Women in power 1000-1100


Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

Female leaders 
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

Nigerian Queen Circa 1000 Queen Shawata of Kufuru (Kofana) (Nigeria)
The last of 15 successive Queens, she succeeded Magajiya, who reigned circa 700, Gino (Gufano), Yakunya (Yfakaniya), Walzamu (Waizam), Yanbam Gizirigzit (Gadar-Gadar), Imagari (Anagiri), Dura, Gamata, Shata, Batatume, Sandamata, Jamata, Hamata and Zama.


Around 1000 Hereditary Countess Eve of Dreux and Dauphine (France)
Succeeded father Landry and reigned jointly with her husband, Gauthier de Vexin.


Around 1000 Leader Badit bint Maja of the "Politically Organized Islamic Society" in Ethiopia
Leader of a tribe or a substate-entity.


Around 1000 Administrator Queen Mahadevi of Maruvolal in Karnataka (India)
In charge of Marol in the Bijapur District of Karnataka. She was the daughter of Irivabedanga Satyasraya (Emperor in 997-1008).


Around 1000 Reigning Abbess Godilde of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Sister of Lambert, Abbeot of Saint -Bertin. As Abbess she held semi-epicopal powers.

Queen Emma 1001-42 Politically Influential and Partner in Power Queen Emma de Normandie of England (United Kingdom)
1040 Regent in Wessex
Also known as Alfgifu, and is thought to have been sharing the royal lordship with her husband, King Ćthelred II of England, who died 1116, but her power seems to have been limited by the fact that she was his second or third wife. In the years 1013-16 England was conquered by King Knud of Denmark, 1014-15 she and her husband sought refuge by her relatives in Normandy. Knud defeated her stepson and claimed the throne. Her marriage to him was both a sign of reconciliation and a demonstration of his power with her as the symbol of both the English defeat and continuity. And it became the culmination of her power and she became the most visible Queen so far. During Knud's frequent visits to Denmark, where he had become king in 1019, her role was close to that of a regent. When Knud died, his son from an earlier marriage, Harald Harefod, claimed the throne and she had to fight to secure the interests of her own son. She maintained the control of the treasury and tax collection from her Dowry in the City of Winchester. When Harald's grip on England strengthened, she was send in exile to Flanders, but when he died in 1040, she returned to England with her son, Hardeknud, and during his two years on the throne, she again shared the power, but when her oldest son, Edward succeeded to the throne he confiscated her estates and treasures and she withdrew permanently to Winchester. She was daughter of Duke Richard I of Normandy and Gunnor, and lived (980's-1052).


1001-39 Reigning Abbess Sophie von Sachsen of Gandersheim, Abbess of Essen and Vreden (Germany)

The daughter of Otto II, she joined the Chapter of Gandersheim at the age of four, and aided her brother, Otto III in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire, 994 she took part in the Reichstag of Sohlingen, and went with him to Rome in 996, and she actually functioned as the First Lady at Court, as "Consors Imperii" 996-1001. After Otto's death she and her sister, Abbess Adelheid of Quedlinburg participated in the "Assembly of the Great of Sachsen" in the Pfalz Werla, which chose their cousin, Heinrich IV of Bayern as the new king under the name of Heinrich II, and they both took part in his coronation. She had been elected Abbess in 1001 but was in dispute with the Bishop of Hillesheim. Also Heinrich's successor, Konrad, made contact with the two Princesses after his election because of their high rank and stature in the Empire. Sophie was also Abbess of Essen and Vreden. She lived (975-1039).

Kunigunde von Luxembourg, Holy Roman Empress 1002-24 Consors Regnii Empress Kunigunde von Bayern of Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
1012, 1016 etc.  Regent
1021 Presiding over the Hearings in the Royal Court in Regsnburg
1024 Co-Regent Dowager Empress
Joint ruler and the closest advisor of her husband, Heinrich II, and joint ruler. She took part in the Imperial Councils and in 1007 she participated in the Synod of Frankfurt, 1012 she commanded the Imperial Army and defeated the attacking Polish troops, in 1018 she officially enthroned her brother Heinrich V as Duke of Bayern. After her Husband's death, she held the royal insignia July till September, and was regent together with her brother’s, Bishop Dietrich von Metz and Heinrich until a successor was elected. She then handed over the insignia to emperor Konrad II. She withdrew to a convent that she founded herself and later became a saint. She lived (circa 980-1033).


1003-07 Regent Dowager Countess Godila von Rothenburg of Rothenburg and Guardian of Nordmark (Germany)
Related to Bishop Wigfried von Verdun (959-83) who secured the paternal fief for her sons, after the death of her first husband Lothar III, Count von Walbeck. Her oldest son, Werner, born in 990 when she was 13 years old. She had two more sons and a daughter in the first marriage, and two children with her second husband, Hermann II, counts von Werl (circa 980-after 1024), whom she married in 1007. She lived (circa 977-1015).


1003-11 Countess Regnant Toda Mumadona of Ribagorza (Spain)
Succeeded her brother, Isarno, and was succeeded by her niece, Munia Mayor of Castilla, the daughter of her sister, Ava. Toda was married to Count Sunyer of Pallars, and (d. 1011).

Uta I von Niedermünster in Regensburg 1003-25 Reigning Abbess Uta I von Kirchberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Also known as Uda, she is considered as one of the most important ladies in the history of the chapter. She gave the monks in the neighbouring St. Emmeram the task of making an expensive Evangelista, altar-book, which still exists. During her reign the Convent was placed directly under the protection of the king of Germany.


1004-circa 07 Member of the Regency Council Dowager Queen Jimena Fernández of Navarra (Spain)
When her husband García Sánchez I, she asumed the regency for her son, Sancho III together with her mother-in-law, Urraca Fernandez, who had been regent of Aragón from 994, and the local bishops. She was daughter of the count of Cea on the Galician frontier.


1008 and 1012-29 Regent Dowager Senatrix and Duchess Emilia of Gaeta (Italy)
As she was referred to as Senatrix at the time of her marriage, she was probably, member of the powerful Roman Crescenzi or Tusculani families. After the death of her husband, Giovanni III (984–1008) she was regent for her son Giovanni IV and after his death for grandson Giovanni V (1012–1032). Initially she was opposed by her husband's nephew, Leo I, but her supporters expelled him. But then she had to deal with the opposition of her own son, Leo II, who expected to be accorded the regency. The two disputed the regency and co-undersigned charters until January 1025, when Leo last appears in the Codex Caietanus. Emilia was the sole regent in a February charter. She supported the Pope and the Lombards against the Byzantine Empire.  In 1027, when Duke Sergius IV was forced to flee Napoli, she gave him refuge and he conceded to the Gaetans certain rights in travelling in Neapolitan land. An accord was signed between the rulers in February 1029. It is not known when her regency ended. She (d. 1036).


1010-? Sovereign Countess Melisende of Dunois (France)
Daughter of Geoffoi II and married to Warin de Domfront of Alençon.


1016-22 Regent of Ifriqiya/Ifriqiyah (Libya, Tunesia and Algeria)
In the first year as regent for her nephew, Muizz ibn Badis Al-Muizz (1016-62) there was a bloody revolt in Ifriqiya in which the Fatimid residence Al-Mansuriya was completely destroyed and 20.000 Shiites were massacred. The unrest forced a ceasefire in the conflict with the Hammadids of Algeria, and their independence was finally recognised in 1018. She was deposed by
Muizz. She was the daughter of al-Mansűr ibn Buluggin who ruled 984-995) and sister of Badis ibn Mansur who ruled in 995-1016.


1017-.. Regent Dowager Countess Urraca Gómez of Castilla (Spain)
After the death of Sancho García of Castilla in 1017 she became regent for her son, García Sánchez, who was murdered in 1029, and was succeeded by her daughter, Mayor.


1029 Sovereign Countess Mayor of Castilla (Spain)
Also kown as Muniadomna, she was daughter of García I of Castilla and married Count Sancho III of Navarra (999-1035). As "Domna major regina" she confirmed a charter of "Sancius Hispaniarum rex" dated 26 Jun 1033 which related to concessions to the monastery of Oriense. She succeeded to the County when her brother, García Sánches was murdered in 1029. As "Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora", she donated the monastery of San Sebastian to the monastery of Leire by charter. She became a nun after her husband died. The testament of "Maior regina Christi ancilla", by which she founded the monastery of San Martín de Fromista 13 Jul 1066, names her father but not her husband. She lived (circa 994/96-after 1066).

Saint Irmgardis von Köln 1013-85 Sovereign Countess Irmgardis of Aspel (Germany)
Also known as Saint Irmgardis von Köln, the sources show her as Reigning Countess, and after her parents died, she distributed her wealth among hospitals, churches and social institutions. She lived a simple life in solitude and went on three pilgrimages to Rome. She spent her last years in Köln, where she supported Chapters and Convents. She lived (1000-65/82/89).


1013-16 Supreme Commander of the Palace Shao-shi in China
An official in the palace service organization, she appears to have earned all her promotions through meritorious service. She had served in the palace of Taizong (r.976-997) when he was a feudal prince. When Taizong became emperor, she was made siyi (Director of Clothing) then promoted to shanggong (Chief-of-services) responsible for the Women’s Service Organization within the palace. In 997, Zhenzong (r.998-1022) named her qun furen (Commandery Mistress) and in 1013, the emperor created a new title of gong siling (Supreme Commander of the Palace) in her honor. In 1033, Renzong (r.1023-1064) posthumously promoted her to minor wife status by naming her taiyi (One of Supreme Deportment) and in 1044 to xienfei (Worthy Consort). She (d.1016)


1014-72 Queen Dearbforgail of Munster and Ireland
Daughter of King Brian Bory, her husband was king Dermont MacMilmamo of Leister was also king of Ireland.  

Gisela von Schwabien

1015-.. Regent Dowager Duchess Gisela von Schwaben of Swabia (Germany)
1024-39 Co-Regent of Germany
1026-39 Co-Regent of Italy
1027-39 Co-Regent of The Holy Roman Empire
1032-39 Co-Regent of Bourgogne

Daughter and heiress of Duke Hermann II von Schwaben and Gerberga de Bourgogne, she reigned after the death of her second husband, Duke Ernst I von Schwaben during the minority of their son, Ernst II, until she was removed from the regency because she and Ernst I was too closely related according to the Canon Law. She later married Konrad II, and she was crowned Queen of Germany, and Holy Roman Empress. The sources indicates that she was a vivid participant in the affairs of the realm and took part in the Imperial Councils and acted as joint regent of her husband, and it was trough her intervention that her relative, Rudolf III of Burgundy transferred the succession to his realm to her husband. She was also interested in the affairs of the church and intervened in the appointments of Bishops and Princely Abbots and participated in various synods. She was not at good terms with her son, Heinrich III, and therefore she was less influential after Konrad's death. She lived (989-1043).


Around 1015-42 Governor Princess Akkadevi, of a Province in Karnataka
Sister of the Calukya king Jayasinha II. She fought battles and superintended sieges.


Until 1016 Queen Sri Ajnadevi of Bali (Indonesia)
Not much is known of Bali during the period when Indian traders brought Hinduism to the Indonesian Archipelago. The earliest records found in Bali, stone inscriptions, date from around the 9th century AD and by that time Bali had already developed many similarities to the island you find today. Rice was grown with the help of a complex irrigation system probably very like that employed now. 

1017-27 Joint Regent Abbess Urraca Garciez de Covarrubias of Castilla (Spain)
The Abbess of Covarrubias, she ruled jointly with bishop Pedro of Burgos during the minority of her nephew, Count Garcia II (1110-17-29), after her brother, Sancho had been killed. She was daughter of Count Garcia I.


1017-27 Joint Regent Dowager Countess Urraca Gómez of Castilla (Spain)
After the death of her husband, Sancho García of Castilla, in 1017 she became regent for her son, García Sánchez, who was murdered in 1029, and was succeeded by her daughter, Mayor.

Countess Ermessenda 1018-24 Regent Dowager Countess Ermessenda de Carasconne of Barcelona (Spain)
1035-44 Regent of the County
During the reign of her husband Ramon Borrell presided over assemblies and tribunals, participated in military campaigns, and after his death she continued as regent first for son Berenguer Ramon I and then for grandson Ramon Berenguer I and became the stabilizing factor in the politics of the state. She lived (795-1058).


Around 1019 Administrator Queen Jogabbarasi of the Village of Ajjadi in Karnataka (India)
Reigned the village which was situated in Karnataka in Southern India.


Around 1019 Administrator Queen Lakshmadevi of Dronapura in Karnataka (India)
In charge of the village in Karnataka in Southern India.

1020-24 Regent Naib us Sultanat Sitt al-Moluk of Egypt
Also known as the Lady of Cairo, her name means "Lady of Power", and assumed power after having arranged the "disappearance" of her brother Imam Hakim bin Amr Allah. She had his son al-Zahir proclaimed Imam and Caliph and she became regent. She appointed competent ministers, managed to bring the economy in order and brought peace to the country. (d. 1024).


1020.... Princess-Abbess Kunigunde of Göss bei Leoben/Nonnenberg (Austria)
Her grandchild, Aribo III handed it over to the protection of Emperor Heinrich II, who granted it immunity and raised it to the status of an Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbaren Abtei) - the only one in Austria - and removed the Chapter from the influence of the Metropolits of Salzburg. She was sister of Aribos, and was the first abbess with the title of a Princess of the Realm (geistlichen Reichsfürstin). The Abbess became a Prelate of the Realm in 1242. So far she is the only Abbess known to me. The chapter was secularised in 1803.

Circa 1020-40 Dame Abbesse Berscinda of Remiremont (France)

Daughter of Gerard/Gerhard II von Metz, Count of Elsass  and Eva von Luxemburg. She lived (After 1013-40)


1020-23  Sovereign Countess Adčle de Vendôme-Anjou of Vendôme (France)
1028-31 Regent
In 1023 she transferred the county to her son, Bouchard II le Chavre and after his death she attributed half of it to her younger son, Foulques I l'Oison. He refused his mother's rights to the county, and she asked her brother, Geoffroy Martel for help. He defeated Foulgues and became count himself in 1032. She was the widow of Bodon, comte de Vendôme (1017-23) and daughter of Foulque III Nerra, comte d'Anjou  and Elisabeth de Vendôme, the daughter of Bouchard I and (d. 1031).

Chinese lady 1021-33 (†) Regent Dowager Empress Liu Zhangxian Mingxiao of China

When her husband, Emperor Heng (998-1022), who was also known as Sung Chen Tsung or Tseng Tsung, became insane in 1021, she assumed power, unofficially, in the de facto administration of the empire, but someone else was appointed as the official regent, and efforts were made to keep her from the regency for her stepson, Emperor Zhao Zhen (1010-22-63), two years later. As regent she was able to consolidate her power and govern as de facto sovereign. She held court, with the young emperor, behind the lowered screen. She alone made the final decisions on state policies and delegation of power.  Liu left a will stipulating that another palace woman; Yang (c.1033) should succeed her as regent even though Renzong was already 23 years old. Her wishes were not honored as neither the emperor nor his ministers were willing to tolerate another regency. Also known as Chengtian, she lived (969-1033).


1023-59 Politically Influential Supreme Consort Yang Zhanghui of China
The regent, Dowager Empress Liu created a special post for her as huang taifei (Supreme Consort) and left a will stipulating that Yang was to succeed her as regent to Emperor Zhao Zhen (1010-22-63), who was 23 at the time and did not want a regent. She was able to obtain numerous favors and offices for the next three generations of her paternal family. Zhao Zhen continued to listen to her advice and after the early deaths of his three sons the question of succession became a great concern and in 1059, she persuaded him to adopt the son of a cousin who became Emperor Yingzong (1064-1067). She lived (983-?)

Circa 1024-circa 1035 Queen Iztacxilotzin of Quauhtitlan (Mexico)
Ruler of the Aztec State on the boarder between Mexico and Guatemala. 


1024-68 Governor Princess Akkadevi of Kisukadu Seventy in Karnataka (India)
Sister of the Calukya king Jayasinha II (1015-1042). In the course of her rule, additional divisions comprising sixty villages of Toragale, a hundred and forty villages of Masiyavadi and seventy villages of Bagadage were added to her province in Karnataka. She encouraged education by giving liberal grants to brahmapuris and agraharas (both settlements of Brahmins, where education was imparted), of Perur that accommodated five hundred students. She was known as 'Joy of the student community. She was besides, an excellent warrior and fought and won a war against a rebel chief of Gokage. She had a secular outlook and had given grants to Jaina basadis and Hindu temples. She undertook pilgrimage to Varanasi. Like Ajjarasa, who had defeated many kings, a large number of soldiers and chiefs were proud to acknowledge Akkadevi as their ruler, capable and efficient. It is probable that Mayurasarman, ruler of Banawasi twelve thousand Province and Panungal one thousand, was here husband.


1025-51 Reigning Abbess Heilka I von Rothenburg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
During the reign of her predecessor the Ladies Chapter for Noble Ladies was placed directly as a fief under the king of Germany.

1027-37 Regent Dowager Queen Miriam Artsruni of United Georgia
After the death of her husband, Giorgi I (1014-27), she shared the regency with the grandees, particularly with the dukes Liparit and Ivane. In 1031/2, she paid a visit to Romanos III Argyros's court at Constantinople on behalf of her son, and returned with a peace treaty, the dignity of curopalates and the Byzantine bride Helena (daughter of Romanos III’s brother Basil) for her son. She continued to play a prominent role in Georgia’s politics even after Bagrat assumed full reigning powers. The Georgian chronicles speak of the Armenians being her subjects because of her parentage, a possible reference to a three-month long Georgian control of Ani before the city was finally annexed by the Byzantines in 1045, and report a disagreement between her and her son regarding the future of her step-son, Demetre, who defected to the Byzantines in 1033 handing over the fortress of Anacopia. She advocated the reconciliation between the brothers and made a futile attempt at bringing the rebellious Demetre back to loyalty. During Bagrat’s enforced exile at the Byzantine court in the 1050s, She accompanied her son and spent three years with him in residence at Constantinople during the reign of Constantine IX Monomachos. According to the Life of George the Hagiorite, after the marriage of her granddaughter Martha-Maria to Michael VII Ducas in 1065, she traveled to Antioch with the intention to make a further pilgrimage to Jerusalem, carrying with her an imperial order for the governor and patriarch of Antioch. These, however, persuaded her to refrain from visiting the Saracen-held Jerusalem. Also known as Maria, she was daughter of Sennacherib-John of Vaspurahan. (d. 1072/1103)


From 1027 Regent Dowager Duchess Gaitelgrima di Benevento of Salerno(Italy)
Her son Guiamar IV was about 14 or 16 when he succeeded his father Guaimar III, after his 2 elder half-brothers had died. She was the daughter of Pandulf II of Benevento and sister of Pandulf IV of Capua. Mother of 3 sons and 1 daughter and lived (980-after 1027).

1028-41 and 1042-50 Joint Reigning Empress Zoë Porphyrogenita of The Byzantine Empire
Ascended to the throne after the death of her husband Emperor Constantine VIII. She married 60-year-old Romanus III Argyropolus and made him co-emperor. The marriage lasted barely six years before she poisoned him, and married the epileptic weakling Michael IV Paphiagonian, who had her cloistered in 1041. This enforced confinement was short-lived as the Byzantine nobles rebelled against Michael. She was released from her confinement, and Michael was himself cloistered in a monastery by the nobles. She now ruled jointly with her older sister Theodora in 1042, and married again, this time to Constantine IX Monomachus aged 42, and both reigned till her death. Zoë was succeeded in Byzantium by her husband, who then ruled jointly with her sister Theodora. She lived (986-1050).  


1028-36 De-Facto Ruler Rani Suryamati of Kashmir (India)
Made judicious selection of ministers and other officials to give public confidence in her otherwise weak husband, King Ananda. He was later made to abdicate in favour of his son.


1028-29 and 1034-circa 40 Joint Regent Duchess and Patricia Maria di Capua of Amalfi (Italy)
Deposed her husband, Sergius II of Amalfi together with her son, Manso II, while her other son, Giovanni fled with his father to Constantinople. The following year Giovanni returned and deposed her and Manso. 5 years later they siezed power again and she took the title of ducissa et patricissa. It is indicative of her power that Manso received no titles, not even from Byzantium, as his father and brother had before him. In 1038, her brother Pandulf, who had helped her gain power, was deposed in Capua and Giovanni was able to return to Amalfi, where he deposed Masso and reconciled with her, who subsequently joined him in blinding Manso and exiling him to the Torre del Gallo Lungo. She was daughter of Pandulf II of Benevento and Capua and lived (985–circa 1040).


1029 Sovereign Countess Mayor of Castilla (Spain)
Also kown as Muniadomna or Muńadona, she was daughter of García I of Castilla and married Count Sancho III of Navarra (999-1035). As "Domna major regina" she confirmed a charter of "Sancius Hispaniarum rex" dated 26 Jun 1033 which related to concessions to the monastery of Oriense. She succeeded to the County when her brother, García Sánches was murdered in 1029. As "Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora", she donated the monastery of San Sebastian to the monastery of Leire by charter. She became a nun after her husband died. The testament of "Maior regina Christi ancilla", by which she founded the monastery of San Martín de Fromista 13 Jul 1066, names her father but not her husband. She lived (circa 994/96-after 1066).

Unnamed Nordic Woman 1030-35 Regent Dowager Queen Alfiva of Norway
Also known as Lady Ćlfgify of Northamton she was regent for her, and Knud the Great’s son, King Svend of Norway. Her rule was harsh and provoked an uprising, which removed her from power. When Knud died she returned to England, and persuaded the nobles to recognize her other son Harald Harfoot as king in 1037 but no records of her from then on have survived.


Circa 1030-90/1100 Joint-Ruler Rani Kripi of North-Panchalas (India)
Reigned together with her brother, Raja Kripa, over the territory that was carved out of the State of Panchalas. They belonged to a sideline of the family of the rulers of the state.

Chinese lady 1031-33 Regent Dowager Empress Xiaohaojin of Qindan (China and Mongolia)
1033-35 Politically Influential
When her husband Shenzong was succeeded their oldest eldest surviving son, Zongzhen (1016-55), she falsely accused the Empress of plotting rebellion with two of her most powerful supporters. The supporters were executed and the empress was banished. She was then named Empress Dowager, and assumed the regency. On New Year’s Day 1032 she held court, received the homage of the emperor and the members of the court and gave audience to the envoys from the Song. She gave titles to her younger brothers and their supporters and they tried to dethrone her son in favour of his younger brother, Zongyuan. But he informed his brother who immediately stripped her of her seals of office and banished her to Shenzong’s mausoleum and took over the reins of government himself. But he was not able to completely remove her power as her relatives held important offices so he tried reconciliation in 1037 by visiting her regularly to pay his respects. In 1039 she was permitted to return to the capital where she underwent the rebirth ceremony to re-establish her position in the eyes of the Khitan nobility. The Song court began to send envoys to pay respects to her as well as those to the emperor. She continued to be at the centre of the court intrigues until her death. She was originally named Yuanfei, became Empress Dowager Qinai and finally Grand Empress Dowager Xiaohaojin. She (d.  1058).


1031-79 Sovereign Countess Adélaďde de France of Auxerre (France)
Daughter of King Robert II (972-1031). Married to Renaud I de Nevers, and succeeded by sister, Adele. She lived (1003-79).


1033 Sovereign Countess Alix of Rouci (France)
Also known as Adelaide, Alice or Isabelle, the county is also known as Roucy. She married Hildouin III de Montdidier and lived (circa 1014-63).


1033-93 Sovereign Countess Sophie of Bar (France)
Succeeded father of Henri I who was both Duke of Lorraine and Count of Bar. She reigned jointly with husband Louis de Mousson, Count de Montbéliard until his death in 1065 or 1170. Succeeded by son, Thierry II. 

Adelaide di Susa

1034-91 Sovereign Countess Adelaide di Susa of Turino-Piemont and Aurate, Bredulo, Asti, Albi, Albenga, Auriate, Iurea, Suse and Ventimigha
1060-67 and 1080-91 Regent of Savoia (Italy)

Daughter of Margrave Manfredo II Odelrich of Turino and Bertha d’Este. From her father’s death she was de-facto ruler over the Margravine of Turino but officially she only used the title Countess and her three husbands were titular Margraves. She was first married to Duke Hermann IV von Schwaben, Margrave Enrico di Monferrato and Count Oddone I de Maurienne of Savoy (1021-59). After his death she became regent for their son Pietro I, (1050-60-80) and then for his successor. Adelaide had a mediating role in the fight between the Pope and emperor Heinrich IV, who was married to her daughter Bertha. Adelaide had three other children with her third husband, and lived (circa 1015-91). Some sources see her long reign as the reign of mother and daughter, named Adelaide I and II, but this is wrong. 

Queen Richeza of Poland and Bohemia

1034-36 Regent Dowager Queen Richeza von der Pfalz of Poland

In Polish: Rycheza. After the death of her husband, Prince and later the first King of Poland, Mieszko II, she was regent for her son, Kazimierz I Odnowicie. She was the eldest daughter of Errenfried Ezzon, “der rheinische Pfalzgraf” (palatin) and Matilda, daughter of Emperor Otto II. l, and lived (996-1063).  


1035-circa 50 Regent The Caliph-Mother of Egypt
After the death of her husband, the Fathamide-Caliph Al-Zahir Lazazdinallah (1020-1035) she ruled in the name of their infant son Al-Mustansir Biallah (1035-1094). She was a Sudanese ex-slave.                                     

Queen Sancha of León 1037-65 Co-Queen Regnant Sancha of León (Spain)
In 1029 Count García Sánchez of Castilla was about to be married to Sancha of León, the sister of Vermudo III, an arrangement apparently sanctioned by the king of Navarra, when the count was murdered in the city of León. Sancho el Mayor of Navarra then claimed the county of Castilla in his wife's name and installed in it their son, Fernando, as the new count of Castilla. After he had forced the marriage between Fernando and Sancha in 1032, those lands went to Castilla as part of her dowry. In 1034 he wrested the city of León itself from Vermudo, who retreated into Galicia, and began to style himself "Emperor" on his coinage. He was killed at a battle in 1037 and succeeded by Sancha and her husband. During their reign the kingdom was consolidated and expanded further.


1037-62 Marchioness Emma Venaissin of Provence (France)
Member of a side-line of the Sovereign Counts and Dukes of Provence, she succeeded her brother Guillaume II and was married to Guillaume III Taillefer (952-1037), comte de Toulouse. She was daughter of Rotbold III of Provence and Ermengarda, and mother of 4 children. (d. 1062).

1039-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes de la Bourgogne of Aquitanie and Poitou (France)
Third wife of Guillaume III-V, Duke of Aquitaine, one of the most powerful lords in France. After about twelve years of marriage, Guillaume died and Agnes defeated his two sons from a previous marriage. First she ruled by herself, then later with her own two sons. She married again but her second husband, the Count of Anjou, divorced her after eighteen years. She lived (995-1068).


1040-57 Regent Dowager Duchess Berthe de Chartres of Bretagne (France)
The widow of Alain III (1008-1040), she was regent for her son Conan II (1040-40-66).


Until 1040 Hereditary Countess Hademut of Friaul (Germany)
Oldest daughter and sole heir of Weigand von Fraul and Willbirg von Ebersberg. She married Poppo I Count von Weimar-Orlamunde. 

Noble Consort Zhang

1041-55 Politically Influential Noble Consort Zhang Wencheng of China
A favorite secondary consort of Emperor Zhao Zhen (1010-22-63) or Renzong, and her power was felt both within and without the palace. Her brother, Huaji (c.1054) and her uncle, Yaozuo, all gained high positions and prospered through her influence.  Her power was unique in the Northern Song Dynasty. Mother of three daughters who all died as children, and lived (1024-55).

1042 and 1050-55 Joint Empress Theodora Porphyrogenita of The Byzantine Empire
1055-56 Sole Empress
In 1042 she reigned jointly with her sister, Zoë, without success. The sixty-five-year old Zoë married Constantine IX, Monomachus and made him co-ruler. Contemporary sources are unanimous in describing Constantine IX's incompetence. They generously ascribe to him all the blame for the rapidly tarnishing glory of Byzantium. The imperial family at public functions and in royal portraits included three women as long as Zoë lived. Aside from the aged Zoë and her sister, Theodora, but also Constantine's mistress, the niece of his second wife, was always present. On the death of Constantine IX, Theodora, the only surviving member of Basil II's family, ruled for twenty months, and before her death she had chosen to forward Michael VI as her successor. She lived (978-1056).


1042-66 Joint Ruler Queen Edith of Wessex of England (United Kingdom)
1066 De facto Regent
Married to king Edward. In 1051 her father, Earl Goodwin of Wessex revolted against the Norman influence, but failed, and was banished. Edward started divorce-proceedings, but they remained married until his death, and during the vacancy at the throne she seems to have been de-facto caretaker. They had no surviving children and there was a succession of rulers, resulting in William the Conqueror of Normandy becoming king and it was her who was obliged to hand over the keys to Winchester, the county town of Wessex. She remained in charge of vast lands, but did no longer participate in politics. She lived (circa 1020-75). 


Around 1042-circa 68 Governor Queen Mailaladevi of the Province of Banavasi in Karnataka (India)
Mailaladevi, a senior queen of Somesvara I of Karnataka, she ruled the important province of Banavasi, comprising twelve thousand villages.


Around 1042-circa 68 Governor Queen Ketala Karnataka of the Province of Pomnavad in Karnataka (India)
Another wife of King Somesvara I of Karnataka.


Around 1043 Sovereign Countess Mantsrede I of Joigny (France)
Apparently also known as Alix, she was married to Etienne I, Sire de Vaux before 1045, who lived (1020-48). Mantsrede was born before 1020.

Hazecha von Gernrode

1044-46 Countess-Abbess Hazecha von Ballenstedt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

According to the Annales Gernrodensis by the Chronicer Andreas Popperodt, she was in office for 19 years, but only 2 decrees are known from her hand from 1044, when she asked King Heinrich III to confirm her election, and 1046 she is mentionend in a large donation given by her brother-in-law, Markgrave Ekkehard II. von Meißen. She was daughter of Count Adalbert I of von Ballenstedt and Hidda von Ostmark.

Beatrix aus der Haus der Salier

1045-62 Princess-Abbess Beatrix I von Franken of Quedlinburg
1045-61 Reigning Abbess of Gandersheim (Germany)

The only child of Emperor Heinrich III and Gunhild of Denmark (The daughter of Knud the Great of Denmark-England and Emma of Normandy), and lived (1038-62).


1045 Heiress to the Throne Princess Sanggramawijaya of the Kahuripan kingdom (Java Empire) (Indonesia)

When her father, King Airlangga, decided to abdicate, she turned down the throne choosing rather to live as a hermit. Instead the Kingdom was divided between her two half-brothers (their mothers were concubines). Her father had succeeded his parents, the joint reigning couple, King Dharmodayana Warmmadewa (Udayana) and Queen Gunapriyadharmapatni (Mahendradatta) of Bali, and his empire covered both the islands of Java and Bali.


1046-56/63 Countess-Abbess Hedwiga II von Ballendstedt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Hedwig, Heilika or Hazecha, she was probably the sister of Count Esicho and Uta, who was married to Ekkehard II von Meißen. After the death of Abbess Adelheid in 1043, Emperor Heinrich III in Ballenstedt appointed her abbess. Her brother partly gave parts of the lands he inherited from their sister to the abbey, and for her family it added to their prestige that she became abbess


1047-70 Dame Abbesse Oda d'Alsace of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

Ode de Luxembourg was daughter of Gérard d'Alsace comte de Metz and Gisčle. The name of her successor is not known.


1050/51-86 Regent Dowager Countess Richildis of Hainault (Belgium)
1071-76 Regent of Flanders
Richilde van Henegouwen was the heiress of her father, Renier de Mons-Valenciennes and also known as Richilde van Egisheim - as her mother was member of the von Dagsburg-Egisheim-family. Because of her rights of inheritance her first husband, Herman de Mons, was named Count of Bergen and the Margravate of Valenciennes in 1049. After his death in 1050 or 1051, she took over the regency for her son, Arnulf III. Soon after she married her cousin, Baudouin VI of Flanders, who became joint ruler of the county. After his death in 1070, her sons were deposed in Flanders by her brother-in-law, Robert. She gained support from the king of France in the fight against Robert, but in the end she lost and only Hainault remained in her possession. In 1070 she married William, Earl of Hereford and Essex, but he was killed in battle the following year, and also Arnulf died in battle. The bishop of Liege gave the fief of Hainault to the Duke of Lower Lorraine who in his term gave the fief to her and she passed it on to her younger son, Boudewijn II. and lived (circa 1020-86).


1051-54 Regent Princess Neda Dominica of Duklja (Zeta and Travunja) (Montenegro)
The widow of Stefan Vojislav (1035-1051), who had asserted full independence for Duklja after a war with Byzantine. In 1040 his state stretched in the coastal region from Ston in the north, down to the Lake of Skadar, where he set up his capital, with other courts in Trebinje, Kotor and Bar. He was succeeded by his widow and five sons - Gojislav, Predimir, Mihailo, Saganek and Radoslav I (1054-77).

1052-64 Reigning Abbess Gertrud I von Hals of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the Countly von Hals-family.


Around 1052 Princess-Abbess Wilburgis of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Head of the chapter for canonesses (Kanonissen or Chorfrauenstift), which had been founded around 1000 by Countess Palatine Adala of Bavaria. The abbot or provost administered the estates of the clerical ladies, arranged the statues and appointed the prioress.

 Beatrice of Bar

1054-76 Acting Margravine Beatrice de Bar of Lucca, Torino and Piemont and Tuscia (Toscana) (Italy)
1054... Regent of Spoleto
Succeeded husband - and succeeded by daughter, Mathilde, for whom she had acted as regent in Spoleto. She When her husband Bonifaz of Canossa was murdered in 1052 she became regent for the underage children, Friedrich († 1055) Beatrice († 1053) and Mathilde. She had good relations to Pope Leo IX and his circle of reformers. 1054 she married Gottfried of Ober-Lothringen without the permission of Emperor Heinrich III. The following year he deposed Gottfried and took her prisoner, but the following year both she and her husband was given back their lands. After the death of Gottfried in 1069 she continued as a trusted supporter of her daughter, Mathilde, and she was deeply involved in the politics of the Vatican. The daughter of Duke Friedrich II von Ober-Lothringen and Mathilde von Schwaben, she was adopted by her aunt; Empress Gisela, after the death of her parents in 1033, and lived (before 1020-76).


1054-63/65 Sovereign Countess Berthe of Rouergue and Gévaudan (France)
The daughter and heiress of Hugh of Rouergue and Fides. Around 1051 she married Robert II of Auvergne, but had no issue by him. On her death, her counties, including Narbonne, Agde, Béziers, and Uzčs, were inherited by her distant cousin William IV of Toulouse. (d. 1063/65)

Mathilda di Carnossa 1055-56 and 1070-87 Sovereign Countess Mathilda di Canossa of Spoleto-Camerino and Saluzzo, Lady of Canossa (Italy)
1071-87 Margravine of Toscana, Parma, Modena, parts of Lombardia, Reggio and Ferrara. 
1076-1081/1115 Sovereign Margravine of Lucca and Tuscia 

1076-86 Reigning Dowager Countess of Verdun (France)
1111-1115 Vice-Reine of Italy
As a child she succeeded her father Boniface II and from him and subsequently from Godfrey of Lorraine, the second husband of her mother, she inherited the extensive holdings and feuds (practically a half of the whole Italian territories) of the House of Canossa and also the domains of Lorraine. She studied weapons and strategy, learning to handle lance, pike, and battle-axe. She was also a linguist, and literate in an age when many nobles were not. She was married to the son of her mother's second husband, Gottfried IV. of Ober-Lothringen (d. 1076), but after the death of a child, who only lived a few days, she returned to Italy and reigned jointly with her mother, Beatrice. She was energetic in both her military and political endeavours but also very pious and deeply involved in the reforms of the church. In 1077 pope Gregory VII, took shelter at Canossa and it was here that the historic meeting took place and Matilda indeed acted as a mediator. After Canossa Henry IV replied by waging a cruel war, which lasted many decades and caused the feuds of Canossa to be invaded and ravaged and Matilda was deprived of her holdings and power and banished from the empire. Nevertheless she held out in her Appennine forts supported by few true troops; many times she succeeded in defeating the imperial militia in bloody ambushes; she continued to support the Church and defend her own domains; she founded charitable institutions, granted self-government to cities which had turned out loyal and allowed the first communes to be established. 1081 at the age of 42 she married the 17-year-old Duke Welf V of Bavaria on the urging of Pope Urban II, but the marriage ended in 1195. She probably participated in the Synod of January 1097. In 1111 Henry V, who had succeeded his father, came to Rome to be crowned; the white-haired and wise Matilda remained at Bianello and sent the trusted Arduino of the Swamp to Rome, so that he could follow and mediate in the disagreement between the pope and the young emperor. The controversy was peacefully settled with the crowning; it was Matilda's firm contention that war was useless. Henry V stopped at Bianello on his way home; he stayed there for three days and before leaving he proclaimed her vice-Queen of Italy. She died without heirs and left her lands to the Papal State. She lived (circa 1046-1115).

1055-61 Hereditary Duchess Agnes de Poitou of Bavaria  (Germany)
1056-62 Regent Dowager Empress of the Holy Roman Empire

1057 and 1059 and 106? Presiding over the Hearings at the Royal Court (Königsgericht)
Descended from the royal houses of Burgundy and Italy, the daughter of William V of Aquitaine and Poitou; she became the second wife of the German king Henry III in 1043. They were crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Empress by Clement II in 1046. After her husband's death she acted as Regent for her son, Heinrich IV (1050-?) She was not an experienced politician and was influenced by the nobility to part with the duchies of Bavaria and Carinthia, and entered into unwise alliances against the dominant reforming party in the Papacy. By 1062 discontent led to an uprising in which Anno, Archbishop of Köln, took over the regency. Agnes retired to a convent where she remained until her death. She lived (1024-77).


1055-63 Politically Influential Empress Renyi, Qidan (Khitan) (China and of Mongolia)
In 1058, the Khitan tribal justice was put under the Chinese-style local administration and the Khitans were unhappy and plotted to kill her son, Emperor Daozong and put his uncle on the throne. In early 1063 she and her son went on a hunting trip and was ambushed. She took command of part of the guard and fought off the attackers; all the rebels were executed, but to reassert his legitimacy as ruler he was forced to perform a traditional "rebirth" ceremony. In 1070, he restructured the legal system to reflect the differences in Chinese and Liao customs


1056/63-circa 1118 Countess-Abbess Hedwig III von Stade of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
It is not certain when she started her reign.


1056-1116 Hereditary Countess Gertrud of Haldersleben (Germany)
Succeeded her uncle, Wilhelm as Countess of Haldensleben and her territory were incorporated into the Duchy of Sachsen. Married to Count Friedrich von Formbach, who was killed in 1059, and then to Duke Ordulf Herzog von Sachsen (1020-72). She was a central figure in the Saxon opposition against king Heinrich IV, who held her prisoner around 1076. Her only daughter Hedwig II von Stade died 1078.


1057-79 Sovereign Countess Adelaide II of Soissons (France)
Daughter of Rainald I and married Guillaume Busac, Comte de Hiesmes, who was count by the right of his wife (Jure Uxoris) until his death 1076, and was succeeded by son. She lived (1040-79).


1059-90 Hereditary Countess Helwig von Formabach of Formabach  (Germany)
Her father, Count Friedrich, had kidnapped her mother Gertrud von Haldensleben to marry her, and Helwig or Hedwig was herself kidnapped by her husband, Gebhard von Supplinburg, whit whom she had one daughter, Ida. In 1075 Gebhard was killed in battle and Hedwig married Duke Dietrich II. von Ober-Lothringen. She lived (circa 1058-90). 


Circa 1059-after 60 Hereditary Countess Ida von Werl-Hövel of Hövel (Germany)
Only daughter and heir of Count Bernhard II von Hövel. Married to Heinrich I, Count von Lauffen and a Graf von Artlenburg. Succeeded by daughter, Adelheid von Lauffen, who was married to a count von Berg. Ida lived (ca 1030-after 1060).


After 1060-... Hereditary Countess Adelheid von Lauffen of Hövel, Unna, Telgte and Warendorf (Germany)
Heiress of Count Heinrich II von Lauffen and Ida von Werl-Hövel, and owner of a number of lordships and countly rights. Married to Count Adolf II von Berg (ca 1035-90) and Count Friedrich I von Sommerschhenburg (d. 1120).

Anne de Kiev 1060-66 Regent Dowager Queen Anne de Kiev of France
After the death of her husband, Henri I, she reigned jointly with Baudouin V of Flanders in the name of her son, Philippe I. Her subsequent marriage to Raoul, Comte de Valois caused a scandal, since he was already married. He was excommunicated, and she died in a convent. She was daughter of Jarosla Vladimirovich of Kiev and Indegard of Norway, and lived (1051-89).


Circa 1060-1124 Hereditary Countess Beatrix of Rihpoldisperga (Germany)
Daughter of Count Kuno and married to Count Arnold I von Dachau (d. after 1123). Mother of four sons. 


1061-1107 Joint Ruler al-qa'ima bi mulkini Zainab al-Nafzawiyya of the Berber Empire in Northern Africa and Spain (Algeria, Morocco, Tunesia)
Contemporary sources name her "the one in charge of her husband's realm" and she was joint ruler with her husband, Yusuf Ibn Tashufin of the Murabbitine Empire or Spanish Almorávides, and it was due to her wealth, connexions and good advice, her husband could found the largest Moroccan empire that spread from Andalusia to Senegal. In 1086 he attacked Spain largely restoring the Islamic position there. The Almoravids were Orthodox and acknowledged the Abbasid Caliph. They ended up getting overwhelmed by a new religious movement, less conservative, the Almohads.

Countess Geertruida 1061-69 Regent Dowager Countess Geertruida von Sachsen of Holland  (The Netherlands)
After the death of her husband, Floris I she took the reins in the name of her, son Dirk V (1061-71 and 1076-91). In 1063 she remarried Robrecht van Flanders (son of Count BoudewijnV) probably to secure her position against the German emperor Heinrich IV and the two acted as co-regents for Dirk and were involved in wars with various neighbouring rulers. In 1070 the Duke of Brabant conquered the county. She (d. 1113). 


1062-95 Princess-Abbess Adelheid II von Franken of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Succeeded half-sister (daughter of Heinrich III and Empress Agnes). Apart from her position as Princess of the Empire and ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory of Quedlinburg, she was also Abbess of Gandersheim. She lived (1048-92).


1062-63 Regent Dowager Senatrix and Duchess Maria of Gaeta (Italy)
According to the chronicer Amatus of Montecassino, her father, Pandulf IV of Capua, supported her husband, Count Atenulf of Aquino in taking the duchy of Gaeta from Asclettin, Count of Aversa, on the death of Ranulf Drengot in 1045. After his death, she ruled as regent for her son Atenulf II after her husband's death. After a few monts pact was confirmed between her and the counts of Traietto, Maranola, and Suio that excluded any of them from forming any pact with the Normans and the counts swore to protect the territory of the Gaetan duchy. The league was successful in preventing Riccardo of Capua from extending his conquests during the year, but he skillfully negotiated to prevent a renewal of the pact and on 28 June 1063, he was in possession of Gaeta. She then made an alliance with the counts of Traietto and Aquino, her sons Lando and Atenulf, and with Gugliermo de Montreuil, who repudiated his wife in order to marry her in late 1064. But in February 1065, the revolted were put down by Riccardo of Capua and she and her husband were expelled from the Duchy. She was (born circa 1020).


1062-64 Reigning Abbess Gertrud I von Hals of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the Countly von Hals-family.

Empress Dowager Cao

1063-64 Regent Dowager Empress Cao of China
Also known as Cishengguangxian Empress, she was widow of Emperor Jen Zhong (Renzong) (1023-64), and ruled in the name of Shun, who was emperor of the Song Empire (1063-67). She lived (10157-79).


1064-70 Reigning Abbess Mathilde I von Luppurg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her surname might have been Lupburg.


1065 Heiress Jutta von Luxembourg of the Area Around Limburg (Belgium)
The only child and heir of Duke Friedrich II von Nieder-Lothringen, she inherited the Area around Limbourg. Married to Count Walram II d'Arlon and married to Duke Heinrich I von Limbourg (d. 1119). Neither the date of her birth or death is known. 


1065-1101 Lady Elvira of the City of Toro (Spain)
When their father, Fernando I of Castilla (1035-65) and Leon (1037-65), died, he divided his lands among his three sons and two daughters. García became king of Galicia, Alfonso received León and Sancho was named king of Castilla. She lived (1033/4-1101)


1065-1101 Lady Urraca of the City of Zamora (Spain)
In the 1070s Garcia revolted against his brothers and sisters and attacked both Toro and Zamora, but was killed outside Zamora. Their mother was Sancha of Leon (1013-67). She lived (1038/9-1101).


1065-1116 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth of Montvilliers (France)

Started rebuilding the chapter after it had been ravaged by the Vikings 200 years before.


1066-72 Hereditary Duchess Havoise de Rennes of Bretagne (France)
Daughter of Allain III, she became heir to the Duchy after the death of her brother, Conan II. Her husband, Hoël Caignard, Count de Cornouaille was Duke by the right of his wife until 1184.

Mathilda of Flanders 1066-69 and 1069-83 Regent Queen Mathilda van Flanders of England in the Normandie (France)
Married to William I the Conqueror of England (1066-87) and duke of Normandy. He depended heavily on her and she acted as regent whenever he was absent after their marriage in 1051. With him in England 1067-69 until she went back to Normandy, where she remained in charge until her death. In 1077 the oldest son, Robert Curthose, suggested that he should become the ruler of Normandy and Maine. When William the Conqueror refused, Robert rebelled and attempted to seize Rouen. The rebellion failed and Robert was forced to flee and established himself at Gerberoi. William besieged him there in 1080 but Matilda managed to persuade the two men to end their feud. Mother of around 10 children, one of the last being king Henry I. She lived (circa 1031-83).


Circa 1066-? Princess-Abbess Richardis of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Recived the full pastorial rights for the Church of the Chapter from the Archbishop of Salzburg in 1070. Margaretha I also reigned sometime in the 1000s, and Hemma at a not known time in the 1000s/1100s.

Eudocia of Byzantine 1067 Reigning Dowager Empress Eudoxia Makrembolitissa of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1068 and 1071 Regent
Regent for Michael VIII Dukas and Konstantinos after the death of her husband Constantine X Dukas. In 1068 married to Romanos IV Diogenes, who took title of emperor. In 1071 co-ruler with son, Michael, but was deposed and ended her life in a convent.  


1064-1137 Regent Dowager Sultana Saiyida Hurra Arwa bint Ahmad as-Sulayhi of Tihama (Yemen - Arabia)
Her first husband, Ahmad became the de jure ruler of Yemen in 1067, but he was unable to rule being paralyzed and bedridden. He gave all of his power to her. She had her name mentioned in the khutba directly after the name of the Fatamid Caliph, Ma'ad al-Mustansir bi'l-Lāh, signifying her authority to rule. One of her first actions was to move the capital from Sana'a to Jibla in order to be in a better position to destroy the Najahid ruler Sa'id ibn Najar of Zabid and thus avenge her father-in-law's death. This she managed to do by luring him into a trap in 1088. She built a new palace at Jibla, and transformed the old palace into a great mosque where she was eventually buried. s given the highest rank in the Yemen da'wa, that of hujja, by Imām Al-Mustansir bi'l-Lāh in 1084. This was the first time that a woman had ever been given such a status in the whole history of Islam. After the death of Ahmad AlMukarram, she was encouraged by Imām Al-Mustansir bi'l-Lāh to marry her late husband's cousin, Saba ibn Ahmad. This she did reluctantly in 1091 in order to remain in power, but she probably did not allow the marriage to be consummated. She continued to rule Yemen until Saba died in 1101. From that time on she ruled alone. She played a cruisial role in the contemporary fights between different directions of Islam and was the first woman to be accorded the prestigious title of hujja in Ismāʿīlī branch of Shi'a Islam, signifying her as the closest living image of God's will in her lifetime. She is popularly referred to as Sayyida Hurra  She was succeeded by Sultan al-Mansur bin al Mugaddal. She lived (circa 1048-1138)


1067-70 Sovereign Countess Ermengard de Comminges of Carcasconne and Razes (France)
Daughter of Roger II, succeeded her brother, Roger III and was married to Raimond Bernard, Vicomte d'Alby. The county was incorporated in the County of Barcelona 1067-83.

Empress Y Lan of Viet Nam

1069 and 1072-circa 82 Regent Queen Lan Thái Phi of Vietnam
After the death of her husband, she became known as Ỷ Lan Hoŕng thậi hậu . First left in charge of the government when her husband, King Lý Thánh Tông commanded the troop in a fight against the Kingdom of Champa. She was very decisive to distribute relief to people in a famine for crop failure and by this, avoid the rebellions and chaos. After her husband's death she was regent for their 6 years old son, king Nhan Tong, she trusted Ly Thuong Kiet to command the army and expectedly, he got a glorious victory over the Sung. She was famous for her domestic security policy, improved the education in the country, encouraged the freeing of slaves, reduced the taxes, set a ban on killing of buffaloes and cattle, helped the propagation of buddhism in the country.  Also improved the economy, founded the first silk weaving workshop and reformed the agriculture. Originally named Le Thi Khiet, she was born as a peasant girl and lived (1044-1117).


1070-1111 Hereditary Countess Ide d'Artois of Boullion (France)
Daughter of Godefroi de Lorraine and his first wife, Doda. Married to Count Eustrache II of Boulogne (d. circa 1080), and their second son, Godefroi IV was co-count. Her third son was King Baudouin I of Jerusalem. She lived (1040-1113).


1070-82 Sovereign Dame Mabile of Alençon (France)
Succeeded father Yves II and reigned jointly with husband Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury (1070-94). 


1070-89 Reigning Abbess Eilika von Northeim of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Daughter of Count Otto von Northeim and Richenza von Schwaben
In a list by Paricius a Heylca, Duchesss of Franken, is named as Abbess in the period 1088-89, but she has later been identified as being identical with Eilika.


1070-before 1110 Dame Abbesse Giséle II von Lothringen of Remiremont, St. Pierre and Metz (France)
Falsified a document that stated that she optained independent political position of the abbey from Emperor Heinrich IV on 28. September 1070 and the document showing that Pope Urban II placed the abbey directly under his protection in 1088 was also falce. She lived (1070-1114).


1070-71 Regent Dowager Countess Richildis of Flanders (Belgium)
Ruled in the name of her son Arnulf/Arnold III after the death of her husband, BoudewijnIV. 


1072-83 Regent Queen Mathilda van Vlanderen of England (United Kingdom)
Mathilde de Flandre or Mathilda van Vlaanderen's husband, William the Conqueror, stayed in his Duchy Normandie for about 11 years without visiting England and during this time she was in charge of the government. Mother of about 11 children, only 127 centimetres tall and lived (circa 1031-78)


Until circa 1072 Hereditary Countess Richardis in Pustertal (Germany)
Heir of her father, Count Engelbert IV im Postertal, and her mother Liutgard. Married to Count Siegfried I von Spanheim (d. 1065), and mother of Burgrave Hermann von Magdeburg (1080-1118), Archbishop Hartwig von Magdeburg (1079-1102) and Count Engelbert I von Spanheim (d. 1096). Died on a pilgrimage to Spain around 1072.  


1073 Reigning Abbess Gertrudis of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her background is not known.


1074-88 Reigning Abbess Mathilde I von Lupburg  of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not totally clear who reigned at this time, but a list in the Church of Niedermünster puts Mathilde in charge during this period, followed by Heylca II von Franken, who is identical with Eilika von Nordheim.


1075-80 Sovereign Countess Adelaide II of Chalons-sur-Saône and Beaune (France)
Married to Guy II de Thiers.


1075 Military Leader Countess Emma of Norfolk (England in United Kingdom)
Held Norwich Castle in 1075 when it was besieged. She was eventually offered safe conduct for herself, her troops and her possessions if she agreed to leave the castle.


Around 1076-1126 Queen Regnant Jakaladevi of Ingunige (India)
A fervent devotee of Jina, but her husband, Vikramaditya VI, was determined to bring her to the Hindu fold, but gave up his attempt when he was carried away by the beauty of an icon of Mahu-Manikya (Jina) brought by a trader, and asked the queen to install it in her home town, so that her subjects could derive inspiration from her religion. Her kingdom was placed in Ingalgi in the Bijapur District of Karnataka 


From 1076 Administrator Queen Ketaladevi of Shiraguppe, Kolanoor and other cities in Karnataka (India)
Married to King Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka.


From 1076 Administrator Queen Piriyaketaladevi of three villages in Karnataka (India)
Another wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka, she ruled three villages.


From 1076 Governor Queen Srimadevi of Samkarige in Karnataka (India)
Also wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka.


From 1076 Governor Queen Pamdambika of Tadikonda in Karnataka (India)
Another wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka.


1077/86-1117 Sovereign Countess Gertrude von Braunchweig of The Frisian Margravate and Ooster- en Westergo (Germany and The Netherlands)
1085 Regent of Katlenburg
1001 Regent of Northeim
1103-1117 Regent of Meissen und der Lausitz
1006-1117 Administrator of Katlenburg
Only daughter of Ekbert I von Braunschweig and Irmingard of Turino and managed to control the territories of her family after the death of her brother, Ekbert II, who was murdered in 1090. Her two first husbands Count Dietrich II von Katlenburg and Count Heinrich von Northeim were also both murdered, and she was regent for son Dietrich III von Katlenburg (1085-1106) and after his death she seems to have been in charge of the county. Also regent for the second son, Otto III von Northeim (1100-01-17). After the death of the third husband, Heinrich I von Eilenburg, Count of Meissen und der Lausitz, she was regent for their posthumously born son Heinrich II (1103/04-23). Many contemporary sources also name her as Reigning Margravine - and a Saxon document names her as holder of the countly rights, unique for the Middle Ages. She was one of the leaders of the insurrections against Emperor Heinrich IV and V who occupied the Core-Possession of the Bruno Dynasty, Braunschweig, and only her forceful leadership secured the territories of Meissen and Ostmark for her sons. Her daughters with Heinrich von Nordheim, Richenza and Gertrud, married the later king Lothar III of the German Realm and Count Siegfred von Ballensted. Her youngest son, Heinrich the Younger of Eilenburg, lived (1103-23). Gertrud lived (circa 1060-1117).  

1078-87 Politically Influential Dowager Empress Maria Bagrationi of Georgia
After her first husband, emperor Michael VII Ducas, was ousted by a Palace Coup in 1078, she agreed to marry the new Emperor, Nicephorus III Botaniates, who in his turn would name her son, Constantin Ducas as heir. When he broke his promise, and she became involved in a plot organized by her lover, general Alexius Comnenus, who became emperor in 1081 and proclaimed her son as heir to the throne. The situation changed after John II Comnenus was born in 1087, who became the new heir and died in 1096.  She had a frequent correspondence with the noted theologian and philosopher Theophylact of Bulgaria, who is said to have been inspired by the empress when writing his principal work Explanations to the Gospel according to John. She also patronized Georgian monasteries in the Balkans, especially the famous Iveron Monastery on Mount Athos, and joined her mother, Borena of Alania, in building the Kapata Monastery on Mount Sion at Jerusalem and ended her life in a convent. She was daughter of king Bagrat IV (1027–72) of Georgia, she was born as Martha, and frequently known as Maria of Alania in apparent confusion with her mother, and lived (circa 1050-after 1103).


1078-... Hereditary Countess Kunigunde von Meissen of Beichlingen (Germany)
Following the murder of her first husband, Prince Jaropolk of Turow in Russia, she returned to her possessions in Beichlingen, which she seems to have inherited her mother, Adila, she brought along her only daughter, Mechtild, who eventually inherited the fief. Kunigunde married Kuno von Northeim, who died in 1103. Neither the date of birth or death of Kunigunde is known.


1079 Sovereign Countess Adele de France of Auxerre (France)
Succeeded sister of Adélaďde. Married Richard III de Normandie and Baudouin V de Flanders. She lived (1009-79). 


1079-81 Countess Adeline of Meulent (France)

Also known as Adeliza, she was daughter of Waleran de Beaumont, who lived (990-1069). Her husband, Roger de Beaumont, was President of the Council, appointed by William the Conqueror to assist his wife in the government of Normandy. He was related to the Danish rulers of Normandy and the kings of Denmark. She lived (1014-81).


1080-96 Sovereign Countess Beatrix I of Bigorre (France)
Succeeded brother Raymond II and reigned jointly with husband, Cenule I (Vicount Centule IV de Béarn) until his death in 1088. Succeeded by son Bernard III. She lived (1055-96).


Circa 1080-91 Countess and Lady Agnese di Savoia of Torino and Alba (Italy)
Claimed the succession after the death of her father, Pietro I, Count of Savoia, Aosta, Moriana and Chablais, Marquis of Susa and Marquis in Italia, Count and Lord di Torino, Auriate, Bredulo, Asti, Alba, Albenga and Ventimiglia, which were associated to him by his mother, Adelaide, who ruled from 1034 in 1057. (1048-after 1078). She married Frederic I de Montbéliard, Count of Luetzelburg (d. 1091).  In 1091 she entered a convent. (d. after 1110)


1081-82 and 1094-95 Regent Anna Dalassena of the Byzantine Empire
In charge of the government during the absence of her son, Alexius I Comnenus, whom she had helped seizing the throne and founded the Comnenian dynasty, ruling (1081-1118), at the time of war against invading Italian Normans headed by Robert Guiscard and was very politically influential until she retired to a convent. She was the widow of Jean Comnenus, the brother of Isaac I, who had ruled (1057-59), mother of 8 children and lived (circa 1030-1101).


1081-1124 Sovereign Countess Adélaide of Vermandois (France)
1081-1118 Sovereign Countess of Crépy-en-Valois
Also known as Adčle, she succeeded her father, Count Herbert de Vermandois. She inherited Crépy-en-Valois via her mother, Adéle de Valois, and reigned jointly with husband Hugues de France until his death in 1102. Together with his brother, Philippe I he participated in the wars against Foulques and was one of the principal leaders of the first crusade, where he was taken prisoner by Alexis Commčne and freed after some years. He returned to France but soon after returned to Jerusalem a few years after and died there in 1001. She continued her rule until her death, and was succeeded by son, Raoul I.

1084-86 Consors Regni Empress Bertha de Turino of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
Also known as Bertha of Maurienne, she married to Heinrich IV who was king of Germany from 1066 and attempted to divorce her two years later but the marriage was mended by the pope. After he was ex-communicated by Pope Gregor VII in 1076 she followed him around the realm, and to Canosssa, where he performed the penance required to lift his excommunication, and ensure his continued rule. . When he was crowned as Emperor, she got the title of Consors Regni, co-ruler. She was daughter of Margravine Regnant Adelaide de Turino (Turin) (d. 1091) and Otto of Savoy, the mother of 5 children, and lived (circa 1048-86).

Gao De fei

1085-93(†) De facto Reigning Dowager Empress Gao De fei of China
During the years 1021-86 Minister Wang Anshi attempted agro-financial reforms. Her husband, Shen Zong supported Wang's policies during his reign, 1066-85, but when she took over the government during the minority of their son, Zhao Xi, she suppresses Wang's policies, but her son revived them during his reign until 1101, but the reforms failed. Gao De-fei lived (1031-93).


1085-88 Regent Dowager Duchess Sigelgaita di Salerno of Apulia (Italy)
The daughter of Guaimar IV di Salerno, she was also known as Sikelgaita. Married to Roberto Giscard, Duke di Apulia, who had conquered the principality in 1077. She was his close political aide, and always accompanied him in battle. She successfully laid siege to Trani, while her husband did the same at Taranto, as part of their campaign to suppress the rebellion of autumn 1078, and also fought in the battle to capture Durazzo in 1081/82. The Annals of Romoald record the death in April 1090 of Sikelgaita ducissa. Rumoured to have been involved in the poisoning of her husband. But anyhow, her brother-in-law, Gandcount Roger of Sicilia supported her in becoming regent for son, Roger Borsa. Mother of 10 children, and lived (circa 1140-90).


1085-1102 Sovereign Countess Euphrosine of Vendôme (France)
1102-05 Regent Dowager Countess of the County
Succeeded her brother, Bouchard III, and was married to Geoffroi Jourdain, Lord de Previlly, and was succeeded by Geoffroi Grisegonella de Bourbon, and initially acted as his regent.


1086-94 Regent Dowager Khanum of the Tanguts (Dangxiang) (China and Mongolia)
In charge of the government in the name of her son Li Qianshum (1086-1139), who ruled in Jingbian/Ningxian. During the eleventh century a Tangut leader achieved independence from China and declared himself emperor. The Tangut state, known to the Chinese as Xi Xia, "Western Xia", was established at the eastern end of the Silk Road, with its western border a little beyond Dunhuang, stretching north to what is now Mongolia and south to the Tibetan plateau. The Tangut emperors and their subjects followed Mahayana Buddhism, which became the state religion. The Tanguts spoke a language similar to Tibetan, but created their script on the model of Chinese. In 1227 the state was conquered by the Mongol army of Genghis Khan


1086-90 Reigning Dowager Duchess Euphemia of Hungary of Mähren (Moravia) (The Czech Republic)
After the death of her husband Otto I, she held the duchy. (d. 1111).


1086-1108 Heiress Judith von Böhmen of Nisangau, The Land Bautzen and the Area Around Dresden (Germany)
The daughter of King Vratislav II of Bohemia and Swatawa of Poland, she was given rich lands as her inheritance and dowry by her marriage to Count Wiprecht II von Groitzsch (1050-1124). Their daughter, Bertha was heiress of Groitzsch after the death of her brother, Burgave Heinrich von Magdeburg in 1135. Judith was the mother of two sons and a daughter, and lived (circa 1165-1108).


Until 1087 Co-Ruler al-Sayyida al-Hurra Malika Asma Bint Shibab al-Sulayhiyya of Yemen
Her title means "The Most Noble Lady who is independent, the woman sovereign who bows to no superior authority, Queen". She was married to Sultan Ali al-Sulahi, who entrusted much of the management of the realm to her. She also enjoyed the privilege of the Khutba - having the Friday's prayer preached in her name - the ultimate proof of sovereignty. In 1067 her husband was taken prisoner on a pilgrimage to Mecca and she was taken prisoner by the Bane Najah family, when she was released she continued to direct her son's rule along with her daughter-in-law 'Arwa, until her death in 1087.  


1088-98 Queen Sakalendukiranaisanagunadharmalakshmidharavijayottunggadevi 
of Bali (Indonesia)
Hindu Java began to spread its influence into Bali during the reign of King Airlangga from 1019 to 1042. At this time the courtly Javanese language known as Kawi came into use amongst the royalty of Bali, and the rock-cut memorials seen at Gunung Kawi near Tampaksiring are a clear architectural link between Bali and 11th century Java. After Airlangga's death Bali retained its semi-independent state until Kertanegara became king of the Singasari dynasty in Java two centuries later. 


1088-91 Joint Ruler Queen Jelena Illona Lijepa of Croatia and Dalmatia
Also known as Elena or Helena. She was considered a joint ruler during the reign of her husband Dmitar Zvonimir (1075-1089), who had previously been a ban in Dalmatia and gained the title of king with the support of Pope Gregory VII, after which he aided the Normans in their struggle against the Eastern Empire and Venice between 1081 and 1085. Due to this, in 1085 the Byzantines transferred their rights to Dalmatia to Venice. A rebellion against Zvonimir broke out at the sabor of Knin in 1089 because of discontent with warring in the interest of the Pope, and he was killed. She continued rule parts of the country in opposition to the new king, Stjepan II of the Trpimirović dynasty, who nominally ruled Croatia for 2 years. The army of her brother, Ladislaus of Hungary, penetrated Croatian territory in 1091 and quickly occupied all of Pannonian Croatia, after which they were met with some unorganized resistance in Dalmatian Croatia. The Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius reacted by making the Cumans attack the Magyars, which made Ladislaus, retreat from Croatia, but he did leave Prince Álmos to rule over Slavonia. (d. after 1091)


1088-92/96 Politically Influential Duchess Judith Maria von Franken of Poland

First married to king Salomon of Hungary who reigned (1063-74) and died in 1087. The year after she married as his third wife Władysław I Herman, who was ruling Duke of Poland (1079-1102). He was not a competent ruler and during his reign, the Bohemians and Germans broke the country’s power, and it was once more reduced to the condition of an insignificant principality. Together with the Palatine Sieciech she tried to turn the central authority against the opposition of the nobility. In 1093 the Slesia rebelled, and her husband was forced to hand over the province to the rebellion-leader, Count Magnus Zbigniew. She was sister of Emperor Heinrich IV of Germany, and lived (circa 1054-92/96).  


1089-1103 Reigning Abbess Uda II von Marburg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Since 1002 the Reichsstift Niedermünster in Regensburg had been placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany, it was granted royal protection and, immunity.


1090/93-1112 Sovereign Countess Gerberga of Provence (France)
Succeeded her brother, married Gilbert de Millau (d. 1111) and succeeded by daughter, Duce I. She lived (circa 1060-1115).


1090-91 Hereditary Countess Agnes von Rheinfelden of Rheinfelden (Germany)
Inherited the fief after the death of her brother, Duke Bertold von Schwaben. She was married to Duke Bertold II von Zähringen (1050-1111), and the family's inheritance included large lands in Burgundy. She was daughter of the "Contra-King" Rudolf von Rheinfelden and Adelheid di Turino, mother of eight children and lived (circa 1065/70-1111). 


1090-1138 Hereditary Countess Ida von Supplinburg of Formbach  (Germany)
Daughter of Gebhard von Supplinburg, who was killed in battle in 1075 and Hedwig von Formbach, she was sister of Emperor Lothar, and married Count Sighard X von Burghausen im Pon- und Chiemgau. She gave Formbach as fief to one of her employees, Diepold von Lochheim, but she continued to be mentioned in documents concerning the county and Convent of Formbach. Ida or Itha lived (circa 1073-1138).

1091-1116 Sovereign Countess Almodis of La Marche (France)
Successor of her father Boson II and reigned jointly with husband, Roger de Montgomery (d. 1123). Succeeded by son Boson III.      


1091-1138 Co-Ruler al-Sayyida al-Hurra Malika 'Arwa bint Ahmad al-Salayhiyya of Yemen
Wife of al-Mukarram Ahmad (1067-84) and joint ruler with her mother-in-law Queen Asma. After her husband's death she became ruler in her own name, having the Friday's Prayers said in her name. She lived (1047-1137).


1091 Regent Dowager Princess Gaitelgrima of Capua and Aversa
After the death of her husband, Jordan I, prince of Capua and count of Aversa, she was regent for her son Riccardo. She was expelled from Capua by the citizens, who elected one Count Lando as their prince, and she took her 3 sons with her to Aversa and then marrieod Count Alfredo di Sarno and retired to this area.  

Unnamed Muslim Lady 1092-94 Regent Dowager Princess Turhan Hatun of Seljuk Persia (Iran)
The Seljuqs were a Turkish people whose history begins around the year 1000, by which time they were the dominant presence in Transoxiana and Turkistan. They overran the western part of the Ghaznavid Emirate in 1040, and shortly thereafter took over all of Persia and Mesopotamia from the Buwayhids. The death of Sanjar in 1118 signalled the decline of the Great Seljuq Empire, which broke up into several smaller states. 


1093-... Regent Dowager Maharani Mayamalla Devi of Chalukya (Chauleskyas) (India)
Following the death of her husband, Karna Deva, she assumed the regency for son, Siddaha Raja Jayasimmha (1093-1143).


Around 1094 Administrator Queen Mailala Mahadevi of the Town of Kannavalli in Karnataka (India)
Wife of king Vikramaditya VI of Karnataka, and built a temple for the god Malleshwara.


1094 Participant in Rebellion Empress Eupraxia of Kiev in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
Joined a rebellion against her husband, Emperor Heinrich IV, accusing him of holding her prisoner, forcing her to participate in orgies and attempting a black mass on her naked body. She lived (1067-1109).


1095-1103 Joint Reigning Queen Bodil of Denmark
Contemporary sources depict her as the co-ruler of her husband, King Erik I Ejegod. She was daughter of the Thurgot, Earl in Jutland, and her nephew, Asser, became the first Archbishop Denmark. In 1103 they went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Erik died on the way and she did in Jerusalem in 1103 or 1104. 

1095-98 Regent Countess Adelaide de Normandie of Blois, Chartres and Meaux (France)
1102-09 Regent Dowager Countess

Also known as Adela of Blois, she became ruler of the counties when her husband, Stephen de Blois, took part in the first crusade. He had no enthusiasm for this duty but Adela considered that he ought to go, so he went. A capable administrator, she is believed to have played a major role in managing her husband's lands. Stephen de Blois went together with Adela's brother, Robert, Duke of Normandie. In 1099, Stephen returned to France but was forced by Adela to return to the East, where he was killed in the battle of Ramleh in 1102. Adeleide continued as Regent during the minority of her sons and was increasingly active in public life. She made her son Thibaud her successor in 1109 and entered a convent in the diocese of Autun. Here she continued to wield an important influence in public and clerical affairs. She was daughter of William the Conqueror of England and one of her sons was Stephen de Blois, who derived his claims to the kingdom of England through her. She lived (circa 1062-1138).


1095-1103 Princess-Abbess Eilika of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her background is not known, but she was possible member of the Billung-family, and was mentioned as Dechaness in 1069. The source of her tenure is an inscription on a coin.

1096-1112 Co-Reigning Countess Tarasa of Portugal 
1112-28 Regent Dowager Countess

Theresa or Teresa was an illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. In 1094, she married Enrico de Bourgogne while on crusade in Iberia against the Moors. The County of Portugal was part of her dowry, establishing Henry as Count of Portugal, first as a vassal of her father, who Alfonso VI died in 1109, leaving everything to her sister, Urraca of Castile, Enrico invaded León, hoping to add it to his lands. When he died in 1112, she was left to deal with the mess as regent for son Afonso I of Portugal (Afonso Henriques) and governed her land that had only recently been re-conquered from the Moors and only as far as the Mondego River. In 1116, in an effort to expand the land that would descend to her son (who later became the first King of Portugal), she fought her half-sister, Queen Urraca. They fought again in 1120. In 1121, she was besieged and captured at Lanhoso. A negotiated peace was coordinated with aid from the Archbishops of Santiago de Compostela and Braga. The terms included that she would go free and hold the county of Portugal as a fief of León. She tried to retain the rule of the county, even after her son's majority. Over the course of five years, she lavished wealth and titles on her lover, Fernando Peres, Count of Trava. These actions estranged her other son (who was the Archbishop of Braga) and the nobles, who were mostly foreign crusaders. By 1128, her sons and the nobles named Afonso as sole ruler. He defeated her troops near Guimarăes and took her prisoner. She was deposed and exiled (some sources say to a convent, other say with Fernando Peres). She lived (1080-1130).

Ermengarde d'Anjou

1096-1101 Regent Duchess Ermengarde d'Anjou of Bretagne, Nantes and Rennes (France)
In charge of the government during her husband, Alain IV Fergant's participation in the First Crusade. The separated after his abdication in 1112, and she became the aide of their son, Conan III and accompanied him on the Second Crusade in 1117. She he returned to Palestine ten years later and some historians believe she could end his life in Jerusalem as a nun in the convent of St. Anne. She had first been married to Guillaume Ix de Poitou et Aquitaine, but they divorced. Mother of 3 children by her second husband, and lived (1068/1072-1146).


1096-1100 Regent Countess Clementia de Bourgogne of Flanders (Belgium)
Reigned during her husband, Rothrecht (Robert) II's, absence during the 1. Crusade. She paved the way for the Gregorian reform in Flanders and played a role by the election of Johannes von Warneton as Bishop of Therouanne in 1099. Also active during the first years of her son, Baudouin VII's regency from 1115, and after his death she supported the claims of Guillaume d'Ypres (Wilhelm von Ypern) against Karl of Denmark (son of Adela of Flanders), who did become Count. Her dowry was one third of Flanders. Around 1121 she married Gottfried I of Brabant, count of Leuven (Löven, Liege) Daughter of Count Guillaume I Testardita of Bourgogne and Stefanie von Llongwy, she lived (circa 1070-1133).


1096-1101 and .... Regent Viscountess Talesa de Aragon of Béarn (France)
1134-after 1136 Regent Dowager Viscountess
1134-after 1136 Lady of Zaragoza, Uncastillo, Huesca and Bespen with rights over the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar in Zaragoza (Spain)
Also known as Talčse, or Talčze, she was a relative of the royal Jiménez dynasty as daughter of Sancho, Count of Aibar, natural brother of Sancho V of Navarre. She married Gaston IV of Béarn, and while he participated in the First Crusade, she governed Béarn with the help of a baronial council. This scenario was repeated several times more during her husband's frequent military ventures in Aragon. Like many of her day, she found her way into historical records primarily through the foundation and endowment of religious establishments. When he died in 1131, she took up the regency for her young son Centule VI. and when he died in the Battle of Fraga in 1134, she continued as regent for Pierre II, the son of her daughter Guiscarda, with her daughter as joint regent. In the succession-crizis that followed the death of her cousin, Alfonso the Battler, she sided with his brother, Ramiro the Monk, who in turn surrendered to her the lordships of (a part of) Zaragoza and Uncastillo which he had inherited from Gaston. After papal intervention, the conflict was finally settled in favour of Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona, who, to recover good relations with Béarn, granted Talesa the fiefs of Huesca and Bespen with rights over the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar in Zaragoza, where Gaston lay buried. And her grandson married a Catalan princess. She (d. after 1136)


1096-1104 Countess Abbess Adelheid III of Gandersheim (Germany)

A member of the Imperial Family.


1098-1103 Regent Dowager Countess Ida de Louvain of Hainault (Belgium)
After the death of her husband, Baudouin III in the Holy Land, she took over the regency for son Baudouin III (1087-1120). She was daughter of Daughter of Henry II of Brabant, Count of Lorraine and Louvain (1021-1078) and Adelaide of Orlamunda (1045-1086), the mother of two sons and three daughters, and lived  (1065-1139)


1099-1102 Sovereign Countess Jimena Díaz de Oviedo of Toledo 1099-1102 Governor of Valencia and Toledo (Spain)
Widow of Governor Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid Campeador) and for a long time she defended Valencia against the Muslims, but in the end she lost.

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