Women in power 1200-1300

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


Around 1200-09 Hereditary Lady Bertha von Vohburg of Greiz, Hof, Regnitztal, Ronnenburg and Plauen (Austria)

Daughter and heir of the Margrave of Vohburg. Married Heinrich II der Reiche von Reuss Steward of Weida and Gera. Mother of Heinrich III and Heinrich IV. 

Unnamed Indonesian Queen

Before 1200 Queen Arjayadengjayaketana of Bali (Indonesia)

Joint ruler with King Haji Ekajayalancana. The first centuries AD until the year o 1500, constituted the Hindu influence period. With the coming of Indian influences. In running the government, the monarch was assisted by a Central Advisory Board. In the oldest charter 882 AD - 914 AD, the board was called panglapuan. The Board members comprised several commanders', Senapatis and Siwa and Buddhist priests. 


1200-05 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne of Bourgogne (France)

Daughter of Otto I and Marguerite de Champagne, Comtesse Palatine de Bourgogne (1200-1205) and succeeded by sister Beatrix II (1192-1231). She lived (1191-1205).

1200-31 Sovereign Countess Beatrix II of Franche-Comté (France)
1205-31 Countess Palatine de Bourgogne 

Succeeded father, Otto I in Franche-Comté and sister in Bourgogne, and reigned jointly with husband Duke Otto II de Meran (1208-34), who was succeeded by their son, Otto III de Meran and Franche-Comté and in 1248 by daughter, Alix. She lived (1192-1231).


1200-after 45 Dame Beatrix de Courtenay of Toron and Cabor, Titular Countess of Edessa (Israel)

Oldest daughter of Joscelin II and Agnes de Milly, she first married Guillaume de Lusignan, Wilhelm de Lusignan, Seigneur de Valence (d. circa 1206) and Otto II. Graf von Henneberg and mother of two sons by the last son. (d. after 1245).


1200-08 Regent Burgavine Petronella van Kortrijk of Gent (Belgium)

Her husband Zeger II was a templar from 1200 and in 1202 he died, and she continued as regent for their son Zeger III (1190-1227). She remained influential after her son took over the government and for example donated some lands to an abbey in 1214. When signing documents she used the titulature of Burgravine van Gent and Kortrÿk.


Around 1200 Administrator Urodati Vennele Settikavve of Satenahalli in Karnataka  (India)

Also security officer, and stopped loot and rampage in her territory in Karnataka by punishing the ruffians and supporting the ethos of traders. She also arranged seminars on religion (dharma-prasanga).


1200-20 De-facto Co-Ruler Terken Khatun of Khwarezmian Empire (Iran)

After the death of her partner, 'Ala' al-Din Tekish (1172-1200), she so dominated the court of their son, 'Ala' al-Din Muhammad II (1200-20) and quarreled so bitterly with his heir by another wife, Jalal al-Din, that she may have contributed to the impotence of the Khwarazmshahi kingdom in the face of the Mongol onslaught. She had a separate Divan and separate palace and the orders of the sultan were not considered to be effective without her signature. The Shah ruled the heterogeneou peoples without mercy. In face of Mongol attacks, Khwarazm empire, with a combined army of 400.000, simply collapsed.  Harezmshah Muhammed had retreated to Samarkand towards the end of his domination and he had to leave the capital city of Gurgenç to her.


Around 1200 Army Commander Queen Umadevi of Hoysala (India)

Led two campaigns against recalcitrant vassals during the reign of her husband, king Viraballala II of Karnataka (1173-1220).


12... Regent Dowager Princess Alagai Bäki of the Ordos Mongols in Gansu and Shaanxi (China)

She was widow of Boyaoche and daughter of Djingis Khan. The tribe was also known as Öngüt in Chihua Cheng.


1201-30 Sovereign Dame Ermessenda de Castellbò i Caboët of Andorra 
1226-30 Sovereign Viscountess of Castellbò-Cerdagne (Spain)
Inherited Andorra from her mother Arnalda de Carboet (1164-1201) and Castellbò by father Arnaud de Castellbò-Cerdagne (1155-1226). She and married to Roger Bernard II of Foix (1195-1241) in 1208, and trough their descendants Andorra was inherited by the houses of Foix, Bearn and Navarra and France. She lived (1185-1230).

Queen of Navarra 1201-22 Regent Dowager Countess Blanca de Navarra of Champagne (France)
Until 1229 Regent of Navarra (Spain)
Also known as Blanche de Navarre, she was pregnant when her husband Thibaut III died, and she became regent for her posthumously born son Thibaut IV (1201-53). Her regency was plagued by a number of difficulties. Her brother-in-law, count Henry II had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Thibaut III died. Further, their son Thibaut's legitimacy was not unquestioned, and his right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful Champagne nobles. The conflict broke into open warfare in 1215, and was not resolved until after Thibaut came of age in 1222. At that time Thibaut and Blanca bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Her brother Sancho VII of Navarre was the last male-line descendant of the first dynasty of kings of Navarre, the Pamplona dynasty, and was childless and when he went into retirement ("el Encerrado") she took administration of the kingdom, though he remained king until her son succeeded him in 1234. She was the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre (who died 1194) and Sancha of Castile. She lived (1170's-1229).


1201 Pretender Philippine de Champagne-Jerusalem of Champagne (France)

Younger daughter of Henri de Champagne and Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem, she claimed the county of Champagne after the death of her cousin, Thibaud, jointly with her older sister, Queen Alice of Jerusalem, and the fights over the inheritance lasted about a quarter of a century. Some of the nobles and prelates supported Philippa and her sister; others supported Queen Blanca of Castilla and her son. In 1221 both sisters seceded their claims in exchange of a large payment. But in 1227 they made a new attempt and new fights erupted. But in 1234 the inheritance was finally settled, the sisters were granted a large sum of money and Alice had the treaty confirmed by her son, Henri of Cyprus and her daughters Maria and Isabella. Philippa was married to Sire Erard III de Brienne, mother of seven children, and lived (circa 1195- 1250).


1202-04 Regent Countess Marie de Champagne of Flanders and Hainault (Belgium)

In charge of the government during husband, Count Baudouin IX's participation in the 5th crusade. He later became Emperor of Constantinople. She travelled to Jerusalem and died shortly after her arrival after having given birth to her second daughter, the later Marguerite II. Her husband died in 1205 and was succeeded by daughter Jeanne. 


1202/03-18 Judicissa Elena of Gallura in Sardinia (Italy)

When her father, Barisone II, died left her and the giudicato under the protection of Pope Innocent III, who asked Biagio, Archbishop of Torres to assure a smooth succession in Gallura, which meant arranging a marriage for the young woman. In July 1204, the Pope wrote to her commending her for abiding by papal advice and admonishing her mother, Riccus, Archbishop of Cagliari, and the people of Gallura to follow the decision of Biagio. The bishop of Cività, the Gallurese capital, was sent to Rome to receive papal instruction concerning the marriage prospects. Gugliermo of Cagliari had already intervened to remove a suitor, and did so again in 1206. Later that year she was informed that she would be marrying Trasimondo, a cousin of the Pope, but she refused and instead married a Pisan named Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio. After her death, her husband was engaged to Benedetta of Cagliari. Her son Ubaldo II Visconti later succeeded, who was married to Judicissa Adelaisa of Logudoro. (d. circa 1218).

Unnamed Countess

1202-circa 44 Sovereign Countess Isabelle Taillefer of Angoulême (France)

Daughter of Adémer III Taillefer, who was pretender to the county (1181-1202) against his sister, Countess Mahaut. After his death she claimed the title, 6 years before Mahaut died. First married to King John without Land of England 1216, who died when she was visiting Queen Blance in Paris. After having returned to England she gave birth to a daughter. After the coronation of her 8-year-old son, Henry, she was asked by the Barons to leave England and she returned to her own lands. Here she arranged for her daughter to marry Hugues X de Lusignan, Count de La Marche, to whom she was engaged before her marriage to John, but married him herself in 1218. She was very powerful in both counties. Both her second husband and her son, Henry III, were engaged in fights against the French king in 1242. The following year she divided her possessions among those of her 13 children who had survived infancy, and joined the convent Fontrevault. After her death her husband joined one of the crusades and died in the Holy Land in 1249. She lived (1186-1246).


1202-after 05 Regent Countess Alice of Angoulême (France)

Widow of the pretender, Adémer Taillefer to the county, she was regent for daughter, Isabelle. 


1202-circa 06 Regent Dowager Countess Oda von Berg-Altna of Tecklenburg (Germany)

Ruled in the name of son Otto I von Tecklenburg after the death of her husband, Count Simon. Otto was succeeded by daughter, Helwig.  


1203-28 Claimant to the Duchy Eléonore of Bretagne (France)

After her brother, Arthur I (1186-1201-03) was assassinated by their uncle, John without Land of England, claimed the duchy but was imprisoned by John and placed in a Abbey in England. (d. 1244)

Alix de Bretagne

1203-21 Sovereign Duchess Alix de Thouars of Bretagne (France)

Inherited Brittany after her half-brother Arthur was assassinated. She was daughter of Duchess Constance and her father, Gui de Thouars, who was duke-regent during her minority until 1213. Her husband, Pierre I de Dreux, Count of Penthièvre and Richmond was Duke by the right of his wife until 1221 and after her death during the minority of their son, Jean I until 1237. (d. 1221).


1203-28 Sovereign Countess Beatrice de Thiers of Chalons-sur-Saône and Beaune (France)

Succeeded father Guillaume VI and Married Etienne III de Bourgogne (1170-1240). After her death in 1228, the county was inherited by son, Jean I (1190-1266).

Ada of Holland and Zeeland

1203-08 Sovereign Countess Ada of Holland and Zeeland (The Netherlands)

Only daughter of Dirk VII of Holland, who installed her as heir in 1203. Her mother, Aleid von Kleve (d. 1238), married her off to Lodewijk II van Loon even before her father was burried. But within a short time, support was mounting for Dirk’s brother, Willem, who took the title of Count. Ada was taken prisoner by the English king and after 4 years she was released after an agreement that made her husband Count of Holland and her uncle Count of Zeeland. 2007 she was finally released from England. When her husband died in 1208 her uncle took over the reign and in 1213 he was officially granted the County by Emperor Otto IV. She had no children, and lived (circa 1189-circa 1223).


1203-24 Princess-Abbess Sophia von Brehna of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Margrave Friedrich and Hedwig and lived (1182-1226).


1203 Reigning Abbess Agnès II of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

The last known predecessor was Agnès I who reigned about 100 years earlier.


1204-05 Nominal Regent Dowager Queen Constance de Aragón of Hungary
Regent of Sicilia (Italy)

After the death of her first husband, King Imre of Hungary, she was regent for their son, Laszlo III, but they were held prisoners by her brother-in-law, Andras, but they managed to escape to Austria, where her son died in May 1205 after 3 months on the throne. She returned to Aragon, but soon after married Federico I Hohenstaufen di Sicilia (1194-1250), the son of Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich IV, who succeeded his mother, Constanza, as king of Sicily, and who became king of Germany 1212. She held the reins when he moved to Germany and was confronted the revolts of the Saracens (Moors). Together with her son, Heinrich, she visited Friederich in Germany in 1216. When he became Holy Roman Emperor in 1220 (as Friederich II), she joined him in Germany. After her death, her husband married Queen Yolande de Brienne of Jerusalem and then Elizabeth of England. Her son, Heinrich died before his father, and since both his sons had already died, Friederich was succeeded by his son by Yolande, Conradin. Constance lived (1179-1222). 

1204-circa 05 Regent Dowager Countess Mathilda of Portugal of Flanders (The Netherlands)

Very influential during the reign of her husband Filips (d. 1191) and her sister-in-law Marguerite and again during the reign of her son, BoudewijnIX of Constantinople, and regent during his participation in the 5th Crusade. Born as Mafalda, she was daughter of King Sancho I (1154-85-1211) and Dulce of Aragón. 


1204-13 Sovereign Lady Marie de Guilhem of Montpellier (France)

When her mother, Eudokia Komnen, a Byzantine Empress married her father, Guillaume VIII de Montpellier it was a condition that the firstborn child, boy or girl, would succeed to the lordship of Montpellier on his death. She was married to Barral de Marseille in 1192 or shortly before, but was widowed in that year. Her second marriage, in 1197, was to Bernard IV of Comminges, and her father now insisted on her giving up her right to inherit Montpellier. She had two daughters by her second husband, Mathilde and Petronille. The marriage was, however, notoriously polygamous as he had two other living wives. The marriage was annulled and she was once more heir to Montpellier. Her father had died in 1202 and her half-brother, Guillaume, had taken control of the city, but she asserted her right to it. On 15 June 1204 she married Pedro II pf Aragpm and was recognised as Lady of Montpellier and their son, Juan, was born on 1 February 1208. Her husband immediately attempted to divorce her, hoping both to marry Maria of Montferrat, Queen of Jerusalem, and to claim Montpellier for himself. Her last years were spent in combating these political and matrimonial manoeuvres. Pope Innocent III finally decided in her favour, refusing to permit the divorce. Both spouces died in 1213 and their son inherited Aragon and Montpellier. She lived (1182-1213).

Jeanne de Constantinople

1205-44 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Constantinople of Flanders, Hainault and Namur (Belgium and France)

Also known as Johanna, she was the oldest daughter of Emperor BoudewijnIX of Constantinople. After the death of her parents she, and her sister, Marguerite, were raised by king Philippe Auguste of France and was married off to Ferrand of Portugal, who participated in the coalition against the king, and held as prisoner 1214-26. During this difficult period, she was advised by her mother-in-law and managed to secure her inheritance faced with the opposition of the nobility and cities. After she managed to obtain the liberation of her husband in 1226, she lived a couple of years in relative tranquillity and founded numerous charitable and religious institutions. After Ferrand's death in 1233, she married Thomas de Savoie. Her only daughter, Marie, died as an as an infant and she was succeeded by sister, Marguerite, and lived (1188/1200-44).

Unnamed queen of Jerusalem

1205-13 Queen Maria I de Monferrato of Jerusalem (Israel)

Alternative versions of her name is Maria La Marquise or Maria of Monferrato, she succeeded to throne of Jerusalem aged 13. The regent was John of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut (her mother Isabella's half-brother). When Maria came of age at the age of 17 in 1208, she assumed the throne in her own right. The nobles of Outremer decided though that she was rather young and a man should rule the Jerusalem and so the search went out for a suitable husband for this young woman. In 1210 she married Jean de Brienne. Maria gave birth to a daughter, Isabella/Yolanda in 1212 and died shortly after and her husband, Jean de Brienne, became regent for their daughter until 1225. She lived (1192-1212).


From 1205 Regent Princess Burgundia of Cyprus

After the death of her father, Amalric I of Cyprus-Jerusalem she was held the regency together with husband Gautier de Montfaucon-Montbeliard, during the minority of her brother, Hugh or Hugo, who came of age in 1205. Their half-sister, Maria, became Queen of Jerusalem after the realm was divided. Burgundia or Bourgogne lived (circa 1176-after 1205)


1205-12 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth de Luxembourg of Saint-Pôl (France)

Daughter of Hugues IV Camp d'Avesnes (d. 1205), and married Gaucher III, seigneur de Châtillon, de Troissy, de Montjay, de Crécy and de Pierrefons (d. 1219). Succeeded by son, Gui I, who married Agnès, Countess of Nevers and Auxerre. She lived (1179-1263).


1205-30 Reigning  Abbess-General Sancha García of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The "Monastieum Cisterciense" records the stern inhibition that Innocent III, in 1220, placed upon Cistercian Abbesses of Burgos and Palencia in Spain, "who blessed their religious, heard the confession of their sins, and when reading the Gospel, presumed publicly to preach."

Abbess of Gernrode

1205-07 Countess-Abbess Richenza von Büren of Gernrode (Germany)

Also known as Rikinza. Around 1200 the community drew up a manuscript listing all its rights of ownership, dependencies, and holdings. According to this manuscript 24 entire villages, 21 churches, and nearly 400 hides of land belonged to the communities of Gernrode and Frose. Although the manuscript is a forgery (it purports to be a document issued by Margrave Gero in 964), it was accepted and strengthened by Pope Innocent III and was accepted as the truth thereafter.


Circa 1205-circa 10 Dame Abbesse Haduidis II of Remiremont (France) 

The noble ladies of the chapter were member of the noble families of Lorraine, Franché-Comte and Germany and many of them did not take up permanent residence in the city, but lived of the income they derived from the territory.

1207-57 Sovereign Countess Mahaut I de Courtenay of Nevers, d'Auxerre and Tonnerre (France)

Also known as Mathilde, she was daughter of Comtesse Agnès and Pierre de Courtenay Count of Namur 1212, Emperor of Constantinople 1217, she married Hervé IV de Donzy, Seigneur de Donzy and Guy IV, Count de Forez. She liberated the serfs and was known as a very able administrator of her fiefs. 

Adelheid II von Büren, Äbtissin von Gernrode

1207-21 Countess-Abbess Adelheid II von Büren of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

At the height of their wealth, the communities of Frose and Gernrode held approximately 11.000 hectares, comprising woodland, vineyards, fishponds, and grazing. A dispute with the stewards of the chapter was settled by the Bishop Freiderich von Halberstadt in 1220. She (d. 1221)


1207-08 Reigning Abbess Marie I de Champagne (de Bourgogne) of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The prosperity of the abbey continued under her reign, but by the end of the twelfth century, owing to the state of the country and the English wars, the nuns were reduced to gaining their livelihood by manual work. The situation was aggravated by internal dissensions, which lasted a hundred years.


1208-09 Reigning Abbess Ala/Alix de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. A Prior under the control of the Abbess commanded the monks in the dabble-convent.


1208/1214 Sovereign Baroness Eudocia Angelos of Argos and Naupila (Greece)

Succeeded by Theodore Angelos-Comnenos. They were members of the Byzantine Imperial Dynasty of Angelos.


1208-14 Regent Dowager Countess Elvira of Urgell (Spain)

Reigned in the name of her daughter. Aurembaix, jointly with Pedro I el Catolico of Aragon. 

Aurembiaix d'Urgell

1208-19 and 1228-31 Sovereign Countess Aurembiaix de Castellbò i Caboët of Urgell (Spain) 

Also known as Ermessende or Ermessanda, she was daughter of Ermengol VIII (1184-1208/9). She was deposed in 1214 by Guerau I de Urgell. 1228 Aurembiaix began her second reign, from 1229 together with husband Pierre I de Bourgogne. She had no children and the country was incorporated in Cataluña-Aragón. 

Unnamed Persian Lady

1208-20 Princess Ahmadilidyn of the Ahmadil Dynasty in Maragha (Iran)

In 1029 the City of Maragheh on the southern slopes of Mount Sahand in North Western Iran (East Azerbaijan Province) was seized by the Oghuz Turks, but a Kurdish chief who established a local dynasty drove them out. The Mongols destroyed the city in 1221, but Hulagu Khan held court there until the establishment of a fixed capital at Tabriz.


From 1209  Sovereign Countess Gersende I d'Urgel of Forcalquier (France)

Succeeded her father, Guillaume IV d'Urgel and married to Reiner de Sabran, seigneur de Caylar, and succeeded by daughter at a not known date.


1209-19 Regent Dowager Countess Gersende de Sabran of Provence (France)
Until 1242
Sovereign Countess of Forcalquier (Gersende II)

The widow of Alphonse II, comte de Provence, she was regent for Ramón Berenguer IV together with King Pedro of Aragón (1209-13), Count Sancho de Bouillon (1213-16) and Nuño Sánchez. At a not known date, she succeeded her mother, Gersende I, as Countess of Forcalquier. She lived (1180-1242).


1209-18 Reigning Abbess Alix de Champagne of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Apparently daughter of Count Henri I de Champagne et de Brie and Marie of France, the daughter of King Louis VII of France.


1210's-1221 Reigning Lala Khatun of Bamiyan (Afghanistan)

Today Bamiyan is a town in North-central Afghanistan's Hazarijat province. It is an ancient caravan centre on the route across the Hindu Kush between India and Central Asia, but was sacked by Genghis Khan in 1221 and never regained its former prominence.


121?-18 Ruler Salbak Turhan of Uiguristan (Kazakstan)

The Qara-Khitai Empire with Samarkand as its capital covering present day's Mongolia, Northern-China, Kyrgyzstan and other Central Asian Territories. In 1210 the Qara-Khitai Empire lost Transoxiana to the Khwarazim Shahdom, previously a vassal. The empire ended in 1218, when it was annexed by the Mongol Empire of Chingiz Khan.


Circa 1211-31 Reigning Abbess Marguerite I of Remiremont (France)

The chapter was the most illustrious monastery in whole of Europe. It was founded ca 620 and transferred to its present location in 818. The act of 1070 whereby the abbey became directly dependent of the emperor is probably a falsification - it was probably much earlier that this statute was achieved.


1211/12-25 Hereditary Countess Gertrud von Egisheim-Dagsburg of Egisheim, Dagsburg, Metz and Moha (Germany)

Only daughter and sole heiress of Count Albrecht II von Egisheim-Dagsburg and Gertrud von Baden. After the death of her first husband, Thibaut I of Upper-Lorraine in 1220, she married the son of Countess Blance de Champagne -the later Count Thibaut IV - and after their divorce in 1222 she married Count Simon of Saarbrücken-Leiningen, Count of Dagsburg, who inherited her fiefs after her death in 1225. She had no children and lived (1205-25). 

Isabella II and husband

1212-28 Queen Isabella II de Brienne of Jerusalem (Israel)

Also known as Yolande, she succeeded her mother, Queen Maria La Marquise (1205-12), though her father, and Jean de Brienne (1210-25) continued to rule as regent. On the way to Italy to marry Emperor Friedrich II Hohenstaufen in 1225 she made a stop in Cyprus to se her aunt, Queen-regent Alice. She ruled jointly with husband, Friedrich Barbarossa of Germany, son of Queen Constanza of Sicilia, whose first wife, Constance of Aragon, had been regent of Sicily 1212-20. Isabella died six days after giving birth to a son, Conradin. In 1244 the Osman Turks conquered the state, and the capital of the Kingdom moved to Acre. She lived (1212-28).

Yolande de Flandres

1212-17 Sovereign Margravine Yolanda de Flanders of Namur (Belgium)
1216-19 Empress of Constantinople

Also known as Violante or Jolanta. After her brother, Emperor Henri's death in June 1216 the Barons of the Empire offered her and her husband Pierre, the crown, and they both accepted. In 1217 they left for Constantinople, and she seeded the marquisate to her oldest son. They were crowned in Rome by Pope Honrius III, and continued their journey, Pierre over land and were taken prisoner; she was pregnant and travelled by sea. In Morea she married her daughter Anges off to Gottfried II, the future Prince of Achaia. In Constantinople she gave birth to the heir to the throne, Baudouin II. (1228-1261), and took over the regency. Just before her death she married her daughter Maria to Emperor Theodor I. Laskaris of Nikæa. She was mother of 9 children and daughter of Count Baudouin V of Flanders and Hainault and lived (circa 1175-1219).


1212-25 Sovereign Countess Gertrude of Metz (France)

Succeeded father, Albert, and first married to Thiébaud I, duc de Lorraine, secondly to Thibaut IV, comte de Champagne until the marraige was annulled in 1222, and thirdly to Simon de Sarrebruck. After her death the County became an episcopal domaine.


1212-43 Reigning Abbess Hersende of Jouarre (France)

Also known as Hermensende or Hermengade. She engaged in an offensive against the Bishop of Meaux and 1225 the Abbey was granted episcopal exemption for 450 years and thus came under the immediate jurisdiction of the Pope.


1213-25  Sovereign Countess Agnès II de Donzy of Tonnerre (France)

She and her husband was given the County after their marriage. After her death her stepfather, Guigues de Forez took over the county until his death 1241 and was succeeded by her son, Gaucher. Her mother Mathilde de Courtenay, Countes of Tonnerre, Nevers and Auxerre died 1241. Agnès lived (circa 1205-25).


1213-16  Reigning Abbess Reichzca V of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Her background is not known.

Leonor de Plantagenet, Queen of Castille, Princess of England

1214 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Plantagenet of Castilla (Spain) 

Co-Regent for Enrique I (1214-17) and her daughter, Princess Berenguela became regent after her death. She was daughter of Duchess Leonora of Aquitaine and King Henry II of England. (d. 1214).

1214-15 Regent Princess Berenguela of Castilla (Spain) 
1217 Queen Regnant of Asturias-León and Castilla
1217-19 Regent
1230 Regent in León

First she governed in the name of her brother Enrique I (1204-14-15-17). Later she divorced - under Pope Innocent III's orders - from her second-degree cousin King Alfonso IX de Leon (King of Leon 1188 -1230). When her brother died in 1217, she renounced her rights in favour of her son, Fernando II de Castilla, and she acted as his regent, according to the Cronica Latina, her "total intent and desire being to procure honor for her son in every way possible". She helped quell the rebellious nobles, and then arranged for Fernando to marry a high-born wife, Elisabeth of Swabia. She often found herself politically at odds with her former husband. Alfonso had two daughters, Sancha and Dulce, by an earlier wife, and wished to disinherit her children in favour of these daughters. To this end, he invited Jean de Brienne to marry his eldest daughter and thus inherit his kingdom. She sabotaged this plan by convincing Jean to marry her own daughter, also named Berenguela, instead. Later, in 1230 when Alfonso died, she and her son Fernando acted to set aside the rights of the older daughters, and seized the Leonese throne. She maintained close connections with her sister, Queen Blanche of France, and lived (1180-1246).


1214-32  Judicca Benedetta of Cagliari (in Sardinia) and Marchessa de Massa (Italy)

Consecrated as "ruling judge" in 1214 by Riccus, Archbishop of Cagliari, in the presence of the higher clergy and the grandees. She swore an oath not to diminish the territory of the giudicato, nor to alienate its castles, nor to make foreign alliances without their consent. Soon after she married Barisone III of Arborea, who was imprisoned by her father. He took the dynastic name "Torchitorio V" and they ruled their two giudicati jointly, each being cited in the acts of the other in their own giudicato. She favoured natives for positions in her government over Pisans and the economic benefits of Sardinian over the Republic of Pisa. In 1215 Lambert Visconti, judge of Gallura, landed a large army near Cagliari and took the dominating hilltop of S. Gilla, fortifying it. She was subsequently forced to flee her capital for the interior and in 1217, Lamberto's brother, Ubaldo I Visconti, forced her to accept terms surrendering Cagliari. She received the giudicato back as fief from the consul of Pisa. However, violence between Sardinians and Pisans escalated in Cagliari and she and her husband made an alliance with Comita III of Torres and the Republic of Genoa in hopes of expelling the Pisans. They found support in Pope Honorius III. After her husband died in 1218, she was forced to marry Lamberto, but the pope immediately pronounced his annulment. In 1224 she renewed the oath of homage to the Holy See to Goffredo, the papal legate. Two years later war began again with Ubaldo, and she married twice more, both times without papal permission. Her third husband was Enrico di Ceola, a Pisan of the Capraia family who soon gained papal favour. Her fourth husband was Rinaldo de Glandis and their marriage was declared valid. Nevertheless, violence in Cagliari forced her to move to the castle of Santa Igia and then to Massa, her ancestral home. After her death Pope Gregory IX had given Massa and Potenzolo to Ugo di Procaria, while Cagliari was divided between the Visconti, Capraia, and Donoratico, Pisan families. Her heir was Guglielmo succeeded under the regency of her sister, Agnes and her husband, Marianus of Torres, held the regency.
  She was the daughter Guglielmo I of Cagliari and Adelasia, and lived (circa 1194-1232/1233).

1214-circa 60 Sovereign Countess Mahaut II of Dammartin and Boulogne (France)

Also known as Mathilde, she succeeded mother, Countess Ide, who ruled (1173-1214), the daughter of Countess Marie (1159-69) who again was daughter of Countess Mahaut I (circa 1125-51). Mahaut was married to Count Philippe Hurepel de Clermont-en-Beauvais, Mortain, Aumale, Dammartin et Boulogne (the latter by the right of his wife) (son of King Philippe II Augusta of France) and in 1238 to King Alfonso III of Portugal (1210-79), who divorced her in 1253. Her son and daughter apparently died before her and the succession was settled with a relative, Adélaïde de Brabant. Mahaut lived (1190/95-circa 1260).


1215-42 Sovereign Dame Mahaut I of Bourbon (France)

Heir of Archambaud V (1116-71), she first married Gautier de Vienne, who ruled Bourbon (1171-1215), after his death she married Gui II de Dampierre and had two daughters, Mahaut II de Dampierre and Agnes. She was succeeded by Archambaud VII upon her death in 1242.


1215-19 Regent Dowager Margravine Adelasia di Monferrato of Saluzzo (Italy)

Azalaïs or Adelasia was regent for granson Manfredo III after the death of her husband, Manfredo II as her son, Bonifacio had predeceased his father. Upon her marriage in 1182 she had received lands in Saluzzo, Racconigi, Villa, Centallo and Quaranta. She was a a great patron of troubadours. 1216 she made a treaty with Thomas I of Savoia for a marriage between his son Amadeus and her grand-daughter Agnes. She had to pay tribute on behalf of her grandson, and for the next century the margravate was a vassal of Savoy. When her grandson took over the government, she retunred to church patronage and made many big grants. (d. 1232).


1216-.. Sovereign Countess Jezebel of Karystos (Greece)
1217-..  Sovereign Countess of The First Triarchy of Euboea

Also known as Isabelle. Under the division of Eubœa established in 1217 by Venice following the death of her husband, Ravano dalle Carceri, she acquired ½ of the southern barony with the town of Karystos, the other ½ being assigned to her daughter. The County was an important port on the southernmost tip of the island of Euboea, facing the island of Andros, in the Cyclades.


1216-40 Sovereign Countess Berta dalle Carceri of Karystos (Greece)
1217-40  Sovereign Countess Felicia dalle Carceri of The First Triarchy of Euboea

After the death of her father, Ravano, she shared the Barony with her mother, Isabelle. Euboea, the second largest island of Greece was divided into three parts, three Triarchies each reigned by counts.


1216-37 Princess-Abbess Adelheid von Wildenberg of Essen (Germany)

Her regency was a black period of the territory. Count Friedrich von Isenberg had inherited the Marshallty, but exploited the abbey totally, and Adelheid had to ask Archbishop Engelbert of Köln for help, and the dispute over the abbey that led to Engelbert’s murder by Friedrich in 1225.


1216-? Reigning Abbess Gertrud I of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Abbey was founded ca 833 and in 1219 the reichsunmittelbaren convent came under direct Papal protection. As Imperial immediacy the territory was was under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord and therefore had the right to collect taxes and tolls and held juridical rights.


1216-18  Reigning Abbess Tutta of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Her background is not known.

Unnamed warrior lady

1216-18 Hereditary Sheriff Lady Nicola de la Hay of Lincolnshire and Constable of Lincoln Castle (United Kingdom)

Succeeded father together with Phillip Mar of Nottingham. She defended her territory against attacking forces during the rebellion against King John. She was married to Gerad de Camville and lived (circa 1160-ca.1218).

1217-34 Reigning Abbess Gertrud II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)

Daughter of count Bernhard II zur Lippe, who resigned in 1196 to become Abbot and then Bishop of Semgallen. Her mother was Heilwig von Are-Hostaden, and resigned from her post in 1234. Her next known successor, Ida, became abbess in 1238. (d. ca 1245).


1217-43 Joint Reigning Lady Sancha de Léon y Portugal of the villages of Portela de San Juan, Burgo de Ribadavia and Allariz
Co-Heiress of Leon
Joint De Jure Queen of Leon (Spain)

She was daughter of King Alofonso IV and Teresa of Portugal, whose marriage was annuled in 1195 whereafter she was raised at the court of her father, where her sister, Dulce was raised in Portugal. When their stepmother, Berengeria, abdicated as Queen of Castille in favour of their half-brother, their father attempted to have her and her sister proclaimed co-heiresses, and named them officially so in 1224, but when he died in 1230, the people of Leon refused to recognise them and they in turn ceded their rights to the kingdom to their half-brother. This agreement, negotiated at Valencia de Don Juan by Berengaria and Theresa, with Sancha and Dulce present, is known as the "pact of the mothers". The treaty was signed Benavente and in compensation Ferdinand promised a yearly stipend of 30.000 maravedíes to each of his half-sisters and the lordship of certain castles, but she resigned to the Monastary of San Guillermo Villabuena. She lived (circa 1192-1243)

1217-48 Joint Reigning Lady Dulce of León y Portugal of the villages of Portela de San Juan, Burgo de Ribadavia and Allariz
Co-Heiress of Leon
Joint De Jure Queen of Leon (Spain)

After ceeding the rights to the kingdom of Leon, like her sister, she resigned to the Monastary of San Guillermo Villabuena in León. She lived (circa 1194—1248)


1218-30 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Champagne-Blois of Blois and Châteaudun (France) 

Together with sister, Isabelle, she succeeded the son of their brother, Thibaud VI, Her first husband,  Hugo III, Seigneur d'Oisy, Vicomte von Cambrai died in 1189, and three years later she married Otto I. von Hohenstaufen Pfalzgraf von Burgundy (1166/73-1200). Two years after his death she married Walter II d’Avesnes, Seigneur de Guise et Condé (d. 1243/46). She was succeeded by daughter Marie d'Avesnes Countess de Blois, Dame d’Avesnes and de Guise (circa 1203-30-41). Marguerite lived (1164-1230).


1218-48 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Champagne-Blois of Chartres and Romorantin (France) 

Succeeded her nephew together with her sister, Marguerite. She was first married to Sulpice d'Amboise and secondly to Jean de Montmirail, Vicomte Cambrai. (d. 1248).


1218-23 Sovereign Countess Petronille of Bar-sur-Seine (France)  

Her father, Milon II, count of Bar-sur-Seine, died in 1191, She was his only child, and was married to Hugues du Puiset, Vicomte de Chartres.

Later picture of Alix de Champagne

1218-28 Regent Dowager Queen Alice de Champagne of Cyprus 
1243-46 (†) Regent of Jerusalem

The daughter of Queen Isabella of Jerusalem and her second husband Henri de Champagne, she married Hugues of Cyprus in 1208. He took over the reigns in Cyprus in 1210/11 from his sister Burgundia. After his sudden death at Tripoli in 1218, Alice acted as regent for her 8-month-old son Henri in Cyprus. In 1223 she married Bohemond V of Antiochia. In Jerusalem, Friedrich II, Holy Roman Emperor was recognized as suzerain but not regent of Cyprus in 1228, because of his marriage to Queen Yolanda. When she died, Alice travelled to Acre to put forward her claim to Crown of Jerusalem - without success. After she and Bohemond divorced because they were too closely related (third cousins), she married Ralph, Count of Soissons. As she was the great-aunt of King Conrad of Germany - who had failed to come East to accept throne - Alice was entrusted with regency of Jerusalem in 1243. After her death the regency passed to her son and heir, Henri, King of Cyprus. She lived (circa 1193-1246).

1218 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Seljuks in Aleppo (Syria)

Widow of Al-Zahir and was regent for their son al-Aziz as ruler of one of the Seljuk Principalities that developed n Syria, Asia Minor and Kerman as the Seljuk Empire declined after 1091. Her troops was involved in the fight against the Christian crusaders and Frankish principalities in the area.


1218 Regent Duchess Alice de Vergy of Bourgogne (France)

After the death of her husband, Eudes III, she was regent for Hugues VI, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Chalon, Titular King of Thessalonica etc. Eudes III was first married to Countess Teresa of Portugal (1157-1218) until their divorce in 1195). Eudes and Alice had four children. 


1218-48 Hereditary Countess Irmgard of Berg and Kleve (Germany)

Daughter of Adolf V and Bertha von Sayn. After her father's death Archbishop Engelbert II of Köln took over as regent. In 1217 she married Count Heinrich von Luxembourg-Limburg and they clamed the county in 1225, and her they were recognized as her father's rightful successors, something that curtailed the power of the bishop. She lived (circa 1200-48).


1218-24 Reigning Abbess Heilika V von Wittelsbach of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of the Ducal family of Bavaria. Another version of her name is Heylca.


1218-28 Reigning Abbess Berthe of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The chapter was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the dabble-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess.


1218 Politically Infuential Queen Sassouma Bassé of Mande (Mali)
When her son, Dankaran Touman, was placed on the throne of Mande after the death of his father, King Niani, they forced his younger brother, Suadjata and his mother, Sogolon Kédjou into exile, but they were deposed by King Soumaroro of Sosso (in Ghana) soon after. Suadjata became the first emperor of the Mali Empire as Mari Djata I in 1234 uniting the 12 Kingdoms.


1219-20 Sovereign Countess Alice of Alençon (France)

Succeeded Robert IV and in the period 1220-68 the county was ruled by the kings of France. 

Coin of Zabel and Hetoun

1219-52 Queen Regnant Zabel I of Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) (Turkey/Syria)

Also known as Isabella, her father, Leo II had promised his nephew Raimond-Ruben de Antiochia, the succession to the throne, but at his death-bed he her, as his heir. Her older sister, Stephanie, or her husband, Jean de Brienne, claimed the title for her and their young son, but they died shortly after. And the Armenian nobles followed the wish of Leo II, and paid homage to her as their Queen, under various male regents. She later ruled together with her two husbands Phillip 1222-25 (he was poisoned) and Heton I (1226-1269). Armenia Minor established very close ties with the Crusader States. It was still threatened by Byzantium, however, and appears to have come under Byzantine over-lordship for short periods. Her mother was Sibylla de Lusignan of Cyprus-Jerusalem; she was mother of two sons and two daughters, and lived (circa 1212-52).


1219 Pretender Stephanie of Lesser Armenia (Turkey/Syria)

Claimed the throne together with her husband, King Jean de Brienne of Jerusalem from her younger sister, Zabel, who had been proclaimed heir by their father on his deathbed. Jean made preparations to attack Cilicia but she died shortly after, apparently after being battered by himself after she had tried to poison his daughter by his first wife. Their son also died shortly after. (d. 1219).


1219-21 Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Ingardis af Danmark of Pommern-Demmin (Poland)

After the death of her husband Kasimir II (circa 1180-1219), she became regent for her son Wartislaw III. She cooperated closely with her sister-in-law, Miroslawa who took over in Slawien the following year. With two minor Dukes, the future of the Principalities of Pommern was very insecure, but both Princesses managed to fend off claims to the Duchies from Brandenburg and maintain the independence of the Principalities. Both relied heavily on support from Denmark, but when Count Heinrich von Schwerin attacked the area in 1223, she was unable to support her brother King Valdemar II the Victorious Her son called himself "the issue of the blood of the Daneking” at his seal, as she was the daughter of Knud III of Denmark (1128-46-79). Her sister, Hildegard, was married to the Wendian duke Jarimar of Rügen. Originally known as Ingegerd, she (d. 1236).


1220-33 (†) Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Miroslawa of Pomerelia of Pommern-Slawien (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Bogislaw II. (circa 1178-871220), she took over the regency for her son, Barnim I. (1219-20-78). The year before her sister-in-law had taken over the regency in Demmin and both princesses continued the friendly ties to Denmark, and at a Landtag at Ückermünde that Miroslawa and Barnim I. called in 1223 representatives of the Danish King participated.  But in spite of this the don't seem to have done anything to help Valdemar II as he was attacked by Count Heinrich von Schwerin later in 1223 at the island of Lyø and imprisoned in Germany together with his sons. He only freed in 1225 after having given up his Wendian possessions, except Rügen, though he fought a war to get his North German possessions back, that ended with his defeat in 1227. She was Daughter of Mestwin I of Pomerelia and Swinislawa of Poland, and (d. 1233).


1220-90 Politically Influential Princess Witosława of Pommern-Gdansk (Pomorze Gdańskie) (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)

An excellent diplomat and political advisor of her brother, Prince Świętopełk II Wielki (the Great). She was Abbes of a Norbertine (Premonstratensian) nunnery in Żuków, and lived (1205-1290).


1220-55 Sovereign Princess Carintana dalle Carceri of Oreos (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded father, the Terzieri or "three-part lord" Rizzardo dalle Carceri, and married to Guillaume Villehardouin, and since they did not have any children, he claimed as inheritance after her death the 1/3 or the Lordship, in dispute with some of her relatives.


1220-25/25 Regent Dowager Princess Mathilde von Landsberg von der Lausitz of Brandenburg (Germany)

Widow of Albrecht II (1205-20) and regent for Johann I  (1208/13-20-65). She (d. 1255).


1221-50 Sovereign Countess Marie of Ponthieu (France)

Daughter of Comtesse Alix du Vexin (reigned 1197-after 1200), she succeeded her father Guillaume II and reigned jointly with her husbands; Count Simon de Dammartin d'Aumale and Mathieu de Montmorency (probably d. 1249). Succeeded by daughter Jeanne de Dammartin.

1221-30 Regent Dowager Margravine Jutta von Thüringen of Meissen (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Markgraf Dietrich von Meißen, she reigned in the name of her 5-year-old son, Heinrich, jointly with her brother, Landgrave Landgraf Ludwig IV von Thüringen who tried to incorporate the Margravate in his territories, but she fought back. In 1223 she married Count Poppo VII von Henneberg and together they fought off her brother. She was daughter of Landgave Heinrich I, Count Palatine of Sachsen and Heiress Presumptive (Eventualerbin) to Thüringen and Sachsen, and her son eventually became Landgave and Count Palatine of the two territories in 1247. She was mother of 5 children by her first husband and 3 by her second, and lived (circa 1183-1235).


1221-44 Countess-Abbess Sophia zu Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Daughter of Bernhard, Count of Anhalt (1170-1212) and Duke of
Sachsen (1180-1212) and Jutta von Poland, the daughter of Duke Mieszko III of Gnesen

1223-47 Queen Regnant Rusudani of Georgia, by the will of our Lord, Queen of Queen of Kings and Queens of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West, Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith, Champion of the Messiah

Also known as Rusudan, she was daughter of Queen Tamar (1178-1213) she succeeded her brother, Giorgi IV Lasha. She was leader of the nation in a period when it was attacked by Mongol tribes and disintegrated into numerous petty principalities. Retreated to Kutaisi when Tiflis was besieged by Jalal ud-din Shah of Khwarazmia, and captured by the latter, 9th March 1226. Forced to accept the sovereignty of the Mongol Khan in 1242, an annual tribute of 50.000 gold pieces. In 1224 she married Muhammad Mughis ud-din Turkan Shah of Erzerum, who embraced Christianity on his marriage. Her son, Davit VI Narin, succeeded her as King of Georgia - Imerati. Her daughter, Princess Thamar, married her cousin, Sultan Muhammad Ghias ud-din Kaikhushru II of Konia. She lived (1195-1247).


1223-52 Countess Abbess Berta II of Gandersheim (Germany)

Even though Duke Otto von Braunschweig had promised not to build a castle that would damage the interests of the chapter, he build a "house" in 1232. She was member of a noble family from Hessen.


1224-25 Empress Regnant Lý Chien Hoang of Viet Nam

Her father Ly Hue Tong abdicated in her favour. Tran Thu Do, now a lover of her mother, Queen Tran Thi, arranged a marriage between Chien Hoang and his 7-year-old nephew, who became founding emperor Tran Thai Tong of the new Tran Dynasty in 1225. Tran Thu Do then had the rest of the Ly family - including her father - killed. In 1236, Thu Do forced the young emperor to abandon his wife, who was childless, in favour of her older sister, who was already married to another member of the Tran family and already pregnant. In protest Tran Thai Tong, a fervent Buddhist fled the capital and sought refugee at a Thien Buddhist monastery on nearby Mount Yen Tu, after which he was deposed by Thu Do.  


1224-30 Princess-Abbess Bertradis I von Krosigk of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Dedo II von Krosigk and Adelheid.


1224-29  Reigning Abbess Frideruna von Falkenstein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Also known as Fritaun. The first of Lord of Falkenstein was mentioned in 1120. The family died out in 1334 and the castle of Falkenstein in Harz was inherited by the Lords of Asseburg.


1224-39 Titular Countess Alix de Mâçon of  Mâçon and Vienne (France)

The County was occupied by the time she succeeded her father, Géraud II, who only held the county for a few months, and when her husband, Jean de Dreux, died, she sold the Counties to the French Crown. (d. 1260).

Empress Yang Gongshu Renlie

1225-32 Politically Influential Dowager Empress Yang Gongshu Renlie of China

Had earlier plotted to be named Empress, and when her husband, Emperor Ningzong died, she helped Prince Yun to be installed as Emperor Lizong, and he invited her to take part in the deliberations of government behind the lowered screen, and worked closely with the Chief Councilor, Shi until her death. She was an active patron of the arts and it has been established that she is the same person as Yang Meizi, author of many poetic inscriptions that accompany paintings by Southern Song court artists. She lived (1161-1232).

Blanche de Castilla

1226-36 Regent Dowager Queen Blanche de Castilla of France
1240-52 Sovereign Countess of Valois 
1248-52 (†) Regent of France

When her husband, King Louis, invaded England after the death of her cousin, King John, to claim the crown in her right, only to find a united nation against him, she established herself at Calais and organized two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk, and an army under Robert of Courtenay; but all her resolution and energy were in vain. Although it would seem that her masterful temper exercised a sensible influence upon her husband's gentler character, her role during his reign (1223-1226) is not well known. He left her as regent and guardian of his children. Of her twelve or thirteen children, six had died, and King Louis IX was only 12 years old. The situation was critical, for the hard-won domains of the house of Capet seemed likely to fall to pieces during a minority. She had to bear the whole burden of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to repel the attack of the king of England (1230). But her energy and firmness overcame all dangers. She remained influential after her son took over the government in 1236. In 1248 she again became regent, during his absence on the crusade, a project that she had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed, she maintained peace, while draining the land of men and money to aid her son in the East. She was the 3rd daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile, and of Eleanor of England, daughter of Henry II, and lived (1187-1252).


1226 Sovereign Duchess Sophia of Limbourg (Belgium)

Married to Friedrich Graf de Altena-Isenburg, succeeded by son Dietrich I von Hinesburg-Limburg.


1226-73 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de War of Chin (Luxembourg) 

Together with husband Arnold IV von Loose, she succeeded father, Louis IV. In 1270 her husband died and after her death their son became Arnold IV and VII of Loose and Chin. (d. 1273).

1227-28, 1228-30 and 1232 Regent Dowager Princess Grzymislava von Luck of Poland Minor (Małopolska) and Krakow (Poland)
1234-43 Co-Ruler 

Also konwn as Gremislawa von Luzk, she was frst regent and then co-ruler with son Coleslaw V, after the death of her husband, prince Lessen Bialy of Małopolska. She lived (1190-1258).

1227 Regent Landgravine Elisabeth of Hungary of Thüringen (Germany)
1227-31 Reigning Dowager Lady of Marburg and Wehrda

In charge of the government as her husband, Ludwig IV the Holy of Thuringa, went off on a crusade, but he died on his way to Israel. After his death she refused to take over the regency and left it to her brother-in-law, and instead dedicated herself to the care of the poor and sick and was later declared a saint. She lived (1207-31).


1227-71 Sovereign Countess Johanna of Chiny (Belgium)
From 1228 she ruled jointly with Arnold III, Count of Loon 1220-1272/3. She (d. 1271).


1228-(37) Regent Dowager Empress Maria de Courtenay of Constantinople (Turkey)

Reigned for Baudouin II de Courtenay, who succeeded his brother, Robert. She reigned together with co-regents. The Empire of Constantinople was mainly based around the ancient city of Byzantine and parts of Greece, but the City of Constantinople is now known as Istanbul.


1228-32 Sovereign Duchess Guillemots de Neuchâtel of Montpellier (France)

Succeeded her great-grandfather Thierry III.


1228-1254 Princess-Abbess Judith von Hagenbuch of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

In 1234 she became the first abbess of the territory to receive the rank of Princess of the Empire. 


1228-44 Reigning Abbess Adèle de Bretagne of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Also known as Alix, she was apparently a member of the Ducal family of Bretagne.


1228-61 Reigning Abbess Adelïde de Sotteghem of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Succeeded by Sara de Mernis.

Marguerite de Courtenay

1229-37 Sovereign Margravine Marguerite de Courtenay of Holland of Namur  (Belgium)

Succeeded brother, Henri de Courtenay, who named her as his heir before their brother, Emperor Baudouin II of Constantinople and their older sister, Queen Yolande of Hungary - and therefore her succession was met with opposition from different sides. Married to Count Henri de Vianden.


1229-34 Regent Dowager Countess Margaretha van Brabant of Gelderland and Zutphen (The Netherlands)

Widow of Gerhard III, she was regent for son, Otto II the Lame.  


1229-39 Reigning Abbess Mathilde III von Henffenfeld of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Also known as Mechtild.


1229-34 Politically Influential Queen Helena Pedersdotter Strange of Sweden

Also known ass Helene or Elin, she used the same seal as her husband, King Knut II Holmgersson Långe (1229-34) on official documents, a curious fact which indicates that she may have exerted some political influence. Her husband had been regent for the under-aged king Erik XI of Sweden, and took the throne himself in 1229. After his death she married nobleman Filip Lauresson. In 1247, she witnessed her son from her first marriage rebel against the new monarch; he failed, and was executed in 1248. Her second son was executed in 1251, and the same year, her second husband died. She was daughter of the Danish knight Peder Strangesson, and lived(ca 1200- ca 1255).

Unnamed Polish Noble Lady

1230-31 Regent Dowager Duchess Wiola of Bulgaria of Oppeln-Ratibor (Opole-Racibórz) (Poland)
1233/34–38 Co-Regent 

After the death of her husband, Slesian Duke Kazimierz of Racibórz-Opole (Oppeln), she governed the Duchy for her sons Mieszko II and Wladislaw, from 1233/34 jointly with Henryk I Brodaty. (d. 1251).


Around the 1230s Princess Regnant Partu Pattima of Ghazi-Ghumuq (Russia)

Managed to unite the Laks, a North Caucasian people which controlled significant portions of what is now Daghestan, into a formidable army and keep even the Mongol hordes at bay. The Laks being a warlike people, they managed to repel attacks from such invaders as Batu Khan, Timur Lenk, and Nadir Shah. She is regarded by modern Laks as "our Joan of Arc", but the principality later became tributary to Golden Horde and afterwards a Client Dynasty to the Mongols.


1230-41 Sovereign Countess Marie d’Avesnes of Blois and Chartres, Dame de Guise, d'Avesnes, Châteaurenault, Leuze, Landrechies et Trelon (France)  

Succeeded her mother, Marguerite, as Countess and her father as Dame de Guise.  She was married to Hugues I de Chatillon-sur-Marne, Count de Saint-Pôl, and was succeeded by son, Jean I. She lived (circa 1203-41).


1230-65 Princess-Abbess Ode III van Lays of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Her successor is not known. The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


1230-31 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde von Kranichfeld und Kirchberg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Voldrad of Kranichfeld.


1231-33 Princess-Abbess Osterlindis von Falkenstein of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Also known as Osterlinde, she was daughter of Otto I von Falkenbenstein.

Unnamed Abbess

1231-39 Dame Abbesse Agatha von Bitsch of Remiremont (France)

She was also Abbess of L'Entanche, and daughter of Frederick I von Bitsch, Duke von Ober-Lothringen, Lord of Lorraine, Bitsch, Gerbevilliers und Ormes and Ludmilla of Poland (d. 1242).


1231-38 Reigning Abbess-General María Pérez de Guzmán of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Member of the family of Lords and later Counts and Dukes of Medina Sidonia.


1233-70 Princess-Abbess Gertrud von Ampfurth of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Noble Werner von Ampfurth (or Amfurt)


Around 1233 Abbess Nullius Audisia of the Monestary of Brindisi (Italy)

She held semi-episcopal powers. The privileges of the Chapter was confirmed by papal bulls 1099, 1119, 1124, 1159, 1191 and 1233.


1233-35 17th Judicissa and Sovereign Princess Agnese of Cagliari (in Sardinia)
1333-39 Margravine Regnant of Massa e Carrara (Italy)

After the death of her sister, Bernadetta, she took over as regent for her under-age nephew, Guiglermo II Salusio V of Arborea, who reigned until 1253, together with her husband,  Marianus II of Logudoro.

Unnamed German Lady

1233-71 Sovereign Countess Lauretta of Saarbrücken-Linange (Germany)

Succeeded father, Simon III von Saarbrücken. She was first married to Gottfried d'Asperemont and secondly to Count Dietrich I Luf von Kleve and mother of a daughter and son who both died early, and therefore she was succeeded by her sister Mathilde in 1271.


1233-51 Sovereign Countess Ieliza Dandolo of Andros (Greece)

Ruled jointly with husband, Jeremias Ghizi after the death of Marinus Dandolo. The County was incorporated into the Duchy of Naxos until 1384.


1234-52 Joint Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Boulogne, Clermont and d'Aumale (France)

Daughter of Countess Mahaut-Mathilde de Dammartin and Boulogne and Philippe de France, Count de Clermont, Mortain, d'Aumale and Boulogne et Dammartin. Her brother, Alberic, Count de Dammartin, Clermont et d'Aumale, gave his lands to her and moved to England! She lived (1219-54).

1234-35 Regent Dowager Countess Machteld van Brabant of Zeeland bewester Schelde (The Netherlands)
Reigning Dowager Lady of Monster, Maasland, Lier and Zoutevenen

After the death of her second husband, Floris IV, graaf van Holland (1210-34), Countess Johanna of Flanders granted her Zeeland as a fief in the name of her minor son, Willem. It was a politically tricky affair as the Counts of Holland wanted to get rid of the overlordship of Flanders for Zeeland. Her brother-in-law Willem became Regent of Holland and occupied her dowries in  Monster, Maasland, Lier and Zoutevenen, and in 1235 she gave up the regency in exchange for her Dowries. In 1238 her other brother-in-law, Otto, bishop-elect of Utrecht took over the regency, but after her son came of age the following year she remained influential, placed her seal on his first decrees and appeared as witness on many of his later decrees. When he died at the age of 29 her other son, Floris and dauther, Aleid van Holland, acted ars regent for her grandson, Floris V (1254-96). She founded a number of religious institutions and convents  and gave rich gifts to others. She had first been married to Prince Palantine Henrik II and had 5 or 6 children with her second husband. She lived (circa 1200–67).

1234-90 Lady Devorguilla MacDowall of Galloway in Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

Her father, Lord Alan FitzRoland of Galloway, was the last of the MacFergus dynasty of quasi-independent Lords of Galloway in the southwest of Scotland. He was also hereditary Constable of Scotland. When he died his possessions were divided between her and her two surviving sisters. She passed the Lordship of Galloway and hereditary rights to the crown on to her son John I Balliol, King of Scotland (1992-96), by her husband, John, 5th Baron de Balliol and her son John Balliol was king of Scotland for four years. Devorguilla endowed a college for the poor, which later became Balliol College. Her mother was Margaret of Huntingdon, the daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, grand-son of the Scottish king David I. She lived (circa 1210-90).


1235-72 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Dreux of Penthièvre and Porhoët (France)

Daughter of Jean I of Bretagne (1217-86), and married Hugues IX de Lusignan, Comte de la Marche et d'Angoulême.


1236 De-facto Ruler Shah Turkaan of the Delhi Sultanate (Most of Northern India)

Her husband, Iltutmish,  became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent, possibly after the son he had previously designated as heir had died. But when he died on April 29, 1236,her son, Ruknuddin Feroze Shah, was elevated to the throne instead, but it was she who for all practical purposes running the government as the new Sultan abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery. On November 9, 1236, both she and her son were put to death after only six months in power.

1236-40 Sultan Galalat ad-Din Begum Radiya bint Shamas al-Din Iltutmish of the Delhi Sultanate (Most of Northern India)

Also known Razia Begum or Radiyya Altamish, she was The daughter of the first Mameluk king of Delhi, Sultan Ilutmish, she came to the throne after deposing her brother and having him killed. She used the title al-dunya wa al din, which can be translated into "the blessed of the earthly world and of the faith". She was a very able leader and military commander, but was deposed and executed in 1246/47. 

1236-59 Judicissa Adelaisa of Logudoro  (in Sardinia, Italy)
Judicissa of
Gallura (in Sardinia, Italy)

By a pact signed between her father, Marianus II, who had interests in Gallura, and the Gallurese judge, Lamberto Visconti in November 1218, she first married the Lamberto's son, Ubaldo II in 1219. Pope Honorius III, enemy of the Pisans, immediately sent his chaplain Bartolomeo to annul the marriage, but he failed. Ubaldo inherited the Giudicato of Gallura in 1225. And when her brother, Barisone III, died without heirs, the Logudorese magnates unanimously acclaimed her as ruler with her husband as co-ruler. In 1237, Pope Gregory IX sent his chaplain Alexander to Torres to receive her recognition of papal suzerainty over Logudoro, as well as the lands she inherited from her grandfather, Gugliermo of Cagliari, in Pisa, Massa, and Corsica, and she made the oath of vassalage and Ubaldo affirmed it. He died later that year leaving Gallura to his cousin John Visconti. She remarried quickly to Guelfo dei Porcari, who died soon after. At that time, the Doria family of Genoa, Pisa's main rival, convinced the Emperor Friederich II to marry his bastard son Enzo to her and create a Kingdom of Sardinia.  Enzo arrived from Cremona in October the same year as Ubaldo's death and the two were married and titled King and Queen of Sardinia. He left for Italy in july 1239 and never returned, being taken prisoner by the Este-family, and was never released, and in 1245 or 1246 the marriage was annulled.
Her mother was
Agnes of Massa, she apparently had to children who died as infants and her possessions was divided amongst the Doria, Malaspina, and Spinola families. The neighbourging Giudicato of Arborea succeeded in taking some land. She lived (1207-59).


1236-42 Regent Dowager Princess Dayfa Khatun bint al-Adil Muhammadn of Yamkhad  (Syria)

Dayfat Hatun was the widow of ad az-Zahir Ghazi Ghiyath ud-Din I, who ruled (1186-1216) and after the death of her son, al-'Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din II (1216-1236) she became regent for her grandson al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din (1236-1260). The capital of the Kingdom was Aleppo, an ancient city in northwestern Syria, about 130 km east of Antiochia.

1236 and 1241 Regent Duchess Hedwig of Croatia-Dalmatia of Slesia (Śląsk/Schlesia) (Poland)

Also known as Jadowa, she was married to Henry I of Silesia, who succeeded his father in 1202. She took a prominent part in the administration of her husband. In particular she gave her support to new monastic foundations and assisted those already in existence. She also tended the leper women. Possibly regent during the absence of her son and during an interregnum regent after death of her son Henryk II the Pious on 9.4.1241. After her husband's death she retired to a convent, and was later declared a saint (Sct. Hedwig). Mother of seven children, and lived (circa 1174-1243). 


From 1237 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Seljuqs in Aleppo (Syria)

Ruled in the name of Sultan al-Nazir, fighting with the Latin kings and counts in the area.


1237-41 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II of Essen (Germany)

Her full title was Des heiligen römishen Reichs Fürstin und Äbtissin in Essen, Frau zu Breisig, Huckard und Rellinghausen. 


1237 Reigning Abbess Ida of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Emperor Friedrich II Hohenstaufen took the Abbey under his immediate protection, and it had become an Abbey of the Realm. Ida was the second Abbess.

1238-64 Reigning Abbess Ida of Herford (Germany)

1256 she signed a treaty of Condominate with the City of Herford (Co-Rule) something totally unique in the realm. The Abbey of the Realm placed itself under the protection of the Citizen of the City, who in exchange got important rights. This lead to a cooperation between Abbey and City for centuries and kept both free from other worldly lords.


1239-79 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Dammartin of Aumale and Ponthieu (France)
1251-79 Sovereign Countess of Ponthieu (France)

The Daughter of Simon de Dammartin, Count of Ponthieu and Marie, Comtesse de Ponthieu (1199-1250). and reigned jointly with husband, King Fernando III of Castilla, who was co-regent until his death in 1252. She then married Jean II de Nesle-Falvi. She was succeeded by their daughter, Leonor de Castilla (1241-90), who was Infanta of Castilla and Countess of Montreuil and Ponthieu and also known as Éleonore de Castille. In Ponthieu she succeeded her mother, Marie. Jeanne lived (1220-78).


Before 1239-69 Princess-Abbess Chunigunde II of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

During her reign, the ornate of the chapter was created.


1239-53 Reigning Abbess-General Inés Laynez of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Prioress she had been Acting as Head of the Community 1230-31 until Maria Pérez de Guzmán was elected as successor of Sancha Garcia.


1239-42 Reigning Abbess Tutta III von Dalmässing of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Chapter had been placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany and was granted royal protection and, immunity.


1240-47 Sovereign Princess Eschiva II de St. Omer of Galilee (Israel)

Daughter of Hugo Falkenberg de Saint Omer and granddaughter of Eschiva I, she ruled jointly with husbands Odo de Montbelliard and Guillaume I de Bures until the state was conquered by the Syrians 1247.  Mother of two sons.


1240-.. Sovereign Lady Bonne de la Roche of Thebes (Greece)

Succeeded brother as head of 1/2 of the Lordship, and was married to Bela de Saint Omer, who became joint lord of Thebes in the right of his wife. She was daughter of Othon de la Roche-sur-l'Ognon, Seigneur de Ray, Lord of Athens.

Anna Czeska

1241-42 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna of Bohemia of Slesia and Breslau (Śląsk and Wrocław) (Poland)

Also known as Anna Czeska, she took over the reign after the death of her husband, Henryk II for her son Boleslaw II. She (d. 1291).

1241-46 Grand Khanum Regnant Törägänä of the Qagans of China  - The Mongol Empire

Also known as Töregene Khâtûn, she was head of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, after the death of her husband, Ögedei Khan   Güyük Khan in 1246. The dynasty ruled most of China and Chinese Turkistan, covering Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan et cetera. She managed to balance the various competing powers within the Mongol Empire, and even within the extended family of the descendants of Genghis Khan. Her husband had nominated a son by another wife to succeed him, but when the lesser khans appointed her regent, she appointed her favorites to high positions in the imperial household, and managed to keep a Kurultai from being held until it was sure her son Güyük was favored by the majority. During her reign, foreign dignitaries arrived from the distant corners of the empire to her capital at Karakorum or to her nomadic imperial camp. Emirs, governors and grandees jostled along the same roads as princes and kings. The Seljuk sultan came from Turkey — as did representatives of the Caliph of Baghdad. So did two claimants to the throne of Georgia: David, the legitimate son of the late king — and David, the illegitimate son of the same king. The highest-ranking European delegate was Alexander Nevsky's father, Grand Prince Yaroslav II Vsevdodovich of Vladimir and Suzdal, who died suspiciously just after dining with her. (d. 1265).


1241-46 Senior Minister Fatima Katun of the Qagans of China - The Mongol Empire

Among the new ministers appointed when Töregene Khâtûn became regent and dismissed all of her husband's ministers. The Persian chronicler Juvaini, who disapproved of women's involvement in politics, wrote that she enjoyed constant access to the regent's tent. According to him, she "became the sharer of intimate confidences and the depository of hidden secrets." She played a political role while the older "ministers were debarred from executing business, and she was free to issue commands and prohibitions." Also, two of the other three divisions of the empire also had female governors. Not only were most of the rulers women, but surprisingly, none had been born Mongol. They had married into the family from a conquered steppe tribe, and aside from Fatima, most of the women were Christians. When Güyük took power he managed to have her imprisoned and killed in 1248.


1242-46 Regent Dowager Khanum Ebüskün of Qara Khitai (Turkistan)

Reigned in the name of Khan Qara Hülägü. The dynasty used to rule over a vast empire, but had been forced back to present day's Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.


1242-43 Reigning Abbess Irmgard I von Scheyern of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The counts of Scheyern were members of the Wittelsbach-family.


1243-49 Reigning Abbess Hildegard von Kirchberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Bavarian noble family.


1243-55 Territorial Countess Maud de Lacy of Ulster (Ireland)

Succeeded her father, Hugh de Lacy. Her husband Walter de Burgh was Earl of Ulster (1255-71).


1243-45 Sovereign Countess Marie de Rethel (Belgium)

Inherited the County after the death of her father, Hugues III and was succeeded by uncle, Jean. 


1243-63 Titular Queen Hélène of Thessalonica (Greece)

Daughter of Bonifacio II di Monferrato and married to Guglliermo de le Carceritercier de Negrepon.


1243-90 Hereditary Countess Beatrix von Böhmen of Bautzen-Oberlausitz (Germany)

Oldest daughter of King Wenzel I of Bohemia and Kunigunde von Schwaben, she was given the rich dowries of Bautzen and Oberlausitz around Görlitz and Bautzen for her marriage to Margrave Otto III of Brandenburg (1215-67). She was mother of two daughters and four sons, and lived (1225-90).


1244-64 Sovereign Countess Helvis of Haifa (Cayphas/Caiffa) (Israel)

Succeeded father Rhoart II (1198-1244) and ruled jointly with various husbands.  

Marguerite de Constantinople

1244-78 Sovereign Countess Marguerite II de Constantinople of Flanders and Hainault (Belgium)

Margaretha succeeded sister, Jeanne. First married to Bouchard, the younger son of the Lord of Avesnes and bailiff of Hainault. Her sister, Jeanne, demanded that they divorced, but they refused and were excommunicated. They had three children before their separation in 1221. Two years later she married Guillaume de Dampierre, with whom she had four children. He died in 1232 and she received the domains around Orchies and Bouchain. Her children disputed her inheritance, but she managed to keep the reigns in Flanders and Hainault after a number of battles and with the help of King Louis IX of France. Her sons had been taken prisoners during the fighting and she paid a heavy ransom for them. She abdicated and retired to the Convent of Flines in 1278, and lived (1202-80).

1244-78 Sovereign Countess Béatrice Bérenguer of Provence and Forcalquier (France)

Her older sisters Marguerite, Blance and Eleanore were married to king Louis IX of France, the Holy Roman Emperor, and Henry III of England respectively, and they challenged the will of their father, Raymond Bérenguer IV, where he had named her, the youngest, and the general heir. She was married to Charles d'Anjou, King of Napoli, who became Count of Provence and later also King of Napoli and Sicilia. The mother of five children, she lived (1234-67).

1244-85 Claimant to the County Marguerite Bérenguer of Provence (France)

The wife of King Louis of France (d. 1270) since 1234 she challenged her father's appointment of her youngest sister as heir to the country. She sought to employ force of arms, calling upon her son, her nephew Edward II. of England, and the German king Rudolph of Habsburg. She did not give up her claim until after the death of Charles of Anjou  in 1285, when Philip the Bold succeeded in getting her to accept an income from the county of Anjou in exchange for her rights in Provence. She accompanied her on crusades and spent her last years in a monastery. She lived (1221-1295)


1244-circa 49 Sovereign Countess Mascarose I of Armagnc (France)

Her father, Géraud IV Trancaléon was count 1190-1219, and she succeeded brother Bernard V. She was joint ruler with husband Arnaud Otton de Lomagne (d. 1256) and after her death; their daughter Mascarose II succeeded them. Mascarose I (d. circa 1249).

Katarina Sunesdotter, Queen of Sweden

1244-50 Landowner Queen Katarina Sunesdotter av Ymseborg of Sweden in Östergötland (Including the City of Söderköping), Västergötland, Småland and Södermanland (Including parts of the City of Nyköping) and in Sjælland (Zealand) (Sweden and Denmark)
Abbess of Gudhem (Sweden)

Also known as Katarina Folkesdotter, she was a member of the Family of Bjälbo (Bjälboätten) as the daughter of Helena Sverkersdotter, daughter of King Sverker II of Sweden, and Sune Folkesson (d. 1247), Lord of Ymseborg, lawspeaker of Västergötland, who descended from the Norwegian royal family. After the death of the brother of her mother, Johan, in 1216, her mother, herself and her sisters were the cheif heirs of the Sverker dynasty. In 1244 or 1243 she married King Erik XI (1215-50) and received an immense dower upon the marriage, some legends narrate romantically about "half the kingdom". It is not know if they had any children, but some sources indicates that a number of daughters married German princes. After her husban's death she entered a convent and  donated and transferred all her lands, including her queenly dower, to certain relatives and as donations to ecclesiastical institutions. For example, her sister Benedikta received the town of Söderköping. She lived (circa 1215-52).


1245-48 Countess-Abbess Irmengarde I of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The canonesses of the chapter were known to enjoy extensive freedoms. They were often able to purchase extensive clothes and often their own houses. If it suited their parents' means, they were often married off.


1244-65  Reigning Abbess Mabile de la Ferté of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Widow of Matthieu de Montmorency, Seigneur de Laye, and Dame de Mondeville in her own right.

1246 Regent Dowager Countess Marguerite de France of Flanders and Rethel (The Netherlands and France)
1261-82 Sovereign Countess Palatine (Marguerite II) of Bourgogne and Countess of Artois and Salins (France)

After her husband, Louis II de Nevers, Count of Flanders and Rethel, fell in battle in 1346 she became regent for their son Louis II de Male (1330-84). Daughter of King Philippe V of France and Jeanne I de Bourgogne, whom she succeeded as Countess. She remained politically active to her death, and lived (circa 1212-82).


1246-47 Regent Dowager Countess Mechthilde von Wied-Neuenburg of Sayn, the Castle and Town of Hachenburg, the Lordship of Blankenburg, the Borough of Freusburg, the Castle of Hilkenrod, the County of Hadamar, the Juristiction of Banne Maxsayn and all other Rights of Court belonging to the County of Sayn (Germany)
1247-after 1283 Dowager Lady of Löwnstein and her other Dowry Lands

Second wife of Heinrich III von Sayn (1206-1246), known as "the fat" because he was more than 2,13 meters tall and very strong, who had named her late sister-in-law, Adelhaid's four sons; Johannes, Count von Sponheim, Lord Heinrich zu Heinsberg, Lord Simon von Sponheim und Kreuznach and Count Eberhard von Sayn von Eberstein, as his sole heirs, and after a year in charge of the government, she handed over the county and lands to them, with the right to her dowries for life. She was daughter of Count Lamtert von Wid-Neunburg and had no children. (D. after 1283).

Gertrude von Bebenberg, Herzogin von Baden und Mähren

1246-69 Sovereign Duchess Gertrude von Babenberg of Mödling (Austria)
 1248-51 Titular Duchess of Österreich and Styria

Inherited the Duchy from her uncle, Friederich II von Babenberg, and her husband; Herman VI of Baden was titular Duke 1248-50 and her son, Friederich I of Baden until 1251. But they were engaged in a war of succession with her aunt, Margarethe von Babenberg, never managed to establish themselves in the country and were rejected by the estates. In the end Margarethe's second husband Przemysl Ottokar II took control of the country. She was daughter of Agnes von Thüringen Heinrich (1208-28), the son of Duke Leopold VI (d. 1230) She was first married to Margrave Wladislaw of Moravia (d. 1247), Margrave Hermann VI von Baden (d. 1250) and Prince Roman of Halicz, Count of Novogrudok, whom she divorced in 1253. 1269 she was banned from Austria and moved to Meissen in Sachsen where she became the first Abbess of the Convent of Saint Claren Strusslitz. She was mother of a son and a daughter by her husband and one daughter by the second, and lived (1226-88).


1246....Possible Regent Dowager Tsarina Irene Komnene of Bulgaria
Together with her parents, Despot Theodore Komnenos Doukas of Epirus, and Maria Petraliphaina she was taken prisoner by the troops of tsar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria in the battle of Klokotnitsa and they were taken in Tarnovo, where Irene grew up in the Palace and 1237 she got married to the tsar and had three children: Anna (or Theodora), Maria (who married Mitso Asen, who was tsar of Bulgaria 1256–57) and Michael Asen I, who succeeded his halfbrother, Kaliman I. According to one theory she poisoned her step-son in order to secure the throne for her son. It is assumed that she took over the government as tsarina-regent, becouse her son was still a child when he ascended the throne, but there is little evidence to prove this hypothesis. Later she retired to a monastery under the monastic name Xenia, and lived (before 1220-after 1241/46).

Seal of Berta II von Arnsberg, Fürstäbtissin zu Essen 

1246-92 Princess-Abbess Berta I von Arnberg of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)

Had managed to have the stewardship downgraded from a "seignorial stewardhip" to a "protective stewardship" (Herrenvogtei or Schirmvogtei) which meant that the steward no longer was allowed to collect taxes or revenues from the inhabitants of the territory of Essen. And the military protection was in the hands of the civil servants of the chapter. The Archbishop of Köln, Siegfried von Westerburg, had tried to have her removed from office on charge of a number of serious charges. She did not attend the case and the bishop declared her for deposed and with the help of the Pröbstin, Mechtild von Rennenberg, he declared his niece, Irmgard von Wittgenstein to be Abbess of Essen, after he had already installed her as abbess of Herford. But Berta had already secured the confirmation by the pope in 1245 that the chapter was placed directly under his protection, and the Bishop of Köln therefore did not have any say in the matters of the chapter of Essen. In 1290 she was given full authority (Landeshohheit) over the city of Essen by Emperor Rudolf I, who helped her restore the authority of the chapter against the Archbishop of Köln. Count Eberhard von Mark was appointed Marshall of the Abbey, but had to give up the hereditary status of the office and the juridical powers. 1291 she granted a charter of freedom for the Jews of the city, and successive Princesses confirmed this freedom until the secularisation in 1802.

Circa 1246-79 Dame Abbesse Agnès I de Salm of Remiremont (France)

The reign of Agathe von Bitsch ended in 1239, and it is not known who ruled until about 1246. She was member of the German family of the Rhinegraves von Salm, and later her death, there was 2 candidates for her succession: Marguerite de Bayon and Agnès de Glère.

1247-65 Lady Sofia von Thüringen of Hessen (Germany)
1248 Regent Dowager Duchess of Brabant 
1250-60 Regent of Hessen 

Daughter of Ludwig of Thüringen and Hessen and Erzbet the Holy of Hungary (d. 1231). After her brother's death her uncle inherited the lands of Thüringen and Hessen. After his death in 1247, she clamed the lands in Hessen and Thüringen in the name of her son, Heinrich (b. 1244). The next year her husband, Heinrich, died and she proclaimed that the German Order was under her protection and confirmed her family's donations to the order. As she also had widespread support of the nobility of Hessen, she managed to secure her position as Lady of the two territories, and her son's later seizure of power. In 1250 she made peace with her cousin, Heinrich, who had been appointed Landgrave in 1247. She was granted the regency of Hessen during her son's minority. In 1259 the succession-war started again, she and her allies lost in Thüringen but she was able to hold on to power in Hessen, where her son was appointed Landgrave in 1292. Sophie lived (1224-75).


1247-79 Politically Influential Duchess Kuniguda of Bohemia of Poland Minor, Kracow and Sandomir (Małopolska and Sandomierz) (Poland)

Also known as Kinga, she was influential during reign of her husband, prince Bolesław V. She was daughter of King Bela IV of Hungary, did not have any children, and lived (1234-92). She was canonised as Saint Kunigunda in 1999.

1248-51 Empress Khanum Hatun Ogul Gamys of The Yuan Dynasty in China 

Also known as Oghul Qamish or Ghaimish. After the death of her husband, Greath Khan Güyük, she became regent for her three young sons Qucha, Naqu and Qughu and thereby became ruler over parts of China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakstan and Turkistan. In 1250 she received three envoys of Louis IX of France. She accepted their presents as a tribute and demanded that the king of France made more explicit submission to her. In 1251 fighting broke out between rival Factions of the ruling family, she was convicted of sorcery, sewn up in a sack and drowned in 1252. 


1248-1311 Sovereign Countess Beatrix of Montfort-L'Amauri (France)

Only child of Jean I de Montfort-l'Amaury and Jeanne de Châteaudun, and married to Robert IV de Dreux. Succeeded by daughter, Yolande de Dreux.


1248-79 Sovereign Countess Palatine Adelheide de Meran of Franche-Comté and Upper Burgundy (France)

Also known as Alix, she succeeded brother, Otto III de Meran and reigned together with two husbands Hugues de Châlons until his death in 1266 and then with Philippe de Savoie (d. 1285). She fought the nobility of Franche-Comte lead by Jean de Chalon. The daughter of Beatrix II, she was mother of 13 children, including Hippolytte, Dame de Saint-Vallierand and Agnes, Dame de Saint Aubin a numer of monks and nuns, and was succeeded by son Otto IV. She lived (1209-79).

Unnamed German Lady

1248-63 Hereditary Countess Agnes von Andechs-Meranien of the Counties of Neuburg and Schärding am unteren Inn in Krain and of Ried (Germany)

Last of the dynasty of Andechs after the death of her brother Otto VIII. The daughter of Duke Otto VII von Meran and Beatrix von Bourgogne she was first married to Friederich II of Österreich and after their divorce in 1243 to Duke Ulrich von Kärnten. She did not have any children, and lived (circa 1215-63). 


1248-circa 1302 Reigning Countess Jutta von Ravensberg of Vechta und Vlotho (Germany)

Inherited the lands of Vechta and Vlotho after her husband, Heinrich III, Count von Vechta und Vlotho. She sold the possessions around Vechta and in Emsland to the bishop of Münster. Daughter of Count Otto II of Ravensberg and (d. after 1302)


1248-59 Baroness Catharine de Savoie of Vaud (Switzerland)

Daughter of Baron Ludwig II. von Waadt-Vaud and Isabella de Chalon. First married to Lord Azzo I. Visconti of Milano, Raoul II de Brienne, Comte d'Eu, and Connetable of France, who was executed in 1351, and finally to Count Guillaume de Dampierre-Namur. In 1359 she sold the Barony and the Lordships of Nyon, Rolles, Morges, Yverdon, Moudon, Echellens, Volouz, Romont and Rye to Savoy.  She had three children by her third husband, and lived (circa 1315-88).

Oda von Gernrode

1248-49/60 Countess-Abbess Oda von Meinersen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Since the eleventh century the property of Gernrode was divided between the abbess, the canonesses, and the other inhabitants of the chapter. The canonesses administered only a small portion of their land holdings directly. They leased the lands to dependent farmers in return for rent payments and services. The majority of the community's land was loaned in fief to vassals and members of ministerial families.

Unnamed Russian Princess

From 1249 Sovereign Princess Maria Rurikova-Rostovsky of Yaroslavl (Russia)

The territory of the Yaroslavl region is situated in the centre of Russia, in the core of foundation of Russian statehood and culture, and was founded as a fortress-town at the beginning of the 11th century by the Prince of Kiev Yaroslavl the Wise. According to the legend he subdued the pagans by killing the sacred bear.  Since 1218 Yaroslavl is the capital of the Yaroslavl. 

1249-50 Regent Dowager Sultana Shajarat al-Dur of Egypt (23.11-19.02)
1250 Sultan (Queen of the Muslims)
1250-57 De Facto Co-Ruler

Also known as Shajarat, Shaggar, Shagar or Shagarat al-Durr, she took power when her husband, Sultan al-Salih Ayyub died of a fever in the midst of a Crusader campaign in the Nile Delta, where the Franks under Louis IX and landed. She managed to conceal the sultan's death and controlled Egypt long enough to recall al-Salih's son, Turan Shah, from northern Syria to assume command. By the time word leaked out of the palace concerning Al-Salih's death, her coalition was in firm control of affairs.  The Mameluk army defeated Louis's forces in February 1250 at Mansura and captured the French king and his forces. She also managed also managed to preserve order after Turan Shah was murdered by the Mameluk, who then raised her to the throne and gave her the title, Umm-Khalil, meaning "mother of Khalil". She continued the negotiations with Louis, who was ransomed for 1,000,000 bezants, and reigned alone for 80 days and had coins struck and the Friday sermon pronounced in her own name, but the Caliphate at Baghdad did not approve of her reign, so in order to preserve her position, she married the chief of her husband's Mameluks Aibak, and had him proclaimed sultan, but due to his constant struggle with the Syrian Ayyubids in Damascus and Aleppo he remained on campaign for much of his early reign. Thus, she exercised de facto power over Egypt and maintained political stability. After seven years he wanted to take a second wife and she had him assassinated and she was killed by a mob led by her husband's son from his first marriage, Ali. She was born as a Mameluk slave herself, and (d. 1257).


1249-64 Sovereign Lady Marguriette of Caesarea (Israel)
Daughter of Jean I (1229-41) and succeeded brother and reigned jointly with Jean Aleman.


1249-55/56 Sovereign Countess Mascarose II of Armagnc (France)

Succeeded mother, Mascarose I, and reigned jointly with husband, Eskivat de Chabannais, Count of Bigorre until his death in 1251. She was succeeded by a distant relative.


1249-88 Sovereign Dame Agnès de Dampierre of Bourbon (France)

Inherited the title when her father, Archambault IX de Dampierre, was killed in Cyprus. Her mother, Yolande de Châtillon-sur-Marne was heir to the Counties of Nevers, d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre but died in 1254, seven years before her mother Mahaut I, and therefore the counties were inherited by Agnès' sister, Mahaut II in 1257. Agnès was first married to 1248 Jean de Bourgogne, Seigneur de Bourbon (d. 1267) and 10 years later to Count Robert II d'Artois. She was succeeded by her only daughter Beatrix de Bourgogne (1257-1310), who married Count Robert de Clermont. Agnès lived (circa 1237-88).


1249-52 Sovereign Countess Marie de Lusignan of Eu, Dame de Melle, Chize, Civray and Benais  (France)

Succeeded father Roul III de Lusignan-Issoudun and reigned jointly with husband Alphonse de Brienne. Succeeded by son, Jean II.  She lived (circa 1220-60).


1249-71 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Champagne (France)

Successor of her father Raymond VII and reigned jointly with son-in-law Alphonse de Valois, Count de Pouitou, the son of Louis VIII.

Jeanne de Toulouse

1249-71 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Toulouse, Dame de Castres et Mirepoix, Marchioness of Provence (France)

Only daughter and heir of her father, Raimondo VII and his first wife, Sancha of Aragon and member of a Side-Line of the Sovereign Counts and Dukes of Provence. Her marriage to Alphonse de France, Count de Poiters (1220-71), son of King Louis VIII, was very happy. Her only daughter died and therefore the county revered to the crown after her death. She lived (1220-71).


1249-1311 Sovereign Countess Béatrice de Montfort of Montfort-l'Amaury (France)

Married to Robert IV de Dreux and succeeded by daughter, Yolande de Montfort.


1249-60 Sovereign Viscountess Clémence of Châteaudun, Dame de Mondoubleau and Saint Calais (France)

Succeeded under the regency of her mother after her father Geoffroy VI, was lost in the holy land. He had also taken part in the crusades in 1225 and 1229. In 1238 the Count of Champagne ceded the suzerainty of among others Châteaudun to the king of France, and the viscounty therefore became a direct fief of the crown. She was married to Robert de Dreux, and was succeeded by the oldest daughter, Alix I.


1249-53 Regent Dowager Viscountess Clémence des Roches of Châteaudun (France)

Reigned in the name of her daughter, Clémence de Châteaudun, after the death of her second husband Geoffroy VI. She might also have been regent during his participations in crusades in 1225, 1229 in warfare in 1240 and 1242 and during his final journey to Jerusalem from 1248. Clémence's first husband was Thibault VI de Blois and she has brought along the Seigneurities of Chateau de Loir, Mayet, de la Suze and Loupelande in her marriage. 


1249-57 Reigning Abbess Kunigunde III von Stain of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of the Seigniorial family von Stain zu Rechtenstein by the River Donau in Württemberg.


1249 Reigning Abbess Margaretha of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

As Abbess she also held the overlordship and lower jurisdiction in the villages of Wald, Buffenhofen, Burrau, Dietershofen, Gaisweiler, Hippetsweiler, Kappel, Litzelbach, Otterswang, Reischach, Riedetsweiler, Ringgenbach, Rothenlachen, Steckeln, Walbertsweiler und Weihwang by the Bodenzee Lake and outside it's acctual territories of Igelswies, Ruhestetten und Tautenbronn.

Last updates 25.02.15

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