Women in power 1100-1150

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


Around 1100 Administrator Queen Piriyaketaladevi of Three Villages in Karnataka (India)
Consort of Chalukaya Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka, and ruled three Villages. In Karnataka the administration of larger units - a division comprising several villages - was also sometimes assigned to women, if they were found competent.


Around 1100 Administrator Queen Laliteya Devi of Mottiwada in Karnataka (India)
In charge of the Belgaum District of Karnataka.


Around 1100 Administrator Revakabbarasi of Posavuru in Karnataka (India)
Married to general Vavanarasa.


Around 1100 Chief Administrator Jakkiabbe of a Nagarakhanda Division in Karnataka (India)
Widow of Sattarasa Nagarjuna, the chief administrator of a division (nalgavunda), who headed Nagarakhanda, consisting of seventy villages and was responsible for revenue, irrigation and the general administration of this division. The king found in her an able administrator and appointed her as her husband's successor. She supervised the work of several headmen (perggade) under her and put through several deals, recovered dues and distributed grants. While dedicating herself to administration, her health failed. She was succeeded by daughter.


Around 1100 Responsible Officer Revakabbarasi of the Royal Household of Karnataka  (India)
Her title was Pasayite.


Around 1100 Hereditary Countess Mechtild of Kiev of Beichlingen (Germany)
Only daughter of Kunigunde von Beichlingen and her first husband Prince Jaropolk of Turow in Russia, she succeeded to the fief at a not known time. Mechtild was married to Count Günther von Schwarzburg and was succeeded by son Friedrich I von Beichlingen (d. circa 1168). The second son Sizzo III was cont of Schwarzburg and her daughter Bertha married Heinrich von Groizsch, Burgrave von Magdeburg. Neither the date of birth or death of Kunigunde is known.

A Chinese Empress 1100-01 (†) Reigning Dowager Empress Xiang Shi of China
Succeeded by Chi, who was emperor 1100-26, and died 1135. It was a time of remarkable advances in technology, culture, and economics, and the Song Dynasty, despite its political failures, basically set the stage for the rest of the imperial era. The most important development was that agricultural technology, aided by the importation of a fast-growing Vietnamese strain of rice and the invention of the printing press, developed to the point where the food-supply system was so efficient that, for the most part, there was no need to develop it further. 


1100-circa 14 Regent Duchess Mathilde-Philippe de Toulouse of Aquitaine and Poitou (France)
1114-17 Claimant of Toulouse
Her husband, Guillaume (Duke and Count 1086-1127), went to the Holy Land after the first crusade had finished in 1099 and took part in the creation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and some of the other Latin Principalities. She acted as regent during his absence. She claimed the county from her cousin, and attacked the county. Her husband conquered and lost the county two times, they probably separated in 1115 and she died as a nun. She was daughter of Guillaume IV de Toulouse (1040/45-60-93) and first married to Sancho I of Aragon, who was killed in 1094. Mother of two sons, and lived (1068-1117).


1100-06/11 Sovereign Countess Agnes of Ponthieu (France)
Succeeded father, Gui I, since both her brother and uncle had died. She reigned jointly with husband, Robert II de Bellême, who succeeded to the French positions of his mother Mable de Bellême, as Vicomte d'Hiémois, seigneur de Bellême, after she was killed in 1082 and later succeeded his brother, Hugh of Montgomery as 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury. Their son, Guillaume III de Ponthieu inherited the county after her death and the  imprisonment of his father in 1112 for conspiracies against King Henry of England. She lived (circa 1080-1106/11).


1100-18 Politically Influential Queen Mathilde of Scotland of England (United Kingdom)
Also known as Edith or The good queen Maud of Scotland, she was very powerful during the reign of her husband, Henry I Beauclerc (1068-87-1135), and acted as regent when he was abroad. She was daughter of King Malcom III Ceanmera and Saint Margaret of Scotland, was mother of one daughter, Maud, later Empress of Germany and Lady Domina of England, and lived (1079-1118).


11.... Chieftainess Nagasanamma in Karnataka (India) 
Widow of a feudal chief and inherited the chieftainship. She is described as Mahasamantha showing that she ruled as a feudal lord in her own right.


11... Politically Influential Countess Gertruda of Guines in Wales (United Kingdom)

A Welsh revolutionary who raised an army to rebel against the oppressive regime of King John. She was captured on the battlefield and died as his prisoner.


1100 Army Leader Maude de Valerie in Wales (United Kingdom)

Another Welsh revolutionary. She was also captured on the battlefield and died as John's prisoner.

A 12th century Queen 1101-12 Regent Dowager Countess Adelisa del Vasto of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1101-1118 Sovereign Countess of Salona
Widow of Roger I, she was a very efficient and successful regent for the sons Simon and Roger II. During her tenure, the emir Christodulus rose to preeminence at the court and Palermo was settled as the capital of the realm. Either through her influence or under her regency, her brother Henry del Vasto was granted Paternò and Butera.. After having handed over the government to Roger, she travelled to Jerusalem and married Baudouin I, but it was not a success and they divorced in 1117 where after she returned to Sicilia. She lived (1072-1118).


1101-1126 Politically Influential Queen Swatawa of Poland of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

Also known as Świętosława, she was influential during the reign of her two sons. Her husband's oldest son, Bretislav II, succeeded his father Vratslav II, Duke in Olmütz (1055-56)+(1058-61), Duke of Bohemia (1061-85), King of Bohemia (1085-92), as Duke of Bohemia. He was killed, and succeeded by her oldest son, Borzivoy II, Duke in Znaim and Brünn (1099-1100) and of Bohemia (1101-07) and (1117-20) and the second, Duke Vladislav I of Bohemia (1109-17) and (1120-25). She was daughter of prince Kazimierz I Odnowiciel of Poland and Dobroniega Maria, mother of 5 children, and (lived 1046/48-1126).  


Around 1102 Reigning Abbess Mathilde de Coucy of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Member of the family of Seigneurs de Coucy.


1102 Reigning Abbess Agnès I of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

As Abbess she had great authority in the region, organising fairs and markets, dispensing justice, appointing priests, having the right to arbitrate in distribution of the lands.


1103-26 Princess-Abbess Agnes I of Poland of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Duke Wladislaw of Poland and Judith, the daughter of Emperor Heinrich III of Germany.


1103-09 Reigning Abbess Richenzca II von Zolling of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
During the 10th century the Church of the Chapter, which dated back to 700, was replaced by a new building. The present church dates back to the middle of the 12th century.


1104-17 Joint Reigning Queen Margrethe Fredkulla of Denmark
Contemporary sources depict her as the co-ruler of her husband, King Niels, and had her name incribed on a coin, which was unique in the Northern Countries, and in all of Europe only half a dusin of examples of other Queens named jointly with a king who was not a minor under regency in the period 1000-1500 exists. Her oldest son by Niles was killed by a horse in his youth. The second was named King Magnus of her dowry in Västergötland after her father, King Inge Stenkilsson of Sweden died.  She was considered to be the stronger of the two. She is described as vice, clever, devote and peace loving. Daughter of King Inge of Sweden, she was first married to the Norwegian king Magnus, who died 1103. (d. 1117). 


Until 1104 Hereditary Countess Beatrix von Schweinfurt of Schweinfurt (Germany)
Only child of Count Otto von Schweinfurt and Irmgard of Torino, and married to the Bavarian count Heinrich II von Hildirizhausen. Mother of four children, and lived (circa 1040-1104).


1104-1111 Countess-Abbess Frederun of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Vrederun, she was member of an important ruling families of the Holy Roman Empire.


1105-08 Regent Dowager Countess Elvira de Castilla of Tripoli (Lebanon)
1108-circa 23 Regent of Toulouse (France)
After the death of her husband Raimond IV de Saint-Gilles of Toulouse, she took over the regency for their infant son, Alphonse Jordan (b. 1105), but the situation was difficult and she decided to move to Toulouse and transferred Tripoli to her husband's illegitimate son, Bertrand, who left for the Holy Land to claim his inheritance. She lived (circa 1080-after 1151).


1105-? Regent Dowager Viscountess Mahaut de Hauteville of Narbonne (France)
After the death of her second husband, Aimery I, vicomte of Narbonne, she acted as regent for their son Aimery II until he came of age. Her first husband, Ramon Berenguer II of Barcelona, was murdered in 1082. Her son was killed in battle in 1134 and succeeded by his daughter, Ermengarde, who was not able to take over the reigns until 1143. Mahaut was daughter of Duke Robert de Hauteville (known as Guiscard) of Apulia and Sikelgaita de Salerno, and lived (circa 1059-circa 1112).


Circa 1105-circa 15 Sovereign Viscountess Arnautte de Dax of Dax  (France)
Also known as Annette, she was the daughter of Arnaud II Raymond, vicomte de Dax, who died circa 1070. She was married to a distant cousin, Arnaud Dat, seigneur de Mixe and Ostabarret.Their marriage reunited the two branches of descent from Arnaud Raimond, the first vicomte of Dax, who died prior to 1005. Upon the death of her brother, vicomte Pierre Arnaud, without issue (circa 1105), she and her husband succeeded to the rank of vicomte. She was mother of Raymond III Arnaud, vicomte de Dax (circa 1100 - 1150), and through her great-granddaughter, Navarre de Dax, the wife of Raimond Arnaud, vicomte de Tartas, Guiraude was the ancestor of that family, as well the seigneurs d'Albret. She lived (before circa 1180-circa 1115).


1106-43 Hereditary Countess Agnes of Franken and Schwaben (Germany)
Daughter and heiress of Emperor Heinrich IV (1050-56-1106). Her husband, Friedrich I Graf Hohenstaufen became Duke of Franken and Schwaben and was succeeded by their son, Friedrich II. Agnes' second husband was Leopold III, Margrave of Austria who died 1136. Agnes lived (1074-1143).

1106-26 Hereditary Countess Wulfhild of Sachsen (Germany)
The oldest daughter and co-heir of Duke Magnus of Sachsen (1045-72-1106) and his wife Sofia of Hungary. She was married to Heinrich IX "der Schwarze", duke of Bavaria (1120-26). Her oldest son, Heinrich "der Stolze" was Duke of Bavaria (1126-39) and of Saxony (1137-39). Another son was Duke Welf VI of Spoleto. Mother of 5 other children and lived (1075-1126).


1106-42 Hereditary Countess Elike Bilika von Sachsen of Kriechen-Burgwerben and the Pfalzgrafschaft in Sachsen (Germany)
Also known as Eilika, she was sister of Wulfhild. Married to Otto von Askanien, Graf von Ballenstadt and Duke of Saxonia (1112-23). Her oldest son was Albrecht I der Bär, von Sachsen-Brandenburg, who was Count of Ballenstedt, Lord of the Mark Lausitz, Margrave of Saxony (1124-38), Duke of Saxony (1137-41), Margrave of Brandenburg (1140-70) and Margrave von Stade, Count of von Aschersleben. Her second child was Siegfried I, Count von Orlamünde and Count Palatine bei Rhein. Elike lived (1080-1142).


Around 1107 Rani Regnant Hamun of Sindh (India)
Reigned in succession to King Singhar, who ruled (circa 1092-circa 1107)


1107-24 Regent Dowager Sultana of the Seljuk-Principality of Malatya in Anatolia (Turkey)
Widow of Sultan Kilj Arslan, and married to three Turkish chiefs in succession who acted as guardians of her son, Sultan Tughril Arslan. In 1124 the principality was concord by the Danishmendide-Turks. 


1107-09 Sovereign Countess Ide-Raymonde of Lyonnais and Forez (France)
Her brother, Guillaume III was count (1079-97) and was succeeded by a number of male relatives until she inherited the county. She was widow of Guy-Raymond d'Albon, count Forez.


1107-57 Dame Maud FitzHamon of Gloucester, Glamorgan and Eurecy et Ste. Scolasse-sur-Sarthe (United Kingdom and Normandy)
Her husband, Robert FitzRoy, son of Henry I of England, was given title of Earl of Gloucester in 1121. He died 1147. Mother of 8 sons and a daughter. Her granddaughter Isabella was 3rd. Countess of Gloucester from 1183. Maud (d. 1157).

Urraca I of Castilla y Leon 1109-26 Queen Regnant Urraca I Alfonsez of Castilla and Léon (Spain)
In 1107 she reigned over her Dowry Galicia and Zamora after the death of her first husband Count Raimond de Bourgogne. The following year she inherited the throne from her father Alfonso VI Fernandez of Castile and Leon (1040-1109). Her second marriage in the year 1109 to Alfonso I Perez de Aragon (d. 1134) was anulled 1114 because they were to closely related. Her reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband, who had seized her lands. She never remarried, though she took several lovers. Another thorn in her side was her half-sister, Tarasa of Portugal and her husband, Enrique, who allied with her estranged husband, then betrayed him when a better offer came from Urraca's court. After her brother-in-law's death in 1112, her sister still contested ownership of lands. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully until her death. In 1223 she recognized her illegitemate son, Fernando Perez Furtado, and according to the Chronicon Compostellanum, she died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González de Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII Raimúndez of Castile and Leon "Imperator totus Hispaniae" (d. 1157), She lived (1082-1126).


1109-16 Reigning Abbess Mathilde II von Kirchberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The third of her countly family to lead the chapter and territory.


1110-circa 26 Sovereign Countess Eremburge of Maine (France)
Succeeded her father, Helie de la Fleche, Count of Maine by the right of his wife, Paula de Maine, and co-reigned with husband Foulques d'Anjou who died in 1142. Her daughter, Mathilde, was given the county of Maine upon her marriage to William of Wales, who died 1120, and when Mathilde entered a convent, her son, Helie, became Count of Maine. Eremburge lived (circa 1090-circa 1126).


1110-17 Temporary Regent Empress Irene Doukaina of Constantinople (Covering what is today Greece and Turkey)
1118-19 Politically Influential
Her husband, Alexios I Komnenos was engaged in numerous fights against the Seljuks in 1110–1117, and she acted as regent when she remained behind in Constantinople, she acted as regent, together with her son-in-law, Nikephoros Bryennios. She wanted to have Nikephoros and her daughter, Anna as his heirs, over their own younger son John. She nursed Alexios on his deathbed on 1118, while at the same time still scheming to have Nikephoros and Anna succeed him, and conspired with Anna against John, but their plots were unsuccessful and they were both forced into exile at the monastery of Kecharitomene, which she had founded a few years previously. She lived there in peace, distributing food to the poor and educating young orphan girls. She lived (circa 1066–1123/33).


1114-1161/4 Dame Abbesse Judith I de Lorraine of Remiremont 
1139-1161/4 Dame Abbesse of St. Pierre and Metz (France)
Also known as Judith de Vaudemont, she succeeded her aunt Gisèle II and was in dispute over the authority over the chapter with her counsins, Simon I and Mathieu I and Lorraine, and did not hesitate to appeal to Emperor Konrad III to maintain her rights. She was daughter of Thierry II of Lorraine and Hedwig von Formbach.


From 1111 Regent Dowager Duchess Adela de Flanders of Apulia (Italy)
Also known as Ailanda of Apuglia, she was heiress of Robert I the Fries of Flanders. First married King Knud III of Denmark, and after his death Roger of Apulia, and after his death, she ruled in the name of their son Guillaume II (circa 1095-1127). Her oldest son was Carel I. of Flanders (circa 10851127), who was killed. She lived (circa 1064-1115).

Constance de France From 1111 Regent Dowager Princess Constance de France of Antiochia (Syria)
Widow of Bohemond I d'Hauteville of Antiochia and Taranto, she ruled in the name of her son Bohemond II (1107/09-1130). At some point she was taken prisoner by Grimoald, Lord of Bary, until Pope Calixt II managed to have her released in 1120. The daughter of King Philippe I of France (1053-60-1108), she divorced her first husband Hugues I de Blois of Troyes, and lived (1078-1124/26).


1111-25 Countess-Abbess Agnes I of Gandersheim (Germany)

Niece of Emperor Heinrich IV and the last Abbess from the Imperial family, and lived (1091-1125)

1112-30 Sovereign Countess Dulcia I of Provence (France)
Also known as Duce or Dulce, she was successor of her mother, Gerberga, she was married to count Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona (1086-1131) and succeeded by son, Raymond Berenguer IV and II the Saint of Barcelona and Provence. She lived (circa 1090-1130).


1113... Politically Influential Dowager Countess Palatine Gertrud von Nordheim of Rhein
1149-65 Administrator of Bentheim and Rheineck (Germany)

After her first husband, Count Siegfred von Ballenstedt, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein was killed in battle, she fought for the inheritance of their sons Count Siegfried zu Orlamünde (d. 1124) and Wilhelm, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (d. 1140), aided by her second husband, Count Otto von Rheineck (d. 1150). Her third son Otto II von Rheineck was killed in 1149, and therefore she administered his inheritance as her own fiefs until her death, and had nothing more to do with the County Palatine by the Rhine. She managed to have her daughter Sophie named Heiress of the County of Bentheim. Gertrud was daughter of Heinrich the Fat of Northeim and Gertrud von Braunschweig, sister of Empress Richenza, and lived (circa 11190-before 1165). 


1114-1161/4 Dame Abbesse Judith I de Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz 
1139-1161/4 Dame Abbesse of St. Pierre and Metz (France)
Daughter of Thierry II of Lorraine and Hedwig von Formbach.


1115-49 Reigning Abbess Pétronille de Chemillé of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
A cousin of Abbot Geoffrey of Vendôme she had married into the family of the lords of Chemillé. At the time of her death there were more than 50 mixed monasteries in the order, headed by a female superior, distributed across the region bounded by northern Champagne, Lyonnais, and Aragon. It was the largest and wealthiest federation of monasteries for women in Western Europe.


1116-26 Reigning Abbess Reichzca III von Abensberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a noble family that married into other high-ranking families such as Hohenzollern and Cilli.


After 1116 Reigning Abbess Matilda FitzRoy of Montvilliers (France)

She was daughter of King Henry I of England and Isabelle de Beaumont-le-Roger. Her father had one surviving ligitmate daughter - Empress Mathilde, who was heir to the throne and reigned shortly before she was deposed. He had at least 20 illigitimate children.

Empress Mathilda 1117-18 Presiding over the Hearings of the Royal Court Mathilda of England of the Holy Roman Empire
1119 Stadtholder in Italy and Supreme Commander of the Army and Presiding over Courts
1125 Holder of the Imperial Insignia of the
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
1135-50 De-facto Sovereign Duchess of Normandie (France)
1141 Queen Regnant (Lady Domina) of England (United Kingdom) (02.02-01.11)
Also known as Maud, she was married the Holy Roman emperor Henry V in 1114, and acted as his co-ruler until his death 11 years later, when she became the holder of the Royal Insignia until a new Emperor was elected. As her only legitimate brother had been killed in the disastrous Wreck her father, King Henry I, had the barons swore allegiance to her and promised her the throne after her father's death. She then married Count Geoffrey V of Anjou and Maine. He was thirteen, she twenty-three. It is thought that the two never got on. Newer the less they had had three sons in four years. Being absent in Anjou at the time of her father's death on 1st December 1135, possibly due to pregnancy, she was not in a position to take up the throne and she quickly lost out to her cousin, Stephen de Blois. With her husband, she attempted to take Normandy. With encouragement from supporters in England though, it was not long before she invaded her rightful English domain and so began a long-standing Civil War from the powerbase of her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, in the West Country. After three years of armed struggle, she gained the upper hand at the Battle of Lincoln, in February 1141, where King Stephen was captured. However, despite being declared Queen or "Lady of the English" at Winchester, she alienated the citizens of London with her arrogant manner. She failed to secure her coronation and the Londoners joined a renewed push from Stephen's Queen and laid siege to the Empress in Winchester. She managed to escape to the West, but while commanding her rearguard, her brother was captured by the enemy. She then exchanged Robert for Stephen who soon re-imposed his Royal authority. In 1148, after the death of her half-brother, Matilda finally returned to Normandy, leaving her son, who, in 1154, would become Henry II, to fight on in England. She lived (1101-67).


1117-45 Politically Influential Empress Fujiwara no Tamako of Japan
Also known as Empress Taikenmon'in was influential during the reign of her husband Toba's reign. He abdicated in 1123, and in 1129 he began to rule as cloistered emperor. He continued to hold power through the reigns of three emperors, Sutoku, Konoe, and Go-Shirakawa. In 1142, he became a monk, entering the Tōdaiji Temple. During his cloistered rule the court was dominated by his three chief consorts: Taikenmon'in, Bifukumon'in, and Kayanoin, who were his trusted allies, strategists, and friends during various factional disputes that shook the court throughout his lifetime. On one hand, the three women fiercely competed to secure favours for their own children at the expense of the others, but on the other hand they were partners, united by their common interest in advancing the interests of their husband. She was eldest daughter of Fujiwara Kinzane, and lived (1101-45).


1117-55 Politically influential Empress Fujiwara no Yasuko of Japan
Also known as Empress Kayanoin, she wielded great influence in both political and cultural matters, and was a patron of arts and Buddhist learning like the two other consorts of Emperor Tuba. She was the eldest daughter of Fujiwara no Tadazane, and lived (1095-1155).


1117-56 Politically Influential Empress Fujiwara no Tokushi of Japan
Also known as Bifukumon'in, her status as an imperial favourite gave her access to Emperor Toba, and his devotion to her gave her a great deal of influence.  Through her wish to have her adopted son, Nijô, placed on the throne, his father was named crown prince and acceded. He stepped down three years later, presumably at Bifukumon'in's request. Furthermore, friction between Bifukumon'in and Yorinaga eventually led to his exile and subsequent revolt at the side of Sutoku in the Hôgen disturbance. After Toba's death, she became known as Empress Dowager Yoshitomi, the daughter of Fujiwara no Nagami; she lived (until 1160).


1118-52 Sovereign Countess Richardis von Waldeck (Germany)
Married to Rudolf II von Stadet (d. 1114).


1118-34/38 Sovereign Countess Ermengardis of Zütphen (The Netherlands)
Also known as Ermgard, she succeeded her brother Hendrik. She was married to Gerhard II of Gelder/Guelders (d. 1131). In 1134 she married Konrad of Luxembourg and around this time she transferred the county to her son, Hendrik II.


1118-42 Sovereign Countess Agnès de Garlande of Rochefort (France)

Succeeded her father Anceaus and first married to Amaury III. (d. after 1136) Sire de Montfort-l'Amaury, and Comte d'Évreux and secondly Robert I. le Grand, Comte de Dreux (d. 1188), who was son of King Louis VI. She was succeeded by her son, Simon III. (d. 1181)


1118-52 Countess-Abbess Hedwiga II von Seeburg of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

During his lifetime Margrave Gero I donated Geronisroth, the villages of Badeborn, Groß- und Klein-Alsleben, Oster- und Westeregeln as well as Gröningen, and after his death the abbey and the Provosty of Frose inherited all of his possessions. Margrave Ekkehard II and Meißen und Hedwig von Seeburg added to the wealth by further donations. The name of her successor is not known. The next known Abbess is Richenza/Rikinza, who was elected in 1205. 


1118-19 Coup Participant Princess Anna Komnene of Constantinople (Covering what is today Greece and Turkey)
Together with her mother, Irene Doukaina, she plotted to place herelf and her husband, Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios on the throne instead of her brother, John. The plot was discovered, and she forfeited her property and imperial family status. By her brother's clemency she escaped with her life and was dispatched to a convent, where she engaged in studied ans became one of the first known female historians and wrote "The Alexiad" - about her father's reign. She was mother of 4 children, and lived (1083-1153).


1119-37 Princess-Abbess Ida III von Calw of Essen (Germany)
Born as Pfalzgräfin bei Rhine, and as Reichsfürstin (Princess of the Realm) she had the right of vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, which held one joint vote in Ecclesiastical Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


Circa 1120-30 Ruler Al-Hurra Alam al-Malika of Zubayd (Yemen)
A singer or slave of the king Mansur ibn-Najah (circa 1111-23), who was so impressed by her political astuteness that he placed her in charge of the realm's management and "made no decisions without consulting her". In 1123 his vizier Mann Allah poisoned him, but Alam continued to govern but she never had the Khutba proclaimed in her name at the Friday night prayer. Zybayd was a principality in western Yemen near San'a, with whom it was in a perpetual state of war. The title of al-hurra was bestowed on women who were active in politics, but did not denote Queenship. 


Around 1120-circa 60 Hereditary Dame Helvis of Rahmala and Mirabel (Palestina and Israel)
Daughter of Baudouin of Rahmala and first married to Balan de Cartres, Lord of Ibelin (d. 1143/50). After his death she transferred her possessions to their son, Hughes d'Ibelin, Lord of Rahmala (1132-68/71), who was succeeded by brother. The third son inherited Ibelin. Also mother of two daughters. Around 1150 she married Lord Manasses d'Hierges. She lived (circa 1105/10-circa 60).


Circa 1121-50 Sovereign Countess Tiburge I of Orange (France)
Succeeded father Rimbaud II and reigned together with husband, Guillaume I d'Omélas (d. 1156). In 1150 they were succeeded by their son Rimbaud III.

A Chinese lady 1122 and 1133 Regent Dowager Queen De of Quidan (China)
Also  known as Xiao she was in charge of the government
in the name of Yelü Ding, who reigned 1122 and later for 
also for another relative. 


1122-25 Regent Dowager Countess Petronella de Lorraine of Holland-Zeeland and Friesland (The Netherlands)
Widow of Floris II, she was regent for son Dirk VI 1122-57 together with the Counts of Egmond, Rijnsburen and Middelburg. She was a very able ruler and acted forcefully in the interests of her sons. She funded various convents and also played a part in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire, trough her half-brother, Emperor Lothar III - the son of her mother in her first marriage. 1133 she withdrew to the Convent of Rheinsburg, which she had funded herself. She was daughter of Duke Dietrich II von Ober-Lothringen and Hedwig von Formbach, and was originally named Gertrud. She lived (circa 1078-1144).


From 1122 Regent Dowager Countess Hedwig von Assel-Woltingerode of  Windberg-Ratelberg-Winzenburg  (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Hermann I, she managed the government for their minor son, and is always portrayed as Reigning Countess the many documents left over from her. She married Count Adalbert II von Bogen in 1123. Her oldest daughter, Beatrix von Windberg was Abbess of Quedlinburg and Neuenheerse (1138-60), also mother of a son who died as a child and another daughter in her first marriage. In her second marriage she was mother of three sons and one daughter; Heilwig, Abbess of Geisenfeld. She was daughter of Margrave Poppo III. von Assel-Woltingerode of Istrien and Richardis von Sponheim, and lived (circa 1080-circa 1162).


1122-31 Reigning Abbess Christine of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Secular and temporal ruler of the chapter and the secular lordships.


1123-? Regent Dowager Lady Emma of Caesarea (Israel)
Reigned the lordship following the death of Eustace (1110-23) as regent for Gautier (1123-54).


1124-?46 Hereditary Countess Jutta Ida of Werl-Arnsberg (Germany)
1146-54/62 Reigning Abbess of Herford

Only daughter and heir of Count Friedrich I von Werl-Arnsberg and Adelheid von Limburg. She and her first husband, Gottfried II, Count von Cappenberg had both entered a convent. After his death in 1127 she decided to leave the Chapter and married Gottfried von Kuic (Cuyk) (d. 1168) and had her only child, Heinrich I. Graf von Arnsberg (d. 1185). It seems that she went back to the Imperial Immediate - Reichsfreie - Abbey of Herford and became an Abbess as Jutta von Arnsberg in 1146, she lived  (circa 1100/05-after 1154)


1124-44 Hereditary Countess Bertha of Groitzsch (Germany)

Only daughter and heir of Count Wiprecht II von Groitzsch and Jutta von Böhmen and married to Count Dedi IV of Wettin and Groitzsch. Her only daughter probably predeceased her and the Margrave Konrad inherited the lands. Bertha (d. 1144). 

An unnamed Empress 1125-37 Consors Regni Empress Richenza von Nordheim of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
1136-37 Presiding over the Hearings of the Royal Court
Her husband, Lothar von Sachsen, was elected King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor in 1125, and she was actively involved in the governing of the empire and took part in the Imperial Councils. She is mentioned as the last "consors regni" - reigning consorts. As daughter of Count Heinrich von Nordheim and Gertrud von Braunschweig she was heir to vast territories, and after her husband's death in 1137 she was instrumental in her son-in-laws' appointment as Duke of Sachsen. After his death in 1139, she and her daughter, Gertrud von Supplinburg, remained in control of the Duchy and managed to have Getrud's son, Heinrich der Löwe, appointed Duke in 1142, with his mother as regent. Lived (circa 1087-1141).

1125-51 Sovereign Countess Mahaut I of Boulogne (France)
Also known as Queen Matilda of England, she succeeded father Eustache III, and reigned jointly with her husband, King Stephen de Blois of England (d. 1154) and succeeded by first two sons Eustache IV, William, Earl of Warenne and Surrey and then by daughter, Marie in 1159. She lived (1105-52).


1125-30 Countess-Abbess Berta I of Gandersheim (Germany)

As Abbess with countly rank, she was semi-independent ruler of the secular territories of the chapter.


1126-37 Princess-Abbess Gerburg von Kappenberg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

During her reign the fights between the Welfs and Staufs for the kingship of Germany started and the city was occupied.


1126-30 Reigning Abbess Reichzca IV von Dornburg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Since 1002 the Reichsstift Niedermünster in Regensburg had been placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany, it was granted royal protection and, immunity.


1127-36 Sovereign Countess Beatrix II of Bigorre (France)
Succeeded father, Centule II and joint ruler with husband Pierre I de Marsan, who was succeeded by their son Centule III in 1163. 

1127 and 1129-31 Regent Empress Meng Zhaoci of China
1127-28 Regent in Jiling
Selected over 100 candidates by Supreme Empress Dowager Gao (1031-1093), to be principal consort for her grandson, Emperor Zhao Xu (1085-1100). She became empress in 1092 but while she was favored by both Gao and by her mother-in-law, Xiang (1045-1101), the emperor was enamored of another palace woman, Liu (d.1113). She managed to escape the Jin, who attacked the capital, and when Emperor Qinzong (1126-1127), was taken north. To gain a semblance of legitimacy the commander Zhang named her as regent for Zheng, who had taken over the throne. Shortly after, she learned that one the sons of Huizong (reigned 1101-1126), had arrived at Kaifeng, and she sent a letter where she declared this prince as the legitimate emperor, and retired from her regency. Zhang was thus pressured to retire in favor of Huizong and was later told to commit suicide. 1127-28, she kept control of the North Eastern Province of Jiling after the Song Dynasty lost control of Northern China to the Liao Dynasty in 1127 and moved to the south, establishing the Southern Song Dynasty, which lasted until 1279. Two years later, in 1129, when Gaozong was defeated in battle at Yangzhou and narrowly escaped capture, two discontented leaders of his bodyguards forced him to abdicate in favor of his three-year-old son. Meng was again asked to serve as regent. Eventually Gaozong was able to regain the throne and she retired after having served as regent for 25 days. In the same year, Gaozong sent her with an imperial guard west into Jiangsi so that if he were to be captured or killed a she would represent the legitimacy of the Northern Song Dynasty. She lived (1077-1135) 


1127-52 Queen Nag Ye Hkam Leng of Möng Mao (Myanmar-Burma)
Succeeded Hkun Hpang Hkan and was succeeded by Saw Hsö Hkun Hpa, who reigned (1152-1205). 

Queen Melisende of Jerusalem 1128-31 Co-Ruler Princess Melisende of Jerusalem (Israel)
1131-45 Queen Regnant
1145-52 and 1157 Regent

1152-61 Lady of Nablus
Daughter King Baldwin II of Jerusalem (d.1131) and his Armenian wife Morphia (d.1129). In 1128 she was designated as her father’s successor and began her reign with him. In 1129 she married Fulk V of Anjou (France). In 1131, they became joint rulers of Jerusalem until he launched a war against her. But her forces prevailed and she insisted on strong peace-terms, which included her admission to the inner councils of the kingdom. After Fulk's death she became regent for her 13-year-old son, Baldwin. 1145 was the year Baldwin was to celebrate the attainment of his majority. she ignored the date, easing him out of every place of influence, omitting his name from public acts. Baldwin would not agree to this and once again the Kingdom of Jerusalem was divided - this time between the her supporters and those of her son. A compromise was reached before open war between the two broke out - The Kingdom was to be divided between mother and son - she would rule Judea and Samaria, whilst her son Baldwin governed the entire North. Soon, however, it was realized that the Kingdom could not be ruled in the manner and nobility soon deserted he. Faced with this loss of support, she finally yielded to her son Baldwin in around 1152. Even though she retained Nablus as part of the settlement, she retired from politics, though she did remained her son's closest adviser. When her son Baldwin was absent during the many wars that plagued the Kingdom, she was guardian of the kingdom. She lived (1105-61).


1128-.. Regent Dowager Countess Isabella of Amboise (France)

Following the death of her husband, Hugo, she was regent for her son Sulpisius. (d. after 1143).


1129 Sovereign Countess Ermesinde I of Luxembourg
Became the heiress to Luxembourg after the death of her nephew Conrad II, the son of her brother Guillaume I. She transferred the title to her own son from her second marriage, Henri "The Blind" of Namur.
Married to Adalbert of the Nordgau, of Dagsburg and Godefroi I,
Count of Namur, who died 1143.


Until 1129 Sovereign Countess Adélaïde de Provence of Forcalquier (France)

Married to Armengeol IV, comte d'Urgel, and succeeded by son Guillaume III d'Urgel, who died the same year as she.


1130-1163 Sovereign Princess Constance I of Antiochia, Dame of Latakia and Jabala (Syria)
Only child of Bohemond II and Alix of Jerusalem. After the death of her first husband, Renaud I de Poitou (1099-49), she refused calls for her to remarry quickly. Instead she ruled jointly with the Patriarch Aimery, and first allied herself with Emperor Manuel I Comnenos of Constantinople and then with her uncle, king Baudouin of Jerusalem. In 1153 she married Renaud de Chatillon (1125-87), who was taken prisoner in 1160 leaving her with the sole government again. With the help of Manuel - to whom she married her daughter Xenia-Maria (Regent of The Byzantine Empire 1180-82) - she fought off attempts to have her son Bohemond III (1144-1201) installed as ruler with the Patriarch as regent, but when he turned 18 in 1163 the people rioted, she was deposed and sent in exile. Her two other daughters were Agnes, who was married to king Bela III of Hungary and Alix who was married to Margrave Azzo VI d'Este. Constance lived (1126-1163/67).


1130-36 Regent Princess Alice of Jerusalem of Antiochia (Syria)
1130-after 37 Dame of Latakia and Jabala

Reigned in the name of her daughter, Constance, against the opposition of the nobles and other pretenders to the regency after the death of her husband Bohemond II. After her daughter's marriage she withdrew to her dowry. Alice was daughter of King Baudouin II and Morphia de Meltiene and sister of Queen Melisende. She lived (1108-after 37).


Around 1130 Sovereign Countess Margaret Håkonsdatter of Orkney (England in United Kingdom)
Daughter of Håkon Pålson (1103-22) and Helga Maddannsdatter, daughter of the Count of Caithnes, and first married to Maddad/Madoch, Earl of Athol, and secondly Erland "the Young" Haraldsson in 1134 mad she ruled jointly with both husbands of parts of the Orkney Islands. Her son, Harald Maddadson, was Earl (1139-1206). She was (b. circa 1108).


Around 1130-after 1147 Hereditary Countess Agnes of Saarbrücken (Germany)
Married Frederich II Hohenstaufen, Duke of Schwaben und Franken, who lived (circa 1090-1147) as his second wife. Apparently mother of Judith (1135-91), who married Ludwig II of Thüringen (1128-72). Agnes (d. after 1147).


1130-36 Reigning Abbess Heilka III von Kirchberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Followed on the post by Kunigunde II von Kirchberg.


1130-52 Countess-Abbess Luitgard II of Gandersheim (Germany)

Reformed the convents of Clus and Brunshausen, which belonged to the chapter. In 1148 a Princely Assembly (Fürstentag) took place in the territory.

Helena of Serbia, Queen of Hungary

1131-41 De-facto Ruler Queen Helene of Rascia of Hungary
1141-... Regent of the Kingdom
 Jelena Urošević Vukanović was influential during the reign of her husband Beta II the Blind, and after his death she assumed the regency for son, Geza II (1130-41-61). She was daughter of Grand Prince Uroš I of Serbia and Anna Diogenissa from Byzatine.


1131/33-40 Reigning Abbess Ogiva of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Also known as Ogina


1132-72 Sovereign Countess Beatrix of Maguelone de Susbstancion et de Melgueil (France)

Malegone was a county on the Lancedoc coast of Bretagne. It was a pontifical fief under the sovereignty of the Pope in Auvignon.


1134-47 Regent Hereditary Viscountess Guiscarda of Béarn (France)
Also known as Guiscarde she was the eldest child of Gaston IV of Béarn and Talesa of Aragon and succeeded her younger brother Centule VI. Her first husband Pierre III of Gabarret, had already died, and their son, Pierre II, also succeeded in 1134, and her mother, Talesa, had acted as regent on many occations since 1096 and continued to act as primary regent, Guiscarda only secondarily.When her son reached the age of majority, she retired from her functions in government, until he died in 1153, and she assumed the regency for his son Gaston V, until her own death the next year.


1136-77 Reigning Baroness Mathilde van Saffenberg of 'S-Hertogenrade (The Netherlands)
Followed Adolf (1109-36-58) as ruler of the small barony largely within the southern end of the Dutch panhandle extending south along the east bank of the Maas River. The bulk of Baronial territory lies just west and north of the German city of Aachen - a few tiny baronial districts lie within what is now Germany. She married Henry II, Duke of Limburg, who was in charge of the Barony until 1167.


1136 Reigning Countess Ermesinde I van Namen of Luxembourg

Inherited the county from her nephew Konrad II, but gave it to her son Henrik van Namen. She was the daughter of Conrad I of Louxembourg. First married to Albert von Moha-Dasburg and from 1109 with Godfried van Namen, and retired to a convent after his death in 1139.


1136-70 Politically Influential Queen Ingrid Ragnvaldsdatter of Norway
Left her mark on the political struggles in Norway in the mid-12th century, during the period known as the Norwegian civil wars, a series of wars about the succession to the throne, lasting from 1130 to 1240, interrupted by shorter periods of peace. With her first husband, Henrik "Skadelår", a member of a sideline of the Danish royal family, she had several sons who later played a part in Danish and Swedish history. She tried to break out of this marriage and run off with a lover, but in 1134 her husband was killed. Then she married the Irish-born Norwegian king Harald IV Gille, who came to Norway in the late 1120s claiming to be a natural son of Magnus III "Barefeet" and had one son, Inge. When her husband was murdered in 1136 (by yet another man claiming to be a son of Magnus III), she had her one year-old son proclaimed as king. He shared the throne with his half-brother Sigurd II "Munn", an illegitimate son of Harald IV (one or two years older) The church supported Inge, since he was legitimate. From 1142, the two half-brothers had to share the throne with yet half-brother Øystein II, who came from Ireland claiming to be an illegitimate son whom Harald IV. The three half-brothers reigned together peacefully at first, but in 1155, Sigurd was murdered, presumably on orders from either Ingrid or her son Inge, and two years later, Øystein was also killed. But their side of the conflict came up with another candidate for the throne, Håkon II "Herdebrei", who was allegedly a son whom Sigurd had fathered when he was only about 14 or 15. After her son was killed in a battle in 1161, Ingrid and her natural son Orm joined forces with the powerful Erling Skakke, who was married to Princess Kristin, a daughter of old King Sigurd I. Their 5 year-old son Magnus now became the new candidate for the throne, and in 1163, the 7 year-old Magnus V Erlingsson was crowned in Bergen, which helped to strengthen his position. Ingrid was the daughter of Ragnvald Ingesson, a son of the Swedish King Inge the Elder, and her numerous marital and extra-marital connections produced numerous offspring (d. 1170).


1136-77 Reigning Abbess Kunigunde II von Kirchberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected to succeed Heylca III von Kirchberg.

Hildegard von Bingen

1136-79 Political Advisor Abbess Hildegard of Bingen (Germany)

Founder and leader of two monasteries, preacher, visionary, theologian, prophet, exorcist, hagiographer, correspondent to emperors, kings, popes, abbots, abbesses, and numerous others, poet, composer, performer, creator of a new language and a new alphabet, natural historian, healer, author of the world's first morality play, confidant, spiritual and political advisor, and more. She was born to a noble family, was educated in a convent from the age of seven by Benedictine nuns at Disibodenberg, near Bingen, near the present-day town of Mainz. At age 43 she became abbess of her community, a position whose responsibilities did not keep her from pursuing an astonishing variety of creative and scholarly accomplishments. Her chants are rich in mystical images, and her melodies are elaborate, with florid melodic contours, ornamented inflections, and wide ranges. She lived (1098-1179).

Petronilla I of Argon and Barcelona

1137-63 Queen Regnant Petronilla I of Aragón (Spain)
1163-69 Regent of Arágon and Barcelona
Succeeded father, Ramiro II the Monk, who had received papal dispensation to abdicate from his monastic vows after the death of his brother in order to secure the succession to the throne. When she was two years old, he abdicated and returned to the monastery. She married to Count Berenguer IV of Barcelona (circa 1113-62), who became regent of the kingdom. In 1163 she abdicated in favour of her son, Alfonso II. and continued as his regent, and even after he came of age she continued to control the state affairs. Alfonso later named himself king of Aragon and Cataluña. She lived (1135-73).

Queen Leonor of England 1137-1204 Sovereign Duchess Eleanore de Poitiers of Aquitanie et Poitou, Guenne et Gascongne (France)
1155, 1158 1160, 1189-91, 1192 and 1199 Regent of England 
1165-66 Regent of Normandie
The daughter and heiress of William X, duke of Aquitaine, she married Louis IV of France in 1137 shortly before his accession to the throne. She accompanied him on the Second Crusade (1147–49). Eleanor bore Louis two daughters, but in 1152 their marriage was annulled. Soon afterward Eleanor married the 11 year younger Henry, duke of Normandy and count of Anjou, uniting her vast possessions with those of her husband. Louis VII feared this powerful combination, and when Henry ascended the English throne in 1154, the stage was set for a long struggle between the English and French kings. Eleanor bore Henry three daughters and five sons. Because of Henry's infidelities, especially his relationship with Rosamond, Eleanor's relations with her husband grew strained, and in 1170 she established a court of her own at Poitiers. She supported her sons in their unsuccessful revolt against Henry in 1173 and was held in confinement by Henry until 1185. Her efforts helped Richard secure the throne in 1189. While Richard was on the Third Crusade and later held captive in Europe (1190–94), Eleanor was active in forestalling the plots against him by his brother John and in collecting the ransom for his release. She brought about reconciliation between the two brothers, and on Richard's death in 1199 she supported John's claims to the throne over those of Arthur I of Brittany. Eleanor's court at Poitiers was the scene of much artistic activity and was noted for its cultivation of courtly manners and the concept of courtly love. The first three times she was regent during her husband's stay in his French possessions. She was also regent for mother-in-law, Empress Mathilde, in Normandy, regent during Richard II's crusades and after his death regent until her younger son, Count John d'Anjou came to England to take over the throne. She lived (1122-1204). 


1137-48 Sovereign Countess Hedwig von Gudensberg of Gudensberg-Orlamünde and Arnshaugh 
1140-44 Regent Dowager Margravine of Thüringen (Germany) 
Only daughter and heir of Count Giso IV and Kunigunde von Bilstein. Her husband, Landgrave Ludwig von Thüringen died in 1128 and four weeks later she gave birth to their son Ludwig II. 12 years later he was given the fief of Thüringen by King Konrad III with her in charge of the regency. She lived (circa 1110-48).


1137-40 Princess-Abbess Emma of Essen (Germany)
Elected as successor to Ida III.

Salomea von Berg

1138-44 Sovereign Princess Salomea von Berg of Sieradz, Łęczyca and Sandomierz (Poland)

After the death of her husband prince Bolesław III Krzywousty of Poland, she received the three principalities as her dowry, and was also politically active in Poland. She was daughter of Count Heinrich von Berg and Adelajda, Countess of Möchental, and lived (1100-1144).  


1138-39 and 1147-49 Regent Countess Sibylla d'Anjou of Flanders (Belgium)
1123 she had been married to William Clito, son of the Norman Robert Curthose and future Count of Flanders and brought the County of Maine to this marriage, which was annulled in 1124 on grounds of consanguinity. Her father oppsed this until Pope Honorius excommunicated him and placed an interdict over Anjou. she then accompanied her widower father to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, where he married Melisende, the heiress of the kingdom, and became king himself in 1131. In 1139 she married Thierry of Alsace, the new Count of Flanders, who had arrived on his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land. They returned to Flanders and during his absence on the Second Crusade she was in charge of  the county. Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut took the opportunity to attack Flanders, but sheled a counter-attack and pillaged Hainaut. In response Baldwin ravaged Artois. The archbishop of Reims intervened and a truce was signed, but Thierry took vengeance on Baldwin when he returned in 1149. In 1157 she moved to Jerusalem with her husband and stayed there the rest of her life and remained very influential within the royal family. She joined the Convent of Bethani. She was daughter of Count Fulco V of Anjou-Jerusalem and Ermengarde of Maine, and mother of six children, including Margaretha, who inherited Flanders from her brother in 1191. Sibylla lived (circa 1110-65).

Fürstäbtissin Beatrix II von Quedlinburg

1138-60 Princess-Abbess Beatrix II von Winzenburg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Mentioned as Abbess of Neuenheersee bei Paderborn in 1123. She was daughter of Count Herman I and Countess Hedwig, regent of the county from 1122. She was also sister-in-law of Duke Albrechts des Bären of Sachsen. (d. 1160).


Around 1140 Sovereign Countess Agnès de Thiern of Montpensier (France)
Succeeded her father, Guy de Thiern, whose dates of reigns are also not known. In 1145 she married Raymond de Bourgogne, comte de Grignon and secondly to Humbert IV, sire de Beaujeu in 1160. She was succeeded to son.


1140-74/78 Reigning Abbess Clarice de Someringhem of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Held semi-bishopal authority and secular jurisdiction of her territory.

Gertud von Supplinburg

1142-43 Regent Dowager Duchess Gertrud von Supplinburg of Sachsen  (Germany) 
Daughter of Emperor Lothar III and Richenza von Nordheim, and heir to the lands of the Nordheim's, Bruno's and Supplinburg's, and first married to Heinrich X of Bavaria, who died 1139. Her son Heinrich der Löwe was appointed Duke of Sachsen in 1142 and she acted as his regent even after her second marriage to Margrave Heinrich II Jasomirgoot of Austria, who was appointed Duke of Bavaria in 1143. She acted under the title of "ducissa and ductrix" and was deeply involved with the political situation of the day and very influential. She died following a miscarriage, and lived (1115-43). 


1142-55? Regent Dowager Countess Lutgardis von Sulzbach of Brabant (Belgium)
After the death of her husband, Godfrey II (1139-42), she ruled in the name of her son, Godfrey III, who reigned until 1190. 


1142-53 Regent Dowager Countess Marguerite de Macon of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans and Briançon and Dauphine Viennois (France)
After the death of her husband, Guigues IV d'Albon, she was regent for her son Guigues V (1125-62).

Ermengarde of Narbonne 1143-92 Sovereign Countess Ermengarde of Narbonne (France)
When her father, Aymérie II (1105-34), was killed in battle, Alfonse Jourdain, Count of Toulouse, claimed the regency. She was the leader of the French royalist party in the south of the country, which was in opposition to the English. She fought numerous wars defending her domain and was a patron of troubadours and protector of the church. Also a renowned arbiter and judge in complex cases of feudal law. She was married to Alphonse 1143-1145 and Bernard II d'Anduse from 1145, but none of the husbands had any part in the government. Ermengarde resigned in favour of her nephew Pierre II de Lara. She lived (circa 1127-circa 97). 

Khanum of Mongolia 1144-51 Khanum Regnant Tabuyan T’a-Pu-Yen Gantian Huanghou of Qara Khitai (Turkistan now Kyrgyzstan)
Possibly successor of her husband, Yelü Dashi, who reigned as Emperor Dezong 1124-1144 as leader of the Central Asian Khanate – in what today is partly Kyrgyzstan and partly Chinese Turkistan the region Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region/Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu. She was mother of mother of Yelü Yilie, who ruled as emperor Liao Renzong in 1151-1164) and possibly also mother of Khanum Regnant Yelü Pusuwan Chengtian Taihou who ruled in 1164-1178.


1144-78 Politically Influential Abbess Iovetta of Jerusalem of Bethania in Jerusalem
Her name appears in various forms, including Joveta, Yvette, Iveta, Ivetta, or Juditta. She had spent one year of her childhood as hostage of the Muslim leader Timurtasch, as exchange for her farther, King Baudoin II. Her sister, Queen Melisende, founded the convent to St. Lazarus at Bethany, on land purchased from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. She was elected as the second Abbess at the age of 24. Her combined position of Royal Princess and Abbess of the richest convent in Palestine made her a very influential woman. She lived (circa 1120-circa 78).


After 1147-56 Sovereign Lady Emma von Rappoltstein (Germany)
Her father, Adalbert II, died after 1147. After her death, her husband, Engeolf I von Urslingen, was Lord of Rappoltstein 1156-88 and then their son, Ulrich I until 1193.


Circa 1147-68 Ruler Zahida Khatun of Fars (Iran)
Reigned the territory after the death of her husband, Amir Boz-Aba, and ounded the madrasa in Shiraz.


1148-56 Hereditary Duchess Berte de Cornouaille of Bretagne, Rennes, Vannes, Dol, Poher, Cornovalles and Nantes (France)
1156-58 Regent Dowager Duchess of Bretagne
After her father Conan III (1112-1148) disinherited her brother, Hoël, she became heir to the duchy. Her second husband, Eudes II of Rohan and Porhoët wad duke by the right of his wife, and her son, Conan IV le Petit became duke later.

Beatrix I and her husband, Emperor Friederich 1148-84 Sovereign Countess Beatrix I of Upper Bourgogne and Franche-Comté (France)
Succeeded father, Reinald III of Burgundy, and married Friedrich I Barbarossa, who became Emperor in 1155. As Empress she devoted much of her time to Burgundy and ruled the realm rather independently, using the title of 'Domina Dux'. Mother of 8 children and succeeded by her 4th son in the county, Otto I, and lived (1140-84).


1148-55 Sovereign Dame Agnes de Courtenay of Marnes (Israel)
1157-76 Countess of a Portion of Jaffa and Ascalon
1174-84 Politically influential in Jerusalem
Circa 1176-84 Lady of Estates in Acre
Her first husband, Reynald of Marash, was killed at the Battle of Inab in 1149, and after attempting to regain Edessa, her father Count Joscelin II was captured, blinded, and imprisoned in Aleppo. Her mother, Beatrice, sold the remnant of their domains to the Byzantine Empire and took her children to Saone (Sahyun Qal'at Salah) al-Din in the Principality of Antiochia, a domain from her first marraige. In 1157 Agnes married Amalric, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon, who succeeded to the throne in 1162, but the leading members of the Haute Cour refused to endorse him as king unless he annulled their marriage. She was to retain her marriage title of Countess, along with a portion of the income of the fiefs of Jaffa and Ascalon. 1163 she married Hugh of Ibelin who died during a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela circa 1169 and the following year she married Reginald of Sidon. In 1174 her son succeeded as King Baldwin IV. He was a leper, underage, and unmarried. Miles of Plancy was first regent for the young king, but was soon supplanted by Raymond III of Tripoli, Amalric's first cousin. He had the support of her husband Reginald of Sidon. She re-established herself at the royal court. In later years, she would accompany her son to meetings of the Haute Cour and went on the military campaigns in which he insisted on taking part, even when his sight had gone and he was unable to walk or ride. Her daughter, Hereditary Princess Sibylla, was brought back to court and when she was married to Guillaume de Montferrat in 1177 the County of Jaffa and Ascalon went to the husband of the heiress. With her son exercising full royal prerogatives, Agnes played a significant role at court. She had had Amalric of Lusignan appointed as constable of Jerusalem in 1179 and 1180 her son placed her in charge of the appointment of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem: Eraclius, Archbishop of Caesarea, was chosen, over the Chancellor William of Tyre. Her health was failing in this period and she died in her estates in Acre, and lived (circa 1136–circa 1184).


Before 1148-after 78 Princess-Abbess Adelheid von Sponheim of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Also known as Alhedis.


1148-1203 Territorial Countess Isabel of Surrey (United Kingdom)
Held the county jointly first with king William V until 1159 and then with Hamelin (1164-1202) and William VI (1202-40). Surrey was a small County in southeastern England, adjacent to the Thames and London. It was never a fully autonomous Anglo-Saxon Kingdom, though it did form an ephemeral Mercian district lordship. It was a territorial Earldom (Dukedom 1397-9) during the Middle Ages.


Around 1148 Village Headman Lakka Devi in Karnataka (India)

Among of the women in Ancient India who held public office. Her title was mahaprabhuvini.


1149-before 1178 Sovereign Dame and Countess Stephanie de Bar of Commercy (France)
Heiress of Count Renaud I de Bar and Gisela de Vaudemont, she was married to Count Hugo III de Broyes et Chateauvillain. Commercy was a fief of the Archbishop of Metz and she was succeeded by her son Simon I, who was also Lord of Broyes and Marshall of Neufchateu. Stephanie lived (circa 1144-before 1178). 


1149-55 Reigning Abbess Mathilde I d'Anjou of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Daughter of Fulk, King of Jerusalem, and widow of William, the eldest son of Henry I, of England

Last update 27.09.09

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