Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

  WOMEN IN POWER 
BCE 4500-1000

Leaders and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


 

Ca. 4530-3240 Legendary Queen Eyleuka of Ethiopia

Also known as Dalukaha, and according to legend she was one of the rulers before the Antediluvian (the flooding). She succeeded king Borsa, who had ruled for 67 years, and she ruled for 45 years.  


Around 2952-after 2939 Pharaoh Meritneith of Egypt
According Manetho, it was during the reign of Neteren that it was decided that women might occupy the throne. However evidence has convinced some historians to believe that Meritneith (or Meryet-Nit) was the successor of Zir and thereby the third ruler of the 1st Dynasty. She has her own tomb in the kings' cemetery of Abydos, suggesting she may have ruled for some years, possibly as regent for her son, Den.

 

Around 2720 Regent Dowager Queen Ni-Maat-Hepi of Egypt

The first Dowager Queen of Egypt that is known with certainty to have acted as regent for her son, Djoser (Zoser), during the 3rd dynasty. Some consider her to have been reining Pharaoh in her own right. There are several theories on her origin, but she had the titles of Great Royal Wife, and mother of the Kings Children. She also carried the titles of Heiress (Wrt' Hts).


 

Ca. 2585-2145 Legendary Queen Nehasset Nais of Ethiopia

According to legend, she reigned for 30 years sometime after the flooding


2580-ca. 2510 Controller of the Affairs of the Kiltwearers Queen Hetepheres II of Egypt
Ran the civil service and, as well as overseers, governors and judges. She was daughter of Egypt's first pyramid builder, Pharaoh Khufu and his sister-wife Merityetes II, and first married to the crown prince Kawab who seems to have died at the end of Khufu's reign. It is believed that after Kawab's death Redjedef married Hetepheres II to strengthen his claim to the throne in 2580. It has also been suggested that Hetepheres II was married to Khafre. Hetepheres II probably lived under five kings of the Fourth Dynasty and died when she was well over 70 years old. She was mother of five children (d. ca. 2510)

2570- ca. 2530/10 Politically Influential Queen Meresankh III of Egypt
Daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II, and married to Khafre as second wife, although continuing to assert her claims by her title "King's Daughter" and "Beholder of the Horus and Seth", even though her father was never pharao. It seems that she was not content to remain in the background. Both she and her mother became prominent at court, on sculptures and inscriptions. Her eldest son eventually became superior lector priest and vizier. She was probably around 55 when she died.

2530-10 Politically Influential Queen Khamerernebti II of Egypt
Married to Pharaoh Menkau-Ra, and mother of Pharaoh Shepses-Kaf and Queen Khent-Kaues I. Her statue shows that she was no mere wife. Her position and gestures should be interpreted as signaling her legitimization of Menkaure as Pharaoh. She is shown in the act of presenting him, indicating to the world that he is the man whom she is identifying and establishing as Pharaoh. Her pose, in fact, deliberately imitates that of the goddess Hathor in the triad statues and with whom she is clearly intended to be identified. The statue itself is a representation of this act of confirmation, and perhaps even a record of part of an actual confirmation ceremony.

 

Around 2500 Possible Queen Khent-Kaues I of Egypt

Daughter of Menkau-Ra during the 4th dynasty, and married her brother Shepses-Kaf who succeeded his father to the throne. After his death, Khent-Kaues possibly became ruling queen. Her tomb at Giza is unlike any other – in part a mastaba, in part a two-step pyramid. This tomb has many features usually associated with kings, and leads to speculation that Khent-kaues may have ruled independently as king. The inscription on the tomb reads: "Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt. The mother Queen and the daughter of the god". She married one of the Ra priests, who never became king, and the throne was passed to her three sons who formed the 5th dynasty. Khent-Kaues claimed that she has conceived her sons from the god Ra himself. Her daughter, Chamaat, was High Priestess of Ptah in Memphis.


Ku-baba Azag-bau of Kis

Around 2500 Queen Ku-baba Azag-bau of Kis (Iraq)

According to the King's List, she was the founder of the Third Dynasty, and appears to have reigned for hundred years, as she is the only ruler listed in this period. According to the earliest Sumerian records, she was originally a tavern keeper; she became the leader of the Mesopotamian City State's war for independence from Uruk. She was later deified, and worshipped in Northern Iraq as the goddess Kubaba. 


Around 2500 Co-Ruler Pu-Abi of Ŭr (Iraq)

The Sumerian Dynasty of Ur was located on the Euphrate River. There are several surviving indications of her importance. Her name is only one of two with the title "nim" (Queen) inscribed on a cylinder seal of lapis lazuli in the Royal Cemetery of Ur. She was the wife of an unknown king, and is buried in a way that indicates more than kingship - and she might have been considered a god, or at least that she represented a god on earth. Also known as Puabi or Shubad.


Ca. 2459-2401 Governor of Markellashi in the Elam District (Iraq)
Daughter of King Dungi of Ur (2450-01) in the Mesopotamian Area - today's Iraq.

Ca. 2420 Queen Su-bad of Ŭr  (Iraq)
Ur was a Mesopotamian City State, which was one of the first village settlements founded (circa 4000 BCE) by the so-called Ubaidian inhabitants of Sumer. Before 2800 BCE, Ur became one of the most prosperous Sumerian city-states. According to ancient records, Ur had three dynasties of rulers who, at various times, extended their control over all of Sumer.

 

Around 2400 Politically Influential Queen Baranamatara of Lagasz (Iraq)

Married to king Lugalanda, managed Baba's temple in Lagasz and was very active in diplomacy.


 

Ca. 2389 High Priestess Lipusha of the Moon Temple at Ur (Iraq)

Granddaughter of King Karam-sin of the Sumerian Dynasty.


Ca. 2334 High Priestess Enheduanna of the Moon Temple at Ŭr (Iraq)
Daughter of King Sargon of the Sumerian Dynasty.

 

After 2295–2250 Vizier, Judge and Magistrate Nebet of Egypt

Her son in-law, Pharaoh Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332 – 2283), who was married to her two daughters Ankhesenpepi I and Ankhesenpepi II,  apparently appointed her to the office - the right hand "man" of the Pharaoh - but it is thought that her husband, Khui,  performed the duties of this role. Their son Djau also became a vizier, and her two grandsons, Merenre Nemtyemsaf and Pepi II became pharaohs. Other women managed to become stewards and treasurers. According to some sources only two women were ever appointed Vizier.


 

After 2295–2250 Politically Influential Princess Chui of Egypt

It seems that Pharaoh Pepi I gave her the titles of "duke" and "count". Her sister was the Vizier Nebet. 


Around 2295 Regent Dowager Queen Iput of Egypt
Probably the daughter of King Unas who was the last king of the 5th Dynasty, and historians believe that she is the one that gave him the royal power, legitimizing his rule. She is buried in her own pyramid near Teti's at Saqqara. After around 12 years Teti died, and she became regent for son their, Pharaoh Pepi I.

 

Ca. 2254-2218 High Priestess Enmenanna of the Moon Temple at Ŭr (Iraq)

Daughter of the Sumerian High Priest Naram-sin.


Around 2250-45 Regent Dowager Queen Ankhesenmeryre I of Egypt
Together with her sister, Ankhesenmeryre II, she was married to Pepi I, and mother of king Merenre (2250-2245). She was the sister of Vizier Djau, and came from a prominent family at Abydos. It is possible that her mother was the woman vizier, Nebet. 

Around 2245-50 Regent Dowager Queen Ankhesenmeryre II of Egypt
Also known as Ankh-Meri-Ra. Like her sister, Ankhesenmeryre I, she was married to Pepi I. When her nephew, King Merenre died, her own son, Pepi II, became king at the age of six or seven, and ruled for at least 90 years, with her in charge of the government for about ten years. Despite her non-royal origins, she is depicted wearing the royal uraeus, the cobra goddess who protected the kings of Egypt. A famous statue shows her holding the young king on her lap. 

Ca. 2180 Queen Nitocris of Egypt
Daughter of Pepi II in the 6th dynasty, and became Queen, while her husband Meren-Ra II was not the Pharaoh, at least for some time. Manetho described her as "the noblest and loveliest of the women of her time", and to Herodotus is owed the story of here suicide after her vengeance on the Egyptians who murdered her brother to put her in his place. Her name is written as either the second or the third Pharaoh after Pipit II, but she was only mentioned in the Turin Canon, but not in the Abydos Kings' List.

 

Ca. 2168-54 High Priestess Nannepadda of the Moon Temple at Ŭr (Iraq)

Daughter of King Ensi Ur-Baba of Lagas in the Kingdom of Agade/Akkad.


 

2107-89 High Priestess Enniragalanna of the Moon Temple at Ŭr (Iraq)

She was the daughter of Ur-nammu, High Priest of Ur.


 

2094-2047 Politically Influential Queen Shulgi-shimti of Ŭr (Iraq)

During her marriage to King Shulgi of the Ur-III dynasty, she was very influential when it came to the economic affairs of the royal court and country as a whole.


 

2089-41 High Priestess Ennirzianna of the Moon Temple at Ŭr (Iraq)

Daughter of Silgi.


 

2065-2016 or 2016-2008 De-facto Co-ruler Queen Neferukayet in Upper Egypt

Married to Pharaoh Inyotef II (2065-2016) or Inyotef III (2016-2008) of 11th Dynasty. Both men were titular kings of Lower and Upper Egypt, but they ruled only in Upper Egypt. The plate of clerk Reduchnum from Dendera tell, that she reorganised the system of organisation in Upper Egypt.


2023-1999 The High Priestess of the Moon Temple at Ŭr (Iraq)
Daughter of king Ibbi-sin of Ur.

 

Ca. 2025-2001 High Priestess and Ruler of Isin (Iraq)

Her name has been lost, but she was daughter of King Isbi-Irra of Larsa, a rival kingdom.


 

1939/38-1909 God's Wife of Amun Queen Neferu of Egypt

Consort and Queen of Pharaoh Amenemhat I. It is not known if she was of royal blood, but it is probable that Amenemhet married to strengthen his claim to the throne since he was a commoner of partial Nubian descent who usurped the throne after the death of the king that he served as vizier. She must have been an heiress of considerable domain to give him the power and position that he needed. She had a small pyramid that was built for her near the king's tomb.


 

Ca. 1875-56 Queen Kasiopo of Kush (Sudan)

The kingdom by the south of the Nile was closely related to the Egyptian culture, and later evolved into the kingdom of Meroe.


Ca. 1834-23 High Priestess En-an-e-du of the Moon Temple at Ŭr (Iraq)
Daughter if the Sumerian King Warad-sin of Larsa.

 

Around 1800 Ruler of Elam (Mesopotamia) 

Her name has been lost, but she was sister of Silhalla, a mother of the dynasty.  


 

Around 1800 Politically Active Queen Sabitu of Mari (Egypt)

Also known as Szibitu, she acted as a regent during her husband, king Zimri-lim's numerous wars.


 

Ca. 1790-1745 Mayor Kirum of Khaya-Sumu's City in Ilansura (Mesopotamia)

One of the many daughters of King Zimri-Lim of Mari, she was married to Khaya-Sumu of Ilansura and her father appointed her Mayor of Khaya-Sumus' city. She not only administered the city, but also dispensed political advice to her father. This displeased her husband, who also married her sister, Shimatum, creating a bitter rivalry, and in the end she returned back to her father.


1763-59 Pharaoh Sebekneferu of Egypt
Also known as Sebek-Nefru or Sebekneferu-Ra, she succeeded her father, Amenemhat III, as the last ruler of the 12th Dynasty. Kingship in ancient Egypt was a male role, and in Egyptian art, ruling Queens were typically represented as male Pharaohs. Sebekneferu was the exception and appears as female in all her statues- though she was portrayed wearing the royal headcloth and kilt over her otherwise female dress. 

1594-after 1550 Politically Influential Queen Tetisheri of Egypt
The commoner wife of Pharaoh Senachtenre (1594-1592) of the 17th Dynasty in Thebe, she has been called the "mother of the New Kingdom" because of her influence over its founders, her son Seqenenre Ta'a II ( 1592-56) and her grandsons, Kamose (1556-50) and Ahmose I (1550-25). From the palace at Deir el-Ballas, she raised the warriors who would oust the Asiatics from the Delta. She lived to be 70 years old, and decrees were issues concerning her service to the nation. Ahmose granted her a great estate and tomb with priests and servants to conduct mortuary rituals in her honor, and a cenotaph was made for her at Abydos.

Around 1590  Co-Regent Tawananna Harapscheki of the Hitite Kingdom (Turkey)
Married to King Hantili. The Queens, Tawannas, are believed to have been a kind of co-regents to their husbands and they possessed considerable influence. The dates of this period are not accurate. 

Ca.1570-ca. 1548 Queen Ahhotep I of Egypt
Among her numerous titles was that of "Mistress of the Lands (Upper and Lower Egypt) and Lady of the Northern Isles. She was wife of Seqenenre Ta'a II and an inscription on the doorway Buhen suggests that she was joint regent with her sons Kamose and Ahmose I, who is generally given credit for founding the 18th Dynasty. It was during the turbulent times when the kings were engaged in a war of liberation to get rid of the Hyksos invaders, and she played a crucial role in safeguarding the kingdom in the south. A stele in Karnak Temple honors her with the words: "She is one who has accomplished the rites and cared for Egypt; she has looked after Egypt's troops and she has guarded them; she has brought back the fugitives and collected the deserters; she has pacified Upper Egypt and expelled her rebels."

1530/1539-... Regent Queen Ahmose Nefertari of Egypt
1504/ 1514 - .... Regent Dowager Queen
Daughter of Ahotep I and Sekenenra Tao II, she seems to have been very influential during the reign of her husband and brother Ahmose I (from 1548), and after his death, she was a regent to her son Amen-Hotep I and later for grandson Totmes. She is depicted a black woman, and mentioned on an inscription depicting the honours being given to Queen Tetisheri, her grandmother, and her name is listed in the Sinai and on the island of Sai in inscriptions. She was popularly celebrated in a posthumous mortuary cult in the necropolis, and the first Queen, who hold the important office of God's Wife of Amun and she was also had the titles of Mistress of the Lands, Mistress of Foreign Countries, Lady of the Two Lands et cetera.

 

Around 1472 Joint Reigning Queen Jopes Cassiopeia of Jaffa (Israel)

Ruled the state, which had been established by the Phoenicians of Sidon, jointly with king Cepheus.


1467-1445 or 1479-1458 Pharaoh Hatshepsut of Egypt
Married her half-brother the Pharaoh Totmes II and was the real power behind the throne of Egypt, and assumed supreme power when she took over the government as Regent for her husband's six year old son by a concubine. Hatshepsut surrounded herself with men of outstanding administrative and intellectual ability, and manipulated the council and strengthened her own position by marrying the boy to her own daughter. Hatshepsut renounced the regency when her position was strong enough, and successfully declared herself Pharaoh. Her reign was devoted to peace and prosperity, though she mounted at least one military campaign during her reign. She initiated a number of impressive building projects, including her superb funerary temple at Deir el-Bahari. She encouraged agriculture and trade, establishing new sea trade routes to replace the long overland journeys. Arts and especially architecture flourished. On her death, her half-nephew/stepson/son-in-law, finally became Pharaoh and he systematically smashed all her statues and hid or erased her name from monuments in an attempt to belittle her. She held the titles of Lady of the Land to its Limits, Lady of the Two Lands, Lady of All the Lands, Wife of the God, Great Mother of the King, Mother of the God, Wife and Sister of the King, Sister of the Regent, Chief of the South and North, Mistress of the Two Lands, The Great One, Mistress of the Land, Mistress of the Foreign Countries, Great Wife of the King as well as a large number of priestly titles.

1458 /1470...  Joint Queen Regnant Itey the Corpulent of Punt (Somalia)
Sometime in the 15th century she ruled the kingdom of Punt together with king Parahu. The state was placed in the northeastern corner of the country, and today it forms part of the self-proclaimed republic of Puntoland.

1440-20 De-facto Ruler Queen Asmunikal of the Hittite Empire (Turkey)
When her husband, Arnuwandash I came to power between 1440-1420 she managed the affairs of state.

1413-1388 or 1426-1400 Politically Influential Queen Meritamen II of Egypt
Also known as Merytamun, she was the daughter of Totmes III and Hatshepsut II. She is shown on reliefs at Deir el-Bahri with her father, and was married to her ca. 20 years younger brother Amenhotep II. Before her marriage Ahmose's titles read: "Kings Daughter, The Kings Sister, The Gods Wife and Hand, Sweet in Love, (Ahmose Meritamen), Living like Re, The Mistress of the Two Lands".

 

Before 1400 Queen Mumazes Moso of Ethiopia

Ruled for four years in succession to her father, Tsawente Benu.  


 

1388 Regent Dowager Queen Mutemwia of Egypt

After the death of her husband, Amenophis II (possibly around 1401), she became regent for son Amenhotep III. Among her many titles were those of Lady and Noblewoman, lady of the Two Lands and Mistress of the Two Lands.


1388-79 or 1400-1390 God's Wife of Amun Queen Tiaa of Egypt
Totmes IV followed the fashion of the dynasty and himself depicted as the result of a divine union between Amun-Re and his mother Tiaa. Throughout her son's rule Tiaa was referred to with the titles the King's Mother, and Great Royal Wife at monuments dating to the reign of Totmes IV. She also held the titles of her many titles were those of Lady and Noblewoman, lady of the Two Lands and Mistress of the Two Lands, Among others.

1379-1327 or 1390- 1340 Politically Influential Queen Tiye of Egypt 
Also known as Tiy, she was the power behind the throne during the reign of her husband, Amenhotep III, and mother of several sons and daughters, who all were influential players on the Egyptian scene. Her husband built a palace called Malcata for her as well as a lake for her to sail her barge. When the king was away at his own palace entertaining his women, Tiye was left to run the affairs of state. Several foreign kings mentioned her in their correspondence, signifying the power she wielded. Her son Amenhotep IV or Ikhnaton led a religious revolution and for a time the Queen stayed with him continuing her influence.  Her official title was " The Ruleress of Both Countries", and she lived (around 1400-1327/40).

 

Around 1358 Queen Helena of Ethiopia

Reigned 11 years. 


1353-after 1336 Politically influential Queen Nefertiti of Egypt
Ca. 1336 Possibly Reigning Pharao
Among her titles was "Lady of the Two Lands, Lady of All the Lands and Mistress of the Lands", and she also held various priestly offices. Her name is enclosed in a royal cartouche, and there are in fact more statues and drawings of her than of her husband, Akhenaten (1351-34), and some have even claimed that it was her who instigated the monotheistic religion of Aten. After 15 years of reign, she mysteriously disappears from view. It could be that she died, although no indication of this exists to this date. Some scholars think that she was banished for some reason, and lived the rest of her years in the northern palace. On the other hand, she is shown wearing kingly regalia, executing foreign prisoners and, as some Egyptologists believe, ruling independently as king following the death of her husband ca.1336. She had 6 daughters, but it is possible that Akhenaten's successors - Smenkhkare and Tutankhaten - were his children by another royal wife called Kiya who became his principle Queen for a short while after year 12 of his reign. 

 

1336-1335 Queen Meritaten of Egypt

Eldest daughter-wife of Amenhotep IV Ehnaton. After 1336 her husband Semenchkare, became Pharaoh and later her son, Meritaton-tasherit succeeded to the throne.


1309-1305 or 1323-1319 Joint Ruler Queen Ankhesenpaaton Ankhesenaun of Egypt
The daughter of Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti, she held the titles of Lady of the Two Lands, Lady of the All the Lands and Mistress of All the Lands. She was politically influential during the reign of her brother-husband, Pharaoh Smenchkare (ruled 1324-1319). Her third husband, Tutanchanon, succeeded her brother as Pharaoh. After his death in 1309, she sent a messenger to the King of the Hittites (Anatolia) asking for a son of his she could marry. When he arrived in Egypt he was murdered. She then married her grandfather, Eje, and reigned jointly with him. Pharaoh Horemheb killed her in 1305 or 1319.

Late 1300s Queen Ninurmahmes of Ayalon (Israel) 
Ayalon was a principality near Jerusalem.  

1309-1305 or 1323-1319 Joint Ruler Queen Ankhesenpaaton Ankhesenaun of Egypt
The daughter of Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti, she held the titles of Lady of the Two Lands, Lady of the All the Lands and Mistress of All the Lands. She was politically influential during the reign of her brother-husband, Pharaoh Smenchkare (ruled 1324-1319). Her third husband, Tutanchanon, succeeded her brother as Pharaoh. After his death in 1309, she sent a messenger to the King of the Hittites (Anatolia) asking for a son of his she could marry. When he arrived in Egypt he was murdered. She then married her grandfather, Eje, and reigned jointly with him. Pharaoh Horemheb killed her in 1305 or 1319.

Around 1279-1255/54 Politically Influential Queen Nefertari of Egypt 
Married to Pharaoh Ramses II. She was active in diplomacy, and corresponded politically with Queen Puduhepa of the Hitite Kingdom. She may have accompanied her husband to many of his battles, most notably, his victory over the Hitittes at Kadesh in the early part of his reign. From the many surviving inscriptions we know that her titles included: Mistress of the South and the Nort and Lady of the Two Lands. There are many monuments remaining in her honour, built by her husband. Mother of 10 children.

 

Around 1279 Queen Merytaun of Egypt

Daughter and wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, she held the title of Mistress of the Two Lands, indicating a role as co-ruler.


 

Around 1279 Queen Bananit I. of Egypt

Also daughter and wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, she also held the title of Mistress of the Two Lands.


 

Around 1279 Queen Nebettauy of Egypt

Another daughter and wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, who was Lady and Mistress of the Two Lands, among other titles.


Ca. 1275-ca. 1250 Co-Regent, The Tawananna Puduhepa of the Hittite Kingdom (Turkey) 
Pudu-Heba was the daughter of a priest, and was educated in literature, and became a priestess herself before her marriage to Hattusilis III, who became king of the Hittites after deposing his nephew. They reconstructed and reoccupied the capital at Hattusa (Bogazköy) and shared the rule. She participated in the state administration together with her husband, and made women participate in the state administration equally with men. She co-signed the treaty of Kadesh, and her seal is placed next to that of her husband.

 

Circa 1260-before 1235 BC Regent Dowager Queen Ahatmilku of Ugarit (Syria)

According to the incriptions, King Niqmepa’ was married to a Princess of Amurru called Ahatmilku - or Ahat-Milku.. She was very wealthy. This queen was just as “ruthless” as her husband. When she was already quite old and a widow she punished two of her sons, Hiśmiśarruma and Aradśarruma, who had rebelled against their brother, the ruling king ‘Ammithtamru. The two were banished to Alashia (Cyprus), but their mother took care to provide sufficient support for them, including a substantial amount of silver and gold, before they left. It is sometimes surmised that she removed them because they opposed his election to the throne. She must have been at least 90 years old when her sons were transferred from Ugarit to Alashia. The queen mother was held in high esteem and wielded considerable power. She ruled the country when the king was absent but also played a very important role when her son was present. The influential position of queen Ahatmilku may have been related to the fact that she was a king-maker and had helped Ammithtamru II to accede to the throne. She acted as regent for her son during his youth. At Ugarit the queen mother was involved in politics. She was consulted in diplomatic matters and was asked to intercede with the king. She was also involved in business. Ahatmilku was the dominant queenly figure of Ugarit through most of the 13th century - from circa 1313-before 1235 BEC.


 

Circa 1200 Possible Co-Regent Queen Tharriyelli of Ugarit (Syria)

An especially powerful queen mother was Tharriyelli (Śarelli), widow of Ibiranu. She continued to hold sway during the reigns of his successors Niqmaddu III (her son) and 'Ammurapi (possibly her grandson) 1235–1200. The historian Freu assumes that she was a co-regent in Ammmurapi’s early years. She replaced queen Ahatmilku as the dominant queenly figure of Ugarit in the last decades of the city.


 

Around 1200 Legendary Queen Camilla of Lathium (United Kingdom)

Ruled of one of the British tribes.


 

Around 1199 Royal Consort and General Fu Hao in the Hunan Province of China

Referred to in The Oracle Bones as one of the consorts of Wu Ding, twenty-first king of the Shang. The texts, which specifically refer to Fu Hao as a general, indicate that she participated in several military campaigns, including one in which she led 13.000 troops against the Qiang. It also appears that she was responsible for important rituals and controlled her own estate. Her tomb was found in 1976.


1194 – 1192 Joint Regent Queen Tausret of Egypt
1192-1186 Pharaoh
 
After the death of her brother and husband, Seti II, she became co-regent to their son Ramses-Si-Ptah (later Merne-Ptah-Si-Ptah). After his death a Syrian officer brought a young man, Siptah, to the throne, and married him to Tausert. After Siptah's death in 1192 she ruled alone for 6 years as king. Selnakht probably usurped the throne in 1200. Also know as Sitre'-meryAmun Twosre'-Seteptenmut, she also had the names Merymaat-nbtanemnisutmiAmun, Geregkemetuafkhasut and Satre-merenAmun. She was the last member of the 19th Dynasty and throughout her life she carried different titles: King’s Great Wife, Lady of the Two Lands and Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt, Pharaoh, Hereditary Princess, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Protectress of the Pharaoh.

 

Around 1145 Queen Titi of Egypt

Daughter, sister, wife and mother of unknown king, but she is known to have lived around the end of the 21st Dynasty and had the title of Lady and Mistress of the Lands etc.


 

After 1145-after 1117 Divine Adoratrix and Gods Wife of Amun Isis IV at Thebes, Mistress of the Lands (Egypt)

By bestowing his daughter with both titles Pharaoh Ramses VI turned it into a political post. From then on the king’s daughter, who therefore became a celibate priestess, barred from marrying, and probably having much political power, held it. Instead they adopted a successor, preferably the daughter of the next king, to ensure the office stayed where the power was. The office now held great religious and political responsibility and prestige in Thebes and was a means for the king to ensure this power, and at the same time prevent an elder daughter from marrying possible claimants to the throne. This made the God's Wife the highest ranking of Amun's 'concubines', which were all virgins and all with adopted successors. Isis was still in office at the end of the first decade of Ramses IX’s reign, but how much longer and whether she was succeeded is unknown. Also held the title of Mistress of the Lands.


 

1076 -1055 Politically Influential Queen Nodzhmet of Egypt

She was the daughter of High Priest of Amun Pianchi and Hereret and a wife of High Priest of Amun and Pharaoh Herhor (ruled 1080-74). Nodzhmet was a grand-grand – mother of Pharaoh Pinodzhem I (1070-55).


 

Around 1070-55 God's Wife of Amun Princess Maatkare I Mutemhet at Thebes, Mistress of the Two Lands and Lady of the Two Lands (Egypt)

Daughter of Pharaoh Pinodzhem I (1070-55) and Henuttaui, and according to some interpretations her position meant that she was de-facto ruler of southern Egypt.


 

Around 1045- 992 God's Wife of Amun Princess Isetemachbit III in Thebes (Egypt) 

The daughter of Pharaoh Psusennes I and Queen Wiay and the wife of Menkheperre (High Priest of Amun) at Thebes. She was mother of Queen Isetemachbit IV, pharaoh Pinodzhem II and Smendis II. From the 21st Dynasty on, an unwed daughter of either the king, or the High Priest of Amun always held the title. These included Maatkare, the daughter of the Priest and King, Pinudjem I, and Isetemachbit III, the daughter of King Psusennes I. (b.1050).


Around 1120 Judge and Phrophetess Debrah of Judeah (Israel)  
The fourth Judge and only female Judge in pre-monarchic Israel. Held her position for 40 years and led the Israeli tribes to a war with Canaan. Her story is told in the Old Testament in Judges.

  Ca. 1005-965 Queen Makeda of Sheba  
Believed to have reigned either in Yemen or an Ethiopian principality. Legends of the Queen of Sheba are common throughout Arabia, Persia, Ethiopia and Israel. In Arabian tradition, Balkis/Balqis ruled with the heart of a woman but the head and hands of a man. Islamic stories portray Solomon as marrying the Queen. In contrast to the Bible, they portray her abandoning her own Gods and converting to the God of the Israelites. According to Ethiopian legend she was born in Ophir, and educated in Ethiopia. Her mother was Queen Ismenie; her father, chief minister to Za Sebado, and succeeded him as King. One story describes that as a child Sheba (called Makeda) was to be sacrificed to a serpent god, but was rescued by the stranger 'Angaboo. Later, her pet jackal bit her badly on one foot and leg, leaving lasting scars and deformity. When her father died in 1005 BCE, Sheba became Queen at the age of fifteen. Contradictory legends refer to her as ruling for forty years, and reigning as a virgin Queen for six years. In most accounts, she never married. She lived  (ca. 1020-ca. 965). 

Last update 29.11.12

 

 

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