997 to 2002 and then again later in 2002 and Secretary of State of Public Education, Universities, Cultural Institutions and Social Affairs in 2002. (b. 1944-).

03.05.2005-22.06.2005 Acting Prime Minister Cynthia A. Pratt, The Bahamas
Appointed Acting Prime Minister when the incumbent suffered a minor stroke and stepped aside from his duties, but she has acted on a number of occasions before, when he was abroad. She is also known as "Mother" Pratt. As Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Security since 2002 she was in charge of the Defence Force and Police. She was Opposition Whip Circa 1992-2000 and from circa 2000 Deputy Leader of the Opposition and Deputy Leader of the Progressive Liberal Democratic Part. A former nurse, she is mother of 6 children (b. 1945-).

17.06.2007-13.08.2014 Governor-General Dame Louise Lake-Tack, Antigua and Barbuda

A former nurse and magistrate from 1995. (b. 1944-).

07.06.2005-21.04.2006 Prime Minister Maria do Carmo Trovoada Pires de Carvalho Silveira, São Tomé e Princípe
Normally known as Maria do Carmo Silveira, she was governor of the National Bank 1999-2005 and member of the Political Bureau of the Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tomé-Social Democratic Party, MLSTP-PSD. Also Minister of Finance from 2005. (b. 1961-).

Michaelle Jean

27.09.2005-01.10.2010 Governor General The Rt. Hon. Michaëlle Jean, Canada

Daughter of Haitian immigrants who fled the Duvalier regime in 1968, former university literature professor, social activist and veteran CBC broadcaster from Quebec. Married to French-born Jean-Daniel Lafond, and mother of  Marie-Eden (b. 1999). She is (b. 1957-).

22.11.2005- Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel, Germany
1990 Deputy Spokesperson of the Government of the DDR, 1990-98 Deputy Chairperson of CDU, 1991-94 Federal Minister Women and Youth and 1994-98 Federal Minister of Environment, Protection of Nature and Reactor Safety, 1993-2000 Chairperson of CDU in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 1998-2000 Federal Secretary General and since 2000 Federal Chairperson of CDU and 2002-05 also Parliamentary Leader. Leader of a Grand Coalition between CDU/CSU and SPD. Née Kasner and married secondly to Joachim Sauer, no children. (b. 1954-).

15.01.2006- Executive President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Liberia
1972-73 and 1977-79 Secretary of State of Finance, 1979-80 Minister of Finance, 1980 President of the National Bank, 1980-85 worked for the World Bank, 1985-86 in house arrest after her return, 1990-92 Leading member of exile-government of Amos Sawyer in United States of America, 1992-97 African Director of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program). From 1997 Leader of the Unity Party. Presidential Candidate in 1997 and 2003 (within the Trasitional Council), she won the elections in November 2005. She is divorced, mother of a number of children, and grandmother. (b. 1938-).

11.03.2006-11.03.2010 Executive President
11.03.2014- Michelle Bachelet Jeria, Chile

2000-02 Minister of Health, 2002-04 Minister of Defence. Her father, a general, was killed by the Pinochet dictatorship. Her boyfriend was also detained, tortured and disappeared. She and her mother were also detained and tortured and afterwards lived in exile in Australia and East Germany. She returned to Chile in 1979 and worked for various NGOs helping children of the tortured and disappeared. Presidential Candidate in 2013. She had two children with her first husband and a daughter with her former partner. (b. 1952-).

26.03.2006-10.10.2010 Minister President Emily de Jongh-Elhage, Nederlandse Antillen (Self-governing Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Commissioner of Public works and Public Housing of Curaçao 1998-99, Commissioner of Education, Sport and Cultural Affairs 1999-2002, Minister of Education and Culture of the Nederlandse Antillen 2002-03 and Commissioner of Public Enterprises and Public Housing 2004-05 of Curaçao. From 2005 Leader of De Partido Antia Restrukturá (PAR). Also Minister of General Affairs and External Relations.

30.03.2006-11.09.2007 Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller, Jamaica
05.01.2012-03.03.2016 Prime Minister
Since 1976 MP, 1976-82 Parliamentary Secretary of the Prime Minister, Deputy President of People's National Party 1978-2006 and President from 2006. Minister of Labour, Social Welfare and Sports 1989-2000, Candidate for the party leadership and Premiership in 1992, Minister of Tourism, Entertainment, Sports and Women’s Affairs 2000-02 and Minister of Local Government, Community Development and Sport 2002-06. Acting Prime Minister on various occasions whenever the chief of government was out of the country. 2006-2007 and from 2012 also Minister of Defence and a number of other portfolios, and Opposition Leader 2007-11 (b. 1946-).

19.04.2006-07.03.07 Prime Minister Han Myung-sook, South Korea

During the years of the military dictatorship, she started her career as a social activist in the South Korea Christian Academy and was a political prisoner 1979-81. Master in Christian Theology and Women's Studies and B.A. in French. MP from 2000. Minister of Gender Equality 2001-03 and Minister of Environment 2003-04 She resigned to run as candidate in the Uri-party internal primaries but soon after the party merged with other parties into the United New Democratic Party and Chairperson of the Supreme Council of the Democratic United Party from 2012. (1944-).

01.01.2007-31.12.2007 President of the Confederation 01.01.2011-31.12.2011 President of the Confederation Micheline Calmy-Rey, Switzerland
Former President of the Socialist Party of Génève, she was President of the Grand Conseil of Génève 1993, Councillor of Finance 1997-2002, Vice-President of the Cantonal Government 2000-01 and President of the Cantonal Government 2001-02. Federal Foreign Minister 2003-11 and Vice-President in 2006 and 2010. (b. 1945-).

25.01.2007-15.07.2007 Acting President Dalia Itzik, Israel
Former Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem in charge of Education, Labour Member of the Knesset 1992-2005, Minister of Environment 1999-2001, Minister of Trade and Industry 2001-02, Group Chairperson of Labour 2003-05 and Minister of Communication in 2005. She joined Kadima, a new party formed by Ariel Sharon in 2006 and Speaker of the Knesset 2006-09. She became Acting Head of State when President Moshe Katsaw on his own request was temporary suspended after the Attorney General announced that he would charge the president with offences including rape, obstruction of justice and fraud, on 1. July he resigned and she continued in her role until his successor took office. Chairperson of the Kadima Knesset Group 2009-13. (b. 1952-).

Borjana Kristo President Borjana Kristo, Federation of Bosnia (An Autonomous Entity Within Bosnia-Hercegovina)

2003-07 Minister of Justice of the Bosniak-Croat Federation an entity in The Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The former Vice-President of the Parliament, Spomenka Micic, was elected one of the 2 Vice-Presidents of Federation. 2010 she was candidate for the presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina. (b.  1961-).

25.07.2007-25.07.2012 President Pratibha Patil, India
Deputy Minister 1967-72 and Cabinet Minister 1972-83 and Congress Leader and Leader of the Opposition 1979-80 in Maharastra, Deputy Chairperson of the Union Upper House, the Rajya Sabha 1986-88, Governor of Rajasthan 2004-07. Married to Devisingh Shekhawat, a former Mayor of Amravati. (b. 1934-).

10.12.2007-09.12.2012 Executive President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, Argentina

Won the first round of the presidential elections in October 2007 as candidate for Partido Justicalista. She was Member of the Assembly of Santa Cruz 1989-95 and 1. Vice-President of the Assembly in 1990, National Senator 1995-97 and again 2001-2007, National Deputy 1997-2001. Her late husband Néstor Carlos Kirchner (1950-2010) was President of Argentina 2003-07 and held a number of other posts. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1953-).

26.11.2007-25.11.2011 Premier Viveca Eriksson, Åland (Finish External Territory)
Chairperson of the Liberal Parliamentary Group 1999-2001, Member of the Speaker's Conference 1999-2000, Chairperson of the Finance Committee 1999-2001, first Vice-speaker 2000-01  and 2005-07, Speaker 2001-05 and Party Chairperson from 2004. (b. 1956-).

31.03.2008-14.09.2009 Prime Minister Zinaida Grecianîi, Moldova

Vice-Minister 2000-01 and First Vice-Minister of Finance 2001-02, Minister of Finance 2002-05 and 1. Vice Prime Minister and Coordinator of the activity of executive institution in charge with economic-financial sector from 2005. Presidential Candidate in 2009. (b. 1956-).

25.07.2008-07.08.2008 Acting President of the Executive Council  Marthe Ogoundélé-Tessi, St-Martin (French External Territory

2007-08 1. Vice-President in charge of Employment, Educational Training, Professional Training, Teaching, Culture, Youth and Sports, School Transport, Also President of the Conseil Territory, Candidate for the Post of President in 2008 and since 2008 Member of the Executive Council.

Michèle D. Pierre-Louis 31.07.2008-11.11.2009 Prime Minister Michèle Pierre-Louis, Haiti
The third nominee by president Preval since March, has been Executive Director of the Foundation of Knowledge and Liberty since 1995. (b. 1947-).

Iv Matsepe-Casaburri 25.09.2008 Acting President Dr. Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri, South Africa
Premier of the Free State 1996-99, Federal Minister of Communication since 1999. Acting President on one or two occations in 2003 and Member of the Pool of Possible Acting Presidents from 2005 and on 25. September, she was Acting Executive after the resignation of the President until a successor was elected and sworn in. She lived (1937-2009).

Assunta Meloni

01.10.2008-30.03.2009 Capitan Regent Assunta Meloni, San Marino

Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for Alleanza Popolare from 2006. Married to Fabrizio Stacchini and mother of 2 sons. (b. 1951-).

05.09.2008-28.03.2014 Governor-General Dame Quentin Bryce, Australia
Former lawyer, academic and human rights advocate, Federal Sex Discrimination Commissioner, founding chair and Chief Executive Officer of the National Childcare Accreditation Council and Governor of Queensland 2003-08. (b. 1942-).

04.12.2008-05.12.2012 Leader of the Government Antonella Mularoni, San Marino
Captain Regent
Member of the General Grand Council 1993-2001 and again from 2008, and Judge of the European Court of Human Rights 2001-08, Leader of the Government, Secretary of State of Foreign and Political Affairs, Telecommunication and Transport 2008-12. (b. 1961-).

01.02.2009-23.05.2013 Prime Minister Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir, Iceland
Johanna Sigurdardsottir was Deputy Chairperson of the Social Democrats 1984-93, Chairperson 1994-99 of the National Revival Party until she rejoined the Social Democrats, becoming it's leader in 2009, Vice-President of the Lower Chamber 1979 and 1983-84 and Vice-Chairperson of the the Alþing 2003-07, Minister of Social Affairs And Health 1987-91 and Minister of Social Affairs 1991-94 and 2007-09. First married to Þorvaldur Steinar Jóhannesson with whom she has got 2 sons, and in 2010 she married her registered partner since 2002, the author Jónína Leósdóttir, who is mother of 1 son. (b. 1942-).

10.06.2009-16.10.2009 Interim President Rose Francine Rogombé, Gabon

Secretary of State for the Advancement of Women and Human Rights during the 1980s. As President of the Senate 2008-2015, she was Deputy Head of State and became Interim President when President Bongo died. She lived (b. 1942-).

06.07.2009-23.12.2011 Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor, Croatia

Vice-President of the Sabor 1995-2000 and from 2011, Deputy Chairperson of HDZ 1995-97, Party Leader 2009-12 and Leader of the Opposition 2011-12. Deputy Prime Minister  and Minister of War Weterans from 2003, Minister for Family and Inter-Generation Solidarity 2003-08 and responsible for Foreign Policy and Human Rights. Presidential Candidate 2005. (b. 1953-).

12.07.2009- President Dalia Grybauskaitė, Lithuania
1994-1995 Extraordinary Envoy and Plenipotentiary Minister at the Lithuanian Mission to the EU and Deputy Head Negotiator for the Europe Agreement with EU, 1996-1999 Plenipotentiary Minister at the Embassy in USA, 1999-2000 Vice-Minister of Finance and 2000-01 Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Head of the EU Accession negotiations, 2001-04 Minister of Finance and 2004 EU-Commissioner of Financial Programming and Budget 2004-09. Won 69% of the votes in the presidential elections. Unmarried and no children. (b. 1956-).

21.10.2009-13.11.2009 Acting Prime Minister
18.12.2009-20.12.2009 Prime Minister Cécile Manorohanta, Madagascar
Cécile Marie Ange Dominique Manorohanta was Vice-Minister of Education and Scientific Research 2007, Minister of Defence 2007-09 and Vice-Premier and Minister of Interior in 2009. As part of the power struggle she was in charge of the government from October to November as the appointed Premier could not be sworn in and when he was abroard in December, she again acted as his stand-in until he was dismissed and she appointed as his successor but herself replaced after 2 days.

01.01.2010-31.12.2010 President of the Confederation 
01.01.2017-31.12.2017 President of the Confederation Doris Leuthard, Switzerland

Member of the Assembly in Aargau 1997-2000, Vice-President of Christian Democratic Party, CVP 2001-04,  President of CVP Schweiz 2004-06 and Federal Councillor of Economic Affairs from 2006 and Vice-President 2009 and 2016. (b. 1963-).

07.04.2010-19.05.2010 Head of the Interim Government
19.05.2010-01.12.2011 President Roza Otunbayeva, Kyrgyzstan
Other versions of her surname are Otunbaeva or Otunbajewa. 1983-86 Secretary of the Municipal Communist Central Committee of Frunze, 1986-89 Deputy Prime Minister and Foregin Minister in the Kyrgyz SSR, 1991 Ambassador of the USSR to Malaysia, 1992 Kyrgyz Deputy Premier Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1992-93 Ambassador to USA and Canada and 1994 to Turkey, Foreign Minister 1994-96, Ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain 1996-2003, Deputy Head of the United Nations special mission to Georgia 2002-04, Acting Foreign Minister 2007, Parliamentary Leader of the Social Democrats 20009-10 and Interim Head of State and Government from April 2010 after the former President was ousted. In May she was appointed President for the term ending in December 2011. (b. 1950-).

08.05.2010-08.05.2014 President Laura Chinchilla Miranda, Costa Rica
Vice-Minister of Security 1994-96, Minister of Public Security, Interior and Police 1996-98, 1. Vice-President and Minister of Justice 2006-08 and Acting Minister of Security in 2008. Resigned to become Liberal Party Presidential Candidate for the 2010-elections which she won.(b. 1959-).

26.05.2010-09.09.2015 Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar, Trinidad and Tobago
Attorney General (second in Cabinet) 1995-06 and 2001, Minister of Legal Affairs 1996-99 and 2001 and Minister of Education 1999-2001. First appointed acting premier on the absence of the Premier in September 2000. Leader of The United National Congesss and Oppostion Leader 2006-07 and 2010 and Political Leader from 2010. (b. 1952-).

22.06.2010-22.06.2011 Prime Minister Mari Kiviniemi, Finland

MP from 1991, Deputy Parliamentary Leader of the Center Party in 2003, Party Vice-Chairperson 2003-08 and Party Chairperson 2010-12, Political Advisor of the Prime Minister 2004-07, Minister of Foreign Trade and Development Aid and Minister at the Prime Minister's Office 2005-06 and Minister of Public Administration and Local Government 2007-10. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1968-).

24.06.2010- 27.12.2013 Prime Minister Julia Gillard, Australia

MP from 1998, Manager of Opposition Business in the House of Representatives 2003-06 and Deputy Leader of Labor 2006-10, Deputy Leader of the Opposition 2006-07 and Leader of Labour 2010-13, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Education, Employment and Workplace Relations and Social Inclusion from 2007-10. Her parents immigrated to Australia from Wales. She lives with her partner and has no children. (b. 1961-).

08.07.2010-04.04.2012 Prime Minister Iveta Radičová, Slovakia

Iveta Radicova is Professor of Sociology and Political Sciences at the Comenius University in Bratislava, from 2005 Director of the Institute of Sociology at the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2005-06 Minister of Labour and Social Affairs, MP from 2006 and Deputy Leader of the  Democratic and Christian Union–Democratic Party 2006-10 and Party Leader 2010-12. Presidential Candidate for all the opposition parties in 2009 and finished second in the second round of voting, and in 2010 the opposition 4-party coalition won the elections. Minister of Defence from 2011 (b. 1956-).

10.10.2010-19.12.2014 Prime Minister Sarah Wescot-Williams, Sint Maarten (Self-governing Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Circa 1995-2009 Commissioner of General Affairs, Education etc., 1999-2009 Leader of the Government, Social and Cultural Development, Finance, Juridical Affairs, Emergency Services, Information, Communication and Protocol, Strategic Policy, Planning and Development of Sint Maartin which was part of the Netherlands Antilles until 2010 when it became a self ruling entity within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. She is Leader of the St. Maarten Party.  And was Chairperson of the Parliament.

29.10.2010-18.12.2012 Premier Paula A. Cox, Bermuda (British Dependent Territory) 
Succeeded her father, Eugene Cox as Minister of Finance when he died in January 2004. 1998-2002 Minister of Labour and Home Affairs and Public Security, 2002-04 Minister of Education, 2002-03 Minister of Development, 2003-04 Attorney General and Minister of Justice and Minister of Finance 2004-12, Deputy Leader of the Progressive Labour Party and Deputy Premier 2006-10 and Party Leader 2010-12. (b. 1969-).

01.01.2011-31.08.2016 Executive President Dilma Rousseff, Brazil
Dilma Vana Linhares Rousseff is a former student leader who fought Brazil's military dictatorship as a guerrilla during the early 1970s and an economist. Secretary of Mines, Energy and Communication of Rio Grande do Sul 1993-94 and 1999-2002, Minister of Mines and Energy 2003-05 and Minister and Secretary General of the Presidential Staff (Cabinet Chief) 2005-10. In May 2016 she was impeached by the Congress and suspended for 180 days. . (b. 1947-).

19.03.2011-28.07.2011 Rosario del Pilar Fernández Figueroa, Peru

Minister of Justice 2007-09 and again from 2010. Her official title is Presidenta del Consejo de Ministros del Perú.

01.04.2011-31.10.2011 Captain RegentMaria Luisa Berti, San Marino

Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for Noi Sammarinesi since 2008. In 2011 she was also joint president of the parliament. (b. 1971-)

04.04.2011-22.03.2012 Prime Minister Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé, Mali

Mariam Sidibé was Minister of Planning and International Cooperation 1991-92 and Minister of Agriculture and Environment in 1992, Executive Secretary of the intergovernmental Interstate Committee on the Fight Against Desertification in the Sahel 1993-2000, Special Counselor to the President 2001-02, Minister of Rural Development in 2002 and President of the administrative council of Mali's government Tobacco corporation 2003-12. Deposed by a military coup together with the president. (b. 1948-).

07.04.2011-07.04.2016 President Atifete Jahjaga, Kosovo

She was Deputy Chief of Police of Kosovo with rank of Major General at the time of her election. Married to Astrit Kuçi. (b. 1975-).

08.08.2011-07.05.2014 Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, Thailand
A former buisness woman and main candidate for the Pheu Thai Party which won about 50% of the votes in the parliamentary elections. Defence Minister from 2013. She is a member of a walthy family, her father, uncle and other family members were MPs her brother and brother-in-law were Prime Ministers and her sister Mayor of Chiang Mai. She is married to businessman Anusorn Amornchat and mother of a son. (b. 1967-).

03.10.2011-28.06.2015 Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark
Social Democrat Member of the European Parliament 1999-2004 and Member of the Parliament 2005-16, Party Chairperson 2005-15 and 1. Vice-Chairperson of the Parliament 2015-16. Married to the British MP, Stephen Kinnock, and mother of two daughters. (b. 1966-).

13.11.2001-30.11.2005 Governor General Dame Ivy Leona Dumont, The Commonwealth of the Bahamas

Deputy Permanent Secretary in Ministry of Works and Utilities 1975- 78, worked in the private sector, Secretary General of The National Movement Party Senator and Minister in the government 1990-2001. In November she was named acting Governor General, and confirmed by the Queen, 01.01.02. She had been appointed to serve as deputy to the governor general on two earlier occasions. (b. 1930-).

25.11.2011-25.11.2015 Lantråd Camilla Gunell, the Åland Islands (Finish External Territory)
Member of the Lagting since 2003, Chairperson of the Parliamentary Group of the Social Democrats 2003-05 and Party Chairperson from 2009 and Minister of Education and Culture 2005-2007. (b. 1970-).

01.12.2012-31.12.2012 President of the Confederation Eveline Widmer-Sclumpf, Switzerland

Councillor of Finance and Military of Graubünden 1998-2007, Vice-President of the Government 2000 and 2004 and President of the Government 2001 and 2005, Federal Councillor of Justice and Police 2008-10 and Councillor of Finance 2010-15 and Vice-President in 2011. (b. 1956-).

10.02.2012-22.04.2012 Acting Prime Minister Adiatu Djaló Nandigna, Guinea Bissau

Also known as Maria Adiatu Diallo Nandigna, she was Minister of Culture, Youth and Sport 2007-08 and has been Second in Cabinet since 2008, Minister of Foreign Affairs in 2009 and Minister of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Social Communication and Parliament 2009-12. Deposed in a military coup together with the Interim President between the first and second round in the Presidential Elections. Appointed Defence Minister in 2016.

31.03.2012-21.07.2012 and 29.05.2015-05.06.2015 Acting President Monique Ohsan-Bellepeau, Mauritius

1995-2000 Junior Minister of Urban- and Rural Development and Président of the parti travailliste until 2010 and as Vice-President since 2010, she took over in an acting capacity after the resignation of her predecesser.

05.04.2012-31.05.2012 Acting President Slavica Đukić-Dejanović, Serbia
Dukic-Dejanovic is Vice-President of the Socijalističke partije Srbije, and as President of the Skupština 2008-12, she took over as Head of State when her predecessor resigned. (b. 1951-).

07.04.2012-31.05.2014 President Joyce Banda, Malwai
2004-06 Minister of Women, Child Welfare and Community Service, 2006-09 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 2009-12 Vice-President, Founder and leader of the People's Party in 2011 after she fell out with the President who did not include her in the Cabinet, though she remained Vice-President according to the constitution, and as such she took over as head of state after the death of her predecessor. (b. 1950-).

30.05.2012-01.07.2012 Acting Governor-General Sandra Mason, Barbados
She is a judge of the Supreme Court.

01.10.2012-31.10.2013 Captain Regent Denise Bronzetti , San Marino
Held various positions within the Politica del Partito Socialista Sammarinese and Partito dei Socialisti e dei Democratici and member of the Consiglio Grande Generale since 2006. (b. 1972-).

19.12.2012-29.05.2013 Premier Juliana O’Connor-Connolly, the Cayman Islands  (British Overseas Territory)
Minister of Community Development, Sports, Youth Affairs and Culture 1997-2000 and 2003-04,  Minister for Planning, Communications, District Administration and IT 2004-05, Deputy Premier 2009-12, Minister for District Administration, Works, Lands and Agriculture since 2009, Minister of Environmental Health, Telecommunication and Gender Affairs2 009-12 and Minister of Finance from 2012, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly 2001-03, Deputy Leader of the United Democratic Party 2009-12 and Leader of People's National Alliance from 2013

25.02.2013-10.03.2017 President Park Geun-hye, South Korea
MP 1998-2012, Chairperson of the Grand National Party 2004-06, Candidate in the party primaries for presidential candidate in 2008, Leader of Saenuri (Renamed GNP) 2011-12. In December 2016, she was impeached and her suspension was later confirmed by the Constitutional Court. (b. 1952-).

13.03.2013- Prime Minister Željka Cvijanović, Republic Srpska (Autonomous Entity Within Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Zeljka Cvijanovic was Minister of Economic Relations and Regional Cooperation 2010-13. As candidate for the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2014, she got 48.1 and the winner got 48.3 percent of the votethe vote for the Serb seat in the federal joint presidency. (b. 1967-).

20.03.2013-18.09.2014 Prime Minister Alenka Bratušek, Slovenia
Alenka Bratusek has been MP from 2011 and Acting Leader of the Positive Slovenia party from 2013. She is former Head of the Directorate for the State Budget at the Ministry of Finance.  Designate Vice-President of the EU-Commission for Energy Union in 2014, but was rejected by the European-Parliament. (b. 1970-).

05.04.2013-15.10.2014 Premier Aleqa Hammond, Greenland (Danish Selfruling Territory)
Also Minister of External Affairs. Minister of Family Affairs and Justice 2005-07,  Minister of Finance and External Affairs 2007-08 and Chairperson of Siumut from 2009-14. (b. 1965-).

07.05.2013- Governor-General Dame Cécile La Grenade, Grenada
Founder and chief executive of La Grenade Industries.

13.06.2013-02.09.2013  Prime Minister Sibel Siber, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
MP from 2009 in the self-declared state that comprises the northeastern part of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey. MP from 2009. She received the hightest number of votes in 2013 General Election and became Speaker of the Assembly, the Cumhuriyet Meclisi.

10.07.2013-02.12.2015 Prime Minister Tatyana Turanskaya, Transnistria
Earlier in 2013 she was appointed Deputy Prime Minister with responsiblity for Regional Administration in the the self-declared and de facto independent Republic of Transnistria within the territory of Moldova. (b. 1972-).

03.09.2013-04.07.2014 Premierministre Aminata Touré, Senegal
Chair of the Electoral Campaign of Landing Savané in 1993, worked in various international organisaitons among others as head of the Human Rights Department of the UN Population Fond and Director of the Cabinet of President Macky Sall 2010-12 and Minister of Juctice and Third in the Cabinet 2012-13. (b. 1962-).

01.10.2013-01.04.2014 Captain Regent Anna Maria Muccioli, San Marino
Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for the Partito Democratico Cristiano since 2008. (b. 1964-).

20.10.2013- Minister of State Erna Solberg, Norway
Deputy Leader of Høyre 2002-04 and Party Leader from 2004, Minister of Local Government and Regional Development 2001-05, Deputy to the Prime Minister 2004-05. Married to Sindre Finnes and mother of 2. (b. 1961-).

22.01.2014-11.02.2016 Minister President Laimdota Straujuma, Latvia
1999-2000 Deputy State Secretary of Agriculture, 2000-06 State Secretary of Agriculture, 2007-10 State Secretary of Regional Development, 2010-11 Deputy State Secretary Regional Development and 2011-14 Minister of Agriculture. Joined the Unity Party after she was nominated as chief of the government by the party chair and President of the Parliament Solvita Āboltiņa. (b. 1951-).

23.01.2014-30.03.2016 Acting Head of State Catherine Samba-Panza, Central African Republic
Businesswoman and corporate lawyer. Appointed Mayor of the capital Bangui in 2013 by the former interim government before she was elected Interim President. (b. 1954-).

04.04.2014- President Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca, Malta
Labour MP 1998-2014 and Minister of Family and Social Solidarity 2013-14. (b. 1958-).

08.07.2014- Governor General Dame Marguerite Pindling, The Bahamas
Widow of Sir Lynden Pindling (1930-2000) who was Prime Minister of the Colony of Bahamas 1967-73 and of independent Bahamas 1973-92. She acted as Deputy to the Governor General 2012-14. (b. 1932-).

22.07.2014-02.04.2015 President of the Council of Ministers Ana Rosario Jara Velásquez, Peru
2011-14 Minister of Women's Promotion and Social Development, 2014 Minister of Labour and Promotion of Employment and MP 2011. (b. 1968-).

22.09.2014-13.11.2015 Minister President Ewa Kopacz, Poland
Member of the Sejm 2001-2005 and from 2011 for Platforma Obywatelsk, Minister of Helth 2007-11 and Marshall of the Sejm from 2011. (b. 1956-).

20.12.2014-16.01.2015 Acting Prime Minister Florence Duperval Guillaume, Haiti
Minister of Public Health and Population 2011-12 and from 2014

01.01.2015-31.12.2015 President Simonetta Sommaruga, Switzerland

Federal Councillor of Justice and Police and Substitute Councillor of Interiorfrom 2010. VicePresident in 2014.

18.02.2015- President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, Croatia
Appointed Minister of European Integration in 2003 and was also Foreign Minister 2005-08. English and Spanish languages professor and former adviser in the Foreign Ministry. Finished second in the first round of the presidential elections in 2014 and won 50,5 % in the second round. (b. 1968-).

21.03.2015- Prime Minister Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila, Namibia
Director-General of the National Planning Commission 1997-2003 and Minister of Finance 2003-15. (b. 1967-).

05.06.2015- President Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Mauritius
Professor of Organic chemistry and Pro-vice-chancellor of the University of Mauritius.

22.06.2015-30.07.2015 Acting Prime Minister Natalia Gherman, Moldova

Deputy Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration 2013-16, she took over as Premier after the resignation of her predecessor. Deputy Foreign Minister 2009-13, Ambassador to Austria, OSCE and other International Organisations in Vienna 2002-06 and to Sweden, Norway and Finland 2006-09. She is daughter of former President Mircea Snegur.

27.08.2015-21.09.2015 Interim Prime Minister Vasiliki Thanou, Greece
Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou is the senior judge as President of the Court of Cassation in 2015. She was President of the Court of First Instance 1992-2015, President of the Appeals Court 2005-15, judge in the Court of Cassation from 2008, Vice President of the Court 201-15. (b. 1950-).

01.10.2015-01.04.2016 Captain Regent Lorella Stefanelli, San Marino
Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for the Partito Democratico Cristiano from 2012.

13.10.2015-30.11.2015 and 02.12.2015-23.12.2015 Acting Prime Minister Maya Ivanovna Parnas, Transnistria
She was appointed Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Development and Finance in 2012 in the Self-Declared Republic in Moldova

29.10.2015- President Bidhya Devi Bhandari, Nepal
Minister for Population and Environment 1997 and Minister of Defence 2009-11, Vice-president of the Nepal Communist Party (Unified Marxist-Leninist) 1998-2015. (b. 1961-)

16.11.2015- Prime Minister Beata Szydło, Poland
Vice-President of the Law and Justice party (b. 1963-)

25.11.2015- Premier Katrin Sjögren, Åland (Finish External Territory)
2007-11 Minister of Social Affairs, Health and Care and Environment, Vice-Chairperson of the Liberal Party until 2012 and Party Leader from 2012.

28.01.2016- President Hilda Heine, the Marshall Islands
Former Secretary of Education as well as Senator and Minister of Education 2012-16. (1951-)

07.04.2016- State Councillor Aung San Suu Ky, Myanmar
Her party won 80 % of the votes in the 2015-elections, As the Constitution is designed to prevent her from becoming President, the Parliament created the new powerful position of State Councilor; a role similar to that of Prime Minister. Aso Minister of the President's Office and Foreign Minister. She also won the 1990 elections that were annulled,  was placed under house arrest for a total of 15 years over a 21-year period. General Secretary of he National Leauge for Democracy 1988-2011 and President from 2011, elected MP in 2012 and was Leader of the Opposition 2012-16. Widow of Dr. Michael Aris (1946-1999) and mother of 2 sons. (b. 1945-).

20.05.2016- President Tsai Ing-wen, Taiwan
Senior Advisor of the National Security Council 1999-2000, Minister and Chairperson of Mainland Affairs Council 2000-04. Member of the Legislative Yuan 2004-06, Vice-Premier and Minister of Consumer Protection 2006-07, Chairperson of the Democratic Progressive Party 2008-12 and from 2014 and Presidential Candidate in 2012. (b. 1956-)

08.07.2016-26.01.2016 Acting Head of State Doris Bures, Austria
As Pesident of the Nationalrat she became Head of the Joint Acting Presidency with the two Vice-Presidents after the second round presidential elections had to be re-run. She became SPÖ Member of Parliament in 1990 and Party Secretary General 2000-07 and again in 2008, Federal Minister without Portfolio in the Office of the Federal Chancellor in charge of Women's Affairs, Media and Civil Service 2007-08 and Federal Minister of Infrastructure, Trafic, Innovation and Technology 2008-14 (b. 1962-).

13.07.2016- Prime Minister Theresa May, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Conservative MP from 1997, Chairperson of the Conservative Party 2002-03, Home Secretary 2010-16,  Minister for Women and Equality 2010-12 and Party Leader of the Conservative 2016. (b. 1956-).

28.09.2016- Governor General-Dame Patsy Reddy, New Zealand
Lawyer, Chairperson of the New Zealand Film Commission involved in a number of non-governmental organisations, particularly in the arts and gender equality. Married to Sir David Gascoigne. (b. 1952-).

10.10.2016- President Kersti Kaljulai, Estonia
Economic Advisor of the Prime Minister 1999-2002, Member of the European Court of Auditors 2004-2016. Married to George-Rene Maksimovski and mother of 2 sons. (b. 1969-). 

01.04.2017-01.10.2017 Captain Regent Mimma Zavoli, San Marino

As Captain Regent she also chairs the Consiglio Grande e Generale jointly with the other Captain Regent, which for the first time was another woman. Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for Civico 10. (b. 1963-).

01.04.2017-01.10.2017 Captain Regent Vanessa d’Ambrosio, San Marino

Member of the Consiglio Grande e Generale for Sinistra Socialista Democratica (b. 1988-).

Last updates 01.04.2017

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