Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Egypt Heads of State

Also see Egypt Ministers

3000-2999 or around 2980 Legendary/Possible Regent Queen Neithotep of Egypt
She was regent after the death of her husband, Hor-Aha, the second ruler of the first dynasty. His chief wife was Queen Berenib, but Neithotep was the mother of his heir, Djer. She is believed to have been a Princess from a royal house in Lower Egypt. She became the first Queen of a unified Egypt. Though evidence is sparse, it would seem that the early dynastic Queens of Egypt, including Nithotep, had a more prominent place than later Queens in the administration of the land and politics.

Around 2952-after 2939 Pharaoh Meritneith of Egypt
According Manetho, it was during the reign of Neteren that it was decided that women might occupy the throne. However evidence has convinced some historians to believe that Meritneith (or Meryet-Nit) was the successor of Zir and thereby the third ruler of the 1st Dynasty. She has her own tomb in the kings' cemetery of Abydos, suggesting she may have ruled for some years, possibly as regent for her son, Den.

Around 2720 Regent Dowager Queen Ni-Maat-Hepi of Egypt
She is the first dowager Queen of Egypt to have acted as regent for her son "Djoser" (Zoser) during the 3rd dynasty. Some consider her to have been reigning Pharaoh in her own right. There are several theories on her origin, but she was The Great Royal Wife, and " Mother of the Kings Children ". She also carried the titles of an heiress, i.e., Wrt' Hts.

2580-circa 2510 Controller of the Affairs of the Kiltwearers Queen Hetepheres II of Egypt
As Controller of the Affairs of the Kiltwearers she ran the civil service and, as well as overseers, governors and judges. She was daughter of Egypt's first pyramid builder, Pharao Khufu and his sister-wife Merityetes II, and first married to the crown prince Kawab who seems to have died at the end of Khufu's reign. It is believed that after Kawab's death Redjedef married Hetepheres II to strengthen his claim to the throne in 2580. It has also been suggested that Hetepheres II was married to Khafre. Hetepheres II probably lived under five kings of the Fourth Dynasty and died when she was well over 70 years old. She was mother of five children and lived (around 2620/2602-around 2510)

2570- circa 2530/10 Politically Influential Queen Meresankh III of Egypt
Daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II, and married to Khafre as second wife, although continuing to assert her claims by her title "king's daughter" and "beholder of the horus and seth". As her father died before ascending the throne she was never a king's daughter. She was not content to remain in the background. Both her and her mother became prominent at court, on sculptures and inscriptions. Her eldest son would eventually become superior lector priest and vizier. While there is no proof for this hypothesis, her eldest daughter may have (if tradition was followed) married Menkaure, as she would've been the next heiress. She was over 50 and probably 55 when she died.

2530-10 Politically Influential Queen Khamerernebti II of Egypt
She was married to pharaoh Menkau-Ra, and mother of pharaoh Shepses-Kaf and Queen Khent-Kaues I. Her statue shows that she was no mere wife. Her position and gestures should be interpreted not as indicating inferiority and submission, but signaling her legitimization of Menkaure as pharaoh. She is shown in the act of presenting him, indicating to the world that he is the man whom she is identifying and establishing as pharaoh. Her pose, in fact, deliberately imitates that of the goddess Hathor in the triad statues and with whom she is clearly intended to be identified. The statue itself is a representation of this act of confirmation, and perhaps even a record of part of an actual confirmation ceremony.

Around 2500 Possible Queen Khent-Kaues I of Egypt
She was daughter of Menkau-Ra during the 4th dynasty, and married her brother Shepses-Kaf who succeeded his father to the throne. After his death, Khent-Kaues became the first ruling Queen in Egypt. Her tomb at Giza is unlike any other – in part a mastaba, in part a two-step pyramid. This tomb has many features usually associated with kings, and leads to speculation that Khent-kaues may have ruled independently as king. The inscription on the tomb reads: "Queen of Upper and Lower Egypt. The mother Queen and the daughter of the god". She married one of the Ra priests, who never became king, and the throne was passed to her three sons who formed the 5th dynasty. Khent-Kaues claimed that she has conceived her sons from the god Ra himself. Her daughter, Chamaat, was High Priestess of Ptah in Memphis.

After 2295–2250 Vizier Nebet of Egypt
Pharaoh Pepi I appointed her Vizier (Chief of Administration or Prime Minister). 

After 2295–2250  Political Influential Princess Chui of Egypt
Pharaoh Pepi I gave her two male titles of "duke" and "count".She was the sister of female Vizir Nebet. 

Around 2295 Regent Dowager Queen Iput of Egypt
She was the last of the 5th dynasty and married Faro Teti of the 6th Dynasty, who died after around 12 years where after she was regent for son, Faro Pepi I.

Around 2250-45 Regent Dowager Queen Ankhesenmeryre I of Egypt
Together with her sister, Ankhesenmeryre II, she was married to Pepi I, and mother of king Merenre (2250-2245). She was the sister of Vizier Djau, and came from a prominent family at Abydos. It is possible that her mother was the woman vizier, Nebet. 

Around 2245-50 Regent Dowager Queen Ankhesenmeryre II of Egypt
Also known as Ankh-Meri-Ra. Like her sister, Ankhesenmeryre I, she was married to Pepi I. When her nephew, King Merenre died, her own son, Pepi II, became king at the age of six or seven, and ruled for at least 90 years, with her as regent for about ten years. Despite her non-royal origins, she is depicted wearing the royal uraeus, the cobra goddess who protected the kings of Egypt. A famous statue shows her holding the young king on her lap. 

Circa 2180 Queen Nitocris of Egypt
She was daughter of Pepi II in the 6th dynasty, who became Queen, while her husband Meren-Ra II was not the pharaoh, at least for some time. Manetho described her as "the noblest and loveliest of the women of her time". and to Herodotus is owed the story of here suicide after her vengeance on the Egyptians who murdered her brother to put her in his place. Her name is written as either the second or the third Pharaoh after Pipit II, but she was only mentioned in the Turin Canon, but not in the Abydos Kings’ List.

2065-2016 or 2016-2008 De-facto Co-ruler Queen Neferukayet in Upper Egypt
She was married to Pharaoh Inyotef II (2065-2016 ) or Inyotef III (2016-2008) of 11th Dynasty. Both men are titular kings of Lower and Upper Egypt, but they ruled only in Upper Egypt. The plate of clerk Reduchnum from Dendera speak, that she corrected the system of organisation in Upper Egypt.

1939/38-1909 God's Wife of Amun and Queen Neferu of Egypt
Neferu was the consort and Queen of Pharaoh Amenemhat I. It is not known whether Neferu was of royal blood, but it is probable that Amenemhet married to strengthen his claim to the throne. Amenemhet was not of royal blood as he was a commoner of partial Nubian descent. He usurped the throne after the death of the king that he served as vizier. She must have been an heiress of considerable domain to give him the power and position that he needed. She had a small pyramid that was built for her near the king's tomb.

Around 1800 Politically Active Queen Sabitu of Mari  
Also known as Szibitu, she acted as a regent during her husband, king Zimri-lim's numerous wars.

1763-59 Pharaoh Sebekneferu-Ra of Egypt
Also known as Sebek-Nefru, she was the daughter of Amenemhat III. The last ruler of Dynasty 12, she was one of only five women in ancient Egypt to rule as king in her own right. Kingship in ancient Egypt was a male role, and in Egyptian art, ruling Queens were typically represented as male pharaohs. Sebekneferu was the exception and appears as female in all her statues- though she was portrayed wearing the royal headcloth and kilt over her otherwise female dress. Her reign marked the end of the 12th Dynasty in later kinglists: it is often said that this marks the end of the family line, but these ritual positions revealed in formal writing do not provide enough data to reconstruct family trees. The reasons for and nature of her rule are unknown.

1594-after 1550 Politically influential Queen Tetisheri of Egypt
She was a Queen during the 17th Dynasty in Thebes, and was the commoner wife of pharaoh Senachtenre (1594-1592). She has been called the "mother of the New Kingdom" because of her influence over its founders, her son Seqenenre Ta'a II ( 1592-56) and grandsons; Kamose (1556-50) and Ahmose I (1550-25). From the palace at Deir el-Ballas, Tetisheri raised the warriors who would oust the Asiatics from the Delta. She lived to be 70 years old, and decrees were issues concerning her service to the nation. Ahmose granted her a great estate and tomb with priests and servants to conduct mortuary rituals in her honor, and a cenotaph was made for her at Abydos.

Ca.1570-circa 1548 Queen Ahhotep I of Egypt
She was wife of Seqenenre Ta'a II and an inscription on the doorway Buhen suggests that she was joint regent with her sons Kamose and Ahmose I, who is generally given credit for founding the 18th Dynasty. It was during the turbulent times when that nation's kings were engaged in a protracted war of liberation to rid their country of the Hyksos invaders, and she played a crucial role in safeguarding the kingdom in the south, and a stele in Karnak temple honors her with the words: "she is one who has accomplished the rites and cared for Egypt; she has looked after Egypt's troops and she has guarded them; she has brought back the fugitives and collected the deserters; she has pacified Upper Egypt and expelled her rebels." This was a powerful Black Queen. 

1530/1539-... Regent 
1504/ 1514 - .... Regent Dowager Queen Ahmose Nefertari of Egypt
The daughter of Ahotep I and Sekenenra Tao II, she seems to have been very influential during the reign of her husband and brother Ahmose I (from 1548), and after his death, she was a regent to her son Amen-Hotep I and later for grandson Totmes. She is depicted a black woman, and mentioned on an inscription depicting the honors being given to Queen Tetisheri, her grandmother, and her name is listed in the Sinai and on the island of Sai in inscriptions. She was popularly celebrated in a posthumous mortuary cult in the necropolis, and the first Queen, who hold the important office of "God's Wife of Amun".

1467-... or 1479-... Co-Regent Queen Ahmes of Egypt
Daughter of pharaoh Amenhotep I. She was co-regent during the reign of her husband pharaoh Totmes I. Her daughter, Hatshepsut, became ruler in her own right. She was also mother of Princess Nefrubity.

1467-1445 or 1479-1458 Pharaoh Hatshepsut of Egypt
The daughter of pharaoh Totmes I and Queen Ahmes, she married her half-brother the Pharaoh Totmes II and was the real power behind the throne of Egypt, and was powerful enough to exercise supreme power when she took over the government as Regent for her husband's six year old son by a concubine. Hatshepsut surrounded herself with men of outstanding administrative and intellectual ability, and manipulated the council and strengthened her own position by marrying the boy to her own daughter. Hatshepsut renounced the regency when her position was strong enough, and successfully declared herself Pharaoh. Her reign was devoted to peace and prosperity, though she mounted at least one military campaign during her reign. She initiated a number of impressive building projects, including her superb funerary temple at Deir el-Bahari. She encouraged agriculture and trade, establishing new sea trade routes to replace the long overland journeys. Arts and especially architecture flourished. On her death, her half-nephew/stepson/son-in-law, finally became Pharaoh and he systematically smashed all her statues and hid or erased her name from monuments in an attempt to belittle her.

1413-1388 or 1426-1400 Politically Influential Meritamen II of Egypt
Also known as Merytamun, she was the daughter of Totmes III and Hatshepsut II. She is shown on reliefs at Deir el-Bahri with her father, and was married to her circa 20 years younger brother Amenhotep II. Before her marriage Ahmose's titles read: "Kings Daughter, The Kings Sister, The Gods Wife and Hand, Sweet in Love, (Ahmose Meritamen), Living like Re, The Mistress of the Two Lands".

1388 Regent Dowager Queen Mutemwia of Egypt
For son Amenhotep III. Mutemwia was a very special Queen of Egypt. She was the sister of king Szuttarna of Mitanni and wife of Tutmose IV, and she also held the title God's Wife of Amun. 

1388-79 or 1400-1390 God's Wife of Amun Queen Tiaa of Egypt
Totmes IV followed the fashion of the dynasty and himself depicted as the result of a divine union between Amun-Re and his mother Tiaa. Throughout her son's rule Tiaa was known as the "King's Mother", and "Great Royal Wife" Tiaa was only referred to as the 'Great Royal Wife' of Amenhotep II in monuments dating to the reign of Totmes IV - there is no evdence to suggest that she held this title under Amenhotep II. 

1379-1327 or 1390- 1340 Politically Influential Queen Tiye of Egypt 
Also known as Tiy, she was the power behind the throne during the reign of her husband, Amenhotep III, and mother of several sons and daughters, who all were influential players on the Egyptian scene. The king, Amenhotep III built a palace called Malcata for his Black Queen as well as a lake for her to sail her barge. When the king was away at his own palace entertaining his women, Tiye was left to run the affairs of state indicating her power and influence as a Black Queen. Its known t hat several foreign kings mentioned her in their correspondence signifying the power she wielded. Her son Amenhotep IV or Ikhnaton led a religious revolution and for a time the Queen stayed with him continuing her influence. Her official title was " The Ruleress of Both Countries", and she lived (around 1400-1327/40)

1353- after 1336 Politically influential Queen Nefertiti of Egypt
Circa 1336 Possibly Reigning Pharao
She was politically influential during the reign of her husband, Akhenaten (1351-34), and may have exercised the priestly office, a position normally reserved for kings. She is displayed with a prominence that other Egyptian Queens were not. Her name is enclosed in a royal cartouche, and there are in fact more statues and drawings of her than of her husband. Some have even claimed that it was her, not Akhenaten, who instigated the monotheistic religion of Aten. After 15 years of reign, she mysteriously disappears from view. It could be that she died, although no indication of this exists to this date. Some scholars think that she was banished for some reason, and lived the rest of her years in the northern palace. She is shown wearing kingly regalia, executing foreign prisoners and, as some Egyptologists believe, ruling independently as king following the death of her husband c.1336 BC .Akhenaten and Nefertiti had six daughters, although the succession after his death is uncertain as there is no record of a male heir. It is possible that Akhenaten's successors Smenkhkare and Tutankhaten were his children by another royal wife called Kiya who became his principle Queen for a short while after year 12 of his reign. 

1336-1335 Queen Meritaton of Egypt
She was the eldest daughter of Amenhotep IV Ehnaton. After 1336 her husband Semenchkare, became pharaoh 

1309-1305 or 1323-1319 Joint Ruler Queen Anchesenpaaton of Egypt
Also known as Anchesenpaamum, she was daughter of Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti. She was politically influential during the reign of her father-husband, pharaoh Smenchkare (ruled 1324-1319). Her third husband, Tutanchanon, succeeded her father as Pharaoh. After his death in 1309, she send a messenger to the King of the Hittits (Anatolia) asking for a son of his she could marry. When he arrived in Egypt he was murdered. She then married her grandfather, Eje, and reigned jointly with him. Pharaoh Horemheb killed her in 1319/05.

Around 1279-1255/54 Politically Influential Queen Nefertari of Egypt
She was a wife of pharaoh Ramses II. She was active in diplomacy, and corresponded politically with Queen Puduhepa of the Hitite Kingdom.

Around 1279 Queen Merytaun of Egypt
The Daughter and wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, she held the title of Mistress of the Two Lands, indicating a role as co-ruler.

Around 1279 Queen Bananit I. of Egypt
Also daughter and wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, she also held the title of Mistress of the Two Lands.

Around 1279 Queen Nebettauy of Egypt
Another daughter and wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, who was Lady and Mistress of the Two Lands, among other titles.

1194 – 1192 Joint Regent Queen Tausret of Egypt
1192-1186 Pharaoh
After the death of her brother and husband, Seti II, she became co-regent to their son Ramses-Si-Ptah (later Merne-Ptah-Si-Ptah). After his death a Syrian officer brought a young man, Siptah, to the throne, and married him to Tausert. After Siptah's death in 1192 she ruled alone for 6 as king. The throne was probably usurped by Selnakht in 1200. Also know as Sitre'-meryAmon Twosre'-Seteptenmut, she also had the names Merymaat-nbtanemnisutmiAmon, Geregkemetuafkhasut and Satre-merenAmon. She was the last member of the 19th Dynasty.

After 1145-after 1117 Divine Adoratrix and Gods Wife of Amun Isis at Thebes 
Daughter of pharaoh Ramses VI and Queen Nubkhesbed, the last Ramesside Princess known at present to have held this office. She was still in office at the end of the first decade of Ramses IX’s reign, but how much longer and whether she was succeeded is unknown.

1076 -1055 Politically Influential Queen Nodzhmet of Egypt
She was the daughter of High Priest of Amun Pianchi and Hereret and a wife of High Priest of Amun and pharaoh Herhor (ruled 1080-74). Nodzhmet was a grand-grand – mother of pharaoh Pinodzhem I (1070-55).

Around 1070-55 God's Wife of Amun Princess Maatkare Mutemhet at Thebes 
Maatkare was the daughter of pharaoh Pinodzhem I (1070-55) and Henuttaui, and also bore the title of " The Ruleress of Both Countries".

Around 1045- 992 God's Wife of Amun Princess Isetemachbit III in Thebes   
The daughter of Pharao Psusennes I and Queen Wiay and the wife of Menkheperre (High Priest of Amun) at Thebes. She was mother of Queen Isetemachbit IV, pharao Pinodzhem II and Smendis II. From the 21st Dynasty on, the title was always held by an unwed daughter of either the king, or the High Priest of Amun. These included Maatkare, the daughter of the Priest and King, Pinudjem I, and Isetemachbit III, the daughter of King Psusennes I. (b.1050)

Around 993 Queen Nodjemet of Egypt
She was daughter of Amenhotep and Hrere and perhaps married to Herihor and possible mother of Smendes, and among others held the titles of Mistress and Lady of the Lands.

990-969 Governor of Foreign Countries Queen Nesihonsu of Egypt, Vicereine of Nubia
She was politically influential in Egypt during the reign of her husband and uncle, Pharaoh and High Priest of Amun Pinodzhem II of Egypt (Pindudjem) who appointed her Vice-Queen and Chief of Foreign Countries. She was daughter of High Priest of Amun and Pharaoh Smendes II.

990-before 969 Politically Influential Queen Isetemachbit IV of Egypt
Daughter of High Priest of Amun Mencheperre and Isetemachbit III. She was co-wife of her brother Pharaoh and High Priest of Amun Pinodzhem II. She also held many priestely titles and was very rich. She talked a divorce with her brother .Mother of Pharaoh and High Priest of Amun Psusennes II. (d. 969).

981 Regent Dowager Queen Ishaq of Thama (Arabia)
An Assyrian Vassal.

Around 984 Queen Duat-Hathor Henuttauy II of Egypt
The daughter of Smendes and Tentamun, she was married to Pinudjem I, mother of the God's Wife Maatkare I, and holder of the titles of Lady and Mistress of the Lands etc.

Circa 870-40 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Karomama-Meritmut I at Thebes  
In the first half of the 11th century a tehenu (Libyan) named Buyuawa lived at Herakleopolis. His son became father of the local God Hershef and great chief of the Meshwesh. This position was inherited by his descendents. One of these, Sheshonq, married a widowed Queen. During the time of Pinedjem II he was recipient of an oracle from Amen at Thebes in favour of a mortuary cult for his father and good fortune for himself and the army. His grandson, Sheshonq I, became founder of the 22nd Dynasty at Bubastis with the support of the army and consolidated his reign by marrying his son Osorkon to a daughter of Psusennes II. The Libyans accepted Egyptian culture in a superficial way, retaining their separate group identity and militaristic outlook.  She also held the titles of Mistress of All the Land and Mistress of All Appearances.

Around 870-40 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Tashaenkheper at Thebes  
Her background is not known, but she has been associated with Osorkon III.

754-14 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Shepenupet I Merytmut at Thebes  
At the time Egypt was divided into three parts: The Delta ruled by the Pharaohs, the Middle Egypt and Upper Egypt ruled by the Priestess of Amun and Wife of God. She was daughter of Pharaoh Osorkon III and Karoaczet. In circa 735 she adopted and appointed her successor, Princess Amenirdis I, and her official title was " The Ruleress of Both Countries".

Ca.736-690 God's Wife of Amun Amenirdis I at Thebes  
She was daughter of Kaszta and Pabatama, and adopted Schepenupet II.

Around 730-716 Queen Abar of Egypt
Daughter Kashta, she was the Sister-Wife of Pharaoh Pije (Piye) she among others held the titles of Lady of the Two Lands and Mistress of the Lands.

Around 716-702 Queen Qalhata of Egypt
The Mistress of the Land, she was married to Shabaka possibly as his Sister-Wife.

710-650 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Schepenupet II at Thebes  
Daughter of pharaoh Pije and Peksater/Pekeresko. She adopted Amenirdis II and was joint ruler with her from 670. The royal cult also had its female priestesses, with women acting alongside men in jubilee ceremonies and, as well as earning their livings as professional mourners, they occasionally functioned as funerary priests.

Around 690-664 Queen Naparaye of Egypt
The daughter of Piye, she was the sister-wife of Taharka and held the titles of Lady of the Two Lands and Noblewoman of All the Lands, etc.

670-640 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Amenirdis II at Thebes  
She was daughter of pharaoh Taharka. B.C 670-650 she ruled jointly with Schepenupet II, and adopted Nitocris I and ruled jointly with her until her death.

656-586 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Nitocris I at Thebes  
Daughter of pharaoh Psametyk I. 656-640, and joint ruler with Amenirdis II until 640. She adopted Anchnesneferibre as God's Wife of Amun - 595-25, and as High Priestess 595-60.

595-25 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Anchnesneferibre at Thebes  
She was daughter of pharaoh Psametyk II and Tachuit and adopted Nitocris II.  

525 High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun Nitocris II at Thebes  
Daughter of pharaoh Psametyk II.  She was the last High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun. In 525 king of Persia Kambyses II occupied Egypt and abolished the post of High Priestess and God's Wife of Amun.

290-82 Co-Regent Queen Bernice I

278-70 Co-Regent Queen Arsinoe II

245-21 Co-Regent Queen Bernice/Berenike II
Co-ruler with son Ptolomy  IV

217-205 Co-Regent Queen Arsinoe III
Co-ruler with son Ptolomy  IV Philopator. In 217 she participated in the battle by Rapheia, killed after her husband's death. Their son Ptolomy  was born earlier the same year. 

193-176 Co-Regent Queen Cleopatra I
Daughter of Antiochiaos III. Until 176 Reigning Dowager Queen

173-64 and 164-115 Co-Regent Queen Cleopatra II

136-131Co-Regent Queen Cleopatra III
131-129 Co-ruler in Kyros
116-101 Co-ruler of Egypt

129-21 Co-Regent Queen Cleopatra Thea
121       Queen
Married to Alexander Balas, 150, Demetrios II 146 and Antiochiaos VII 138-29, Co-ruler with son Antiochiaos VIII, whom she had murdered after wich she was the sole ruler.

116-115 Co-Regent Queen Cleopatra IV 

115-110 and 109-07 Co-Regent Queen Cleopatra V Selene

101-81 Co-Regent Queen Bernice/Berenike III
81-80 Reigning Queen (6 months)

80-59/58 Co-Regent Queen Cleopatra VI Tryphæna
58-57 Reigning Queen
(Reigning Queen after the death of her father?)

58-55 Reigning Queen Bernice/Berenike IV

51-30 Queen (Joint Ruler) Cleopatra VII
37 Princess of Kalkis, Lebanon, Phoenikien and Kilikien
34 Queen of Kings

47-46 Anti-Queen Arsinoe IV
Daughter of Ptolomy  XII, after fights with Cæcar she was sent to Rome but released in 41 on her sister, Cleopatra VIIs request, but later murdered on the request of Antonius. She was married to Ptolomy  XIV but was divorced in 47 when he married their sister Cleopatra. 

1021-24/25 Regent Sitt al-Moluk
She was regent for Caliph Abd'l al Hassan of Kairo

1035-50 Regent the Caliph-Mother of the Fatimids
She was a former Sudanese Slave.

1249-50 Regent Dowager Sultana Shajarat al-Dur of Egypt (23.11-19.02)
1250 Sultan of Egypt
1250-57 De Facto Co-Ruler of the Kingdom
Also known as Shajarat, Shaggar, Shagar or Shagarat al-Durr, she took power when her husband, Sultan al-Salih Ayyub died of a fever in the midst of a Crusader campaign in the Nile Delta, where the Franks under Louis IX and landed. She managed to conceal the sultan's death and controlled Egypt long enough to recall al-Salih's son, Turan Shah, from northern Syria to assume command. By the time word leaked out of the palace concerning Al-Salih's death, her coalition was in firm control of affairs. The Mameluke army defeated Louis's forces in February 1250 at Mansura and captured the French king and his forces. She also managed also managed to preserve order after Turan Shah was murdered by the Mameluke, who then raised her to the throne and gave her the title, Umm-Khalil, meaning "mother of Khalil". She continued the negotiations with Louis, who was ransomed for 1,000,000 bezants, and reigned alone for 80 days andhad coins struck and the Friday sermon pronounced in her own name, but the Caliphate at Baghdad did not approve of her reign, so in order to preserve her position, she married the chief of her husband's Mamelukes Aibak, and had him proclaimed sultan, but due to his constant struggle with the Syrian Ayyubids in Damascus and Aleppo he remained on campaign for much of his early reign. Thus, she exercised de facto power over Egypt and maintained political stability. After seven years he wanted to take a second wife and she had him assassinated and she was killed by a mob led by her husband's son from his first marriage, Ali. She was born as a Mameluke slave, her self and (d. 1257).


1863-79 Valida Pasha Khushiyar of Egypt
She became the Khediva Mother upon the succession of her son Ismail Pasha as Khedive of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, of the Sudan, of Kordofan and of Darfur (1863-79) and often acting as his political mentor. During the marriage to Ibrahim Pasha, Former Governor of Egypt, Vali of Egypt in 1848, etc, she was known as H.H. Khushiyar Kadin Effendimiz. Her sister was H.M. Partav-Nihal, the Valida Sultana of Turkey (d. 1886).

1892-1914 Valida Sultana Emine Hanım of Egypt
At the death of her husband, Mohammed Tewfik, khedive of Egypt she was Appointed Valida Sultana - or Valide Pasha, and became the most powerful woman in the realm, acting as political mentor for her son II. Abbas Hilmi Paşa (1874-92-1914-44), who was deposed following the declaration of a British protectorate over Egypt. She was known as "Umm al-Mu'hsinin" in recognition of her many charitable endowments, and was the first consort to be styled Khediva Effendimiz from 1873. She was born as HH Princess Emine-Nacibe Hanimefendi, as the oldest daughter of HIH Princess Münire Sultan, tenth daughter of HIM Sultan I. Abdulmecid, and her husband, who was created H.H. Damad Prince Ibrahim al-Hami Pasha upon their marriage. Also known as Amina Najiya Khanum Effendimiz, she died in exile in Istanbul, and lived (1858-1931).


1912-37 Politically Influential Safiya Zaghlul in Egypt
One of the most most powerful women of her period as the wife of the national leader Saad Zaghlul. During his exiles, she took his mantle of leadership and she was his confidant and counsellor. Her father Mustafa Fahmy appointed him Minister of Education in 1906 in 1910 he became Minister of Justice, but two years later he resigned to lead the opposition in the new Legislative Assembly and became its Vice-President. After he was exiled to Malta in 1919, she led a demonstration by more than 500 women, and opned her house for the Wafd Party, and thereby had the opportunity to play a greater role in the movement. During the unrest she became known as "Mother of the Egyptians" (Umm al-Misriyyin). After he was freed, she travlled with her husband to Paris to a conference about Egypt, but the international powers did not support the quest for Egypts independnce, and in 1921 they returned home. The Wafd continued to organize resistance to the British and the British-backed government, and he was soon exiled again, this time in the Seychelles. She joined her husband in Gibraltar in 1922 and when they returned his party won the elections and he became Prime Minister. After his death in 1927, she continued to play an active role in Wafd politics, choosing a new party leader and guiding him. But after a split in the party in in 1937, she retired from politics and resigned her post as head of the Women's Wafd. She was still a public figure but from then on she refrained from involvement in political affairs and refused to take sides in partisan disputes. She lived (1876-1946).


 

Last update 20.05.07