Woman Muslim Leaders throughout the Times

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership



throughout the times

(Last updated 2007)

624 Opposition Leader Hind al-Hunnud, Arab World

A member of the Quaish Tribe in the Kingdom of Kindah, she was one of the leaders of the opposition to Muhammed. She led a battle against him in 624, where her father and brother were killed and she then led a battle of vengeance against Muhammed. In the end she submitted to him and became a Muslim convert.

631-56 Politically Influential 'A'ishah Bint Abi Bakr, Arab World

Aishah was a powerful force in the political turmoil that followed the death of her husband, the Prophet Muhammed. She became very important for her role in the civil war, where she was defeated and captured in a battle in 656 and only released on promising to abandon political life. Her religious teachings became important for the Shiite branch of the Muslim faith. She lived (613-78).

681  Khanum Pisutu of Uighuristan (Central Asia)

The Uighur Khans governed portions of Central Asia in the centuries immediately following the Muslim expansion, and then fade from view. It is not entirely clear that the Turkic people called Uighurs who now dwell mostly in Western China are the same folk; the name is the same, but it could have been adopted by later-arriving tribes. The country was invaded by the Got Turks in 681.

Ca 690-701 Queen Dahlia al-Chain of the Moors (Berbian tribe in Tunisia)

Her name means the "priestess" or the "prophetess", and she assumed personal command of the Barbarian forces, and under her leadership, the Arabs were briefly forced to retreat, but since the Arabs were relentless, she ordered a scorched earth policy. After her defeat, Dahia al-Kahina took her own life, and sent her sons to the Arab camp with instructions that they adopt Islam and make common cause with the Arabs.  Ultimately, these men participated in invading Europe and the subjugation of Spain and Portugal.  

720-.. De facto Joint Ruler Hababa of Bagdad (Iraq)

She was slave singer of the 9th Ummayyad Caliph, Yarzid II Ibn 'Abd al-Malik who was hostage to her carm. She choked on a pomegranate seed and he died of grief a few weeks later. Later historians stigmatized him and held him in contempt for letting himself be infatuated by a slave.

734-41 Khatun and Regent Mo-ki-lien of Mong (Mongolia)

Is known as Khatun Mo-ki-lien, which was the name of her husband. He was poisoned by his minister, and she acted as regent for their son, Yu-jan, who was again succeeded by her minor brother, Tängri Khagan, who died in 741.

Circa 774 Governor Cara Zon of Carcasson (Spain)

A Marurian-Arab Princess. She defended the city-state against Charles the Great. 

775-809 Politically Influential Caliph-Consort Al-Haizuran of Bagdad (Iraq)

Also known as Khayzuran (literally, Bamboo) she was a slave, born most likely in Yemen, and gained substantial influence during the reigns of her husband, al-Mahdi (775-785), who allowed her to make many important royal decisions. After his death, it was Khayzuran who kept the peace by paying off the Caliph's army in order to maintain order. She arranged for the accession of her son, al-Hadi, even when he was away from the capitol. When al-Hadi proved less tolerant of Khayzuran's political maneuverings than had al-Mahdi, it was speculated that it was Khayzuran who arranged his murder in favour of her second, more tolerant son, Harun. Whatever the truth, Khayzuran is more fondly remembered than many of the caliphs themselves.

908-32 Politically Influential Shaghab of Baghdad (Iraq)
Succeeded in maneuvering the religious and military elite into recognizing her only 13 year old son, Muqtadir, as caliph. She had origially been a slave.

Empress Wei Shi

926 Regent Dowager Empress Shulü Hatun of Qidan (China and of Mongolia) 

Also known as Khatun Shu-lü Shih of Purtmish, she was regent after the death of her husband Abaoji until her son Yaoku was elected as his successor as ruler of The Qidan nationality, which originally dwelt in the upper reaches of the mountains. It was nomadic and its main activities were fishing and hunting. 

Around 950 Queen Yehudit of the Falasha Agaw (Ethiopia)

Also known as Yodit, Esato or Judith, she attacked the Christian southern provinces of Ethopia as far as the mountains of Tigre around 975. The Ethiopians saw her invasion as a punishment for having failed to be obedient to their Coptic patriarch. While the Agaw held power, the Amhara and Tegre culture entered a "dark age" about which little is known, and a large part of the Ethiopian civilization was lost or destroyed during this time.

Until 970 Princess Alan-Goa of the Hori-Tumat Dynasty in Mongolia

Succeeded by Bodonchar

Around 976 Politically Influential Dowager Queen of Persia (Iran)

Together with vizier Abu'l-Husain 'Abd-Allah ibn Ahmad 'Utbi, she assisted her son, Nuh II ibn Mansur, of the Samanid Dynasty (d. 997) who ascended to the throne as a youth.

981 Regent Hint bint Ishaq of Thima (Arabia)

997-1028/29 Regent for the Caliph-Governor Sayuda Sirin Hatyn of Gabal of Persia

Reigned in the name of both her son and grandson, both of the Bayide Dynasty  

Around 1000 Leader Badit bint Maja of the Politically Organized Islamic Society (Ethiopia)

Either leader of a tribe or substate-entity.

1020-24 Regent Naib us Sultanat Sitt al-Moluk of Egypt

Also known as the Lady of Cairo, her name means "Lady of Power", and assumed power after having arranged the "disappearance" of her brother Imam Hakim bin Amr Allah. She had his son al-Zahir proclaimed Imam and Caliph and she became regent. She appointed competent ministers, managed to setting the economy in order and brought peace to the country. (d. 1024)

1046-62 Regent The Caliph-Mother of Egypt

For the Fathamide-Caliph. She was a Sudanese ex -slave.

1061-1107 Joint Ruler al-qa'ima bi mulkini Zainab al-Nafzawiyya of the Berber Empire (Northern Africa)

Contemporary sources name her "the one in charge of her husband's realm", and she was joint ruler with her husband, Yusuf Ibn Tashfin of an Empire covering most of Northern Africa.  

1084-1137 Regent Dowager Sultana Saiyida Hurra Arwa bint Ahmad as-Sulayhi of Tihama (Arabia)

Ruled in the name of Saba, who died in 1197/99 and then reigned alone, though together with other co-regents. From sometime in the 1130s she was the sole ruler. She was succeeded by Sultan al-Mansur bin al Mugaddal.

1086-94 Regent Dowager Queen Khanum of the Tanguts (Dangxiang) (China and Mongolia)

Regent for son Li Qianshum (1086-1139), who ruled in Jingbian/Ningxian.

Until 1087 Co-Ruler al-Sayyida al-Hurra Malika Asma Bint Shibab al-Sulayhiyya of Yemen

Her title means "The Most Noble Lady who is independent, the woman sovereign who bows to no superior authority, Queen". She was married to Sultan Ali al-Sulahi, who entrusted much of the management of the realm to her. She also enjoyed the privilege of the Khutba - having the Friday's prayer preached in her name - the ultimate proof of sovereignty. In 1067 her husband was taken prisoner on a pilgrimage to Mecca and she was taken prisoner by the Bane Najah family, when she was released she continued to direct her son's rule along with her daughter-in-law 'Arwa, until her death in 1087.  

1091-1138 Co-Ruler al-Sayyida al-Hurra Malika 'Arwa bint Ahmad al-Salayhiyya of Yemen

The wife of al-Mukarram Ahmad (1067-84), she was joint ruler with her mother-in-law Queen Asma. After her husband's death she became ruler in her own name, having the Friday's Prayers said in her name. She lived (1047-1137).

Unnamed Muslim Lady

1092-94 Regent Dowager Princess Turhan Hatun of Seljuk Persia (Iran)

The Seljuqs were a Turkish people whose history begins around the year 1000, by which time they were the dominant presence in Transoxiana and Turkestan. They overran the western part of the Ghaznavid Emirate in 1040, and shortly thereafter took over all of Persia and Mesopotamia from the Buwayhids. The death of Sanjar in 1118 signaled the decline of the Great Seljuq Empire, which broke up into several smaller states. 

1107-24 Regent Dowager Sultana of the Seljuk-Principality of Malatya in Anatolia (Turkey)

Widow of Sultan Kilj Arslan, and married to three Turkish chiefs in succession who acted as guardians of her son, Sultan Tughril Arslan. In 1124 the principality was concord by the Danishmendide-Turks. 

Circa 1120-30 Ruler Al-Hurra Alam al-Malika of Zubayd (Yemen)

A singer or slave of the king Mansur ibn-Najah (circa 1111-23), who was so impressed by her political astuteness that he placed her in charge of the realm's management and "made no decisions without consulting her". In 1123 he was poisoned by his vizier Mann Allah, but Alam continued to govern but she never had the Khutba proclaimed in her name at the Friday night prayer. Zybayd was a principality in western Yemen near San'a, with whom it was in a perpetual state of war. The title of al-hurra was bestowed on women who were active in politics, but did not denote Queenship. 

1142 Regent Dowager Khanum Ta-pu-yen of Qara Khitai (Turkestan) 

After the death of her husband, Ta-pu-yen, she was regent for her son Ye-lü Yi-lie.

Khanum of Mongolia

1151-77 Khanum Regnant Tabuyan T’a-Pu-Yen Gantian Huanghou of Qara Khitai (Turkestan now Kyrgyzstan)

Leader of the Central Asian Khanate – in what today is partly Kyrgyzstan and partly Chinese Turkestan the region Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region/Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu. The state was  founded by the Khitan ruler Yeh-lü Ta-shih when he conquered the Kharakhanid Turks in 1137. In 1141 Yeh-lü consolidated his conquest by defeating the Great Seljuk sultan Sanjar near Samarkand. The khanate was weakened in about 1200 by attacks from the Khwarizm shahdom and in 1218 it collapsed precipitately when the Mongols invaded. The governmental  institutions of Qara Khitai were taken over by the Mongols to form the foundations of their own imperial administration.   

1163-77/78 Dowager Khanum Regnant Yelü Pusuwan Chengtian Taihou of Qara Khitai (Turkestan) 

In the 1120s China's Liao Dynasty was ousted by the Liaos, or Khitans, and were driven west into Central Asia,  where, after defeating the Seljuq Turks of Persia under the Sultan Sanjar in 1141, they founded the Qara-Khitai Empire with Samarkand as its capital covering present day's Mongolia, Northern-China, Kyrgyzstan and other central Asian territories.

1170/72 Regent Dowager Sultan Turhan of Hwarizim Sahi of Uiguristan (China and Kazakstan)

Reigned for Sultan Sah Abd’l Quasim Mahmud 1170/72, who was deposed as ruler of the kingdom. The origin of Uigur ethnic group can be traced back to the nomadic people living around Lake Baikal and the area between the Irtish River and Lake Balkhash in the third century B.C. During the long history, these people amalgamated the north and south Xinjiang (China), Mongolian, Han and Tibetan clans. And the present Uigur ethnic group came into being. The Uigur has its own language and alphabet, which belongs to the Turki Austronesian, Altai Phylum. In their language, "Uigur" means "solidification and union". The Uigurs rely heavily on agriculture as their main source of survival. They plant cotton, wheat, corn and paddy. The largest grape base of China is also located in the Turpan Basin.

1172-74 Politically Influential Terken Khatun (I) of the Khwarezmian Empire (Iran)

After the death of her husband, Shah Il-Arslan, his sons began fighting over who would succeed him. Sultan Shah was the younger son, but he was considered the formal heir and she placed him on the throne. The elder son, Tekish, fled to the Qara Khitai and was given a large army, and he soon set off for Khwarazm. She and her son decided to flee, and Tekish installed himself in Khwarazm unopposed in December 1172, but she gained the support of Mu'ayyad al-Din Ai-Aba, a former Seljuk Amir who had set himself up in Nishapur since the collapse of Seljuk power there, he led an army into Khwarazm, but was defeated, captured and executed. Her son eventually found refuge with the Ghurids, but she was hunted down and killed by Tekish's forces.

1200-20 De-facto Co-Ruler Terken Khatun (II) of Khwarezmian Empire (Iran)

After the death of her partner, 'Ala' al-Din Tekish (1172-1200), she so dominated the court of their son, 'Ala' al-Din Muhammad II (1200-20) and quarreled so bitterly with his heir by another wife, Jalal al-Din, that she may have contributed to the impotence of the Khwarazmshahi kingdom in the face of the Mongol onslaught. She had a separate Divan and separate palace and the orders of the sultan were not considered to be effective without her signature. The Shah ruled the heterogeneou peoples without mercy. In face of Mongol attacks, Khwarazm empire, with a combined army of 400.000, simply collapsed.  Harezmshah Muhammed had retreated to Samarkand towards the end of his domination and he had to leave the capital city of Gurgenç to her.

1208-20 Queen Ahmadilidyn of the Urmiya Dynasty of Persia
Succeeded her father as head of the Ahmadilit-dynasty.  

121?-18 Ruler Salbak Turhan of Uiguristan (Kazakstan)
The Qara-Khitai Empire with Samarkand as its capital covering present day's Mongolia, Northern-China, Kyrgyzstan and other Central Asian Territories. In 1210 the Qara-Khitai Empire lost Transoxiana to the Khwarazim Shahdom, previously a vassal. The empire ended in 1218, when it was annexed  by the Mongol Empire of Chingiz Khan.

1218 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Selsjuks in Aleppo (Syria)
Widow of Al-Zahir for son al-Aziz. Her troops was involved in the fight against the crusaders.

1236-40 Sultan Galalat ad-Din Begum Radiya bint Shamas al-Din Iltutmish of the Delhi Sultanate (Most of Northern India)
Also known Razia Begum or Radiyya Altamish, she was The daughter of the first Mameluk king of Delhi, Sultan Ilutmish, she came to the throne after deposing her brother and having him killed. She used the title al-dunya wa al din, which can be translated into "the blessed of the earthly world and of the faith". She was a very able leader and military commander, but was deposed and executed in 1246/47. 

1236-42 Regent Dowager Princess Dayfa Khatun bint al-Adil Muhammadn of Yamkhad  (Syria)
Dayfat Hatun was the widow of ad az-Zahir Ghazi Ghiyath ud-Din I, who ruled (1186-1216) and after the death of her son, al-'Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din II (1216-1236) she became regent for her grandson al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din (1236-1260). The capital of the Kingdom was Aleppo, an ancient city in northwestern Syria, about 130 km east of Antiochia.

From 1237 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Selsjuks in Aleppo (Syria)
for Sultan al-Nazir, fighting with the Latin kings and counts in the area.

1241-... Joint Ruler Empress Kassi of Mali
According to custom, the emperor and the principal wife ruled jointly. She was married to her paternal cousin, Suleyman (1241-60), and was extremely popular with the royal court. After her husband divorced her in order to marry the commoner Bendjou, she rallied support of the noble ladies, who refused to pay homage to the new Empress. Kassi was then forced to seek refuge in a mosque, where she initiated a revolt, which ended in the defeat of her Faction. 

1241-48 Grand Khanum Regnant Törägänä of the Qagans of China
Also known as Töregene Khâtûn, she was head of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, which ruled most of China and Chinese Turkestan. Her son, Guyuk, was Khan 1246-48.

1242-46 Regent Dowager Khanum Ebüskün of Qara Khitai (Turkestan)
For Qara Hülägü. The dynasty used to rule over a vast empire, but had been forced back to present day's Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

1248-51 Empress Khanum Hatun Ogul Gamys of The Yuan Dynasty in China 
Also known as Oghul Qamish or Ghaimish. After the death of her husband, Greath Khan Güyük, she became  regent for her three young sons Qucha, Naqu and Qughu and thereby became ruler over parts of China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakstan and Turkestan. In 1250 she received three envoys of Louis IX of France. She accepted their presents as a tribute and demanded that the king of France made more explicit submission to her. In 1251 fighting broke out between rival Factions of the ruling family, she was convicted of sorcery, sewn up in a sack and drowned in 1252. 

Unnamed Sultana 1249-50 Regent Shajarat al-Dur of Egypt and Syria
1250 Sultan Regnant (Queen of the Muslims)  
1250-57 Co-ruler

In 1249, the French army under Louis IX of France attacked Egypt. Shagrat who was regent for her husband Salih, who was in Damascus, organized the defence of the realm. After her husband's death his son Turan became ruler, but she retained control, and defeated  the Crusaders at Damietta. The leaders of the army plotted against Turan and have him murdered. On May 2, 1250, they put Shagrat al-Durr on the throne, thus beginning the Mamluk dynasty. As sultan she has coins struck in name, and she is mentioned in weekly prayers in mosques. These two acts only can be done for the person who carries the title of sultan, but the Caliphate at Baghdad did not approve of Shagrat, who stepped down after for only two months. But she married her successor Aibak, a Mamluk soldier. Reports tell of their great love for one another, and for seven years she continued to rule. An historian who lived at the time comments: "She dominated him, and he had nothing to say." Shagrat continued to sign the sultan's decrees, has coins struck in both their names, and dared to be addressed as Sultana. She was killed 1257 apparently after having murdered her husband.

1252-61 Regent Dowager Khanum Organa Hatum of the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang) and of Qara Khitai (China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)  
Head of the Ghafa Sid Horde (or Qara Khitai/ Chagataiid Horde) and ruled over a vast territory after the death of Qara Hulegu as successor of Qara Hulegu, who reigned 1247-52 and 1252. She was succeeded by Khan Alughu. Her name also spelled as Orqina Khatum.

1255-57 Regent Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (or the Khanate of Kipchak) (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan)
Widow of Batu, who was khan (1227-55). When he died in 1255 his son and heir, Sartaq, had gone to pay court to Grand Khan Mongka, his father's friend. But he died before he could return home to the Khanate of Kipchak. Mongka nominated the young prince Ulagci, who was either the brother or son of Sartaq, and made Boraqchin regent of the Mongol tribe (The Golden Horde) in West Turkestan, roughly covering present day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

Unnamed Persian Lady 1257-82 Regent Dowager Sultan Turhan Hatun 'Ismat ad-Duyan Wa’l-Din of Qutlug Khan (Iran)
Also known as Qutlug or Kutlugh, she ruled as regent for son Sultan Haggag (Hağğağ) until 1267, and afterwards alone. She had the khutba (prayer for the sovereign) proclaimed in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate reign. She was deposed by Ahmad Teguder and replaced by her stepson as ruler of Qutluq Khan or Kirman. Her daughter, Padisha, later reigned the Kingdom of Kirman.

1260-62 Regent Dowager Princess Turhan Hatun of Banu-Salgar (Iran)  
The Mongol Empire after 1260 laid fragmented as the four Mongol states  - the Golden Horde in the west, Il-Khans in Persia, Chagatai empire in Mongolia, and Kublai Khan in China - and the Mongols in Persia were further divided into a number of smaller states in addition to the Il-Khans. One of them was Banu-Salgar.

1261-63 Regent Dowager Princess Terken Khatun of Fars (Iran)

After the death of her husband, Atabeg Sa'd II bin Abi Bakr bin Sa'd bin  Zangi, she was duly confirmed by ruler of Fars by the Ilkhan Hülegü. She then married a kinsman, presumably as part of some now forgotten dynastic pact, but he killed her in a drunken frenzy and subsequently rebelled against the Ilkhan. After his defeat and death in 1263/64, Hülegü nominated her infant daughter, Abish Khatun to be the ruler of Fars.

Persian Woman

1263-75 Atabeg Regnant Abisha Hadud Khatun of Fars (Iran)
1283-87 Governor of Fars

Also known as Abish Khatun or Aubee Khatton, she was nominated as ruler by the Ilkhan of the Khwarazham Empire in Persi, after her mother, Terken Khatun, was killed. Her name was read in the khutha and struck on the coinage. In 1274, when she was about fifteen, she was taken to the Ilkhan's ordu (Court), and married to Tash-Möngke (Mengü Temür), a younger son of Hülegü This was a marriage, forbidden in Islamic law, between a Muslim woman and a shamanist, but presumably the will of the Ilkhan transcended all other considerations. She became his chief wife and had two daughters by him, Kürdüjin and Alghanchi. When her husband was sent as governor to Fars, she was retained in the ordu, but 1283, the new Ilkhan, Ahmad Tegüder (1282-84), recalled him from Shiraz and appointed her in his place. Her financial recklessness, coinciding with a drought throughout Fars, meant that she defaulted on her revenue payments, so that Ahmad Tegüder's successor, Arghun (1284-91), ordered her to appear at the ordu. Perhaps relying on the good offices of Öljei Khatun, Hülegü's widow, to protect her from the Ilkhan's wrath, she declined to go and behaved outrageously toward the officials sent to supersede her. She was eventually forced to capitulate and submitted to the Ilkhan (Öljei Khatun did indeed intercede for her), dying at the ordu in 1287, after having lived (circa 1269-87).

1285-87 Maat Layla Sultan of Harrar (Ethiopian Sup state)
Succeeded her brother as head of the Semitic speaking Islamic Ethiopian Boarder State.

1291-95 Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din Padshah Hatun of Qutlugh Khan (Iran)
Padshah became ruler and took the title Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din (Purity of the earthly world and of the faith) after Djalal da-Din Abu'l-Muzzafar was deposed as head of the Mongol tribe, which reigned in the southeastern Iran. She had her stepbrother Suyurghatamish arrested and eventually killed. She was daughter of Kitlugh Turkan or Turkan Khatun, Queen of Qutlugh Khan or Kirman (1257-82). In 1295 her husband's successor Great Khan Baydo of the Ilkhan dynasty, had her put to death on the advise of the leader of Suyurghatamish's clan, his widow, Khurdudjin.

Unnamed Chinese lady 1307 Dowager Empress Khanum Bulugan of the Yuan Dynasty in China
She was widow of Temur Oljetu (Cheng Tsung) who ruled (1294-1307) as successor to Khubilaikhan (Shizu) and acted as regent for her step-grandson Wu Tsung, also known as Khaishan or Hai San. She was born as Princess Bulukhan of the Baya'ud. 

1316-17 Regent and Principal Minister Qutlug Sah Hatun of Persia and Iraq
After the death of her husband, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammed Uljaytu (1282-1304-16) the 8th Il Khan she was regent for their son, 'Ala al-Dunaya wa 'l-din Abu Said (1304-1317-1335). The dynasty had reigned Persia and Iraq  China since Kubilai Khan of Mongolia and China appointed his brother, Halagu (1256-1265) as tributary sub-ruler. With the death of Abu Sa'id the Il-lkhanid dynasty in Iran virtually came to an end.

1316 Ruler Dawlat Khatun of Luristan (Persia)
Succeeded her husband, Izz al-Din Muhammad, the 13th sovereign of the Mongol Bani Kurshid dynasty, which ruled Luristan in southwestern Persia. She proved to be a poor administrator, and therefore she abdicated after a short period in favour of her brother-in-law, Izz al-Din Hassan.

1325-36 Politically Influential Baghdad Khatun of the Ilkhanate in Persia (Iran)

First married to Shaykh Hasan Buzurg, founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, whom she married in 1323. Two years later, they divorced on the orders of her uncle, Abu Said, the Ilkhan, and they married in 1327, and now enjoyed a period of unprecedented power as the harem favorite, even acquiring the honorific title of Khudawandigar [sovereign]. 1331-32, she briefly fell from grace because of accusations that she had plotted the assassination of Abu Said with her former husband, but in the following year she was restored to favour.  Another blow to her authority came in 734/1333-34, when Abu Sa'id married her niece, Dilshad Khatun, and elevated the latter to the rank of principal wife. She displayed her resentment at her diminished status and when, according to Ibn Battuta, Abu Sa'id died in 1335, she was accused of poisoning him and was beaten to death in her bathhouse either by order of his amirs or his successor, Arpa.

1332-33 Regent Dowager Empress Khanum Ptashali of  the Yuan Dynasty of China
Leader of the Qagans Mongolian Dynasty which ruled most of China and surrounding territories, during the reigns of Irinjibal (1332) and Toghon Temur (1333-70). In 1368 the Yuans were replaced by the Ming Dynasty after a period of internal revolt.

A contemporary picture of an unnamed Persian queen 1338-39 Acting Caliph Governor and Principal Minister Sati Beg Hatun of the Mongols Il Khans Empires in Persia (Iran)
Used the title Al-sultana al-radila Sati Bek Khan Khallad Allah mulkaha - The just sultana Sati Bek, may Allah perpetuate her reign, and was daughter and sister of some of the earlier rulers. After Mohammad was overthrown, she took power and married Suleiman, who became titular co-ruler. The Mongols Il Khans controlled Persia  as a sort of local Mongol authority under the Great Horde.  

Unnamed Ethiopian Lady Ca.1344-ca.52 Sultan Regnant Mo'at Laila of Ifat (East Shoa, Ethiopian Substate)
The Muslim sultanate situated in the northeastern Shewan foothills was one of the boarder-states threatening the Ethiopian state but it was about one hundred years later.

1348-79 Sultan and Maha Radun Malikat Rahandi Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands, Sultan of Land and Sea and Lord of the
twelve-thousand islands
One of three daughters of Sultan Salah ad-Din Salih Albendjaly, who was succeeded by her brother. The vizier 'Abdallah al-Muhammad al-Hazrami married the sultan's mother, and had him put to death. Meanwhile, Khadija had married Jamal-ud-din, who managed to take over the reigns of power for his wife. As vizier he issued orders in her name. Succeeded by sister, Myriam.

1366-71 Regent Khanum Beng Shi of Yuan China
For the pretender Ming Sheng.

1370-73 Khanum Regnant Tulun Beg of the Golden Horde in Russia and Serbia
Member of the Akurdu Dynasty.

1379-81 Sultan Myriam Raadafati Kambadi Kilege of the Maldive Islands
Also known as Queen Siri Suvama Abaarana. Her sister, Sultan Khadija, reigned three times beginning in 1337. Myriam was the last of the Lunar Dynasty and was deposed by a Moslem cleric by the name of Fagi Mohamed son of Kaeumani Kaulhannaa Kilege of Maakuratu, who was succeeded by his daughter Daainu Kambaa in 1383.

1383-88 Sultan Malikat Daainu Kambaa Radafati Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands
Also known as Fatima, she was daughter of Sultana Myriam, who was deposed by Fagi Mohamed in 1381. Daainu was deposed by her husband who ascended the throne as Sultan Abdulla II and reigned a month and a half before being assassinated by Osman of Fehendu. 

Unnamed North African Lady 14…. Tribal Leader Lalla Aziza in Morocco

Very influential during her lift-time in her Berban tribe, she is now considered a saint who protects chasseurs and the aèdes berbères.

14.... Malika Tindu of the Jallarid Dynasty (Iraq)
Ruled sometime during the 15th century, and had the khubta - Friday's prayers - preached in her name.

Unnamed Muslim Lady 1411-19 Governor and Sultan Tandu of Baghdad (Iraq)
Also known as Tindu, she belonged to the Jalarid Dynasty, a branch of the Ilkhan Mongol rulers, and daughter of king Awis. She was first married to al-Zahir Barquq, the last Mamluk king of Egypt. She did not like life in Cairo and her husband let her go back to Baghdad, where she married her cousin Shah Walad bin Ali, the Governor for the Caliph, and after his death she acceded to the throne, had coins stuck in her name and the khutba (sovereign's prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques. She was one of the last Mongol rulers in the area.

1432 Regent Dowager Sultana Aisha Sia of Ternate (Indonesia)
After the death of her husband Paduka Sri Sultan Bessi Muhammad Hasan, Kaicili Komalo Pulu, Sultan of Ternate (1377-1432), who established himself as paramount ruler of the Moluccas, taking the title of Kolano ma-Lukku in 1380, for grandson Kaicili Ngolo-ma-Kaya, who succeeded as Paduka Sri Sultan Gapi Baguna II. She was daughter of another sultan of the state.

Unnamed Arab Lady Around 1450 Chieftainess Sharifa Fatima of the Zaydi (Yemen)
The daughter of the religious leader, Imam al-Zayel al-Nasir Li Din Allah, she and her tribe took San'a by force of arms in the mid 15th century.

1461-70 Regent Dowager Sultana Mhduma Gahan of Bahmani Sahi (India)
For Nizanu Shah (d. 1463) and Sams ad-Din Muhamed Shah II (1463-82).

Unnamed Muslim Lady 1467 Princess Regnant Bigum Hatun of Qara Quyünlü (Iraq)
Ruler of a Turkish Tribe in  Mesopotamia

1470-circa 92 Regent Khatun Mandughai of Mongolia
Also known as Mandugaya Setsen Khantun, she was widow of Grand Khan Mandaghol, the 27th successor of Jengis Khan, who was succeeded by his nephew, Bolkho, in 1467. When he was assassinated three years later, the mother of his five-year-old son, Dayan Qagani, had deserted the child, and Mandughai took him under her protection, proclaimed him khan, and became his regent. She assumed command of the Mongol troops and defeated their enemy, the Oirat. In 1481 she married Dayan, and 1491-92 she again lead the army to fend off the Orat.

1470-90 We Ban-ri Gau Daeng Marawa Makalappi Bisu-ri La Langpili Patta-ri La We Larang , Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)
Styled Arung Majang before her accession on the death of her father. Her ceremonial name was Malajangi-ri China, and she was mother of two sons.

1470-... Sultana Narisa Malik uz-Zahir of Samudra Pasai Kesepulih (Indonesia)
Daughter of Sultan Kadir al Malik uz-Zahir ibnu al-Marhum of Pasai and married to Sultan Muhammad of Aceh, who reigned (1465-77)

Valide Sultan in the 1400s

1481-92 Amina Gul-Bahar Khanum Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

The Valide Sultan was the mother of the sultan, and had an important place in the imperial family. In some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. She was married to Mohammed II and mother of Bajazet (1481-1512), and lived (1434-94)  

Spanish Muslim lady

1482-92 Regent 'A'isha al-Hurra of Cordova (Spain)

Gained support from the nobles and military leaders to depose her husband, 'Ali abu al-Hasan (reigned 1461-82), who was being infatuated by his Christian concubine, Isabella, who had converted to Islam and taken the name of Soraya. Her son, Muhammad Abu 'Abdallah was proclaimed as caliph. She played a prominent role in the last years of the Muslim reign in the south of Spain, which was conquered by their Catholic majesties, Isabel I of Castilla and Fernando of Aragon.

1482-1530 President of the Regency Council The Makhduma-e-Jahan of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)
As Dowager Queen, she was Regent for son Mahmud Shah Bahmani, who ascended the throne at the age of 12 years, when some usurpers had been overthrown.

Unnamed Muslim Woman 15.. Princesss Regnant Nur Begum of Hunza (Afganistan)
The daughter of Girkis Han, she ruled for 12 years of the mountainous region on the boarder to China. Succeeded by nephew Ayaso I.

Unnamed North African Lady 1510-52 Governor Sayyida al-Hurra of Tetouán (Morocco)
First confirmed as prefect and then appointed governor of the city state of Tetouán ("Hakima Tatwan"). She was the undisputed leader of the pirates in the western Mediterranean. She was married to Sultan Al-Mandri and after his death she married Ahmad al-Wattasi, who reigned (1524-49). After her first husband's death, she gained the title al-hurra (Sovereign Lady). She was member of the Andalusian noble family, Banu Rashid, who immigrated to Morocco after the Christian conquest of Muslim Spain. She was deposed in 1552. 

1520-34 Gulbehar Hatun Mahidevran Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Aisha Hafsa Khanum, she was  mother of Suleiman II, the son of Selim I. In some aspects the Valide Sultan was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire.

1521-32 Regent The Dowager Queen  Njai Tjili of Ternate (Indonesia)
Regent for sons Deijalo and Bohejat. In 1532 Prince Kaitjil became sultan.

Roxelana of the Ottoman Empire 1523-58 De-facto Ruler Kadin Roxelana of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Very influential during the reign of her husband Sultan Süleiman II (1520-66). She had originally been bought as a slave by Süleiman's friend Ibrahim Pascha. The Pascha later gave her to the Sulatan as a gift. she is believed to have been born in Russia and lived (circa 1507-58)

1529-30 Regent Dowager Sultan Dudu of Janupur (India)

After the death of her husband, Muhammed, she was regent for Galal Han, who was deposed in 1533. Under her family's reign, the state became the home of Muhammadan culture and refuge for men of letters. She was killed in 1530. 

Ethiopian Lady 1543-52 Regent Dowager Sultana Bat'ial Dël Wanbara of Harar (Ethiopia)
In charge of the territory after her husband, Imam Ahmad had been killed. She reigned jointly with 'Ali Jarad. She had accompanied her husband on his expeditions of conquest in the Christian highlands. At times she had to be carried on their shoulders up and down steep and rocky mountain slopes, twice in a state of pregnancy. She gave birth to Muhammad in 1531 and Ahmad two years later. After the defeat and death of her husband and the capture of her young son Muhammad, she fled to the north-west of Lake Tana, and eventually succeeded in returning to Harar, then at the center of Adal power. Her first task was to make arrangements for the exchange of her eldest son Muhammad for Emperor Galawdewo's brother, Minas. Del Wanbara was determined to revenge her husband's death and, nine years later, agreed to marry the Emir of Harar, Nur Ibn Mujahid, son of her first husband's sister, seeing in him the best prospect of achieving her aim. Emir Nur began by rebuilding Harar, which had been sacked, and enclosed the town with a wall which can be seen to this day. Having reorganized his forces, he undertook a new conquest of the Christian highlands and, in 1559, killed Emperor Galawdewos in battle. She was daughter of Imam Mehefuz, governor of Zayla and de facto ruler of the state of Adal. She married Imam Ahmad and, ignoring the protests of his soldiers, 

1544-? Politically influential Mihrumâh Sultana of the Ottoman Empire
Only daughter of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent by Hürrem Sultan. Her father ored his her, and complained with her every wish. She married Rüstem Paþa, Governor-General of Diyarbakýr, who was shortly afterwards appointed grand vizier. According to Ottoman historians, Hürrem, Mihrumâh and Rüstem Paþa conspired to bring about the death of Þehzade Mustafa, who stood in the way of Mihrumâh Sultan’s influence over her father. The fact that Mihrumâh encouraged her father to launch the campaign against Malta, promising to build 400 galleys at her own expense; that like her mother she wrote letters to the King of Poland; and that on her father’s death she lent 50.000 gold sovereigns to Sultan Selim to meet his immediate needs, illustrate the political power which she wielded.  Her husband was grand vizier in the periods 1544-1553 and 1555-1561, and she and her mother formed an inner circle in the government which evidently influenced the sultan's decisions particularly in issues concerning the succession and the future of the sultanate. They were accused of putting pressure on her father to execute his eldest surviving son, Mustafa. At that critical point when Sultan Süleyman was faced with open protest from the army and negative public opinion following the murder of Mustafa, Süleyman was forced to replace his son-in-law in the position of grand vizirate with Kara Ahmed Pasha, a war hero and favourite of the army. But within two years under pressure from the inner circle under Hürrem, Kara Ahmed was eliminated and Rustem resumed the grand vizirate, keeping the office until his death in 1561.

Circa 1545-ca.1570/80 Sultan Hudah bint Sarmah al-Fasi of Fazzan (Libya)
Grandchild of Muhamad al-Fasi Fezzan. The state mainly consisted of oases in the Sahara Desert, and the population is largely Arab, with Berber and black African influence. Located on caravan routes connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Sudan, Fazzan was  long important in the trans-Saharan trade. From the early 16th to the early 19th century  it was the center of the Bani Muhammad dynasty, which originated in Morocco.

Unnamed Tartar Lady 1549-51 Regent Dowager Princess Syun Beka of Kazan (Russia)
Regent for son. Today Kazan is the capital of the Russian Republic of Tatarstan. 

1556-64 Regent for the Governor Mah Cucak Bigum of Kabul, Afganistan
Reigned for Governor Miza Muhammad Hakim (1556-85) hereditary representative of the Grand Mogul of India. She was murdered in 1565 

Unnamed Mughal Lady 1560-62 De-facto regent Maham Anga of the Mughal Empire (India) 

The chief nurse of Emperor Akbar, she gained influence after she convinced Akbar to dismiss his minister, Bairam. Her power began to wane in 1561, when Akbar appointed Atkah Khan as chief minister. Five months later her son, Adham Khan, Akbar's foster-brother, attempted to assassinate Atkah Khan, but was executed, and she died shortly after, and the emperor, who was now 19 ruled alone from then on. 

1574-83 Politically Influential Nurbanu Sultan Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Nur Banu took an active part in the governance of the empire as the chief advisor of her son, Murad III. Of Italian origin, she was married to Selim III, and lived (1530-83).  (or to 1595)

Amina of Zaria 1576-1610 Queen Amina Sarauniya of Zazzua, Zaria and Abuja
1580-82 Queen of Kano (Nigeria)
Probably the granddaughter of Sarkin (king) Zazzau Nohir. Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling Queen of Zazzua. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials. Although her mother's reign was known for peace and prosperity, Amina also chose to learn military skills from the warriors. Queen Bakwa died around 1566 and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power. When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina became Queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever. Lived (circa 1533-ca- 1610)

Persian Queen 1577-80 Regent Dowager Queen Mahid-I Uliyah of Persia 

Regent for Esmâil II (1576-78) and Shah Mohammed Khodâbanda (1578-87) of the Safavid Dynasty, which was of Turkmen origin and established themselves first at Tabriz, which had been the capital of the Mongol Il Khans, in Turkish speaking Azerbaijanistan. They also brought the Shi'ite branch of Islam to Persia.

Unnamed Indian Princess 1580-90 Regent Dowager Sultana Cand Bibi of Bijapur (India)
1596-99 Regent of Ahmadnagar 
After her husband, 'Ali 'Adil Shah II, was killed in 1580, she was regent for her nephew, Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II, and ruled with great prudence and intelligence till the young king came of age. When order was restored in Bijapur kingdom, Chand Bibi went back to her motherland Ahmadnagar, where the ruler, Murtada Shah, died at a moment when the foreign relations of the state were strained to breaking-point and was imminent, she returned to Bijapur, and mustered some reliable troops in consideration of the defence of Ahmadnagar fort against the mighty army of the Mughals led by their able general. After this great defence, Chand Bibi came to be known as Chand Sultana. Later the Mughals succeeded to turn the troops of Chand Bibi and had a siege over Ahmadnagar in 1008/1599. This time, emperor Akbar himself rushed to Deccan and pitched his tents outside the city. Chand Bibi became desperate and resisted the Mughal attacks with such courage that the invaders were repelled at many places. At length, Hamid Khan, the traitor allowed the Mughal force to enter Ahmadnagar, and entered the palace of Chand Bibi to kill her. At that moment of disaster, Chand Bibi came out of her apartments and fought bravely and was killed, and thus, Ahmadnagar was captured by the Mughals in 1600. She was daughter of Hussain NIzam shah of Ahamadnagar, and lived (1550-99).

1584-1616 Raja Ijau I of Patani (Thailand)
Also known as Ratu Hijau "The Green Queen", she succeeded brother as ruler of the Malayan kingdom-sultanate, and was succeeded by sister in 1616. Her aunt, Raja A'isyah had sometime been regent for Sultan Bahdur after Sultan Manzur Syah who ruled (1564-73). She was succeded by sister.

Unnamed Ottoman Sultana

1595-1603 Politically Influential Safiye Vailde Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Took an active part in the governance of the empire as the chief advisor of her sons  Murad III and Mehmed III. She lived (1550-1605)

Unnamed Ottoman Sultana 1603-05 De-facto Ruler Handam Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Her full title was Daulatlu Ismatlu Hansam Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, and she was very powerful during the reign of Ahmed Khan I (1613-17), and lived (1576-1605).

1607-09 Sultan Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu, Sultana of Land and Sea, Lady of the Thousand Islands and Sultans of the Maldive Islands 

In spite of the fact that the island was Islamic, the rulers continued to use ancient Sanskrit titles alongside their Islamic styles until the middle of the twentieth century. The sultanate was attacked by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century but regained its independence in 1573. They also fell prey to the marauding raids of the Ali Rajas of Cannanore, who frequently kidnapped princes and influential nobles and carried them off to the Laccadives. Although close trading relations were established with the Dutch in Sri Lanka, the Maldives remained aloof from the Western powers for another two centuries. She was never secure as ruler due to a long civil war. She died at sea or on Mahibadu Island, Ari Atol, while on pilgrimage to give alms.

1607-27 Panembahan Putri Bunku of Sukudana (Indonesia)
Succeeded husband.

After 1609-before 1630 Sri Paduka Ratu Sepudak of Sambas (Indonesia)
A descendant of the Majapahit Kings and the last Hindu ruler of the kingdom. Her youngest daughter, Putri Mas Ayu Bungsu's husband, Radin Sulaiman, became Sultan of Sambas. He was son of the Sultan of Brunei.

Nur Jahan 1611-28 De-facto Ruler Empress Nur Jahan of India
Married to the Mughul Emperor Jahangir, she  was an excellent conversationalist, a fine judge of Persian poetry and a poet herself. Her accomplishments made her an irresistible companion for the emperor. Nur Jahan was a patron of painting and architecture whose interests also extended to the decoration of rooms as well as the designing of ornaments, brocades, rugs and dresses. After his death in 1627 she resided in Lahore until her own death. Born as Mehr un-Nissa in Persia. (d. 1645)

1616-24 Raja Ratu Biru of Patani (Thailand)
In 1584, Patani entered its golden age with the rule of four successive Queens, Ratu Hijau ("The Green Queen"), Ratu Biru ("The Blue Queen"), Ratu Ungu ("The Violet Queen") and Ratu Kuning ("The Yellow Queen"). Biru was the second of three sisters on the throne. 

1617-18 and 1622 Naib-i-Sultanat (Regent) Valide Sultana II  of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
After the death of her husband, Sultan Ahmed Khan I (1603-17), she was regent for son. Mustapha Khan I (1717-23). She was born in Europe, and lived (1576-1623).

1618-20 Kahadija Mahfiruz Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Daulatlu Mahfiruz, her full title as mother sultan Osman II, was Daulatlu Ismatlu Mahfiruz Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari. In some aspects the Valide Sultan was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. She lived (1590-1620)

1623-32 Naib-i-Sultanat (Regent) Kösem Mahpeyker Valide Sultan  of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
1632-51 De-facto regent
Her full name and title was Daulatlu Ismatlu Kulsum Mahpeyker Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari.Kösem was regent for son Murad, (1623-40) who succeeded at the age of 11, for Ibrahim (1640-48) who was mentally disturbed and for grandson Mehmed IV, who succeeded at the age of 7 in 1648. In 1651 she plotted against her daughter-in-law, but was killed instead. Of Greek origin, she lived (1589-1651)

1624-35 Raja Ratu Ungu of Patani (Thailand)
During the reign of the of three sisters the Malayan Kingdom-Sultanate was expanded its borders to include Kelantan and Trengganu and became the most powerful Malay state after Johor. It was during this time that Patani became renowned for manufacturing cannon, producing three of the largest bombards ever cast in the region - 'Mahalela', 'Seri Negara' and 'Seri Petani'. With each measuring over six metres in length. Also known as "The Violet Queen", she was succeeded by daughter.

Unnamed Maharani From 1626 Regent Aayat Bahs Bigum of Golkonda (India)
After the death of her husband, she became regent for Sultan Abd Allah (1613-26-72). The Golkonda state broke from Gulbarga in 1518 and remained independent under eight sultans until 1687 when it was conquered by the Great Mughal Aurangzeb.

1632/33 Sultan Alimah I of Nzwani, Comoro Islands
Formerly known as Anjouan, an Island in the  Mozambique Channel off north west Madagascar  between Mayotte and Njazídja in the  Indian Ocean. The hilly island is only  424 square kilometers. 

Procession of the Queen of Patani 1635-88 Raja Ratu Kuning of Patani (Thailand)
Known as "The Yellow Queen", she succeeded her mother Queen Raja Ungu as the last of four succesive Queens. During her reign the country fell into gradual decline. This decline probably prompted her to submit to Siam as a vassal state and send the 'Bunga Mas' to Ayutthya. She died without an heir and the country descended into decades of political chaos and conflict. Fortunately for Patani, Siam was too weak to take advantage of the situation, being too busy driving off crippling Burmese invasions into her territory, culminating in the pillaging and complete destruction of Ayutthaya in 1767.

Around 1635 Datu We Tan-ri Sui of Mario-ri Wawo (Indonesia)
Daughter of  I-Dangka We Tan-ri Tuppu, Arumpone of Bone (1590- 1607) and her husband and successor  La Tan-ri Ruwa Paduka Sri Sultan Adam (1607-08). She was married to La Pakkou To' Angkone Taddampali, Prince of Bone and their son became Sultan and Arumpone of Bone in 1672, at a time when he had already succeeded her as Datu of Mario-ri Wawo. He lived (1635-96). It is not known when she lived. 

Name plate of Sultan Safiat 1641-75 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Ratu Safiat ud-din Taj ul-'Alam Shah Johan Berdaulat Zillu'llahi fi'l-'Alam binti al-Marhum Sri Sultan Iskandar Muda Mahkota Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh (North Sumatra) (Indonesia)
Born as Raja Permusairi Putri Sri 'Alam, she was installed on the death of her husband and relative, Paduka Sri Sultan Iskandar Thani 'Ala ud-din Mughayat Shah Johan Berdaulat Zillu'llahi fi'l-'Alam ibnu al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad Shah, who had succeeded her father, Sultan Iskander, in 1636. She lost Pahang to Johor soon after her accession. Her reign ushered in half a century of rule under women sovereigns, beginning with her husband's other widow, 'Taj ul-Alam. Her female successors, were all chosen by the increasingly powerful regional nobles and territorial magnates unwilling to submit to surrender power to a strong ruler. All four were chosen after they had past childbearing age, so that husbands or sons could not establish themselves in the supreme authority. Her throne name Safiat ud-din Taj ul-'Alam Shah means "Purity of the Faith, Crown of the World", and she was succeeded by Sultana Nagiat, and (d. 1675)

1651-56 Naib-i-Sultanat (Regent) Khadija Turhan Hadice Valide Sultan  of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Had been Valide Sultan since 1648, and took over as regent for her son, Mehmed IV (1648-51-87) after her mother-in-law was killed. As her predecessor as regent, she took part in the deliberations in the Imperial Diet seated behind a curtain, she authorized all appointments and cooperated closely with the Grand Vizier as "The Guardian and Representative of the Sultan". Of Russian origin, she lived (1627-83).

Unnamed Zanzibar Lady 1652-1697 Sultan Fatimah of North Zanzibar (Tanzania)
Succeeded Sultan Bakiri, her brother, who had been sultan of the whole island. In 1652 Sultan ibn Seif of Oman drove her off the island, but for the next forty years, the Portuguese continued to maintain the upper hand and she was soon able to return to Zanzibar. In 1697 the Arabs captured Zanzibar and took her prisoner, deporting to her Muscat. After 10 years she was allowed to return, but her island remained under Arab control.

Unnamed Central Asian Khanum 1662-67 Regent Dowager Fatima Sultan Saiyia Burhan of Kasimov/ Borjegin-Sibil (The Golden Horde) (Russia)
1677-81 Sultan Regnant
Also known as Sultana Sayyidovna , she was first regent or Saiyia Burhan, before becoming ruler of the Ilkhan Kingdom of Qasim in Central Asia in her own right and had the Khutba (sovereign's prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate rule. She was a descendant of the Tatars golden horde and said to be the last Mongol sovereign. The state was annexed by the Russian 1681 and she died the same year.  

Princess Rashanara Begum 1662 De-facto Ruler Imperial Princess Rashanara Begum of the Indian Mongul Empire
Seized the power during the illness of the Emperor Aurangzer.

Unnamed Noble Muslim Lady 1675-77 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)
Granddaughter of Sultan 'Ali Mughayat II Ri'ayat Shah, who ruled 1604-07, and married Laksamana 'Abdu'r Rahman bin Zainal Abidin, Orang Kaya Kaya Maharaja Lela Melayu, son of Zainal Abidin bin Daim Mansur, Tengku of Ribee. Perhaps mother of Sultan 'Ala ud-din Ahmad Shah Johan Badr Berdaulat, but she was succeeded by Sultana Zaqiyat. Her Throne-name Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah means Light of the world, Purity of the Faith. (d. 1677)

Circa 1676-circa 1711 Sultan Alimah II of Nzwani, Comoro Islands
Arabic-style sultanates developed in Nzwani as early as the sixteenth century with different areas of the island first ruled by chiefs known as Fani. Later, the chiefs were involved in conflicts and appealed to Europeans to intercede on their behalf. Eventually, in 1886, the island became a French protectorate and was formally annexed by France to its possessions in 1909.

1678-88 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zaqiyat ud-din 'Inayat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Mahmud Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)
Succeeded sultana Naqiat. She was daughter of Raja Mahmud Shah bin Raja Sulaiman Shahand and married to a great-grandson of Sultan Mukmin, who reigned 1579. Succeeded by her sister, Sultana Zinat. Sultana Zaqiyat (d. 1688).

1680s Sultan Nur al-Azam of Sulu (Philippines)
Sulu is an archipelago in the extreme southwestern corner of the Philippines, just east of Sabah (Malaysia), the northeast corner of Borneo. The region is the home of a people outsiders call Moros, a feroce and deeply independent sea-going nation; it was never conquered by the Spanish authorities in the Philippines. She succeeded Salah ud-Din Bakhtiyar and was succeeded by al-Haqunu.

1687-91 Regent H.H. Sultana Mariyam Kaba'afa'anu Rani Kilege of the Maldive Islands
After the having poisoned her husband, Iskander Ibrahim, she became regent for their infant son, Sultan Muhammad I. She was killed off Dunidu Island when a spark from a victory salute blew up a powder magazine, destroying the royal vessel in which she was sailing. Her son died shortly after of the wounds he received in the explosion that killed his mother.

Contemporary Picture of Saliha Dilasub

1687-89 Saliha Dilasub Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Her full title as mother of the sultan was Daulatlu Ismatlu Mahfiruzl Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, and in some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Mother of Süleiman II (1687-91), she lived (1627-89)

1688-99 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zinat ud-din Kamalat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Umar of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)
The last of four consecutive female rulers, she succeeded her sister-in-law, sultana Zaqiyat. Born as Putri Raja Setia, she was great-granddaughter of Sultan Mukmin, who ruled 1579. In 1699 Sayyid Ibrahim Habib, obtained a decree from Mecca stating that female rule was contrary to the tenets of Islam. He deposed her, married her and assumed the Sultanate. They had two sons who both became sultans.

Unnamed Ottoman Sultana

1695-1715 Mah-Para Ummatallah Rabia Gül-Nüz Ummetulla Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Mother of Mustafa II (1695-1703) and Ahmed III (1703-30). She did not play any major role during their reigns, but she was asked to approve and authorize the replacement of Mustafa by Ahmed, which she did. As the senior representative of the dynasty, her approval was considered to be imperative. Daughter of the Venetian Retimo Verzizzi, she lived (1647-1715). 

1700-07 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Sahib Maharaj (Sita Bai Ali Sahib) of Satara (India)

In 1714 her son, H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760), became ruler of Kolhapur. Tara Bai lived (1675-1761).

1700-17.. Sultan Aisa of Ma’yuta (Mayotte, today a French Possession)
At a not known date, she was succeeded by daughter, Sultan Monavo.  

17.. Sultan Nyau wa Faume of Ngazidja (Comoro Islands)
The island is also known as Grande Comore. 

17... Sultan Adji di Kurin-dana Malaka of Berau (Indonesia)
Berau is a scarcely populated area in the Island of Borneo.  

17.. Inas Embun Serin of Undang Luak (Malaysia)
The state was one of nine minor states which joined in the Negeri Sembilan Confederation.

Unnamed Arab Lady 17.. Amira Ghaliyy al-Whhabiyya in Saudi Arabia
A Hanibali from Tarba, she led a military resistance movement to defend Mecca against foreign take over in the beginning of the 18th century. She was given the title of Amira, the female equivalent of the title of Amir - military leader. 

1704 Regent Princess Fatima of the Maldive Islands
When the news of the possible drowning of Isdu King Siri Muthei Ranmani Loka/ Sultan Ibrahim Mudhiruddine who after his abdication was known as Isdu Ibrahim Bodu Kilegefan, while returning from the Hajj pilgrimage reached Malé in 1704, his wife and regent Princess Fatima attempted to usurp the throne in her own right. Her rival and brother-in-law, Admiral-in-chief Hussain was banished to Naifaru. Fatima was however displaced from the Eterekoilu - the residence of the Sultans - by the Prime Minister Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan who was crowned as King Siri Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Sasthura - Sultan Mudzhaffar Mohamed Imaduddine II.

1707-16 Raja Devi P'ra-Chao of Patani (Thailand) 
Successor of the male ruler, Raja Emas Jayam Bagunda, who reigned 1704-07 and 1721-28.

1714-1715, 1720, 1724-1738 and 1741-1749 H.H. Bata-ri Toja Daeng Talaga Sultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din, Arumpone of Bone 
1715 and 1728-1738 Ruler of Soppeng
1719-20 Datu of Luwu (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father, H.H. La Patau Paduka Sri Sultan Idris. Styled Datu Chita and Arung Timurang before her accession and during the times she had vacated the throne. First abdicated in favour of her brother. After his deposition she again became ruler, but abdicated immediately in favour of her eldest half-brother. Restored for the third time on his deposition, in 1724. Married to Sultan Muharram Harun ar-Rashid of Sumbawa, Prince Pabukajuwa of Bone and Datu Ulaweng, Arung Zallieng, Adatuwang of Sidenreng, who was Regent of Bone 1724-1725, and finally to Daeng Mamuntuli, Arung Kayu, Regent of Bone 1726-1728. All but the third marriage ended in Divorce. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Tipuluna had no children, and she was succeeded by a female relative, Siti Nafisha, and lived (1687-1749).

1723-47 Dato' Putri Siti Awan Setiawanm I of Johol (Malaysia)
The state of Johol is one of the component states of the Negri Sembilan
Federation. Originally known as Pasir Besar, it was renamed Luak Johol in
1723. The ruler is one of the four traditional electors of the Yang
di-Pertuan of the Negri Sembilan federation. Setiawanm I was the first ruler and she was married to Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lelei Perkasa Setia Wan.

Unnamed Kalmykian lady

1724-37 Regent Dowager Princess Dharmapala of The Volga Kalmyks (Lower Volga Area in Russia and Kazakstan)
1741-45 Regent

The first time she was regent for Cerlu Donduk, who reigned (1725-35) until he was deposed, the second time was after the death of Donduk Ombu, Prince of the Kalmykians. (d. 1741)

1728-32 Rani Herrabichi Kadavube Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)
Succeeded by Rani Junmabe.

1730-95 De facto Ruler Begum Mamola Bai of Bhopal (India)
1777 Regent
Exercised a dominant influence during the reign of her husband, Yar Mohammad Khan (1728-42) after their marriage. After his death, she was de facto ruler during the reign of her stepson Faiz Mohammad Khan, who concentrated on religious contemplation. After his death she acted as regent and quickly proclaimed Faiz' brother, Hayat, as Nawab, but Faiz' widow, Bahu Begum, lead a revolt and set up an alternative government which lasted until 1780. Also during Hayat's reign she was the effective ruler, and it was she who took decisions on military campaigns and all other administrative affairs. She was born as a Hindu Rajput Princess, and lived (1715-95).

1730-39 Saliha Sabkati Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

After the death of Ahmed III a revolt of the Janissaries put her son with Mustafa II,Mahmud I (1750-54) on the throne, and she became Sultan Valide and in some aspects considered  joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Affairs of state were largely in the capable hands of the Nubian agha Beshir (1653–1746), who was the power behind a number of successive grand viziers At the tune Ottoman Empire was involved in wars with Persia. 1737 Emperor Karl IV entered the war with Russia on Russian side, but by the separate peace of Belgrade (1739) he restored North Serbia to Turkey. Mahmud was succeeded by his brother, Osman III. Saliha Sabkati  lived (1680-1739).

1738-41 H.H. I-Danraja Siti Nafisah Karaeng Langelo, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)
Succeeded Sultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din. She was second daughter of H.H. I-Mappainga Karaeng Lempangang Paduka Sri Sultan Safi ud-din, Sultan of Tallo, by his first wife, H.H. I-Tanitaja Siti Amira Maning Ratu, Arung Palakka and Heir Apparent of Bone, whose father was sultan 1720-21. Siti Nafisah died unmarried and lived (1729-41).

1739-96 Politically Influential Nawab Aliya Sadrunissa Begum, Nawab Begum of Oudh (or Avadh) (India)
She was the oldest daughter of Burhan-ul-Mulk, Subedar of Avadh. Married to her cousin and father's successor Mirza Muhammad Muqim (Safdar Jung) (1739-64) in around 1724. When her father died in 1839, Nadir Shah plundered Delhi in 1739, and the Avadh landlords and small chiefs who had been effectively subdued by her father, raised their heads and arms in the attempt to secure their individual independence. In his capacity as the Nawab of Avadh, her husband was hesitant to face them despite his superior military strength. Had it not been for Nawab Begum's forceful promptings which eventually culminated in success, there may have been no further history of Avadh. Her court and courtiers maintained the peace and pomp of Faizabad. Her son, Shuja-ud-daula's, died in 1775, and together with her daughter-in-law, Bahu Begum she secured the continued existance of the capital of Avadh, Faizabad. Imprisoned in 1781 by grandson together with daughter-in-law. She lived (circa 1712-96).

Unnamed Volga Kalmykian 1741 Regent Dowager Princess Gan of The Volga Kalmuks (Lower Volga Area) (Russia)
Regent for Kandul, who reigned in 1741. Gan later converted to Christianity and took the name Vera. Originally the Kalmyks lived in Central Mongolia. Reaching the Volga region in 1630. Since the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism has been the Kalmyk’s religion, and they are the only European Buddhist people, living to the northwest of the Caspian area. They live on the northwest shores of the Caspian Sea in the lower regions of the soviet Dagestan. Kalmyks are of the Turkic language group. 

Uzbek Lady 1746-70 Sovereign Princess Irdana Bi Erdeni of Khokanda (Uzbekistan)
Succeeded by Sulaiman who reigned for less than a year as Prince of Khokanda, which is a city near Tashkent, now located in a far eastern part of Uzbekistan. Founded in 1732, it stands on the site of the ancient city of Khavakend, obliterated by the Mongols in the 3rd century. It was ruled by the  Dzungarian Kalmucks until 1758, when it became part of China.

1746 Sultan Mwana Mimi Hadiga of Patta-Pate and Witu (Kenya)
There were 4 sultans that year. Pate is an island of the coast of Kenya.

1747-ca.60 Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lele Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Rambut Panjang, Dato' Undang of Luak Johol (Malaysia)
Succeeded by another woman; Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lela Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Putri Setiawan II , Dato' Undang of Luak Johol (1760-90) 

1748-50/53 Sultan Ratu Sarifah Fatima of Bantam (Bali) (Indonesia)
Appointed sultan after her husband, Mangkubumi was arrested after an uprising against the Dutch occupiers. She was deposed and banned from the state by the same Dutch regents.  

Mughal Queen 1748-54 De facto co-ruler Queen Udham Bai of the Mughal Empire (India)
Became powerful after the death of her husband, Muhammad Shah (Rawshan Akhtar) (1719-48), who lost the province of Kabul to Persia and during whose reign other provinces became practically independent. Her son, Ahmad Shah Badahur, was no stronger, and she dominated him completely. When The Marathas in Punjab rebelled, her son chose to flee, abandoning her and the other women at court. He was captured, blinded, and deposed and died in confinement in 1775.

Unnamed Maharani 1753-56 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Savitri Bai Raje Sahiba of Dewar (Senior) (India)
Widow of Tukaji Rao I Puar she was regent for adopted son, Krishnaji Rao I Puar (1753-89)

1753 Nominal Regent Princess Sanfa Rendi Kabafa'anu of the Maldive Islands

Nominally reigned as Regent for her brother Hasan Manikufa'anu Sultan al-Ghazi al-Hasan 'Izz ud-din Baderi. Her father Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II reigned ( 1721 -50 )

1753-57 Nominal Regent Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu of the Maldive Islands
1757-59 Rani-Sultana  
In 1752 her father, H.H. Sultan al-Mukarram Muhammad 'Imad ud-din III, was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied. The occupation was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. The sultan died in captivity in 1757. The de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassam Maniku. Her sister Amina Kkanbafa’anu was regent in 1773.

1754 and 1761 Governor-Regent Muglani Suraiya Bigum of Lahore (India)  
Regent for Muhammad Amin Han, who lived 1751-54 and was governor for the Emperor of the Mongul-Afgan Empire of India in 1754.

1754-56 Sehsuvar Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Mother of Osman III (1754-57). Of Russian origin, she lived (1682-1756).

Unnamed Indian Rani 1760-73 (†) Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Jiji Bai Sahib Maharaj  of Kolhapur (India)  
Jijibai was regent for adopted son, since her husband H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760) only had a posthumously born daughter with one of his seven wifes. He was Raja of Satara (with his mother as regent) and then of the newly created state, Kolhapur) Jiji Bai lived (1716-73),

Unnamed Jaipur Mahrarani 1768-78 Regent Dowager Rani Chandawatiji Maharani Sahiba of Janipur (India)
Regent for son H.H. Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Prithvi Singh II Bahadur, who lived (1763-78). He was married to several wifes, and was succeeded by brother. 

1773-74 Joint Regent Princess Amina Kkanbafa’anu the Maldive Islands

Her brother, Sultan Al-Haj Muhammed (1766-77), appointed her and her huband, Ali Shah Bandor Vela’ana’a Manikufa’anu, as joint regents, when he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca . He drowned on his return in 1774. Her sister, Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu, had been regent 1753-57.

1777-80 Opposition Leader Bahu Begum of Bhopal (India)
Widow of Nawab Faiz, and disputed the succession of his brother, Hayat, to the throne. She began a revolt against the de facto ruler her step-mother-in-law, Mamola Bai, supported by members of another branch of the family. She began holding courts at her husband’s tomb and set up a parallel government in Islamnagar. For three years she regularly held Dunbars (Assemblies) as an act of defiance against Mamola Bai. 

Rani Suimri Begum 1778-1803 Regent Dowager Rani Suimri Begum of Sandhana (India)
1803-36 Rani Regnant
For Musffard ad-Daula Zafar Nab Han (Aloyis Baltasaar Reinhard) - illegitimate son of her husband, Bum Raja (1773/76-78), who was born in Luxembourg as Walther Reinhard. After her stepson's death, she became Rani in her own right, and continued to perform her contracted military duties, leading her troops into battle in person. However she concentrated her efforts on developing the agriculture of Sardhana, which became famous as an island of green in a land of desolation, using her troops to keep out marauders and to enforce her policy, instead of plundering her neighbors as was the general practice at the time. She played a prominent part in the politics of the time, the fall of Moghuls, the rise of the Mahrattas, and the establishment of the British. She emerged as a sovereign Princess of her own territories, which she had enlarged and improved, so that she accumulated vast wealth. Born as Johanna Noblis (d. 1836)

1782-92 Sultan Halimah III of Nzwani (Comoro Islands)
Her name is also spelled Alimah. She was de-factor ruler with Abdallah I until 1788 and in 1792 he again ruled until 1706. The island was formerly known as Anjouan.

18.. Mfahme Nyau wa Faume of Bambo (Comoro Islands)
Today Bambo is the capital of  the Comoro Islands

18.. Sultan Ja Mhaba Hadija bint Ahmed of Bajini  (Comoro Islands)
Succeeded Hashimu bin Ahmed and he also ruled after her. His successor died 1886.

18.. Embun Serin, The Undang Luak Inas of Inas (Malaysia)
The state which is also known as Jelai was one of nine minor states joined in the Negeri Sembilan Confederation

1807-08 Ayse Seniyeperver Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Daulatlu Ismatlu Aisha Sina Parvar Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, she was mother of Mustafa IV (1807-08) and lived (1761-1828)

1808-17 Politically Influential Naksh-i-Dil Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Advisor of her husband 1733-73 and for Sultan Selim III 1773-1789. Very powerful under reign of son, Mahmud II (1808-39), she lived (1768-1817).

1812-19 Dowager Tengku Puteri Raja Hamidah binti Raja Haji of Johor (Malaysia)
Her husband, H.H. Sultan Mahmud III Shah Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan 'Abdu'l Jalil Shah, Sultan of Johor and Pahang Dar ul-'Alam, died without naming a heir in 1811. It seems that Hamidah was one of the actors in the succession struggle, which resulted in her stepson, H.H. Sultan Husain Mu'azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Shah Alam, Sultan of Johor and Pahang Dar ul-'Alam, ascending the throne in 1819. She was daughter of Raja Haji bin Raja Chelak, 4th Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau, and (d. 1844)

1814-24 H.H Karaeng Bontomasugi Sultana Siti Saleh II of Tallo (Indonesia)

Succeeded her father H.H. I-Mappainga Karaeng Lempangang Paduka Sri Sultan Safi ud-din and married to La Potto, Datu Baringang and Prince of Bone. Her ceremonial name was Tumenanga-ri-Kanatojenna

1814-37 Politically Influential Badshah Begum of Oudh (Avadh) (India)

Her husband, Ghazi-ud-din Haider, preferred death for his son, Nasir-ud-din Haider, rather that his succession to the throne. Badshah Begum was childless. She, therefore, matched her husband's whim by having Nasir-ud-din's mother killed (another wife of Ghazi-ud-din), and by then adopting Nasir-ud-din. She brought up Nasir-ud-din as her own, and later took up arms against her husband. It was no ordinary confrontation. Badshah Begum had armed her women to the teeth, who,  overpowered the King and sabotaged all his stratagems. The outcome  was that Nasir-ud-din, did become the King of Avadh. When Nasir-ud-din later in his turn wanted to disinherit his son, Farid-un-Bakht, she took him under her wings, and refused to be threatened. Nasir-ud-din sent a brigade of women soldiers into the royal zenana to have her removed. The women of the zenana were no less armed so that a fierce battle took place with volleys of musket ammunition flying through Lucknow. The old Begum may have lost some fifteen or sixteen of her retainers, but the final victory was hers. She left the palace with a British guarantee that neither her life nor the life of the infant Farid-un-Bakht would ever be endangered again. In 1837 King Nasir-ud-din Haider died of poisoning. The British Resident  had already drafted a paper ready for the signature of the next King of Avadh. But Badshah Begum wante Farid-un-Bakht to be king, and she marched at the head of some two hundred heavily armed men towards the Palace. Her troops removed the incumbent ruler and his relations. Her troops could hardly contain their zeal, or ignore the fiery leadership of their heavily covered Begum. The following day the British opned fire and most of the Begum's men were killed or wounded, and she were sent to the fort of Chunar which was in British territory, where both she Farid-un-Bakht died in captivity. (d. 1846).

1815-ca 56 Sultan Dewa Aung Isteri Kaina of Indragiri (Indonesia)

The region is also called "Land of thousand ditches". This name pictures that most of the areas consist of wetland, rives streams and swamps. And small ditches, plotting the coconut plantation land which is the vegetation of the local people. Inhil community in general is of Malay culture. Nevertheless, there are also outsiders in this area from Banjar and Bugis ethnics. These outsiders then settling one generation to another, and producing a cultural form which is the combination of Riau Malay culture and Banjar and Bugis culture.

1815-circa 56 Dewa Aung Isteri Kania of Klungkung (Indonesia)
1849-circa 56 Susuhuna (Empress) of Bali and Lombok

The latter was a title given to the Klungkung rulers by the Dutch colonial powers

1819-38 Rani Mariambe Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)
Succeeded mother, Junumabe Adi-Raja Bibi II. In 1824 she made a formal written recognition of the suzerainty of the East India Company over the Island of Minicoy, which her mother had been forced to transfer in 1790. She and her successors, however, continued the tributary arrangement.  Mariabe was succeeded by daughter, Rani Hayashabe, who was first succeeded by son and in 1907 her daughter, Imbichi, ascended to the throne.

Qusida Begum Sahiba 1819-44 Regent Dowager Begum Kudsiyya Begum of Bhopal (India)
After the death of her husband, Mawab Nazar Mohammad Khan, she became regent for daughter, Sikandar. After she ascended to the throne, she continued to guide and counsel her daughter. It was her aim to demonstrate that a Muslim woman could rule as effectively as any man. She abandoned the wail, learnt to ride and led her forces in combat. She had a difficult relationship with the British, recognizing the importance of maintaining good relations with them, but the other hand she resented their inference in her government. Also know as HH Qusida Begum Sahiba or Princess Qudsia, she lived (1801-81).

1819-56 Politically influential Subadar Nawwab of Oudh (India)

Very powerful during the reign of Abul Mozaffar, and that of his son Soleyman (1827-37), his son Ali (1837-42), his son Amjad Ali  (1842-47) and finally during the reign of Wajid Ali, who was deposed in 1856, and died 1887. 

1823-35 H.H. I-Mani Ratu Sultana Salima Rajiat ud-din, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Data before her accession. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Kassi, she was unmarried and succeeded by brother, La Mapaseling Sultan Adam Nazim ud-din .

Unnamed Indian Rani 1825-37 Regent Dowager Nawab Sardar Bibi Sahiba of Radhanpur (India)
After the death of her husband H.H. Nawab Sher Khan Sahib Bahadur (1794-1813-25), she was regent for her infant stepson H.H. Nawab Muhammad Zorawar Khan Sahib Bahadurn (1822-25-74).

Unnamed Zanzibar Lady Around 1828 Chief Sheha Mwana wa Mwana of Tumbai (North Zanzibar)
Also known as Khadija bint Nwale, she succeeded father as Sheik of the state in North Zanzibar. Married to Hassan II of Zanzibarwho reigned before 1828 until 1845. Her successor reigned until 1856. 

1831-41 Regent Nawab Yamuna Bibi Sahiba of Balasinor (India)
After the death of her husband, Nawab Shri Jalal [Edul Khan] Sahib Bahadur, she was regent for son Nawab Shri Zorawar Khan Sahib Bahadur.

1833-40 Ruler 'Aisha of Tuggurt (Algeria)

Also known as Aichouch, she succeeded Sultan 'Ali IV bin al-Kabir as ruler of a Berber state in the south of the  country. Succeded by 'Abd ar-Rahman.

1838-52 Rani Hayashabe Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Succeeded mother, Rani Mariambe, and first succeeded by son. In 1907 her daughter, Imbichi, ascended to the throne. 

Until 1838 Rani Regnant Singhasari Cokorda of Karang Asem Singhasari (Indonesia) 

Until 1827 she reigned jointly with Gusti Gede Jelantik Sasak, 1827-35 with Gusti Ngurah Made Karang Asem and finally with Gusti Ngurah Bagus Pañji Karang Asem until 1838.

Unnamed Ethiopian Noble Lady 1839-51 (†)  Governor Weyzero Elleni of Hamasen (Eritrea)
Murdered together with grandsons in the fighting with the Emperor of Ethiopia.

1839-53 Bezmrâlem Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Daulatlu Ismatlu Bazim-i Alam Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, she was mother of Abdülmecid I (1839-61) and lived (1807-52)

Sultan Jumbe Fatimah 1842-67 and 1871-78 Sultan Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane  of Mwali/Mohéli (Comoro Islands)
Succeeded her father, Ramanetaka, cousin of Radama I of Madagascar, who conquered Mwali. Also known as Reketaka Jombe Sudy or Djoumbé Soudi or Djoumbé Fatouma . Jumbe Fatimah was married two times and was deposed by the French Colonial powers in 1867 but was reinstalled and ruled until her death.  She lived (1837-78)

1842-51 Regent Dowager Sultan Rovao of Mwali/Mohéli (Comoro Islands)
Reigned in the name of daughter together with her second husband, Tsivandini

Sikander Begum

1844-49 Regent Begum H.H. Sikander Begum Sahiba of Bhopal (India)
1859-68 Nawab Begum Regnant  

Had been proclaimed Reigning Begum at the age of 15 months in 1819 under the regency of her mother, Begum Quisada, who resigned in 1844, and on a special Dunbar conveyed in Bhopal, the British Political Agent, J.D. Cunningham, read out a proclamation from the Governor-General that Sikander would be the sole regent and exercise full executive powers on behalf of her 9 year old daughter, Shahjehan. She was the most aggressive, dynamic and charismatic. She rode, played polo, went tiger hunting and was an expert swordswoman. She reorganized the army, whose commander she was. She backed the winning horse in the 1857 mutiny and became the star of several British Dunbars held for Indian rulers. She was a devout Muslim but did not take the veil, but was the first Indian ruler to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca. She had separated from her husband, Gahangir Muhammad, who had been titular ruler, after a short period. She lived (1818-68).

Jahan Begum 1844-59 H.H. Nawwab Sultan Shah Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)
1868-1901 Nawab Begum Regnant

In 1844 she was proclaimed titular ruler of the state under the regency of her mother, Sikander Begum, in whose favour she abdicated. At a Dunbar held 17 day’s after her mother, Sikander Begum’s death in 1868, she was crowned Begum of Bhopal for the second time in her life. At the ceremony the British Agent of the Governor-General declared that her daughter, Sultan Jahan, would be heiress apparent. Shahjehan’s husband…became titular Nawab, and she tried to leave as much as the governing to him as possible, but he came at odds with the British, and was stripped of his title and position. During most of her reign, she was at odds with Sultan Jahan, and died without them being reconciled. She was interested in culture and an accomplished poet, and lived (1838-1901).  

1848-73 Politically Influential Maleka Jahan Khanum of Persia
Her official name was H.M The Mahd-i-'Aliua, also spelled Mahd-e Olia, "Sublime Cradle," she was grand-daughter of Fath 'Ali Shah, who was shah (1797-1834), wife of her cousin Mohammad Shah (1834-48) and mother of Nasser-ed-Din Shah (1848-96). She was one of the strongest women of the Qajar (Kadjar) Dynasty. Wielding her power from the Harem, once her son ascended the throne of Persia. She ensured the strengthening and survival of the Qajar nobility against the rivalries by commoners elevated to positions of prominence as a result of policies of successive Qajar (Kadjar) Shahs. She is characterized as an accomplished and cunning woman of some political gifts, strong personality, and characterized the undercurrent of matriarchy in the Qajar elite. She lived (1805-73) 

Tsarina Kurmandjan Datka of Alay Around 1850 Reigning Tsarina Kurmandjan Datka of Alay (Kirgistan)
Also known as Kurmanjan Mamatbai Kyzy, or Alai Queen, she was an outstanding leader of Kyrgyz nation. She had refused to live with the husband she was forced to marry and ruled the country alone when her second husband died, during the gloomy time of feudal despotism she could maintain a free spirit of independent nomad's life, traditional way living and Kyrgyz culture in Alay region. She was respected by all the foreign rulers she met during her reign, even by Kokand Khan – guardian of Muslim norms. At that time, it was considered astounding that a woman could govern such a huge territory as the Fergana valley. After the Kyrgyz territory was annexed by Russia in 1876, she continued the resistance movement. She lived (1811-1907) 

1857-60 Regent H.H. Panchai-tana I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara Sultana Um ul-Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa of Bone (Indonesia)
1860-... Datuk of Supa

Also known as Basse Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseempa, she was widow of her cousin, H.H. La Parenringi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Saleh Muhi ud-din, and regent for her infant son La Pamadanuka until his death. She was daughter of her husband's uncle, La Tan-ri suki, Arung Kajuwara, by his wife, the Adatuwang of Sawito. She was formerly styled  Arung Kajuwara and succeeded her mother's brother as reigning Datuk of Supa, where she was succeeded by the female ruler, Datuk Madallung, who reigned until 1902. 

1858-59 Arumponi Regnant Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abdel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseemba of Bone (Indonesia)

Succeeded by Ahmad Singkarru Rukka Arung Palakka, who reigned until 1871.

1858-59 Queen Basse Kajuwara Hai-de Abdel Haide Pelai-e’engie Paseempa of Celebes at the Moluccas (Indonesia)

Today the island is called Sulawesi Selatan. Among the many ethnic groups are the seafaring Bugis dominates the southern part, whereas the northern part is inhabited by the Torajas whose unique culture rivals that of Balinese. Famed for their seafaring heritage and Pinisi Schooners for centuries, the Bugis posses to the present day one of the last sailing fleets in the world. The Bugis vessels have sailed to as far as the Australian coast, leaving behind drawing of their ships on stone with words that have been integrated into the Aboriginal language of North Australia.

1861-1902 Adatuwang We Tan-ri-Paderang Bau Jella of Alita (Indonesia)
Succeeded Aru Anipong and was succeeded by La Pangorisang - both male rulers. Daughter of H.H. La Parenrengi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Saleh, Arumpone of Bone and I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara hadi Abel Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa, Datu of Supa - daughter of La Tan ri Suki, Arung of Kajuwara. We Tan-ri was married to H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Husain ibnu Sultan Muhammad Idris, Sultan of Gowa (1895-1906)

Unnamed Muslim Lady 1861-... Al Sitt  Bader Amin al-Din of the Druze in Lebanon
Became acting leader of the Druze Tribe after her husband, Said Beik Jumblatt had tried to reestablish the leadership of the Jumblatts, but was accused of fueling sectarian conflict between the Druze and the Maronites by the Ottomans, who sentenced him to life in prison, where he died of tuberculosis. The leadership afterwards went to her son Nassib. Said's other son, Najib, who managed to win over the Ottomans, who gave him the esteemed title of Pasha and appointed him governor of the Shouf in 1884. 

1861-76 Pertherhiyal Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Mother of Murad, and as Sultan Valide she was in some aspects considered  joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire

Queen Warqito Mastawat of Walo 1868-76 Regent Dowager Queen Warqito Mastawat of Walo (Ethiopia)
She was mother of the young Imam Amede Beshir, one of the two claimants to the leadership of the Weresek (Mammadoch) clan of Wollo. Emperor Tewodros had seized Amede Beshir, had him baptized as his godson, and had fought the mother of the other claimant, the rival Queen Mestawat. Although bitter rivals, both Mestawat and Werqitu were foes of the Emperor. Werqitu was not initially eager to help the Shewan prince even though his father had been a close ally. She initially decided to send emissaries to the Emperor to inform him that the Shewans were in her camp, and that she would exchange them for her son. Tewodros however was extremely furious when he found out about the escape of the Shewans. Her son died during the siege, and her grief and anger knew no bounds. Until the very end, she never stopped attacking Tewodros' army, and never held back aid from anyone who rebelled against him. 

Unnamed ruling Malaysian princess 1869-72 Regent Tengku Intan binti Tengku Alang Husain, Tunku Ampuan of Negri Sembilan (Malaysia)
Regent for son, H.H. Tuanku Antah ibni al-Marhum Raja Radin Sunnah, Yang di-Pertuan of Sri Menanti, who was elected as ruler on the death of his uncle in 1869.

1870-86 Adatuwang Regnant Pasule Daeng Bulaeng of Sawito (Indonesia)
Married La Tan-ri Suki, Arung Kajaura, Prince of Bone. Her daughter  I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara Hadi Abel Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa was regent for her infant son, the Sultan of Bone, before succeeding Pasule's brother as Datu of Supa in 1860. Pasule was succeeded in Sawito by the male ruler Palagau Aru Patojo, who reigned until 1902.

1871-95 H.H. I-Banri Sultana Siti Fatima, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)
Styled Arung Timurung and Datu Chitta before she succeeded her father, Ahmad Singkarru Rukka Arung Palakka. She married I-Magulaga Karaeng Popo, Prince of Gowa (d. 1902), whose mother was I-Tenri Pada Sultana Siti Aisha [Besse-Barru], Arung of Barru, daughter of To' Patarai Sumanga Rukka, Arung of Barru. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Bola Mapare, and she was succeeded by her half-brother. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Bola Mapare, and mother of a son and a daughter, and (d. 1895).

1872-73 and 187..-18.. Sultan Singa Madi Jimba Aicha of M'Bude (Comoro Islands)
In 1873 she was taken as a captive to Itsandra.. As she was however treated well and even married Mussafubu it is possible that she has continued to be Sultan in Name. In this case her successor, Jumbe Boina Fumu, was possibly only a  kind of governor. In 1880 she submitted to Saidi Ali of the Comoros. She was succeeded by Jema Niema bint Jumbe Fumu at a not known date.

Tjoet Njak Dien with some of her men 1873-1901 Guerilla Leader "Ibu Perbu" Tjoet Njak Dien in Aceh (Indonesia)
"Ibu Perbu" means Queen, and  in 1862 she married Teuku Ibrahim Lamnga. In 1873 Her father and husband joined the fight against the Dutch, and she followed them into the jungle. After both her father and husband was killed and the Indonesian forces defeated by the Dutch, Dien took over both her late husband’s and father’s army commands and led them in guerilla warfare Her second husband was Teuku Umar, who was another relative. They  led the two armies into a series of successful assault missions. In 1899  Dien’s husband was killed in battle, and she was again left to lead the rebel army alone, and retreated further into the jungle. She continued to lead the fight until the army was destroyed in 1901. One of her followers, Pang Laot Ali, felt sorry for Dien’s condition, hoped that the Dutch might give medical treatment for her. He deserted to the Dutch and bought the Dutch army into Dien’s camp in Beutong Le Sageu. They were completely caught by surprise and fought to the last man and woman except for Gambang and Dien. Only due to her blindness was Dien captured and even then she held a rencong (a traditional Acehnese dagger) in her hand trying to fight the enemy. Her daughter Gambang, however escaped deep into the jungle, where it is known that she continued the resistance until her death, which is believed to have taken place in 1910. She spend the rest of her life teaching the Koran in Sumedang, West Java. She lived (1848-1908). In 1964 she was declared a National Hero.

Perestü Valide Sultan

1876-87 Perestü Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Mother Abdülhamid II (1876-1909), she was the last Valide Sultan and theoretical joint ruler.

1878... Regent Warquito Mastawat of Gera Walo (Ethiopia)
Regent for chief Muhammad Ala, who became Ras Mika'el in 1878. The boarder state was incorporated into Ethiopia in 1896.

Around 1884 Sultan Mzade Badgini binti Munké Mwembwani of Badgini (Comoro Islands)
Succeeded Umam wa Dari, who reigned (1852-84) and was succeeded by Khadija.   

Sultana in the Comoro Islands Circa 1884, 1884-8.. and 1887-ca.88 Sultan Khadija binti Mugné Mku of Badgini (Comoro Islands)
It is not clear what happened to her after Hachimu bin Mugne Mku seized power in 1885, After he had been driven out in 1887 she was first arrested but later reinstalled as Sultane by Saidi Ali of the Comoros and French. Later she is known to have been in exile in 1888 and to have joined Hachimu the following year. (d. 1889) 

1885-1902 Sultan Aisya of Indragiri (Indonesia)
Succeeded by sultan Mahmud

Njapdungke of Bamum 1888-94 Regent Queen Mother Regnant Njapdungke of Bamum (Cameroon)
Also known as Setfon or Nazabidunke. Initially regent for her son, Ibrahum Njoya, who was Fon of Bamun 1888-1923, in 1918 he also became sultan of Fumban, he was deposed in 1923, and lived (1885-1933). After he took over the reigns himself she became his closest advisor. Bamun was under indirect colonial rule by the Germans. She (d. 1913) 

Comoran Princess 1888-89 Regent Princess Balia of Mwali (Mohéli) (Comoro Islands)
Member of a regency council for the absent Sultan Salima. 

Unnamed Philippine Girl 1888-1906 Regent Rajah Putri of Magindanao (The Philippines)
Daughter of Sultan Qudaratullah Muhammad Jamalul Azam or simply Sultan Untong and maried Datu Utto or Sultan Anwaruddin Utto of Buayan, who also maneuvered to be declared jointly as Sultan of Maguindanao. Openly, he was supporting the bid of his brother-in-law, Datu Mamaku, brother of Rajah Putri to become the new Sultan of Maguindanao. But the Spaniards opposed his inclination vehemently, and Rajah Putri became the ruler of the state.

1893-94 Sultan Mugalula of Nyamwezi at Zanzibar (Tanzania)
Abdicated as Sultan of Nyamwezi the same year. Abdicated as sultan and was succeeded by daughter Abd Msavila II in Nyamwezi, who also abdicated.  

1895 Sultan Abd Msavila II of Nyamwezi (Tanzania)
Daughter of Sultana Mugalula, who reigned 1893-95 Msavila abdicated and was succeeded by Chief and sultan Katugamoto, who was deposed in 1898. 

Nyirauhi V Kanjogera of Rwanda

1895-96 Reigning Umugabekazi Nyirauhi V Kanjogera of Rwanda
1896-circa 1916 Regent
1916-31 Reigning Umugabekazi

Became Umugabekazi (Queen Mother) by the death of her husband King Kigeri IV Rwabigi and twice acted as regent for her son Yuhi V wa Musinga (1896-31). Rwanda was a Belgian colony at the time.

Around 1900 I-Tenri Pada Sultana Siti Aisha, Arung of Barru (Indonesia)
Married to H.H. Sri Sultan Muhammad Idris ibni Sultan 'Abdu'l Kadir Muhammad 'Aidid, Sultan of Gowa. 

Jahan Begum 1901-26 H.H. Sikander Saulat, Iftikhar ul-Mulk, Nawab Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)
1901-02 Chief Minister of Bhopal
Also known as Sarkar Amman, she succeeded her mother, Sikander Begum. She was a forceful ruler, and reformed the administration of state. She attended the coronation of George V in 1911 dressed in a burqa with her awards worn on the outside. During the trip, she visited Paris, k a spa in Bad Nauenheim in Germany, spend a week in Génève and traveled by the Orient Express to Istanbul, where she met the sultan-emperor, Mehmet Reshad. She also visited Hungary, Italy and Egypt where she embarked on her return journey to a Bhopal struck by plague. Later that year she attended the Imperial Dunbar in Delhi. In 1926 she returned to London to settle the rules of succession in a British court. She abdicated in favour of son while still in London, and after some further legal conundrum, her granddaughter, Abida was declared heir apparent. Sultan Jahan argued in favour of the rights of the firstborn, regardless of gender. After her abdication, she became an advocate of women’s rights, and in 1928 she discarded purdah. Shah Jahan lived (1858-1930).

Until 1902 Datuk I-Madellung Karaeng Kajuwara, Datu of Supa (Ajataparang) (Indonesia)  
Succeeded another female ruler; Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseemba, who ascended the throne in 1860. She was succeeded by nephew and husband of her daughter Besse Bulo, H.H. Haji Andi La Mappanjuki Karaeng Silayar Sri Sultan Ibrahim ibnu Sultan Husain, who was Arumpone of Bone in 1931-46 and 1950-60 trough his mother We Tan-ri Padarang, Princess of Alita, eldest daughter of H.H. La Parenrengi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad, Arumpone of Bone. Madellung (d. 1902)

1907-11 Rani Imbichi Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)  
Succeeded brother. She was daughter of Rani Hayashabe Adi Raja Bibi who reigned 1838-52 in succession to her mother, Rani Mariambe Adi Raja Bibi, who reigned  (1819-38).

Queen Shahzadi of Persia  1909-25 Politically Active Queen Shahzadi Maleka Jahan Khanum of Persia 
Her name meant "Queen of the World". She was married to her cousin Mohammad Ali Shah who reigned 1907-09 until he was deposed. She was a strong presence, and she was about to reclaim the throne of Persia for her son Soltan Ahmad Shah, (1898-1909-25-30), after he was deposed, but events had conspired against her. Went with her family into exile in Rome, and lived (1875-?)

1919-29 Politically Influential H.M. Queen Soraya Shah of Afganistan
Influenced her husband, King Amanulluh Shah, who was one of the most liberal rulers of the country. He abolished slavery, liberalized the family code, child marriage was limited, women got right to choose their own husband, etc. In 1928 Soraya and her daughters appeared unveiled. Conservative forces forced her husband to abdicate in 1929, and they went into exile first in India and then in Rome. She was his third husband, he married two more times, and lived (1892-1960) She was the daughter of  Mahmud Beg Tarzi, sometime Minister for Foreign Affairs, and lived (1897-1968)

1921-31 Rani Ayisha Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)
Succeeded Ahmad Adi-Raja Bibi and was succeeded by Abdul-Rahman Ali Adi-Raja II.

1921-? Regent Dowager Rani Saida of Badalpur (India)
Reigned in the name of her grand-son who studied in United Kingdom. 

1921-1939 Al-Sitt Nazira Jumblatt of the Druze  of Lebanon
Her husband, Fouad Jumblatt was murdered by Shakib Wahab, a member of the Arslan clan. Her son Kamal Jumblatt was four years old, and grew up in an atmosphere of tight security and fear due to his mother Nazira's continued support of the Lebanese state and its French patrons. When the Druze in Syria revolted against the French in 1925 , Nazira played a key role in keeping the Shouf mostly out of war and worked tirelessly to find common ground among the French authorities, the Maronites and the Druze. Her son studied in France until 1939, and later became one of the chief acteurs in the civil war from the 1970s onward until his assassination.

1935-49 Vice-President of the State Council and President of the Cabinet Princess Abida Sultan Begum of Bhopal (India)
1960-61 Titular Nawab  Sahiba , Begum Sultan of Bhopal 
Her full name is Colonel Suraya Jah, Gauhar-i-Taj, Nawab Abida Sultan Begum Sahiba, but is normally known as Begum Abida Sultan. She was appointed as Heir Apparent to her father and recognized as such by the Indian government in 1928. In 1950 she moved to Pakistan. were she was a Delegate to UN in 1954, Ambassador to Brazil and Chile 1954-59. She was also an active politician and supporter of Miss Fatima Jinnah's candidacy for President of Pakistan. She Contested the succession after the death of her father, HH Sikander Savlat Ifrikar il-Mulk Haji Sir Muhammad Hamidullah Khan Badur, in February 1960, but the Indian government ruled against her in January 1961 in favour of her sister, H.H.Sikander Saulat Iftikhar ul-Mulk Haji Nawab Mehr Tai Sajida Sultan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (1960-95). Aida lived (1913-2002)  

1941-79 Politically Influential HIH Princess Ashraf Pahlavi of Iran
In 1946 her twin brother, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, send her to negotiate with Stalin in the Kremilin, to secure the return of some Soviet occupied parts of Iran. She was Head of the Woman's Organization of Iran and a Special Ambassador to the United Nations. Her first two marriages ended in divorce, her third husband died. According to Iranian usage, her sons two sons and their children had the title H.H. Prince and father's surname. Her daughter is H.H. Princess and the husband's surname. (b. 1919-)

Before 1944 Regent Princess Sharifah Leng binti al-Marhum Yang di-Pertuan Muda Syed Abdul Hamid of Tampin (Malaysia)
The daughter Sultan Sharif Abdul Hamid ibni al-Marhum Yang di-Pertuan Muda Sultan Muhammad Shah al-Qadri (1872-94) she was regent for her nephew Syed Akil bin Syed Dewa al-Qadri, Tunku Besar of Tampin, who died at the age of 20, and whose brother, Syed Muhammad bin Syed Dewa al-Qadri,  ruled until 1944.

1946-47 Rani Mariyumma Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)  
Her principality was incorporated in the Republic of India.

1952-53 Head of the Regency Council H.M. Queen Zein al-Sharaf of Jordan
In the official Jordan biography it says that her political instincts and courage allowed her to successfully fill a constitutional vacuum after the assassination of the late King Abdullah in 1951, while the newly proclaimed King Talal was being treated outside the Kingdom for his mental illness. When he was deposed in August 1952 she was regent until her son, Hussein I, until he turned 18 in May the following year. She played a major role in the political development of the Kingdom in the early 1950s, and took part in the writing of the 1952 Constitution that gave full rights to women and enhanced the social development of the country. Born in Egypt as daughter of the Court Chamberlain, Sharif Jamal Ali bin Nasser, she was mother of three sons and a daughter, and lived (1916-94).

Tuttu Goma 1952-53 Candidate for the Throne Princess Fatima Ibrahim Didi Tuttu Goma of the Maldive Islands
In 1944 the throne was first offered to the erstwhile Prime Minister Athireegey Abdul Majeed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan, but he declined and remained in exile until his death in 1952. The throne was then offered Tuttu Goma was daughter of Eggamugey Ibrahim Faamuladeyri Kilegefan and Princess Gulistan Imaduddine, the daughter of Sultan Mohamed Imaduddine VI (1892-1903)  and Eggamugey Umm-Kalthum Didi. The Islamic clerics headed by the chief justice Abdullah Jalaluddine vetoed the age old custom of a female ruler, so a council of regency reigned until 1953.

1959-70 Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Yadar Sadykovna Nariddinova, Uzbekistan (Autonomos Soviet Republic in the USSR)

1952-59 Deputy Premier, Minister of Construction Industry in Uzbekistan, 1959-70 Vice-Chairperson of the Supreme Soviet before becoming "Head of State" of the Republic. 1970-74 she was President of the Federation Council of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. (b. 1926-)

  1960-95 Head of the Princly Family H.H.Sikander Saulat Iftikhar ul-Mulk Haji Nawab Mehr Tai Sajida Sultan Begum Sahiba,  Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)
Recognized by the Government of India as ruler of Bhopal, at the 13. of January 1961 with effect from 4. February 1960. After the death of her husband, Muhammed Iftikhar Ali Khan of Pataudi (1910-1917-52), she was regent for her son Mansur Ali Khan (b. 1941), who was captain of the Indian Cricket team 1960-75. Under the name of Begum Sajida Sultan, she was member of the Indian Parlament for Bhopal 1957-62. She lived (1915-95) and was succeeded by her grandson.

1963 Fatima Jinnah, Pakistan

Sister, secretary and political advisor of the "father" of Pakistan, Muhamad Ali Jinnah. She had widespread popular support but lost the elections. Lived (1894-1965)  

1968-96 Partner in Power Siti Hartinah, Indonesia
Also Known as Ibu Tien (Mother Tien), she was the most loyal aide and the closest and most influential advisor of her husband, President Suharto. She was known to express preferences as well as dislikes toward certain cabinet ministers, often connected with their personal lives. She was known as "Madame Ten Percent", because of her corruption. Born as Princess of Mangkunegara  in Surakarta, Central Java, and lived (1923-96).

1971-73 Governor Begum Ra'ana Liquat Ali Khan, Sind (Pakistan)

She was the widow of Prime Minister Liquat Ali Khan who was murdered 1951. She was ambassador to the Netherlands 1954-56, to Tunisia 1961-64 and Italy 1961-66. Born as Ra'ana Pant, she lived (1905-90) [Perhaps governor 1973-76].

1975-78 First Secretary of the Communist Party Ibodat S. Rakhimova, Tajikistan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
As first secretary she was the actual leader of the republic. She was the only women on that post during the history of the USSR. Vice-President 1955-66 and Secretary 1978-89 of the Supreme Soviet.

1979-80 Regent-in-exile Dowager Shahbanou Farah Diba Pahlavi of Iran (in Egypt and France)
She is widow of The Shah, she was Acting Head of the Imperial Family and acted as regent for son who became shah on his 20th birthday 31/10-80. (b. 1938-)

1980-81 Chief Minister Syeda Anwara Taimur , Assam (India)
Still politically active in 2006. (b. 1936-).

1980-85  Partner in Power Dr. Anahita Ratebzad, Afghanistan

Shared power with her partner, President Babrak Karmal. She was ambassador to Yugoslavia 1978, Minister of Social Affairs 1978-79, Minister of Education 1980,  and Member of the Presidency of the Revolutionary Council and the Politburo of the Communist Party 1980-85. She was the highest ranking woman in the parcham faction of the party and an expert propagandist. Her former husband, Dr. Qamaruddin Kakar used to be king Zahir Shah's personal physician. (b. 1928-) .

1982-83 Vice-Premier Caroline Diop  Faye, Senegal 
1971-circa 84 Deputy President of the National Assembly. 1978-81 Minister of Social Affairs,  
1981-83 Minister-Delegate by the Premier Minister and 1982-83 Minister of State (Third in Cabinet)

1987-89 Chairperson of the Executive Council  Kaqusha Jashari (Kosova/Yugoslavia)
1989 Chief Secretary of the Communist Party
Forced to resign after the first Kosovan riots in the republic. In 2000 she was member of the Kosovo Transitional Council (Legislative) and Chairperson of Social Democratic Party of Kosovo (PSDK) which she had chaired since 1991.

1988-90 and 1993-96 Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Pakistan
Co-Chairperson 1984-94 and from 1994 Leader of Pakistan People's Party. 1977-84 in house arrest, 1984-86 in exile. She also held the Portfolios of Defence, Atomic-Energy, Finance, Economy, Information  and Establishment. Both in 1990 and 1996 she was removed from office by the President on charges of corruption and later convicted. From 1998 she has lived in exile  London and the United Arab Emirates. Her three children were born in 1988, 1989 and 1993. (b. 1953-).

1988-09 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Roza Atamuradovna  Bazarova, Turkmenistan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
1975 Deputy Premier Minister and 1975-88 Member of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. (b. 1933-).

1989 Acting Prime Minister Begum Nusrat Bhutto, Pakistan
Senior Minister without Portfolio and Second in Cabinet 1989-90. Acted as deputy to her Daughter, Benazir Bhutto, and was acting Premier when she gave birth to her second child in 1989 and on various other occasions.  Widow of President Zulfiar Ali Bhutto, who was executed by the military regime. Born in Afganistan (circa 1929-). 

1989-99 Vice-Premier Aïssata Moumouni, Niger
Second in cabinet for many years. Since 1997 with the title of Minister of State.

1991-96 and 2001- Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia, Bangladesh
Vice-Chairperson of The Nationalist Party 1982-84 and Leader since 1984. Her husband, President Zia-ur-Rahman was Premier Minister 1976-77 and President 1977-81 until he was assassinated. Khaleda was detained seven times during almost nine years of autocratic rule. In the face of mass upsurge spearheaded by the seven-party alliance, led by Khaleda, and the eight-party combine, led by Hasina, Ershad resigned in 1990 and handed over power to neutral caretaker government, bringing an end to his nine-year autocratic rule. During her first tenure as Premier she was in charge of a number of other portfolios - among other's that of Defence. 1996-2001 Leader of the Opposition. Mother of two sons.  (b. 1945-).

1991-circa 96 Governor Professor Lale Ayataman, Mugla (Turkey)
1996-99 she was deputy to the Grand National Assembly for the Motherlands Party (ANAP). Chairperson of the European Committee for Environment and Regional Affairs and Vice-Chairperson of the Group of European Democrats (Conservatives).

1993-96 Minister President Tansu Çiller, Turkey
Assistant Professor 1974-83 and 1983-90 Professor of Economics at Bosphorus University. Minister of State and Chief Economic Coordinator 1991-93,  Deputy Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1996-97. She was Deputy Chairperson , 1990-93 and from 1993 Chairperson of DYP, The True Path Party. In the 2002-elections the party got 8,5% of the votes, becoming the third largest party, but it was not enough to reenter the parliament, where the minimum vote required is 9%. Mother of two children. (b. 1946-).

1993- President of the Government-in-Exile Maryam Rajavi, Iran (in Paris)                
From 1985-92 Commander-in-Chief of Muhjedin-Army operating from Iraq. She is head of the 250 member exile-parliament. Half of its members are women and the exile-government is dominated by women.

1994-95 Deputy Chief of Government Salma Ahmed Rashed, Libya  
1992-94 Assistant Secretary for Women and 1994-95 Secretary in the General Secretariat of the General Peoples' Congress for Women's Affairs (Deputy Chief of Government). 1996 Ambassador to the League of Arab Nations as the first woman.

1994 and 1996-99 Vice-Premier Minister Bozgul Dodkhudoeva, Tajikistan
1993-94 Minister of Education.

1994-96 Vice-Premier Minister Munira Abdulloyevna Inoyatva, Tadjikistan  

1993-94 Deputy Minister of Labour, 1994-99 also Minister of Education and since 1999 Presidential Advisor of Social Affairs

1994-95 Minister of Foreign Affairs Sy Kadiatou Sow, Mali
1998-2000 Governor of the Capital District of Bamako
1994-95 Minister of Foreign Affairs, Malians Abroad and African Integration and 1995-98 Minister of Town Planning and Housing.

1995-99 Vice-Premier Minister Abad Sehedana Rezeva, Turkmenistan   

Former vice-chair of the Parliament. From 1999 minister of Education. Another version of her name is Abad Sehedovna Irzayeva Risaveva.

1995- Vice-Premier Minister Dilbar Mukhammadkhonovna Ghulomova, Uzbekistan
Chairperson of the State Committee for Women’s Affairs from 1994.

1996-2001 Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed, Bangladesh
Also known as Hasina Wazed, she is leader of the Awami League since 1981 and Leader of the Opposition 1991-96. As Premier one of her many other portfolios is that of Defence. Mother of 2 sons (b. 1945-).

1996-98 Vice-Premier Minister Larisa Gutnichenko, Kyrgyzstan  
1995-96 Minister of Justice  and 1996-98 Deputy Premier Minister for Social and Cultural Policy.

1996-98 Vice-Premier Minister Mira Jangaracheva, Kyrgyzstan  
In 1992-95 Deputy Mayor of Bishkeh, 1995-96 Presidential Advisor of Social Affairs. From 1998 Minister of Labour and Social Welfare. (b. 1952-).

1997-2006 Vice-President Prof. Dr. Masoumek Ebtekar, Iran
In charge of Environment (b. 1960-)

1997, 1998 (March-April), 1999, 2000 (November), 2001, 2002 (January), 2003 (June) and 2004 (June/July) Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs H.R.H. Princess Hajah Masna binti Omer Ali of Brunei, Brunei
Since 1995 Ambassador-at-Large and Second in Command of the Foreign Ministry and  Acting Foreign Minister and Head of Delegations to APEC, ASEAN, ASEM and other international summits on various occasions. She is the sister of HM Sultan Hassanal Bolkian Muizzaddin of Brunei and married to Pengiran Lela Sahibun Najabah Pengiran Haji Abdul Aziz bin Pengiran Jaya Negara Pengiran Haja Abu Bakar. Her full title is Paduka Seri Pengiran Anak Puteri or Yang Teramat Mulina Pengiran Anak Puteri. (b. 1948-)

1997-2001 Governor Selvi M. Fathima Beeri, Tamil Nadu (India)

In 1983 she was appointed judge in the Kerala High Court. 1989-93 Judge in the Supreme Court of India as the first woman. She was removed from the post of governor after having appointed J. Jayalalitha Jayaram as chief minister in spite of her conviction for corruption. (b. 1927-) . 

1999-2000 Vice-Premier Minister Rima Khalaf Hneidi, Jordan
1993-95 Minister of Trade and Industry, 1995-98 Minister of Planning, 1999-2000 Deputy Premier Minister and Minister of Planning. she resigned in 2000 because of disagreement with the Premier Minister about the economic policies. Later same year she became Assistant Secretary General of the UN and Director of the UNDP Regional Bureau for Arab States.

1999- Vice-Premier Minister Djamal Geklenova, Turkmenistan  
Circa 1998-99 Minister of Consumer Goods and since 1999 Deputy Premier Minister in charge of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce and Turkmen Statistics and Forecasts Committee and Minister of Textile Industry and Foreign Trade. 

1999- Vice-Premier Minister Nigina Sharapova, Tajikistan  
Among others in charge of Women's Issues.

1999 Vice-Premier Minister Aitkul Baigaziyevna Samakova, Kazakstan
1997-99 Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade, 1999-2002 Minister Without Portfolio and Chairperson of the National Committee on Family and Women’s Issues and from 2002 Minister of Environmental Protection

1999-2000 and 2001- Minister of Foreign Affairs Dodo Aïchatou Mindaoudou, Niger
1995-96 she was Minister of Social Development, Population and Women.

2000-  Minister of Foreign Haja Mahawa Bangoura Camara, Guinea
In 1995 she was Ambassador to  USA and later to the United Nations. Her official title is Minister to the presidency charged with Foreign Affairs and an alternative version of her name is Camara Hadja Mawa Bangoura

2000 President of the Executive Committee Nuria Abdulahi, Harari (Ethiopia)

Only in office for around one month.

2001-04 Executive President Megawati Sukarnoputri, Indonesia 
When Megawati  Setyawati Soekarnoputri became leader of the Democratic Party in 1993, she triggered the opposition against President Quarto. In 1999 her party won the most seats in the Parliament, but Abdulrahman Wahid was elected President. This caused serious riots all over the country and she was elected vice-President the following day. In August 2000 the ailing President Wahid charged her with the running of the daily business of the government and state and she chaired the cabinet meetings. At the 23rd of July he was ousted and she inaugurated as President. Ibu Mega, as she is known, is daughter of Indonesia's founding father Sukarno, is married for the 3rd time and mother of 3 children. (b. 1946-).

2001-02 Premier Ministre Mame Madior Boye, Sénégal
Former assistant to the Attorney General of the Republic, judge and first vice President of the Regional High Court in Dakar and former President of the Court of Appeal in Dakar. Councillor to the Supreme Court of Appeal and Minister of Justice and Keeper of the Seals in 2000-2001. In 2002 she took over as Minister of Defence after the former incumbent resigned after almost 1.000 persons died in a ferry-disaster. (b.1940-).

2001-02 Vice-Premier Minister Sima Samar, Afghanistan
Appointed Deputy Leader of the Transitional Council or Deputy Premier Minister and Minister of Women's Affairs, after the woman-hating Taleban-regime was ousted. She had been leader of a women's organization for a number of years. (b. 1957-).

2002- Vice-Premier Minister Enebay Geldiyevna Atayeva, Turkmenistan
2001 minister of Social Affairs and Labour, and since 2001 Minister of Economy and Finance. In 2002 she was appointed Deputy Premier Minister responsible for the Banking Sektor. Her name is also transcribed as Ataeva Enebay Gelgievna.

2002- Vice-Premier Minister Galina Karimovna Saidova, Uzbekistan
Deputy Premier Minister in charge of Analysis and Information.

2002-03 Vice-Premier Minister Kétia Rokiatou N'Diaye, Mali (Second in Cabinet)
Former Civil servant she was Director of the Cabinet of the President 1992-94 and the Special Advisor 1994-96. She is 3rd. Vice-President of the Rassemblement Pour Le Mali (Party) and Minister of Health from 2002. (b. 1938-).

2003- Prefect Mudira Abu Bakr of the Dukan Region (Iraq)
The region is situated in the in northern Suleimaniyah Province in the part of Kurdistan which is controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.

2003-06 Minister of Foreign  Edna Adan Ismail, Somaliland
A former World Health Organization representative in Djibouti, she founded and is the Co-Patronn and Vice President of the Board of Trustees of Somaliland's first Maternity Hospital. Somaliland is a self-declared and de-facto independent republic.

2006 Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Nigeria

Former Vice-President of  the World Bank and Corporate Secretary. Minister of Finance 2003-06, and when she was appointed Foreign Affairs in June 2006, she continued as the  Head of the Economic Reform Team, but resigned from the government after being fired from this post in August.

2006- Minister of Foreign Affairs Joy Ogwu, Nigeria

Professor of International Affairs and Director of the Foreign Affairs Institute through many years. (b. 1946-).

Last update 30.05.07