Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

and women who
acted as regents
of Kingdoms and Empires

from the year
BCE 1200
Female rulers of principalities, duchies, counties, baronies are not included

Around 1200 Legendary Queen Camilla of Lathium (United Kingdom)
Ruled of one of the British tribes.

590-59 Legendary Ruler Adela of Friesland (The Netherlands and Germany)

After the murder of Frana in 586 BCE, the people wanted the "borugh maid" Adela to be their new Earth Mother, but she refused because she wished to resign from her citadel and marry, which she did. For the next thirty years no Mother could be elected because each state supported the its own Maiden. More land was lost to the Magy of the Finns and Magyars but not by conquest of arms. He used propaganda on children and bribes on the nobles, promising them permanent hereditary offices with special privileges. These were long term plans that undermined the very foundation of Friesland society. During Adela’s unofficial reign, nobles were then being mentioned but the meaning of such offices was changing. A count took the public inventory; he counted, initially the market sales which were taxed and the profits of the ships which were shared and later on, the military levy of armed men. It eventually became a position of privilege, even an hereditary one. A duke was a hearer of disputes like a local judge and it has already been mentioned that a king was an elected short-term commander.

Amazon Queen Before 512 Queen Hypsipyle of Lemnos (Greece)
In the ancient realm of myth there is the account that in prehistoric times the island Lemnos was only inhabited by women. This island was called gynaikokratumene, which means reigned by women. In the Greek myth about the Argonauts, a group of men comes to this island on their way to the land of Colchis (in the East of the Black Sea), which was ruled by Hypsipyle. These women of Lemnos lived as self-confident Amazons on this island, their aim of life was not focused on fighting against men. It is likely that this myth reflects former matriarchal life on this island.

Artemisa I Circa 480 Queen and Admiral Artemisia I of Caria-Harlikarnassos and Kos (Turkey)
As a vassal of Persia, Artemisia was obliged to recruit her own small force when Xerxes invaded Greece  - in fact, Artemisia commanded five ships in her own right. Artemisia alone of his commanders advised Xerxes against a naval battle with the Greeks but Xerxes, however, chose to follow the advice of his male advisors, and met the Greeks on the sea in the channel of Salamis on 20th September 480 BCE. Artemisia was aboard one of her ships, commanding their movements. After the initial confusion, the Persians took the offensive. Though she only had one ship left, Artemisia herself disabled the ship of King Damasithymus of Calynda. At a council, Artmesia spoke her mind - she had opposed the war from the beginning and opposed its continuation. She advised Xerxes to leave his trusted commander Mardonus to pursue the Greeks whilst Xerxes himself return home, and would still maintained his dignity whether in victory or defeat. For her wisdom, Xerxes entrusted Artemisia with the care on his sons, and returned home to a kingdom racked by rebellion and conspiracy, to which he ultimately became a victim. Her kingdom prospering from her good relations with Persia. 

Around 401 Joint Ruler Queen Epyaxa of Cilicia (Turkey)
She is known from references to her in Xenophon's Persian Expedition, where she gives considerable aid to the rebel Cyrus. The comments about her do not explicitly state that she was a co-ruler with Syennesis III, simply that she was "Queen" - but she acted in a very independent fashion.

Years 400 Military Leader Telessilla, of Argos (Greece)
A warrior poet, she rallied the women of the besieged city of Argos with war hymns and chants and led them in defending the city against the invading forces.

Unnamed Greek Lady Circa 353-50 Queen Artemisia II of Caria, Rodhos and Harlikarnassos (Turkey)
Also Satrap of Asia Minor or Vice-Reine of the Persian King. Circa 377-53 she had been co-ruler with her husband and brother, King Mausolos of Caria and Rodhos, who died 353. After Mausolos' death in 353, she became ruler in her own right, and constructed the 49 meters high monumental tomb "Mausoleum" at the center of the city which is a magnificent piece of art in the Hellenistic world and one of the Seven Wonders of the antique era.

344-30 Regent Queen Cleopatra of Macedonia of Epirus (Greece)
Sister of Alexander the Great, Married to Alexander of Epirus. In 309 she was murdered. 

Queen Ada II of Caria 340-35 and 334-20 Queen Ada I of Caria (Turkey)
Co-ruler with her brother and husband Idrieus in succession to their sister, Artemissa II. After his death she ruled alone for three years until her younger brother, Pixadarus (341-335), deposed her. She moved to her fortress Alinda, where she held out for several years. His daughter, Ada II, married a persian nobleman, Orontobates, who became satrap of Caria. Even after the death of Pixodarus, her son-in-law kept her a prisoner in Alinda. Seizing the opportunity afforded by Alexander’s invasion, Ada I opened negotiations with him offering the surrender of all of Caria if she were placed upon her rightful throne. She further offered to adopt him as her son making him at once the legal heir to the throne of Caria by Carian law. Alexander turned inland to face the armies of Orontobates and Memnon who stood ready to defend Halicarnassus. The siege was a short one as Alexander’s army was joined by the Carian forces loyal to their Queen and with Ada at the head of her armies given the honor of taking the acropolis. Though Orontobates and Memnon escaped by sea, Ada sat again on the throne of Halicarnassus and stayed there until her death sometime after the death of Alexander.

334-circa 323 Regent Princess Barsine of Persia of Pergamon  (Turkey)
Ruled in the name of her and Alexander the Great's son Herakles. She was the daughter of king Artabazos IV of Syria. Barsine was married to Mentor, her second husband was her brother Dariusz Memnon, since 333 she was the wife of Alexander the Great.

Queen Olympias 334-330 Co-Regent Queen Olympias of Epiros (Greece)
330-323 Regent of Epiros

323-16 Regent Dowager Queen of Macedonia (Greece)
Since around 357 she was married to king Philip II of Macedonia, and she later acted as regent for him during his military campaigns. Since 331 she was in exile in Epiros. After her brother's death in 330, with her daughter Cleopatra, she was regent of Epirus for her grandson Neoptolemos. Since 323 she was regent of Macedonia for her second grandson Alexander IV. Murdered during a rebellion and lived (375-316).

Until early the 300's Queen Regnant Tirghetau of Circassia (Russia)
She was head of the region in the foothills north of the Caucasus. Its inhabitants, a sturdy, handsome folk with many often rapacious neighbors, have developed a warrior culture as a response to repeated invasions and slaving raids.

322-317 Politically influential Queen Eurydice II of Macedonia 
319-317 Co-Ruler of Macedonia
Daughter of Kynane and Amyntas IV of Macedonia, and influential during the reign of her husband, king Philippos III Arrhidaeus of Macedonia. 319-317 de facto co-ruler of Macedonia with Nicanor. She fought for the power with Olympias. Killed in 317. She lived (337-317).

322-287 Politically influential Queen Phila of Macedonia
294-287 Co-Ruler of Macedonia
The daughter of Antipater I, regent of Macedonia. She was influential during the reigns of her husbands Crateros ( 322-319) and Demetrius I (319-287), and was active in diplomacy until she killed herself in 287.

314-13 Ruler Kratesipolis of Korinthos and Siyon (Greece)
In 308 she handed over Korinthos to Ptolomy I of Egypt.

306-285 Regent Dowager Queen Amastris of Herakleia, Pontica  and Pontos (Turkey)
Pontos is also known as or Pontoiraklaia. She was a niece of Dariusz III Kodoman, she was married to tyrant Dionizos, Krateros and since 300 to Lysimachus, king of Thrace and Macedonia, whom she divorced in 298 and returned Herakleia. After her death Lysimachus give Herakleia to Arsinoe II. Amastris lived (?-285). 

Around 300 Celtic Chiefess in Reinheim (Germany)
Known from her very elaborate grave. 

298/97-95 Regent Dowager Queen Thessalonica of Macedonia (Greece)
Regent for her son Philippos IV

Arsinoe II 285-281 Ruler Arsinoe II Piladelphos of Herakleia, Pontica, Kassandria and Ephesos (Turkey)
281-279 Resided in Kassandreia
277-70 Co-Regent Queen of Egypt
The daughter of Ptolemy I Soter, she was married to King Lisymachus of Tracia 299-281. He gave her Herakleia, Pontica, Kassandria and Ephesos. After his death in 281 she resided in Kassandreia. She had been married to her half brother Ptolomy Keraunos of Macedonia, but after he murdered one of her sons in 279 she escaped to Egypt. Before 274 she was wife of and co-ruler of her, brother Ptolomy II Piladelphos. She lived (around 316-270).

Circa 262-35 Regent Dowager Queen Olympiada of Epiros (Greece)
After the death of Pyrrhus II, she was reigned in the name of Ptolemy (circa 262-235).

253 Sovereign Lady Laodike III of Egypt of Propontis (Turkey)
247-246 Regent of Syria 
Politically active during the reign of her husband-brother (or cousin, King Antiochiaos II of Syria (267/66), and after their divorce, she became Lady of Propontis. Later regent for Seleukos II Kallinikos and after he came of age she remained politically active until she was murdered. She lived (287/84-237/36).

250 Regent Dowager Queen Etazeta of Bithynia (Tyrkey)
After the death of her husban, king Nicomedes I, she continued to rule on behalf of their infant sons. Zialas, a grown-up son by an earlier wife, Ditizele, had previously fled to Armenia. Now Ziaelas returned, at the head of some Galatians. Although she was supported by neighbouring cities and Antigonus, Ziaelas conquered first part, then all of Bithynia. Etazeta and her sons, including another Ziboetes, fled to Antigonus’ court in Macedonia.

248-233 Queen Deidamia of Epiros (Greece)
Ptolemy was king (circa 262-235). Pyrrhus III succeeded as king in 235.

245 Dowager Tyrant Nikaia of Korinthos and Euboia (Greece)
Married to the uncle of Alexander the Great, Antigonos Gonatas, Governor of Macedonia etc., and was his co-ruler until he was deposed in 250. She then married his son Demetrios II. 

231-28 Regent Dowager Queen Teuta of Arcliano (Illyrian State) (Albania)
She had practically been co-ruler with her husband Agron, and after his death in 230 BCE, she was regent for son Pinnes. The state covered Northern Albania and part of Montenegro.

Circa 215-175/76 Co-Reigning Queen Kamasayre Philoteknos of the Bosporanian Realm (Crimean)  (Georgia)
Ruled jointly with husband, Pairisades II, who died around 190.  

Unnamed Celtic Lady 200's Queen Martia Proba of a Celtic Tribe (United Kingdom)
Her seat of power was in London, and she was holding the reins of government so wisely as to receive the surname of Proba, the Just. She especially devoted herself to the enactment of just laws for her subjects, the first principles of the common law tracing back to her; the celebrated laws of Alfred, and of Edward the Confessor, being in great degree restorations and compilations from the laws of Martia, which were known as the "Martian Statutes".

Late 200s-early 100s Legendary Queen Amage of the Roxolanoia (Russia)
The Roxolanoia tribe was probably deriving their name from the proto-Iranian Raokhshna, or “shining”. The name may also derive from a term meaning, essentially, “The Western Alans”. They were among the most powerful of the Sarmatian tribes, inhabiting much of the region north of the Black Sea. The ruling dynasty of the Bosporan Kingdom (see Crimea) from the end of the 1st century BCE on was Sarmatian in origin, and probably belonged to the Roxolanoi originally.

138-before 127 Regent Dowager Queen Ri-'nu of Parthia (Turkey)
Other versions of her name is Riinu or Rihinu, and she was regent for son Phraates II.

Laodike of Cappadocia 130 De Facto Ruler Queen Laodike of Cappadocia (Greece)
The widow of Ararathes V of Cappadocia, she poisoned 5 (step)sons and ruled in the name of the 6th.

Unnamed Greek Lady 130-126 Regent Dowager Queen Nysa of Cappadocia (Turkey)
Widow of Ariarathes V Epiphanes Philipator and regent for their son Ariarathes V (130-116). In 190 her husband had secured that the state became an  independent kingdom. Formerly it was a satrapy under the Persian Achaemenid Empire. It was incorporated by Alexander the Great into the Macedonian Empire, and on Alexander's death became a client state of the Selecucid Empire.

125/24 Regent Dowager Queen Ghadani of Iberia (Georgia)  
After the death of her son Rhadamiste I (or Ghadam), she assumed the regency for her  grandson Pharasmenes III (135-185) in the ancient country in Transcaucasia, roughly the eastern part of  present-day Georgia. It was inhabited in earliest times by various tribes, collectively called Iberians by ancient historians, although Herodotus called them Saspirams. The kingdom was allied to the Romans, ruled by the Sassanids of Persia, and became a Byzantine province in the 6th century. She was widow of King Pharasmenes II Kveli (circa 116-32), and daughter of King Sanatroukes a Parthian King of Armenia. She was (b. circa 100).

120-115 Regent Dowager Queen Laodice of Pontus (Turkey)
Following the death of her husband, king Mithradates V, she ruled in the place of her 11 years old son, Mithradates VI. Eupator Dionysos. About 115 BCE, she was deposed and thrown into prison by her son. She was daughter of king Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Syria and Queen Laodice.

100s Queen Larthia Seianti of the City State of Caere in Etruria (Italy)
Her splendid sarcophauge has lead historians to speculate that she might have been Queen of the City State of Chiuisi or Caere. Even if Caere did not have kings and Queens at this time (as did Rome, or as Caere certainly did in the 5th century), it is clear that society had become sharply differentiated, not only in regard to wealth but also in division of labour. Many scholars hypothesize the existence of a powerful aristocratic class, and craftsmen, merchants, and seamen would have formed a middle class; it was probably at this time that the Etruscans began to maintain the elegant slaves for which they were famous. 

Around 100 Ruler Aba of  Olbe (Turkey)

The daughter of Zenofantes, tyrant of Cilicia, and Olbe was a city in this principality.

62-47 Princess Musa Orsobaris of Prusias (Albania)

Until BCE 13 and BCE 8-7/8 CE Reigning Queen Dynamis of the Bosporanian Realm  (Georgia)
A grandchild of King Mithridatis of Persia, she inherited the country from her father. In 17/16 her first husband, Asander, died. Her second husband was deposed by the third, the king of Pontus. They divorced and she was in exile until his death. Died circa 70 years old. and was succeeded by fourth husband, Spurges, who had not previously been co-ruler.

BCE 10-5, 4-2 and BCE 6-12 CE Queen Regnant Erato of Greater Armenia  
Her father, Tigran III had been force to accept the supremacy of Rome, but the dynasty still used the title of "King of Kings." She first married her half-brother Tigran IV, who was disposesed by Augustus because of suspected treachery, and Tiberius came again to Armenia to replace him with their cousin Artavazd. This led to discontent and finally to civil war, partly instigated by Tigran, whom Phraates, King of Parthia, was secretly backing. Augustus sent his godson, Caius Caesar, to bring about an appeasement, but before his arrival, Tigran IV was killed in a riot, while she took to flight. The revolt was supressed, and in the year 1 CE, the Armenian throne was bestowed upon Ariobarzan, a Mede by origin, who was accepted because of his eminent qualities. But he very shortly was killed by accident, and Augustus nominated Artavazd, his son, as his successor. But the opposition to foreign rule soon found expression in the assassination of the King. Augustus thereupon abandoned his ill-conceived policy and sent Tigran V, a descendant of the national dynasty, to occupy the throne. But the nation's tranquility, apparently restored by this concession, was soon disturbed. The nobles recalled Queen Erato, but also her second reign was short, and her overthrow marked the end of the dynasty of Artashes and Tigran.

BCE 8-23 CE Queen Regnant Pythodorida of Pontus (Turkey)
She succeeded Polemon I, and in 23 the kingdom was reincorporated into the Roman Empire.

BCE 3- 6 CE Regent Dowager Queen Thea Ourania of Parthei (Turkey)
Took over the regency for son Pharaateces after the death of her husband, Phraates IV.

Queen Medb of Connaught

Around  year 1 Queen Medb of Connaught (Ireland)

Also known as  Maeve, she was daughter of the high king of Ireland, Ouchu Feidlich, and married King Ailill mac Mata of Connaught. It seems that she was once married to Conchobor mac Nessa, the king of Ulster. She was powerful enough to be euhemorized in myth as a triune goddess of fertility and nature. 

3-40 Regent Queen Antonia Thryphaena of Pontus (Turkey)
38-40 Regent of Thrace

Ruled in the name of son King Polemos who succeeded her mother in Pontus in Asia Minor. He succeeded a brother, Rhoemetaces, who had become king after the murder of her husband, Kytos.

7/8-23 Queen Pythodoris I Philometer of Pontus (Turkey)

Also known as Pantos Pythodorida, she succeeded husband, Polemon I, and married King Archelaos of Cappadocia. Succeeded by daughter and her son. 

Augusta Livia

14-29 De-facto Co-Regent Augusta Livia of the Roman Empire

Livia Drusilia Augusta was a member of the ancient, wealthy and powerful patrician gens claudia, the Claudian family. Octavian divorced his first wife Scribonia and forced Livia to divorce Tiberius so they could marry in 38 BCE. It was a political marriage in the tradition of the Republic, intended to bring together the wealth and might of the gens claudia and the gens julia, the Julian family, into which Octavian had been adopted by Julius Cæsar. The marriage thus formed an important part of Octavian's strategy in the intense power struggles of the late Republic. The dynasty they founded is known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Though their union was political in nature, there were warm feelings between the two, at the very least a profound sense of mutual loyalty. Their marriage lasted 52 years, until the death of Augustus in 14 CE. Livia never bore him any children, but Augustus Adopted Tiberius after a number of other possible heirs all died. Livia's son Drusus died in an accident in 9 CE. Livia was quite influential, through her personal wealth, through her intelligence and political sense, and through her marriage. She played a central role in the establisment of the Principate, along with Augustus and M. Agrippa. Livia's influence continued when her son Tiberius became emperor, until her death in 29 CE at the age of 85. She was deified by her grandson Claudius in CE 41, and lived (BCE 58-CE 29).

Circa  40-60 Queen Regnant Cartimandra of The Brigants (Brigantia) (United Kingdom)

Brigantia was a British tribe in Yorkshire. She signed a treaty with the Romans, placing herself under their protection. Her tribe was opposed to this treaty and there were several revolt. In  48, she asked for and received Roman help in fighting the rebellion. Cartimandua's consort, Venutius attempted to have her overthrown but he was unsuccessful after the Romans came to her aid. For a while Cartimandua ruled jointly with Venutius, but when he made another attempt to overthrow her, she took Vellocatus, a royal armor-bearer, as her consort. She sent Vellocatus to fight Venutius and, again, asked for Roman help. Ca.69, Cartimandua "retired" and in 71, Rome annexed Brigantia after they easily defeated Venutius, Vellocatus and the Brigantes in battle.

Augusta Iulia Aggripina

54-56 Regent Augusta Iulia Agrippina of the Roman Empire

She was the younger of three daughters of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. She was 34 years old when she married emperor Claudius, who was nearing the end of his life. During the last five years of Claudius’ reign, she grew more and more powerful. Her son Nero succeeded her husband at the age of 17 and could not legally rule in his own name. Agrippina acted as his regent and was a powerful controlling influence on him even after he came of age. After about a year, Nero moved her out of the imperial palace. She began to denounce her son more and more in public. After the tension between mother and son grew to a critical level, Nero determined to be rid of her, and had her killed. She lived (16-59).

Around 60 Queen Regnant Phytodoris of Colchis (Georgia)  

Colchis was an ancient country on the eastern shore of the Black Sea and in the Caucasus region. Centered about the fertile valley of the Phasis River (the modern Rion), Colchis corresponds to the present-day region of  Mingrelia in Georgia. She was a vassal of the Roman Empire. 

Queen Boudicca

60-61 Queen Regnant Boudicca of the Iceni-Tribe in Norfolk (United Kingdom)

The Iceni was a people who lived in the present-day counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. She led a rebellion against the Roman authorities as a result of their mistreatment of her family and people after the death of her husband, Prasutagus, who may have been a Roman client-ruler, in 60 AD. She and other disaffected tribes, sacked the cities of Colchester, St. Albans and London and, it is estimated, massacred approximately 70.000 Roman soldiers and civilians in the course of the glorious, but ill-fated rebellion. The rebels were finally defeated in battle by a force led by the Roman governor of Britain, Suetonius Paulinus, after which she took her own life by ingesting poison together with her two daughters, Camorra and Tasca or, according to legend, Voada and Voadicia. She lived (15-61).

112-? Regent Dowager Queen Gespaepyris of Pontus (Turkey)

Gespaepyris was born as Princess of Thrace and ruled on behalf of her son Mithridates VI. in the kingdom in Asia Minor.

Laodike II Nysa

130-? Reigning Dowager Queen Laodike II Nysa of Cappadocia (Turkey)

After the death of her husband, Ariarathes V, she poisoned 5 stepsons and ruled in the name of her own son. 

135-49 Regent Dowager Queen Ghadana of Iberia (Georgia)

The widow of King Pharasmenes II Kveli (circa 116-32), she reigned for grandson Pharasmenes III (135-185) after the death of her son Rhadamiste I (or Ghadam). She was daughter of King Sanatroukes of Armenia (b. circa 100).

Iulia Domna 

193-217 Joint Ruler Iulia Domna of the Roman Empire

She was one of the most powerful people in the Roman Empire. While her emperor husband, Septimius Severus, was fighting rivals, pursuing rebels, and subduing revolts in the far corners of the empire, she was left to administer the vast Roman Empire. She played one powerful general or senator against another, while keeping herself from falling into the many traps set by political enemies at court. Caracalla had murdered his brother Geta in her private apartments even as the younger son sought protection in her arms. After Macrinus had murdered Caracalla and seized the throne in 217, he sent her away from Antiochia after it was reported that Julia was inciting troops to rebel against him. At this time, she was believed to be about fifty years old and was suffering from a painful illness, probably cancer of the breast. Rather than face exile and the humiliation of being reduced to the status of a private citizen, she decided to commit suicide by starving herself.

Iulia Soaemias Bassiana

218-222 (†) Joint De-facto Ruler Iulia Soaemias Bassiana of the Roman Empire

She plotted together with her mother, Julia Maesa, to substitute the ursurpor, Macrinus, by her son Varius Avitus Bassianus (Heliogabalus) (203-218-222). As the emperor's mother, with the title Iulia Soaemias Augusta, she played a great role in government and administration and was infact the de facto ruler of Rome, since her son was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose. Julia Soaemias and Heliogabalus were killed by the Praetorian Guard in 222, and she was declared public enemy and her name erased from all records. She lived (circa 180-222).

Iulia Maesa

218-222 Joint De-facto Ruler Iulia Maesa of the Roman Empire
222-225/26 (†) Joint Regent 
of the Roman Empire

First she plotted together with her daughter, Julia Soaemias Bassiana to have her grandson Elagabaleus placed on the throne and later she was joint regent with her other daughter, Julia Masaea and her son, Alexander Servus. She was sister of Julia Domna and closely related to the Imperial family and grew up in Syria.

222-228 (†) Regent Dowager Empress Iulia Mamaea of the Roman Empire

She was behind the plot that ousted her sister, Julia Soaemias Bassiana, and her son and had her infant son, son Alexander Servus, placed on the throne. She ruled together her mother, Julia Mamesa and 16 senatorsm but as they were unable to defend the empire from the attacking Germans, the Army killed both her and her son.

238-41 Regent N.N. of the Roman Empire

Her name is not known, but she was the daugter of Emperor Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian I) and married to a senator, whose name is also not known. After Emperor Maximus I Thrax was murdered, her 13 year old son, Emperorr Gordianus III (225-38-44) was placed on the throne with her in charge of the regency.

Ulipia Serverina

275 Sole Regent Dowager Empress Ulipia Serverina of The Roman Empire (March-September)

Reigned alone after her husband, Aurelianus' death until Tacitus was named emperor.

350 Augusta Constantina of East Roman Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She roclaimed Vetranio as Cæsar during a riot - acting in her own right with the authority of the daughter of the Emperor with the title of Augusta in the Byzantine or East Roman Empire.

375-83 Joint Ruler Dowager Empress Iustiana of the Roman Empire
383-? Regent

Joint ruler with son Gratianus and regent for Valentianus II (383-92), who ruled the Western division of the Empire, encompassing Rome itself together with Italy, Gaul, Britain, Iberia, and northwestern Africa, though the state was already disintegrating faced with the babaric invasions.

378 Queen Regnant Zarmandukht of Greater Armenia

Her name is also spelled Zarmandux, she was widow of King Pap, who was known to have been gay and was killed on the orders of the Byzantine general Terent. In the first instance his cousin, Varazdat was king until 378. She took power, but from 378 until his death in 385, Manuel Mamikonean, was the real ruler of Armenia. He ruled as a "trustee" of the monarchy in the name of her son, and kept both of them in the king's place and causing them to circulate around in honor. He nourished her two sons Arshak and Vagharsha as his foster-children and honoured her.

378 De-facto Regent Dowager Empress Domnica of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She held the City of Byzanz after the death of her husband, Valens and defended the city against the attacks of the Goths, before the arrival of the successor, Theodosios.

449/50 Augusta Justa Grata Honoria of the Roman Empire (in the West)

The sister of Valentin III, she acted in her capacity as Augusta.

Eudoxia of Byzans

400-04 De-facto Ruler Empress Eudoxia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was a significant figure in the government because she had the ear of her husband Emperor Arcadius of the East Roman Empire until her own death in 404. She was strong and strident, dominating her weak and passive husband.

Princess Pulchera

414-55 De-facto Ruler Augusta Pulchera of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

At the age of 15 Princess Aelia Pulcheria was crowned Augusta and assumed a dominant role in guiding the affairs of state. In 420/22 she may have organized the Byzantine campaign against Persia, she replaced the emperor as director of power, but the ultimate power resided with her brother. In the mid-420s she engaged in a power struggle with her sister-in-law, Eudokia, and Pulchera was forced into semi-retirement. She established herself as a holy virgin dedicated to God, and this gave her access into the altar to receive the communion with priests and deacons, something normally barred to women. When her brother died in 450 she took control of the government of the Eastern Empire, and married Marcian, Army Chief of Staff, and named him co-Emperor. She spoke Greek and Latin and had a deep interest in medicine and natural science lived (399-453).

Galla Placidia

423-50 Regent Dowager Empress Galla Placidia of the Roman Empire (Covering Italy, Spain, France and Northern Africa)

She was in Rome at the time of its sack by Alaric and the Visigoths, and after Alaric’s death in 414, she married his brother and successor as king of the Visigoths, Athaulf. After his death, Placidia returned home in 416 to marry Constantius, who was made co-augustus in the West in 421 and became the Roman emperor Constantius III. He died of pleurisy after a reign of only seven months. In 423 her brother Emperor Honorius died and Galla Placidia was made Augusta and regent for her six year old son Valentinian III. Placidia proved to be a hard-nosed ruler who knew how to manage a declining economy and rebellious subjects. Even after her son's death, she managed the Roman government in the West for twenty years during one of the most perilous periods of its existence. She lived (388-450).

Empress Ariane

491 Regent Dowager Empress Ariane of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Also known as Aelia Ariadane, she was the daughter of  Leo I (447-74). She was married to Tarasicodissa who became Emperor Zeno, and after his death in 491 the Senate officially requested her to choose another candidate to rule and she married Anastasios I, who became emperor. 

Empress Theodora

518-65 Co-Ruler Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Before becoming Empress, she was an actress. During this time in history the theatre was looked down upon and in fact banned by the church. She later became a devote Christian and married Emperor Justinian, who viewed her as an equal and accepted her many ideas. She was influential in changing the administrative and legislative sectors. She was an advocate of women’s rights. The Empress, along with her husband changed laws on guardianship to include women, and created a law that allowed women to own property. The two also rebuilt cities that were ruined during earthquakes, and built the church Hagia Sophia. In 532, mobs attempted to overthrow Justinian, causing the Emperor the desire to flee his city. But it was his wife who convinced him to stay.

Princess Arnalasuntha

526-34 Regent Princess Amalasuentha  of the Ostrotoths (Italy)
534-35 Joint Reigning Queen 

She was the daughter of King Theodoric and Audofleda, a sister of King Clovis. Exceptionally well educated, she studied both Greek and Latin and took a keen interest in art and literature. Married to Eutharic at the age of 17, she found herself Queen in 522, following the deaths of both her father and her husband. She served as regent for her 10-year-old son, Athalric. Like her father, she maintained a pro-Byzantine policy, which was not popular with the Ostrogothic nobles. She suppressed a rebellion and executed three of its leaders. She also purged her lands of dishonest office holders and limited the power of grasping landowners. After her son died, in 534, she shared the throne with her cousin, Theodahad who later led a palace revolution and caused her to be exiled to an island, where she was strangled in her bath as an act of vengeance by relatives of the nobles she had executed. 

565-572 and 574-578 Co-ruler Empress Sophia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
572-574 Sole Regent

The niece of Empress Theodora and married to emperor Iustinus II (565-578), and sole regent during her husband's mental illness. She nominated his two successors without marrying either, and continued exercise a high degree of influence on the government and is believed to have played a major role in various financial measures and took an active part in foreign politics, mainly in her dealings with Persia.

Queen Fredegundis

584-94 Regent Dowager Queen Fredegundis of France

Fredgunde or Fredegunda was a slave-girl at the court of Neustria when she came to the attention of Chilperic I, Merovingian King of Soissons (Neustria). She became his mistress and then eventually third wife. She persuaded Chilperic to repudiate his first wife Audovera and was said to be the driving force behind the murder  in 568 of Chilperic's second wife Galswintha. Fredegunda also engineered the murders of Audovera's three sons and  Sigibert of Austrasia, Chilperic's brother. Finally her husband was murdered or assassinated, shortly after the birth of their son Lothair in 584. Fredegunda seized her late husband's wealth and fled to Paris with her remaining son Lothair (Clotaire II), and persuaded the Neustrian nobles to recognize her son as the legitimate heir to the throne and she took over the regency and continued her longtime power struggle with Guntrum of Burgundy (d.593) and Brunhilda, Queen-Mother of Austrasia (d.614), whom she defeated around 597. Fredegunda (d. 598).

 Theodolina of the Longobards

590 Reigning Dowager Queen Theodolina of the Lombards (Italy)
615-25 Regent of the Kingdom

Co-ruler with husbands, king Autharis (584-90) and Agilulf (591-615) and regent for son King Adololdo of the Lombards or Langobards, who was deposed by her son-in-law. She was instrumental in restoring Athanasian Christianity - the ancestor of modern Roman Catholicism - to a position of primacy in Italy against it's rival, Arian Christianity. With a stable base in Italy thereafter, the Papacy could begin subduing those it regarded as heretics elsewhere.

Frankish Queen

639-42 Regent Dowager Queen Nanthildis of Neustrasia and Burgundy (France)

Also known as Nanthilde, Nanthechilde or Nantechildis, she was a former servant and married the Merovingian king Dagobert I (604-29-35) after he had divorced his childless consort, Gomatrud. After Dagobert's death her son, Chlodwig II was appointed king of Neutrasia and Burgundy and his older half-brother, Sigibert III king of Austrasia. She received 1/3 of the royal treasure. She acted as regent together with the Major Domus Aega. As he attacked the Burgundfarons she protected them and 642 she reformed the office of Major Domus of Burgundy and appointed the Frankish Flaochad to the office. She lived (circa 610-642).

Unnamed Byzantine Empress

641 Regent Dowager Empress Martina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

After the death of her husband, Herakleios, she was first co-ruler with stepson, Constantinos III , whom she was accused of poisoning. She took power but was deposed together with son Heraklonas, who was still a minor. They were both mutilated and sent into exile.  

642-49 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Gregorina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was the widow of Herakleios-Constantinos and her son, Constans, was chosen as Emperor after Martina and Heraklonas, and though the sources does not mention the members of the Regency Council it can be assumed that she was one of the members. She was a niece of Emperor Herakleios II.


657-64/65 Regent Dowager Queen Bathildis of Neustrie, Bourgogne and Austrasie (France)

A 700th century Queen

Also known as Bathilde or Baldechildis, she was born in England, and taken to Gaul as a slave and about 641, she was bought by Erchinoald, mayor of the palace of Neustria. She married  Clovis II in 648. The future Lothair III was born in 649, and she had two more sons, Theoderic and Childeric, who also eventually became rulers. Balthildis' influence during her husband's reign was considerable, since she controlled the court and the allocation of charity money, and had strong connections with Church leaders. After Clovis' death in 657 she took over the regency for her son Lothair III and embarked on a policy of unifying the Frankish territory by controlling Austrasia through imposing her son Childeric as Prince and absorbing Burgundy. She lost her political power when Lothair came of age and was forced to retire to the convent of Chelles, which she had founded and endowed with much of her personal wealth in 664. She died in 680 in Chelles, and was later declared a saint.

662 Regent Dowager Queen Himnechilde of Austrasia (France)

After the death of her husband, Sigebert III, she was joint regent for her son,  Childéric II together with the Major Domus (Major of the Palace) Wulfoald.

664-66  Regent Dowager Queen Sexburga of Kent (United Kingdom)

The eldest daughter of King Anna of East Anglia and his second wife, Saewara. She married King Erconbert of Kent, and after he died of the "yellow plague", she reigned on behalf off her son, Egbert I. After he came of age, she became abbess of Minister-in-Sheppey and later of Ely, where her sister, St. Etheldreda of Ely had been Abbess. Another sister and both of her daughters;  Ermengilda and Ercongota were Saint and the sam was the case of her grandchildren; St. Werburga of Chester, St. Wulfade and  St. Rufinus. She lived (circa 636-around 700).

Circa 669-74 Regent Empress Aelia Sofia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Handled the affairs of state for her insane husband Justinos II (58-95 and 705-11), who was killed.

672-74 Queen Regnant Seaxburh of Wessex  (United Kingdom)

She succeeded her husband, Cenwealh, who was king (642-72), and was followed by Centwine, son of former king Cynegils.

Queen Clothilde

692 Regent Queen Dowager Clothilde of Neustria and Bourgogne (France)

Regent for a few months for son Childéric. She is also known as Rothilde, Chrothéchildis or Doda (d. 694/9).

685-99 Regent Dowager Princess Spram of Girdyaman (Azerbaijan)

Ruled in the name of Varaz-Tiridat I of the Mihranid Dynasty, who ruled (680-699). She was succceded by Sheraye.

714 Acting Major Domina Plectrudis von Ecternach of Neustraia, Austria, Aquitania and Burgundy (France)

Also known as Plectrud or Plectrude, she engaged in a power-struggle with her stepson, Carles Martel after the death of her husband, Pipin II d'Heristal. She favoured the succession of one of her grandsons to the office of Major Domus. Her forces were finally defeated in 719. She was daughter of Count Palantine Hugobert von Ecternach  (d. 697/698) and inherited "The Lands between the Rhine, Moselle and Meuse" after her mother Irmina von Oeren, and was later declared a Saint. She lived (Before 665-ca.725)

Circa 750 Legendary Queen Wanda of Poland  

According to legend her father, king Krak was succeeded by one brother, but was killed by another. The Councillors broke with tradition in asking Wanda to rule over her people. Peace and prosperity prevailed over Krakow, but in the west, the Germans grew in strength and began attacking Polish hamlets and cities. The German commander, Rytygier, wanted to make Wanda his wife, and to avoid this and save her people, she wandered to the top of a cliff over the Wisla river, she threw herself into the river. 

Circa 772-98 Joint Reigning Queen Cynethryth of Mercia (United Kingdom)

She was the wife of Offa II, the Saxon King of Mercia (757-96), and acquired notoriety as a tyrannical Queen. She was the only Queen consort ever allowed to issue coins in her own name, and  they carry vivid portraits, the earliest portrait of an Englishwoman. Her daughter, Eadburgh, acquired a still worse reputation.    

A coin where Irene used the title of Basillius, Emperor

780-90 Regent Dowager Empress Eirene of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
787 Presiding  over the 7th Ecomenical Synod (Council)

792      Joint Ruler
of the Empire
797-802 Reigning Empress

Also known as Irene, she dominated her husband Emperor Leo IV (775-780), and after his death she took over the regency for son, Constantine VI. Irene generally undermined Constantine's authority when he tried to push her aside, she deposed him in 797 - he was seized, flogged and blinded. Irene began her reign as the first Byzantine Empress, and did not recognize Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in 800. After the death of his wife, Liutgard, the same year, Charlemagne sought her hand in marriage - but nothing came out of this proposal. Soon revolts against Irene rule broke out and she was deposed by the leading Patricians. Irene was then exiled to island of Lesbos, where she supported herself by spinning. Irene died the following year and her former finance minister succeeded as Emperor Nicephorus I. She lived (752-803).

Before 825 Regent Dowager Queen Angharad Ferch Maredudd Llewelyn of Powys, Holderness, Skipton and Cockermouth  (Wales and England in the United Kingdom)

Reigned in the name of her son.

829-30 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Euphrosyne of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was daughter of Emperor Constantinos VI who divorced her mother, Maria of Amnia (circa 770-circa 830) and send both of them to a monestary, where they stayed until 820 when Michael II of Amorion ursurped the throne and married Euphrosyne in order to legitimize his reign. After his death, she was probably member of the regency council for his son, Theophilos, though the sources are not clear about this. After she helped select his wife, Theodora, she retired to a convent, though she did not stay totally out of politics. She (circa 790-after 840).

842-56 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

The widow of Theophilos (829-42), she was leader of the regency for her son Michael III (838-42-67). She restored the veneration of  icons, brought back the deposed holy Patriarch Meletios and convened a Council,  at  which  the Iconoclasts were anathematized. When  Michael  came  of age, she spent 8 years  in  the monastery of Saint Euphrosynia, in ascetic deeds and the reading  of  Divine books (a copy of the Gospels is known of, copied by  her hand). She died peacefully in about the year 867. Later declared a saint.

842 Member of the Regency Council Princess Tekla of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

The sister of Michael III, she was in theory co-regent with Theodora

914-919 Regent Dowager Empress Zoë Karbonopsina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

The fourth wife of Leon IV, who died 912. After his death the guardian of her son, but Constantinos VII (b. 905) sent her to a convent. She later managed to become regent for son, but was deposed in 919. 

927-30 Regent Dowager Queen Oneca de Navarra of León (Spain)

Ruled in the name of her son, Alfonso IV (926-31) who abdicated.

Until 931 Co-Regent Margravine Ermengard di Lucca of Ivrea (Italy)

She was daughter of Adalbert II of Tuszia and Berta, illegitimate daughter of king Lothar II.  As co-regent she secured the Italian throne for her brother, Hugo d’Arle, against the claims of Raoul II de Haute-Bourgogne. 

945-59 Co-ruler Empress Helena Lecapena of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Married to Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitu (913-59), who raised her father, Romanus Lecapenus, to the rank of cæsar and the status of co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire and actual ruler of the state. In 944 two sons deposed him, but they were executed, and finally Constantine took over the reigns himself - though with heavy guidance from Helena. She retired to a convent after her husband's death, to please his son, Romanus, who was under the spell of his wife, Theophano. 

961-62 De-facto in charge of the Government Dowager Empress Mathilde von Sachsen of Germany

She had withdrawn to the convent of Quedlinburg which she founded after the death of her husband, King Heinrich I  in 936, but took over the reigns in Germany when her son, Otto I, went to Italy after having appointed his infant son, the later Otto II as regent. She had devoted her time to charity and founder of numerous convents and she was later declared a saint (Mathilde die Heilige). She was mother of 3 sons and 2 daughters (among whom Geberga was regent in the West-Frankish kingdom from 954), and lived (circa 895-968).

963-69 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Very powerful during the reign of her husband, Emperor Romanos II (959-63) and regent for sons Basileios II and Constantinos VIII. Married to the FieldMarshall Nikephoros Phokas, who was emperor 963-69. He was deposed by Jean Tzimikskes who married Theodora, daughter of Theophano.

966-75 Regent Doña Elvira Ramírez of León and Asturias (Spain)

The daughter of Ramiro II, she left the convent take over the regency for her nephew, Ramiro III, after the death of her brother, Sancho I. She made treaties with Caliph Al-Hahen II and orgaised the defence against the Normans In 968-69. In 975 she was replaced as regent by her sister-in-law, the Dowager Queen Teresa.

Princess-Abbess Mathilde 966-99 Princess-Abbess Mathilde I von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
997-99 Guardian of the Realm of the Holy Roman Empire
Daughter of Emperor Otto I, she was appointed the first Princess-Abbess - Reichsäbtissin - of Quedlinburg. She also acted as "domina imperialis", and followed her brother Otto II on journey to Italy and acted regent with the title of Matica (Reichsverweser) for her nephew, Otto III during his stay in Italy. She was also named as his representative in Sachsen with the additional titles of Metropolitana of Quedlinburg and Matrixcia of Sachsen (Substitute and Representive of the Emperor). She lived (955-999). 

A 10th century Queen

973-75 Joint Ruler Queen Ælfthryth of England
978-84 Regent Dowager Queen

Sources indicated that after her consecration she was considered to been sharing the royal lordship with her husband, King Edgar, who was first succeeded by his son of the first marriage, Edward, then by a brother, and finally by his son by Ælfthryth, Edmund II Ironside (968-78-1016), and was in charge of the government during his minority, and continued to be a dominant force after he came of age.

975-80 Regent Dowager Queen Teresa Ansúrez of León and Asturia (Spain)

The widow of Sanchos I, she replaced her sister in law, Princess Elvira as regent for son, Ramiros II, after his troops was beaten by the Arab forces by Gormaz in 975. From 977 the kingdom was systematically attacked by al Mansur, and in 981 Ramiros was deposed after a riot, and replaced by Vermundo II in Asturia, and was now only king in Leon until he was deposed here too, and killed.

978-94 Queen Gurandukht of Abkhazia (Georgia)

She succeeded Theodosius III the Blind and reigned jointly with king
Bagrat III
Bagrationi the Unifier (King of Georgia 1008-14) of the mountainous district along the east coast of the Black Sea.


983 Regent Dowager Empress Adelheid  in Italy
985-94 Regent of the Holy Roman Empire

Empress Adelheid

As the widow of Duke Lothar of Burgundy, she married to Otto I at the age of 20. He let her control the lands she brought into the marriage, and even added some he owned. In 976 and 985 she Presided over the hearings of the Royal Court in Italy. When her husband died, she became regent for her son Otto II, who included her in his decrees, arriving at decisions "with the advice of my pious and dearest mother." After her son's death she became joint regent with her daughter-in-law, Theophano, for the 3 year old, Otto III, and after Theophano died, Adelaide became sole regent. After he came of age at the age of 14, she lived in a nunnery using the title "Adelheida, by God's gift Empress, by herself a poor sinner and God's maidservant”. She lived (931-999)

Empress Theophano

983-91 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of the Holy Roman Empire

A Byzantine Princess who at the age of seventeen was given to the young Saxon emperor Otto II and crowned Coimperatrix as the only German Empress and Consors Regni. Though elegant and a delicate beauty, she was high-spirited and a superb politician who brought with her an intimate knowledge of the intricacies of court life. When her husband died, leaving her with a three year old son, she took the title "Imperator Augustus" and defended her son Otto III’s title for seven years from those who challenged him. For seven years Theophano with tact and firmness administered the empire in her son's name. She was called by a contemporary "a woman of discreet and firm character...with truly masculine strength." Sometimes she used the male title "imperator augustus, and lived (ca.955-991)

986-87 Regent Dowager Queen Emma of France

Daughter of Lothaire III of Italy and Germany and Adélaide who later married Otto I of Germany. Emma took over the regency after the death of her husband King Lothaire as guardian for son Louis V, who was king from 26th of march 986 till 18th May the following year.

987-96 Joint Ruler Queen Alais d'Aquitaine of France

Also known as Adèle, she was married to Hugues Capet, and reigned jointly with him, and after his death 996 she also seems to have played a political role during the beginning of the reign of her son, Robert II. She was daughter of Guillaume II and Adèle de Normandie, and lived (circa 945-1004/06).

995 Possible Regent Dowager Queen Gunhild of Poland of Sweden 
It is not known for certain that she was acctually the wife of King Erik, who might have been married to Sigrid Storråda, but she might have acted as regent for son, king Olof Skötkonung. Since 996 she was possibly married to Svend Forkbeard king of Denmark and political active until their divorce in 1000. In 996 she lead to an alliance between Denmark and Sweden. Daughter of prince of Poland Mieszko I and Dobrawa, she was origianally named Princess Świętosława–Sygryda, mother of several children with both husbands, and lived (968/72-after 1014).  

Elvira of Leon

999-1008 Regent Dowager Queen Elivra García of León (Spain)

After the death of her husband, Bermudo II (953-84-99), she was joint-regent with Mendos Gonzales for son Alfonso V (989-999-1028). Born as Princess of Castilla and lived (965-1017)

1014-72 Queen Dearbforgail of Munster and Ireland

She was daughter of King Brian Bory, her husband was king Dermont MacMilmamo of Leister was also king of Ireland.  

Gisela von Schwabien 1015-.. Regent Dowager Duchess Gisela von Schwaben of Swabia (Germany)
1024-39 Co-Regent of Germany
1026-39 Co-Regent of Italy
1027-39 Co-Regent of The Holy Roman Empire
1032-39 Co-Regent of Bourgogne
The daughter and heiress of Duke Hermann II von Schwaben and Gerberga de Bourgogne, she reigned after the death of her second husband, Duke Ernst I von Schwaben during the minority of their son, Ernst II, until she was removed from the regency because she and Ernst I was too closely related according to the Canon Law. She later married Konrad II, and she was crowned Queen of Germany, and Holy Roman Empress. The sources indicates that she was a vivid participant in the affairs of the realm and took part in the Imperial Councils and acted as joint regent of her husband, and it was trough her intervention that her relative, Rudolf III of Burgundy transferred the succession to his realm to her husband. She was also interested in the affairs of the church and intervened in the appointments of Bishops and Princely Abbots and participated in various synods. She was not at good terms with her son, Heinrich III, and therefore she was less influential after Konrad's death. She lived (989-1043).

1017-27 Regent Abbess Urraca Garciez de Covarrubias of Castilla (Spain)

The Abbess of Covarrubias, she ruled jointly with bishop Pedro of Burgos during the minority of her nephew, Count Garcia II (1110-17-29), after her brother, Sancho had been killed. She was daughter of Cout Carcia I.

1027-circa 36 Regent Dowager Queen Miriam Artsruni of United Georgia

After the death of her husband, Giorgi I (1014-27), she was in charge of the regency for son Bagrat IV (1027-72). The kingdom was invaded by The Byzantine Empire at the time, but their attack was fought off. In 1031 after the takeover of Iberia, she and heir Minister traveled to Constantinople on a diplomatic mission and negotiated a peace, and had her son recognized as full king (Curopalate) and head of the local princes. Also known as Maria, she was daughter of Sennacherib-John of Vaspurahan

1028-41 and 1042-50 Joint Reigning Empress Zoë Porphyrogenita of The Byzantine Empire

She was the younger daughter of Emperor Constantine VIII, and succeeded him 1028. Zoë married 60 year old Romanus III Argyropolus and made him co-emperor. The marriage lasted barely six years before Zoë poisoned him, and married the epileptic weakling Michael IV Paphiagonian, who had her cloistered in 1041. This enforced confinement was short-lived as the Byzantine nobles rebelled against Michael. Zoë was released from her confinement, and Michael was himself cloistered in a monastery by the nobles. Zoë now ruled jointly with her older sister Theodora in 1042. Zoë married again, this time to Constantine IX Monomachus aged 42, and both reigned till her death. Zoë was succeeded in Byzantium by husband, who then ruled jointly with her sister Theodora. Zoë lived (986-1050).  

Unnamed Nordic Woman

1030-35 Regent Dowager Queen Alfiva of Norway

Also known as Lady Ælfgify of Northamton she was regent for her, and Knud the Great’s son, King Svend of Norway. Her rule was harsh and provoked an uprising which removed her from power. When Knud died she returned to England, and persuaded the nobles to recognize her other son Harald Harfoot as king in 1037 but no records of her from then on have survived.

Queen Richeza of Poland and Bohemia 1034-36 Regent Dowager Queen Richeza von der Pfalz of Poland
She was the first polish Queen since 1025 as the wife of prince (since 1025 a king) Mieszko II. She was the eldest daughter of Errenfried Ezzon, “der rheinische Pfalzgraf” (palatin) and Matilda, daughter of Emperor Otto II. Rycheza was regent for her son, Kazimierz I Odnowiciel. She lived (996-1063).  

Queen Sancha of León

1037-65 Co-Queen Regnant Sancha of León (Spain)

In 1029 Count García Sánchez of Castilla was about to be married to Sancha of León, the sister of Vermudo III, an arrangement apparently sanctioned by the king of Navarra, when the count was murdered in the city of León. Sancho el Mayor of Navarra then claimed the county of Castilla in his wife's name and installed in it their son, Fernando, as the new count of Castilla. After he had forced the marriage between Fernando and Sancha in 1032, those lands went to Castilla as part of her dowry. In 1034 he wrested the city of León itself from Vermudo, who retreated into Galicia, and began to style himself "Emperor" on his coinage. He was killed at a battle in 1037 and succeeded by Sancha and her husband. During their reign the kingdom was consolidated and expanded further.

A coin issued by Empress Theodora

1042 and 1050-55 Joint Empress Theodora Porphyrogenita of The Byzantine Empire
1055-56 Sole Empress

In 1042 she reigned jointly with her sister, Zoe, without success. The sixty-five-year old Zoe married Constantine IX, Monomachus and made him co-ruler. Contemporary sources are unanimous in describing Constantine IX's incompetence. They generously ascribe to him all the blame for the rapidly tarnishing glory of Byzantium. The imperial family at public functions and in royal portraits included three women as long as Zoe lived. Aside from the aged Zoe and her sister, Theodora, but also Constantine's mistress, the niece of his second wife, was always presen. On the death of Constantine IX, Theodora, the only surviving member of Basil II's family, ruled for twenty months, and before her death she had chosen to forward Michael VI as her successor. She lived (978-1056).

1042-66 Joint Ruler Queen Edith of Wesex of England (United Kingdom)
1066 De facto Regent

She was married to king Edward. In 1051 her father, Earl Goodwin of Wessex revolted against the Norman influence, but failed, and was banished. Edward started divorce-proceedings, but they remained married until his death, and during the vacancy at the throne she seems to have been de-facto caretaker. They had no surviving children and there was a succession of rulers, resulting in William the Conqueror of Normandy becoming king and it was her who was obliged to hand over the keys to Winchester, the county town of Wessex. She remained in charge of vast lands, but did no longer participate in politics. She lived (circa 1020-75). 

1055-61 Hereditary Duchess Agnes de Pointou of Bavaria  (Germany)
1056-62 Regent Dowager Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
1057 and 1059 and 106? Presiding  over the Hearings at the Royal Court (Königsgericht)

She was descended from the royal houses of Burgundy and Italy, the daughter of William V of Aquitaine and Poitou, she became the second wife of the German king Henry III in 1043. They were crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Empress by Clement II in 1046. After her husband's death she acted as Regent for her son, Heinrich IV (1050-?) She was not an experienced politician and was influenced by the nobility to part with the duchies of Bavaria and Carinthia, and entered into unwise alliances against the dominant reforming party in the Papacy. By 1062 discontent led to an uprising in which Anno, Archbishop of Köln, took over the regency. Agnes retired to a convent where she remained until her death. She lived (1024-77).

Anne de Kiev

1060-? Regent Dowager Queen Anne de Kiev of France

After the death of her husband, Henri I, she reigned jointly with Baudouin V of Flanders in the name of her son, Philippe I. Her subsequent marriage to Raoul, Comte de Valois caused a scandal, since he was already married. He was excommunicated, and she died in a convent. She was daughter of Jarosla Vladimirovich of Kiev and Indegard of Norway, and lived (1051-89).

Mathilda of Flanders

1066-69 and 1069-83 Regent Queen Mathilda van Flanders of England in the Normandie (France)

She was married to William I the Conqueror of England (1066-87) and duke of Normandy. He depended heavily on her and she acted as regent whenever he was absent after their marriage in 1051. With him in England 1067-69 until she went back to Normandy, where she remained in charge until her death. In 1077 the oldest son, Robert Curthose, suggested that he should become the ruler of Normandy and Maine. When William the Conqueror refused, Robert rebelled and attempted to seize Rouen. The rebellion failed and Robert was forced to flee and established himself at Gerberoi. William besieged him there in 1080 but Matilda managed to persuade the two men to end their feud. Mother of around 10 children, one of the last being king Henry I. She lived (circa 1031-83).

Eudocia of Byzantine

1067 Reigning Dowager Empress Eudoxia Makrembolitissa of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1068 and 1071 Regent

Regent for Michael VIII Dukas and Konstantinos after the death of her husband Constantine X Dukas. In 1068 married to Romanos IV Diogenes, who took title of emperor. In 1071 co-ruler with son, Michael, but was deposed and ended her life in a convent.  

1088-91 Joint Ruler Queen Jelena Illona Lijepa of Croatia and Dalmatia

Also known as Elena or Helena. She was considered a joint ruler during the reign of her husband Dmitar Zvonimir (1075-1089), who had previously been a ban in Dalmatia and gained the title of king with the support of Pope Gregory VII, after which he aided the Normans in their struggle against the Eastern Empire and Venice between 1081 and 1085. Due to this, in 1085 the Byzantines transferred their rights to Dalmatia to Venice. A rebellion against Zvonimir broke out at the sabor of Knin in 1089 because of discontent with warring in the interest of the Pope, and he was killed. She continued rule parts of the country in opposition to the new king, Stjepan II of the Trpimirović dynasty, who nominally ruled Croatia for 2 years. The army of her brother, Ladislaus of Hungary, penetrated Croatian territory in 1091 and quickly occupied all of Pannonian Croatia, after which they were met with some unorganized resistance in Dalmatian Croatia. The Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius reacted by making the Cumans attack the Magyars, which made Ladislaus retreat from Croatia, but he did leave Prince Álmos to rule over Slavonia. (d. after 1091)

1095-1103 Joint Reigning Queen Bodil of Denmark

Contemporary sources depict her as the co-ruler of her husband, King Erik I Ejegod. She was daughter of the Thurgot, Earl in Jutland, and her nephew, Asser, became the first Archbishop Denmark. In 1103 they went on a prilgimmage to Jerusalem. Erik died on the way and she did in Jerusalem in 1103 or 1104. 

A 12th century Queen

1101-12 Regent Dowager Queen Adelisa di Savona of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1101-1118 Sovereign Countess of Salona

Widow of Roger I, she was a very efficient and successful regent for the sons Simon and Roger II. After having handed over the government to Roger, she travelled to Jerusalem and married Bodouin I, but it was not a success and they divorced in 1117 where after she returned to Sicilia. She lived (1072-1118).

1104-30 Joint Reigning Queen Margrethe Fredkulla of Denmark

Contemporary sources depict her as the co-ruler of her husband, Niels, and considered to be the strongest of the two. She is described her as vise, clever, devote and peace loving. Daughter of King Inge of Sweden, she was first married to the Norwegian king Magnus, who died 1103. (d. 1130). 

Urraca I of Castilla y Leon

1109-29 Queen Regnant Urraca I Alfonsez of Castilla and Léon (Spain)

In 1107 she reigned over her Dowry Galicia and Zamora after the death of her first husband Count Raimond de Bourgogne. The following year she inherited the throne from her father Alfonso VI Fernandez of Castile and Leon (1040-1109). Her second marriage in the year 1109 to Alfonso I Perez de Aragon (d. 1134) ended in divorce in 1114. Her reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband, who had seized her lands. She never remarried, though she took several lovers. Another thorn in her side was her half-sister, Tarasa of Portugal and her husband, Enrique, who allied with her estranged husband, then betrayed him when a better offer came from Urraca's court. After her brother-in-law's death in 1112, her sister still contested ownership of lands. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully until her death. According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, she died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII Raymundez of Castile and Leon "Imperator totus Hispaniae" (d. 1157), She lived (1082-1128/29).

Empress Mathilda

1117-18 Presiding over the Hearings of the Royal Court Mathilda of England of the Holy Roman Empire
1119 Stadtholder in Italy and Superme Commander of the Army and Presiding over Courts
1125 Holder of the Imperial Insignia of the Holy Roman Empire
1135-50 De-facto Sovereign Duchess of Normandie (France)
1141 Queen Regnant (Lady Domina) of England (United Kingdom) (02.02-01.11)

Also known as Maud, she was married the Holy Roman emperor Henry V in 1114, and acted as his co-ruler until his death 11 years later, when she became the holder of the Royal Insignia until a new Emperor was elected. As her only legitimate brother had been killed in the disastrous Wreck her father, King Henry I, had the barons swere allegiance to her and promised her the throne after her father's death. She then married Count Geoffrey V of Anjou and Maine. He was thirteen, she twenty-three. It is thought that the two never got on. Newer the less they had had three sons in four years. Being absent in Anjou at the time of her father's death on 1st December 1135, possibly due to pregnancy, she was not in a position to take up the throne and she quickly lost out to her cousin, Stephen de Blois. With her husband, she attempted to take Normandy. With encouragement from supporters in England though, it was not long before she invaded her rightful English domain and so began a long-standing Civil War from the powerbase of her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, in the West Country. After three years of armed struggle, she  gained the upper hand at the Battle of Lincoln, in February 1141, where King Stephen was captured. However, despite being declared Queen or "Lady of the English" at Winchester, she alienated the citizens of London with her arrogant manner. She failed to secure her coronation and the Londoners joined a renewed push from Stephen's Queen and laid siege to the Empress in Winchester. She managed to escape to the West, but while commanding her rearguard, her brother was captured by the enemy. She then exchanged Robert for Stephen who soon reimposed his Royal authority. In 1148, after the death of her half-brother, Matilda finally returned to Normandy, leaving her son, who, in 1154, would become Henry II, to fight on in England. She lived (1101-67).

1131-41 De-facto Ruler Queen Helene of Serbia of Hungary
1141-... Regent of the Kingdom

Influential during the reign of her husband Beta II the Blind, and after his death she assumed the regency for son, Geza II (1130-41-61).

Petronilla of Argón

1137-63 Queen Regnant Petronilla I of Aragón (Spain)
1163-69 Regent of Arágon and Barcelona

Succeeded father, Ramiro II the Monk. She married Count Berenguer IV of Barcelona, who did not become joint-regent. In 1163 she abdicated in favour of  her son, Alfonso II. and continued as his regent, and even after he came of age she continued to control the state affairs. Alfonso later named himself king of Aragon and Cataluña. She lived (1136-73/74).

1154-65 Co-Reigning Countess Consort Constance of France of Toulouse (France)

Her first husband, Count Eustache IV.of Boulogne, Duke of Normandie and Heir to the English Throne died in 1153 and the following year she married Raimondo V of Toulouse. She was the first Countess of Toulouse to use the title of Duke, she often signed official documents with the title Regina or Dux Narbonnæ, but at her seal she used the title Ducissa. The couple was divorced 1165. She was daughter of king Louis VI in his second marriage to Adelaide de Savoie, the mother of four children, and  lived (circa 1124-circa 80).

1156-66 Joint Ruler Queen Margarita de Navarra of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1166-72 Regent Dowager Queen of Sicily and Malta

Daughter of King Garcia VI and married to Guillermo I, Prince of Capua, before becoming co-king in 1151. Regent for son Guillermo II (b. 1154-). Since 1167 the sources name her as co-regent and in 1168 a regency council consisting of 10 people was formed, with her has head. She lived (1128/35-82).

1157-ca.58 Regent Dowager Queen Berengela Raimondo de Barcelona of Castilla, Leon and Galicia (Spain)

The widow of king Alfonso II (1105-57), she was in charge of the government in the name of her son,  King Fernando II (1137-57-88). She lived (1105-57).

1178-84 Joint Ruler Queen Tamar of Georgia
The Most High Queen, by the will of our Lord, King and Queen of Queens of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West, Glory of the World and Faith, Champion of the Messiah

Member of the royal house of Bagrationi, she was 19 years old when her father Grigori III had her crowned co-ruler, and when he died she became the sole ruler of Georgia. Despite the fact that she was 25 on her accession, Tamar was placed under the official guardianship of her father's sister Rusudani. She dealt with the various factions within the nobility by giving commands of provinces to important generals and prominent nobles. During her reign the kingdom reached the apex of its political, economic and cultural might. A unique Georgian Christian Culture flourished in this multinational state, exalted by great building projects. After the conquest of Byzantium by the Fourth Crusaders  in 1204, Tamar sent troops to Trebizond and Kerasund in support of her relative, Alexios Comnenus, who would become Byzantine Emperor 1205. She personally led the Georgian forces and routed the Turks at the battle of Basiani. From here on, she pursued a policy of military aggression - Kars surrendered  in 1205 and her son Grigori was made Governor; she exerted her hold over the local Muslim semi-protectorates; received tribute from some of the southern Russians provinces. In 1209 The Emir of Ardabil attacked Georgia, slaughtering 12.000 Georgians and enslaving thousands more. Tamar took her revenge the following year - she took the Emir of Ardabil by surprise, killing him, and as warnings to others who might threaten Georgi, Tamar's troops began raiding deep into North Persia and other surrounding regions. Married 1185 and divorced two years later to Prince Giorgi of Novgorod and then in 1189 she married King Davit-Soslani of Ossetia (d. 1207). Succeded frist by son, Giorgi IV Lasha, and then by daughter Rusudan in 1223. Tamar lived (1159-1213).

1180-82 (†) Regent Dowager Empress Xenia-Maria de Antiochia of Constantinople (Cowering what is now Greece and Turkey)

She was daughter of Constance of Antiochia (d.1162) and Raymond de Poitiers, and took over the regency for her son Alexius II (1180-82). Maria took a lover, her advisor Alexius Comnenus. But Maria's regency was opposed by her stepdaughter Maria Komnena (daughter of Manuel by a former wife) and her husband Ranier de Monferrato. Andronicus Comnenus was sent for by popular acclaim and was crowned co-Emperor. He eventually assumed total control of Constantinople. Maria was condemned to be strangled, and her son forced to sign the warrant by new Emperor Andronicus. Her son was murdered two months later. She lived (1145-82).

1184-? Regent Princess Rusudani of Georgia

She acted as regent after the accession to the throne of her niece, Queen Tamar, and as her advisor for the first years of her reign.  

Alix de Blois-Champagne

1190-91 Regent Dowager Queen Alix de Blois-Champagne of France

The third wife of Louis VII (1120-37-80), she was in charge of the government during her son, Philippe II August's participation in the crusades at the time. Louis' first wife was Duchess Eleanore d'Aquitaine, the second Constance of Canstile. Alix lived (1140-1206).

Queen Berenguela of Navarra and King Richard of England

1191-94 Queen Regnant Berenguela of Navarra (Spain)

Also known as Berengaria or Berengere, she succeeded her father King Sancho VI and was succeeded by brother, Sancho VII, and married to Richard I Lionhart of England and became known as Queen Berengere or Berengaria. Her sister later Blanca was regent of Champagne from 1201 and later of Navarrawhen their brother went into "retirement".  Berenguela did not have any children, and lived (1163-1230).

1194 Regent Dowager Queen Sibylla di Medina of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)

Daughter of Count Ruggerio di Accera and Caecile de Madania. Married to Tankredo di Lecce, King of Sicilia (1190-94) and regent for son Guillermo III, who succeeded his brother Roger III in 1193. But the supporters of Queen Constanza gained ground and Constanza’s husband, Emperor Heinrich VI, offered her son the position as Count of Lecce in exchange of the royal insignia. But it seems that she got involved in a conspiracy against Heinrich, and therefore she, Guillaume and her three daughters were imprisoned and deported to Germany, where she and the daughters were placed in a convent. After Heinrich's death, they managed to escape to France.

Constanza of Sicily

1194-98 Queen Regnant Constanza of Sicily (Italy)
1195-97 Regent of Sicily
1197-98 (28.98-17.05) Sole Ruer of Sicily

Also known as Constance, she was married to Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI and daughter of King Roger II of Sicily. In 1185 she was named possible heiress of Sicily by her nephew King Guillermo II. On his death in 1189, however, the Sicilian nobles, wishing to prevent German rule in Sicily, chose Constance's nephew Tancredo of Lecce as William's successor. Emperor Heinrich VI conducted an unsuccessful campaign  in 1191 against Tancred during which Constance was captured but was released because she was pregnant. After Tancred's death in 1194 they were crowned King and Quee of Sicily and she gave birth to her only child, Friedrich. She was named regent in the absence of her husband in 1195 but clearly considered herself to be the rightful heiress and continued the forceful rule of her predecessor. When he died  in 1197 she ruled alone for a year. In order to save the throne of Sicily for her infant son, Federico (later Holy Roman emperor as Friedrich II), Constance renounced the German kingship for Frederick and the following year he was crowned as king of Sicily, continuing to act as regent until her death. In her will she had named Pope Inocenz II as guardian for her son. As queen she used the titulature;Constancia dei gracia Romanorum imperatrix semper augusta et regina Sicilie and as regent for her son she added the term; una cum carissimo filio suo Frederico eadem gracia rege Sicilie, ducatus Apulie et Principatus Capue. She lived (1154-1198). 

1195-1203 De facto Ruler Empress Euphrosyne of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is today Greece and Turkey)

She was married to Alexus III Angelus, a weakling with a lust for power, who mainly busied himself with diplomatic affairs and left the interior with home affairs to her. She proved to be both extravagant and corrupt.

Queen of Navarra

1201-22 Regent Dowager Countess Blanca de Navarra of Champagne (France)
Until 1229 Regent of Navarra (Spain)

Also known as Blanche de Navarre, she was pregnant when her husband Thibaut III died, and she became regent for her posthumously born son Thibaut IV (1201-53). Her regency was plagued by a number of difficulties. Her brother-in-law, count Henry II had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Thibaut III died. Further, their son Thibaut's legitimacy was not unquestioned, and his right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful Champagne nobles. The conflict broke into open warfare in 1215, and was not resolved until after Thibaut came of age in 1222. At that time Thibaut and Blanca bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Her brother Sancho VII of Navarre was the last male-line descendant of the first dynasty of kings of Navarre, the Pamplona dynasty, and was childless and when he went into retirement ("el Encerrado") she took administration of the kingdom, though he remained king until her son succeeded him in 1234. She was the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre (who died 1194) and Sancha of Castile. She lived (1170's-1229).

1212-22 Regent Dowager Queen Constance de Aragón of Sicilia (Italy)
She held the reins in the absence of her husband. She was the second wife of Friedrich III, who was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1198-1251, and successor of his first wife was Queen Constanza of Sicily. She was the mother of Konrad IV, who also became Emperor and King of Sicily. She (d. 1222). 

Yolande de Flandres 1212-17 Sovereign Margravine Yolanda de Flanders of Namur (Belgium)
1216-19 Empress of Constantinople
Also known as Violante or Jolanta. After her brother, Emperor Henri's death in June 1216 the Barons of the Empire offered her and her husband Pierre, the crown, and they both accepted. In 1217 they left for Constantinople, and she seeded the marquisate to her oldest son. They were crowned in Rome by Pope Honrius III, and continued their journey, Pierre over land and was taken prisoner, she was pregant and travelled by sea. In Morea she married her daughter Anges off to Gottfried II, the future Prince of Achaia. In Constantinopel she gave birth to the heir to the throne, Baudouin II. (1228-1261), and took ver the regency. Just before her dath she married her daughter Maria to Emperor Theodor I. Laskaris of Nikæa. She was mother of 9 children and daughter of Count Baudouin V of Flanders and Hainault and lived (circa 1175-1219).

Leonor de Plantagenet, Queen of Castille, Princess of England

1214 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Plantagenet of Castilla (Spain) 

Co-Regent for Enrique I (1214-17) and her daughter, Princess Bergengula became regent after her death. She was daughter of Duchess Leonora of Aquitanie and King Henry II of England. (d. 1214).

Queen Bergenguela of Castilla and León 1214-15 Regent Princess Bergenguela of Castilla (Spain) 
1215-19 Queen Regnant of Asturias-León and Castilla
1219 Regent
1230 Regent in León
First she governed in the name of her brother Enrique I (1204-14-15-17). Later she divorced - under Pope Innocent III's orders - from her second degree cousin King Alfonso IX de Leon (King of Leon 1188 -1230). Her first son, became King Fernando II of Castile by succession and transmission of her rights to the Castilian Crown in 1219. Eleven years later, when his biological father, Alfonso IX de León, died in 1230, he became, too, King Fernando III of Leon. She lived (1180-1246).

Later picture of Alix de Champagne 1218-28 Regent Dowager Queen Alice de Champagne of Cyprus 
1243-46 (†) Regent of Jerusalem

The daughter of Queen Isabella of Jerusalem and her second husband Henri de Champagne, she married Hugues of Cyprus in 1208. He took over the reigns in  Cyprus in 1210/11 from his sister Burgundia. After his sudden death at Tripoli in 1218, Alice acted as regent for her 8 month old son Henri in Cyprus. In 1223 she married Bohemond V of Antiochia. In Jerusalem, Friedrich II, Holy Roman Emperor was recognized as suzerain but not regent of Cyprus in 1228, because of his marriage to Queen Yolanda. When she died, Alice traveled to Acre to put forward her claim to Crown of Jerusalem - without success. After she and  Bohemond divorced because they were too closely related (third cousins), she married Ralph, Count of Soissons. As she was the great-aunt of King Conrad of Germany - who had failed to come East to accept throne - Alice was entrusted with regency of Jerusalem  in 1243. After her death the regency passed to her son and heir, Henri, King of Cyprus. She lived (circa 1193-1246).

Coin of Zabel and Hetoun 1219-52 Queen Regnant Zabel I of Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) (Turkey/Syria)
Also known as Isabella, her father, Leo II had promished his nephew Raimond-Ruben de Antiochiaia, the succession to the throne, but at his death-bed he her, as his heir. Her older sister, Stephanie, or her husband, Jean de Brienne, claimed the title for her and their young son, but they died shortly after. And the Armenian nobles followed the wish of Leo II, and paid homage to her as their Queen, under various male regents. She later ruled together with her two husbands; Phillip 1222-25 (he was poisoned) and Heton I (1226-1269). Armenia Minor established very close ties with the Crusader States. It was still threatened by Byzantium, however, and appears to have come under Byzantine overlordship for short periods. Her mother was Sibylla de Lusignan of Cyprus-Jerusalem, she was mother of two sons and two daughters, and lived (circa 1212-52).

Queen of Georgia 1223-47 Queen Regnant Rusudani of Georgia, by the will of our Lord, Queen of Queen of Kings and Queens of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West, Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith, Champion of the Messiah
The daughter of Queen Tamar (1178-1213) she succeded her brother, Giorgi IV Lasha. She was leader of the nation in a period when it was attacked by Mongol tribes and disintegrated into numerous petty principalities. Retreated to Kutaisi when Tiflis was besieged by Jalal ud-din Shah of Khwarazmia, and captured by the latter, 9th March 1226. Forced to accept the sovereignty of the Mongol Khan in 1242, an annual tribute of 50,000 gold pieces. In 1224 she married Muhammad Mughis ud-din Turkan Shah of Erzerum, who embraced Christianity on his marriage. Her son, Davit VI Narin, succeded her as King of Georgia - Imerati. Her daughter, Princess Thamar married Sultan Muhammad Ghias ud-din Kaikhushru II of Konia. She lived (1195-1247).

Blanche de Castilla 1226-36 Regent Dowager Queen Blanche de Castilla of France
1240-52 Sovereign Countess of Valois 
1248-52 (†) Regent of France
When her hunsband Louis invaded England after the death of her cousin John to claim the crown in her right, only to find a united nation against him, she established herself at Calais and organized two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk, and an army under Robert of Courtenay; but all her resolution and energy were in vain. Although it would seem that her masterful temper exercised a sensible influence upon her husband's gentler character, her role during his reign (1223-1226) is not well known. He left her as regent and guardian of his children. Of her twelve or thirteen children, six had died, and King Louis IX was only 12 years old. The situation was critical, for the hard-won domains of the house of Capet seemed likely to fall to pieces during a minority. She had to bear the whole burden of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to repel the attack of the king of England (1230). But her energy and firmness overcame all dangers. She remained influential after her son took over the government in 1236. In 1248 she again became regent, during Louis IX's absence on the crusade, a project which she had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed she maintained peace, while draining the land of men and money to aid her son in the East. She was the third daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile, and of Eleanor of England, daughter of Henry II, and lived (1187-1252).

1228-(37) Regent Dowager Empress Maria de Courtenay of Constantinople (Turkey)
Regent for Baudouin II de Courtenay, who succeeded his brother, Robert. She reigned together with co-regents. The Empire of Constantinople was mainly based around the ancient city of Byzantine and parts of Greece, but the City of Constantinople is now known as Istanbul.

1253-61 (†)  Regent Dowager Queen Plaisance de Antiochia of Cyprus
57-61 (†) Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in Acre (Israel)
At the death of  her husband, Henri of Lusignan, her son Hugh II was only a few months old ans she claimed the regency. The High Court of Cyprus confirmed her in this position, but the Barons in the mainland, in Akkon (what remained of the former Kingdom of Jerusalem) demanded that she showed up herself before they would confirm her as regent. Lord Jean d'Ibelin of Arsuf was bailliff in Jerusalem and she contemplated marrying his son. In 1258 she tried to strenghten her pssition and arrived in Tripoli with her son. The High Court of the Kingdom assembled, and her brother, Boemond tried to be accepted as heir to the throne of Cyprus in the abcense of, grandson of Emperor Frederik II and Queen Maria of Jerusalem, but this was rejected and the royal family was drawn into the civil war between the Genoese, Venetians, Hospitallers and the Templars. A majority was in favour of Plaisance's regency, and she returned to Cyprus after haveing reappointed Jean d'Ilbelin as bailliff. She was daughter of  Boemond V of Antiochiaia and Lucienne de Cacammo-Segni, and lived (1236-61)

Queen Eleanorof Provence of England

1253-54 Keeper and Governor Queen Eleanor de Provence of England (06.08-29.05)

She was appointed to "keep and govern the realm of England and the lands of Wales and Ireland", with the counsel of Richard, earl of Cornwall, when her husband since 1236, Henry III, was away in France to defend his territories in Gascogne. She was adviced by a Council, but she was in charge of the government, even when giving birth to a daughter in November. Eleanor was very influential during her husband's reign. Her determined resistance to baronial reform and her key part in bringing about the fall of Simon de Montfort's government invite new appraisal. After her husband's death in 1271 she was the only person in the realm anointed to the royal estate, she gave her consent to the breaking of the old seal and making of the new and the declaration of the new king, Edward I's peace, but she did not act as regent in the period until Edward returned to England. As a widow she was in control of her wast dowry in Amesbury. In 1286 she entered a convent, but was still consulted by her son, Edward I, from time to time. She was daughter of Raymond Bergengar, count of Provence and Beatrice of Province. Her sister Marguerite was married to Louis IX of France, Sanchia to Richard, Earl of Cornwall and the youngest Beatrice to Charles, Count d'Anjou. The youngest sister inherited Province. Eleanor was mother of nine children of whom four survived to adulthood. She lived (1217/23-91).

Margrethe Sambiria 1259-66 Regent Dowager Queen Margrethe Sambiria Sprænghest of Denmark
1266-81 Lady of Estonia and Virland
Born as a Pommerian Princess, she was regent for her son Erik 5. Klipping after the death of her husband, Kristoffer I. She fought against the powerful Archbishop Jakob Erlandsen. In 1261 she and her son were taken prisoner in Germany. The next year she returned together with Albrecht of Braunshweig and Erlandsen left the country. She managed to persuade Pope to accept the idea of female succession to the Danish throne, though not to her daughters having succession-rights before male relatives in other lines. Estonia was her dowry which she controlled from Lolland-Falster another Dowry in the South of Denmark. She lived circa (1230-81).

1261-67 De Facto Ruler Queen Maria Laskarina of Hungary in Croatia and Dalmatia
Married to King Bela IV of Hungary (1235-70), sho used much of his reign trying to curtail the power of the magnates and set out to recover the crown lands his father had given to supporters. Confronted by the menace of the Mongol invasion, he sent unheeded appeals to Pope Gregory IX and Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II, but he was defeated in 1241. Returning after the withdrawal of the invaders, he repopulated the country by inviting foreign colonization. Bela's long struggle with Ottocar II, king of Bohemia, for Austria and Styria ended in defeat in 1260. His last years were disturbed by the rebellion of his son, King Stephen V (1270-72), who forced him to share the  kingdom. Maria was involved in the struggle and was de-facto ruler of parts of the kingdom. She was born as Princess of Nicaea and (d. 1270). 

1263-64 (†) Regent Princess Isabella of Cyprus

When Queen Plaisance of Cypern died in 1261 her son Hugo II was eight years old, at first Isabella's son was appointed regent because the Supreme Court thought a man would be a better regent than a woman, but in 1263 Isabella and her husband, Henri de Poitou of Antiochiaia  (d. 1276 ),  came to Cyprus and the nobles paid homage to her as regent, but she died the following year. As the younger daughter of King Hugo I Lusignan of Cypern and Alice de Champagne-Blois she was Heriess Presumptive of Jerusalem, since her mother was the daughter and Heriess Presumptive of King Henri I of Jerusalem and Princess Isabella d'Anjou of Jerusalem. Isabella's oldest son, Hugo III, was king of Cyprus (1235-84) and her daughter ,Marguerite Titular-Princess of Antiochiaia and Lady of Tyros and lived (before 1244-1308) and married to Jean de Montfort, Lord of Tyros (d. 1289). Isabella lived (circa 1215-64).

1272-77 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabet Kumanac of Hungary
After the death of her husband King István V (Stephen) of Hungary (1270-72) she was regent for their son, László IV of Hungary (1272-90), who was murdered. He had been kidnapped at age ten from his father's court by rebellious vassals. His minority was an alternation of palace revolutions and civil wars, in which she barely contrived to keep the upper hand. In this milieu Ladislaus matured precociously and was poorly educated, which greatly confined his personalities as rough and reckless. Her daughters Katalin (Ca 1256-after 1314) was married to king Stepan IV Dragutin of Serbia (d. 1316), Mária (ca 1257-1323) was married to King Charles II of Naples and Sicily - recognized as Queen in parts of the country 1290-92, the third daughter was married to the Tsar of Bulgaria, Erzsébet (1255-1326) first married Zavis von Rosenberg zu Falkenstein and secondly King Stepan Uros II Milutin of Serbia and the youngst daughter Ágnes (ca 1260-ca 1281) was married to Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos of Byzantium. Queen  Elizabeth was daughter of  Zayhan, a prince of the Turkish Nomadic Cuman tribe, which had been pushed into Hungary by the invasions of Chinghis-Khan, and lived  (1240-after 1290).

1274-1305 Queen Regnant Juana I of Navarra, Countess of Champagne and Brie (Spain and France)
Also known as Jeanne, and at the age of 13 she was married to king Philippe V of France (1268-1314), who became king of Navarra by the right of his wife. She left him to reign in Navarra and stayed in Champagne. Mother of 7 children.  Her three surviving sons; Louis X of France, Philip V and Charles IV all became kings of France and Navarra, and her only surviving daughter, Isabelle, married king Edward II of England. She died under mysterious circumstances; one chronicler even accused her husband of having killed her. She lived (circa 1271-1305).

Blance d'Artois 1274-76 Regent Dowager Queen Blance d'Artois  of Navarra and the Counties Troyes and Meaux
1274-84 Regent of the Counties of Champagne and Brie  (Spain and France)
After the death of her husband Henri I (1270-74), she was regent for daughter Juana I, and various powers, both foreign and Navarrese, sought to take advantage of the minority of the heiress and the weakness of the female regent. She left the administration of Navarra to King Philippe III of England after her marriage to Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245-1296), brother of Edward I of England, and they administered Champagne until Juana came of age in 1284. She was the daughter of count Robert I of Artois, and the granddaughter of Louis VIII of France, mother of four children with her second husband, and lived (circa 1248 -1300).

1276-1309 Sub-Queen Helena d'Anjou of Dioclea (Montenegro)
Succeeded Stephen and followed by Stephen Uros III of Decani

1280-84 Regent Dowager Queen Ingeborg Eriksdatter of Norway
After the death of her husband, Magnus the Lawmaker (1238-63-80) she acted as regent for her son, Erik II (1268-99). She was the first Norwegian Queen to be crowned and was daughter of King Erik IV Plogpenning of Denmark and Jutta of Sachsen, and lived (1244-87).

1283-1308 Titular Empress Catherina I de Courtenay of Constantinople (Turkey), Dame of Courtenay (France)
Also Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Albaina) and Dame de Courtenay (France)
Daughter of Philippe, the son of Emperor Boudewijn of the Latin Empire in the ancient city of Byzanz and parts of Greece. He was deposed 1261. Plans were made to marry her to Freiderich of Sicilia, but nothing came of it. The Pope interfered, there were also attempts to have her marry the heir to the Byzantine throne, Michael IX, but she declined because the contract was not lucrative enough for her, and in 1302 she married Count Charles I de Valois (1270-1325), who was planning a cruzade against Byzantine when she died. Mother of three daughters and a son, who died just before herself, and she was therefore succeeded by the oldest, Catherine II, as heir to the Latin Empire of the East. Catharine I lived (1274-1308).

1283-85 Governor Queen Constance Hohenstaufen of Sicily (Italy)
In 1262 her father, Manfredo Hohenstaufen, arranged her marriage to Infant Pedro of Aragon. Manfredo lost his crown and life in 1266, and she was his heir - though the throne remained in the hands of Charles of Anjou, a brother of King Louis IX of France. Her husband gave her in her own right the title of Queen, before succeeding to the throne in 1276. In 1282 her husband - now Pedro III made a triumphant entry into Messina, and in the following year she left for Sicilia, and it was announced that the Infant Jaime would be heir to Sicily as the elder son, Alfonso, would remain heir of Aragon. In the case of Jaime's minority, she would act as regent. Pedro III had to depart Sicily, leaving her in charge. In November 1285 Constance's husband died at Villafranca de Penadres where he was buried, and the following year Jaime was crowned - though both she and her son were excommunicated by the pope. When in 1291 her eldest son, Alfonso III, died childless Jaime succeeded him, remaining king of both countries until 1296 when Fadrique, Constance's third son, became King of Sicilia. She returned to Spain and lived (1249-1301).

1284-85 Empress Regnant Theodora Comnenus of Trebizond (Turkey)
Trabzon is a city and coastal region in northeastern Turkey, by the Black Sea; west-southwest of Georgia. At the Sack of Byzantium in 1204, and subsequent establishment of the Latin Empire by marauding Crusaders, a few members of the Imperial family escaped and established this state. Owing to a combination of the typical Byzantine policy of extensive marriage alliances together with notable difficulty of access by potential invaders, Trapezoid was generally ignored or bypassed by the great conquerors of the era; Seljuqs and Mongols mainly. Theodora was daughter of Manuel I (1238-63) and came on the throne after 3 of her brothers, before she was deposed

1284 Titular Queen Irene Palailologina de Monferrato of Thessalonica (Greece) 
Her father, Guglielmo VIII of Monferrato in Italy gave up the title of titular king upon her marriage to Emperor Andronikos II. Palailogos of Byzantine. Her father was Marchese di Montferrato (1253-92), titular King of Saloniki (1262-84), Signore d'Ivrea (1266-67) and (1278-92), Signore di Milano (1278-82), and died in prison Alexandria in 1292. Her mother was his third wife, Beatriz of Castilla. She lived (1274-1317).

1286-90 Queen Regnant Margaret of Scotland and The Orkney Islands (United Kingdom)
With the sudden death of Alexander III, Scotland was left without an obvious heir to the throne. At first, Margaret's step-grandmother Yolande declared that she was pregnant with a legitimate heir, countering the claims of two powerful nobles, Robert Bruce (grandfather of the future Robert I of Scotland) and John Balliol, each of whom wanted the throne for himself. When it was discovered that Yolande was not really pregnant, it was decided that Alexander's only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, would ascend to the throne under a regency of six nobles. She was the daughter of Eric II of Norway and his wife Margaret, daughter of Alexander III, who died in childbirth. Fearing that a young and powerless queen would invite civil war between the rival claimants to the throne, the Scottish nobles appealed to Edward I of England to intervene. Eager to extend his own influence in Scotland, Edward arranged the Treaty of Birgham in 1290, by which Margaret was betrothed to his son the Prince of Wales (later Edward II of England), in return for an assurance of Scottish independence though he would serve as ward for the young queen. She set sail from Norway to her new realm in the autumn of 1290, but took ill during the stormy voyage and died soon after reaching the Orkney Islands around September 26. With her death, the House of Dunkeld came to an end. Her corpse was taken to Bergen and buried beside her mother in the stone wall, on the north side of the choir, in Christ's Kirk at Bergen. In the two years that followed, Scotland was left with 14 claimants to the throne. Once again, Edward was asked to intercede. His efforts to exert his own authority over the country eventually led to the First Scottish War of Independence. Also known as "The Maid of Norway", she lived (1283-90).

Agnes af Danmark 1286-92 Regent Dowager Queen Agnes af Brandenburg of Denmark
1286 Royal County Sheriff of Lolland-Falster
Regent for son Erik IV Menved after her husband, Erik V was assassinated. Her rule was challenged by several magnates who had been found guilty - probably unjustly- of killing her husband and had been outlawed in 1287. These outlaws, who were aided by the Norwegian king and soon joined by Duke Valdemar of Schleswig and the new archbishop, Jens Grand, raided the Danish coasts. Erik defeated Valdemar and reached an agreement with Norway in 1295, but he continued to feud with Grand, whose imprisonment led to a papal interdict of the king in 1297. Erik's settlement with Pope Boniface VIII (1303) enabled him to resume Danish conquests along the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1304 the emperor Albert I ceded to Denmark all lands north of the Elbe River. Lolland-Falster was her dowry which she administered as a royal fief, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She later married Count Gerhard II of Holsten and became mother of another son, Johann, she lived (1258-1304).

1290-1300 Co-Regent Queen Catherina Tomasina Morosini of Hungary
Her husband István the Posthumous of Hungary, Duke of Slavonia (1236-71) who died as a Patrician in Venezia, was son of King  Endre II of Hungary and Croatia (1205-35). She became co-ruler when her son, Endre III (1265-90-1301), came to the throne after the son of his third cousin, Lázsló IV was murdered during the civil wars in the country. She was daughter Micaele Sbarra Morosini, and Patrician of Venice of lived (1240-1300).

1290-92 Reigning in Dissidence Queen Mária of Hungary
She reigned in dissidence to King Endre III, after the her brother Lázsló IV was murdered,when she was acknowledged as kiralyno (female king) by the Dalmatian regions, with the provison that her son Carlo Martello (Martell Károly) was to be elected king in her place. She was daughter of King V. István and Elisabeth, who was regent of the kingdom 1272-77, and married to the future King Carlo II of  Napoli and Sicily. She lived (circa 1257-1323).

1295-1301 and 1312-21 (†) Regent Dowager Queen María de Alfonso de Molina of Castilla (Spain) 
Lady de Molina in her own right, she was widow of Sancho IV. As regent for her son, Ferdinando IV, she defended his throne against several pretenders, who were at various times supported by France, Aragón, Portugal, Navarre, and Granada. 11 years later, after Ferdinando’s death, she acted as a guardian to her grandson Alfonso XI, while the regency was contested among his other relatives.

1303-17 De facto Reigning Empress Violante Aleramo of Thessalonica (Greece)
1305-06 Sovereign Margravine of Monferrato (Italy)
She married Emperor Andronikos II Palailogos, later Emperor of Constantinople, as his second wife in 1284 and became known as Yolanda, and was given Thessalonica as her dowry. She was in disupte with her husband over the future of their sons, as his sons by the first marriage were named as heirs. She wanted to have the Empire carved out in seperate principalities for each of the thre sons. They grew further apart when her husband married their five year old daughter to King Simonis Milutin of Serbia who were in his 50s and forced their oldest son to marry the daughter of his closest advisor even though she was of low nobility. In 1303 she packed her backs and took up residence in Thessalonica, which considered her own property. 1309 an attempt of reconciliation failed and she died in her territory in 1317. 1305 she had inherited Monferrato from her brother and the folowing year she passed the title to her second son, Theodore, who spend the rest of his life in Italy. She was mother of  seven chldren.

Ryksa Elzbieta of Poland 1306 Regent Dowager Queen Ryksa Elzbieta of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1306-35 Lady of Königsgrätz

Elisabeth-Richsa had been politically influential 1303-05 during the reign of her husband, Wencelas II of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, and regent from August till October, when she married Rudolf III of Austria, who was titular king of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland until his death one year later, but in reality Hungary and Bohemia was in an interregnum. Elzbieta married her third husband, Heinrich zur Lippe in 1315 and they continued as leaders of the Bohemian nobility against Queen Elisabeth. After his death in 1329, she withdrew to the Convent of Aula Sankt Mariæ in Brünn. She was daughter of King Przemyl II of Poland and Richeza, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, and lived (1288-1335).  

1352-54 Regent Princess Constanza of Sicily (Italy)
The unmarried daughter of Pietro II of Sicily (1337-42) and Elisabeth of Carinthia of Tirol, she was regent during the reign of her brother Luigi, who was king 1342-55. Her sister Eufemia was regent for their other brother, Federico from 1355. Constanza lived (1324-55).

1355-57 Regent Princess Eufemia of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
The unmarried daughter of Pietro II (1337-42) she was regent for brother, Federico III, Duke of Athens and Neopatras (1341-55-77), who was succeeded by daughter Maria in 1377. Their sister, Constanza had acted as regent 1552-54 for their older brother King Luigi. Eufemia lived (1330-59).

1365-68 In Charge of the Government Queen Leonor de Gandia de Aragón of Cyprus, Titular Queen Consort of Jerusalem (Israel)
1369 Co-Regent of Cyrus
Her husband, Pierre I de Lusignan, who had been away on various expeditions since 1365, returned to Cypern in 1368, he retaliated on the nobles who had been her favourites during his absence, and behaved with such haughtiness and tyranny that he alienated the sympathy of his barons and even of his brothers. In January 1369 he was assassinated by a body of nobles with the concurrence of his brothers. His son Pierre, a boy of thirteen, succeeded to the throne under the regency of his uncles, Jean, prince of Antiochia, and Jacques, constable of Cyprus. She quarreled with both of them, who had both been concerned in the assassination of her husband. She first welcomed the invaders as a means of avenging the murder of her husband, but when she saw that the Genoese were bent on destroying her son's kingdom, she joined the other royalists and took refuge with Jacques, the constable of Cyprus, in the Kyrenia castle. It was not until 1374 the her son was reinstated on the throne. She lived (1333-1416)

1370-75, 1376-77 and 1378-79 Regent Dowager Queen Elżbieta Łokietkówna of Poland and Dalmatia
As regent Queen Elisabeth or Erszébet had the official title Regina Senioris Poloniae and 1370-80, she was in fact joint ruler with her son, Louis d'Anjou of Hungary, and officially appointed regent during his stays in Hungary after he inherited the kingdom after her brother, Kazimierz III of Poland (1309-33-70). She had already been very influential since he succeeded her husband, Karol Robert, as king of Hungary in 1342. She had gained the upper hand at court and for several decades she acted as a sort of co-regent, and even the Hungarian barons were afraid of her. She was a fanatical catholic and founded countless religious churches and convents. Of her 7 children, the second son, Andreas married his cousin, Joanna I of Napoli and was Duke of Calabria until he was murdered by his wife in 1345. She lived (1305-80). 

1375-1403 Titular Queen Isabel of Mallorca and Ibiza (Spain)
The daughter of King Jaime III of Mallorca etc. (1315-24-49), who was killed fighting against the king of Aragon who had retaken Majorca during the 1340s, labeling him as "a contumacious vassal". She succeeded her brother, Jaime VI (husband of Queen Joanna I of Napoli (1326-82)) to the titular dignity and lived in her family's possessions in Southern France at Chateau de Gallargues. Her first husband was Margrave Giovanni II of Montferrato (1313-72) and the second Konrad von Reischach zu Jungnau. She was mother of four sons (three of whom became Margraves of Monferrato) and a daughter, and lived (1337-after 1403).

Margrethe I 1376-87 Regent Dowager Queen Margrethe I Valdemarsdatter of Denmark and Norway
1387-1412 Reigning Queen (Master and Mistress) of Denmark, Sweden and Norway

She was the youngest daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark. At the age of ten she was married to King Håkon VI of Norway, son of Magnus II of Sweden and Norway. Their son Olaf, born in 1370, was elected King Olaf II of Denmark in 1375 at the death of Margrethe's father, with her as regent. After her husband's death shortly after her son also became Olaf IV of Norway. After Olaf's death in 1387 the Estates in Denmark elected her as "Full-mighty Master and Mistress of All the Real" for life. The following year she became regent of Norway. In 1388 the Swedish nobility dethroned their king Albrecht of Mecklenburg, and elected Margrethe as their reigning Queen instead. She chose her sister's daughter's son Erik of Pommerania as her successor, who beacme king in 1389, but Margrethe remained the real ruler. She founded the union of Kalmer which in the case of Sweden would last until 1523, and with Norway until 1814. In 1410, Margrethe tried to reinstate Danish overlordship over Schleswig, which caused a war with the Counts in Holstein. She traveled to the conflict area, and died there in 1412. She lived (1353-1412).

Maria di Sicilia 1377-1402 Queen Regnant Maria of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1377-79 Duchess of Athens and
Neopatria and Titular Queen of Jerusalem
At the age of 15 she succeeded her father, King Federico with Artale of Alagona as regent. 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 she married Martin the Younger of Aragon and two years later they returned together with his father, Martin the Old, King of Aragon, and Maria received the crown by the Sicilian Barons. As king and Queen they used the titluatures; Nos, D.Martin, e duenya Marya, per la gracia di Dios, roy e reyna de Ssicilia, e de los ducados de Athenes e de Neopatria duque e duquessa, e nos infante don Martin, del mult alto D. Pedro, de buena memoria, roy d'Aragon fillo, e per la gracia di Dios duque de Monblanc, Conte de Luna e senyor del marquesado e de la ciutat de Sagorbe, governador general per lo mult alt senior D.Jean, rey d'Aragon, ermano e senyor nostro muyt car, en tut sus regnos e terras, coadjutor de la dicha reyna en lo regimento del regno e ducados sopredichos, e padre e legitimo administrador del dicho rey. She died without a heir, and lived (1361-1402).

1381-86 Politically Influential Queen Margherita d'Angiò-Durazzo of Napoli (Italy)
1386-1400 Regent Dowager Queen
She was very influential during her husband and nephew Carlo III Durazzo's reign. He succeeded her father, Andreas of Hungary, as king and was also king of Hungary 1386. He was killed same year and she took over the government in the name of her son Ladislao di Durazzo (1386-1414) who was later succeeded by his daughter, Giovanna II. Margherita was daughter of Duke Carlo di Durazzo and the former heir to the throne of Napels, Princess Maria of Napoli (1328-66) and her sister Giovanna, was Duchess of Durazzo 1348-87. She ived (1347-1412).

The picture is a later portrait of Maria's sister, Jadwiga of Poland 1382-85 and 1386-95 Queen Regnant Maria of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Cumania, Bulgaria
Mária was crowned as rex Hungariæ, and was the second of three daughters of Louis I the Great of Hungary from the House of Angevin (Anjou). Mary became Queen of Hungary after her father's death in 1382 (her elder sister Catherine died four years earlier). The country was ruled by her mother and the Palatine Miklós Garai. Many noblemen of Hungary were opposed to them and they helped Charles of Durazzo (Charles III of Naples, Charles II of Hungary) to become King of Hungary in 1385. Sigismund to whom she was betrothed rescued her from captivity. Sigismund took revenge on the murderers of her mother. From 1387 officially Maria and her husband were joint rulers of Hungary but in fact he ruled alone. In 1410 Sigismund was elected Holy Roman Emperor, two years after she married Barbara Cilli, and their daughter, Elisabeth and her husband became Queen of King of Bohemia and Croatia-Dalmatia in 1437. She lived circa 1372-95).

1382-86 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabeth of Bosnia of Hungary

She assumed the regency without difficulty after her husband's death, but the political elite was divided over who Maria should marry, She worked for a marriage between her daughter and Louis d'Orléans of France. The Polish nobles insisted that their ruler should reside permanently in their kingdom. At first Elisabeth considered taking up arms, but in March 1383 she accepted the accession of her younger daughter, Hedwig (Jadwiga) as Queen of Poland. In August 1384 some of the Hungarian nobles renounced their allegiance to her. She was under threat from both Sigismund of Luxembourg - whom her husband had designated as Maria's husband - and Carlos d'Anjou of Durazzo-Napoli, who was offered the Hungarian throne. Elisabeth was forced to abandon the idea of the French marriage and accepted that Maria married Sigismund, but it was too late in December 1385 Maria abdicated and Carlos became king, but in February the following year he was deposed, he was wounded and died. Elisabeth again seized the reigns of power and immediately rewarded those who had been loyal to her daughter. In April 1386, king Wenceslas of Bohemia brought Sigimund to Hungary, and by the Treaty of Györ the queens were forced to accept him as prince consort. A riot had broken out in Slavonia and Elisabeth thought that the presence of Maria would calm the situation. She was wrong, her small army was slaughtered, and the queens were imprisoned at the bishop of Zagreb's castle, and this marked her fall from power, and in January 1387 Elisabeth was strangled in her prison.  Elisabeth was daughter of Stefan Kotromanić, Ban of Bosnia and Elżbieta of Poland, and lived (ca.1340-87).

Beatriz of Portugal 1383-85 Queen Beatriz of Portugal
Also known as Brites, she was married to king Juan of Castilla, and after her father, Fernando I's death, she claimed the throne of Portugal, but was almost immediately deposed by the Còrtes, who chose her uncle as king. Her son Fernando I of Aragon and Sicily, who were married to Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque.  Beatriz lived (1372-circa 1410).

Leonor of Portugal 1383 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor Tellez de Menezes of Portugal
First married to João Lourenço da Cunha, Lord of Pombeiro and in 1371 she married king Fernando I, which caused a war with Castilla as her husband broke an engagement with Enrique II's daughter. During the later years of their marriage, her husband was very ill and had to withdraw from the government, which was left in her hands. After his death, she was appointed regent for their daughter, Beatriz, who was married to Juan I of Castilla. She was very unpopular because of her pro-Castilian politics, and people did not trust the promises of autonomy, and as she gave her lover, Juan Fernández Andeiro, Count von Ourém, much power, she was deposed after only six weeks by a riot of the artisans of Lisbon in favour of her husband's illegitimate half-brother, João de Avis. Mother of one son by her first husband and two by her second, who both died as infants. She was daughter of Martim Afonso Telo de Menezes and Aldonça Anes de Vasconcelos, and lived (circa 1350-86).

Jadwiga of Poland 1384-99 Queen Jadwiga of Poland and of the Lands of Crakow, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Leczyca, Kujawia, and
Hereditary Lady of Pomerania
Her official title was “Hedvig Rex Poloniæ”, and she was the youngest daughter of king Louis of Hungary and Poland and Elizabeth of Bosnia. She was brought up at the royal court in Buda. In 1378 she was betrothed to Wilhelm von Habsburg and spent about a year at the imperial court in Vienna. She was well educated and polyglot, interested in arts, music, science and court life, and was also known for her piety.When her father died  in 1382, the Hungarian throne was inherited by her older sister, Maria. The lords of Lesser Poland did not want to continue the personal union with Hungary and therefore chose her as their new monarch. After two years of negotiations with Jadwiga's mother and a civil war in Greater Poland (1383), she finally came to Kraków and was crowned King of Poland.. As a monarch, she probably had little actual power, but she was actively engaged in her kingdom's political, diplomatic and cultural life. In 1387 she led a military expedition to reconquer the Duchy of Halych and in 1390 she began to correspond with the Teutonic Knights. She gave much of her wealth to charity, including foundation of hospitals, she founded the bishopric in Vilnius and resored the Academy of Kraków, since called Jagiellonian University in honor of her and her husband. Her engagement to Wilhelm of Habsburg was broken off, and instead she married Jagiello, Gand Duke of Lithuania, in order to unite Poland and Lithuania and to convert the Lithuanians to Christianity. She was said to be a blonde, blue-eyed beauty, and an exhumation performed in 1976 showed that she was unusually tall for a medieval woman (180 cm). Her only daughter, Elizabeth Bonifacia, died one month after her birth, and Jadwiga died soon after. She lived (1374–99).

Isabeau of Bavaria 1392-1419 Regent Queen Isabeau Baverie of France
1403-04 President of the Council of State 
In 1392 her husband, Charles IV had the first of 44 fits of insanity, which were to last until his death in 1422, and would make him unable to reign. Isabeau was given large lands in Normandie, around Paris and in Champagne as a security, and officially declared regent during the "absence" of her husband. From 1395 she actively engaged in politics, and arranged the marriage of her children in very young age. Her advisors, the brother's of her husband,  Philippe de Burgundy and d'Orléans, engaged in a fierce power struggle, which almost resulted in a civil war. In 1402 she took over the control of the taxation and at 26.4.1403 she became President of the Council of State and took over the management of the Government. One year later Louis died, and she reigned jointly with Philippe. After the birth of the last child, she removed totally from Charles, who became more and more violent and dangerous. In 1407 her position was reaffirmed in an official act, but her husband's cousin, Jean placed his followers in all the central positions. 1411-12 a civil war broke out between the Burundians and Orleans. In 1415 her 18 year old son, Louis, took over the government, and soon after the English attacked France. After Louis' death, his brother, Jean (Married to Jakobäa of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland) was regent until his death two years later. She then was in charge again, and appointed Jean without Fear  as Governor of the French Kingdom. In 1419 and 1420 she met the English king, Henry V and negotiated a peace-treaty. After the death of her husband, she lived alone, plagued by rheumatism and immobile because of her heavy weight. Originally named Elisabeth von Bayern, she was mother of 12 children, and lived (1370-1435).

Serbian Queen 1395-98 Reigning Dowager Queen Jelena Gruba of Rama (Bosnia)
Also known as Helena the Cruel, she was the widow of  Stjepan Dasiba  (1391-95) and was succeeded by Stjepan Ostoja (1398-1404 and 1418-21).

Unnamed Spanish Queen 1395-97 and 1398-99 Regent-Governor Queen Maria López de Luna of Aragón (Spain)
Her husband, King Martin I was king of Aragon (1395-1410) and in 1409 he succeeded his son as King of Sicily, where he reigned one year. Their son, Martin the Younger's wife Maria of Sicily inherited the kingdom in 1377 but 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 they married and two years later they returned together with Martin I. After her death in 1402 Martin the Younger married the later Queen Blanca II of Navarre (1391-1425-42). Maria succeeded her father Lope de Luna as Countess of Luna.  (d. 1406). 

 Mathilde d' Avesnes-Hainault of Achaia and Morea 1313 and 1316-31 Sovereign Princess Mathilde d' Avesnes-Hainault of Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)
Also known as Mahaut, she was daughter of Florence d'Avernes-Hainault, who had succeeded her mother, Isabelle de Villehardouin as titular-prince. First married to Guido II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, Lord de Theben (d. 1308). In 1313 she was deposed by her second husband, Louis de Bourgogne, titular King of Thessaloniki until his death in 1316. Two years later she married Jean d'Anjou-Gravina (Prince Giovanni of Naploli (1294-1336)) until their divorce in 1321. Her fourth husband was Hugo de La Palice, who was also Co-Prince of Achaia and Morea. Her sister, Marguerite, was Lady of Karytena from 1311. Mathildee lived (1293-1331).

Clemence d'Anjou-Napoli 1316 Regent Dowager Queen Clemence d'Anjou-Napoli of France
When her husband Louis X (1289-1314-16) died she was pregnant, making it impossible to know Louis's successor until the time his child was born. If the child were a son, he would succeed Louis as king: had the child been a daughter, Louis would have been succeeded by his brother Philip V. (John I's half-sister Jeanne, as a female, could not succeed to the throne of France; she did, however, retain rights in the succession of Navarre). She was joint regent with her brother-in-law Philip for the five months remaining until the birth her child, who turned out to be male. But Jean I, only lived five days was succeeded by his uncle Philippe V.

1320-54 Politically Influential Empress Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1348 In charge of the Administration and Defence of Constantinople
1318 she married Jean Cantacuzene, Lord of Kalliopolis in Thrace. In 1320 he left her behind in the city of Didymoteichou while he took part in Andronikos III Palaiologos's rebellion against his grandfather, Andronikos II. She held the ford throuhout the whole civil war wich lasted until 1238, when Andronikos II abdicated. Also in charge of the defence of the city during the civil war against Anna of Savoia over the regency over Anna's infant son from 1341-43. Jean was problaimed Emperor and crowned in 1346 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had taken side against Anna and the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the following year the new patriarch crowned Jean and Eirene. 1348 she was left in charge of Constantinople while her husband went on campagn against the Bulgarians. Six years later he abdicated and they both joined a convent. She was granddaughter of Tsar Jean II Asen of Bulgaria and (d. 1361/79).

1320-39 Politically Influential Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland 
She was influential during the reign of her husband king Władysław I Łokietek and her son Kazimierz III the Great. Her daughters were Elżbieta Łokietkówna, Queen of Hungary and Regent of Poland and Kunegunda, Princess regent of Świdnica. Jadwiga was daughter of Prince Bolesław the Devout of Małopolska (Poland Minor) and the Hungarian Princess Jolenta-Helena, and lived  (1266-1339).  

1326-27 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella de France of England
When her brother, King Charles IV of France, seized the French possessions of her husband, Edward II  in 1325, she returned to France and gathered an army to oppose her estranged husband, who was probably homosexual and neglected her in favour of his male favourites. In 1326 she landed with her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, at Suffolk with their mercenary army. King Edward's few allies deserted him were killed, and himself was captured and abdicated in favour of his eldest son, Edward III of England. She and Roger Mortimer became regents for him. After he came of age Mortimer was executed and she was allowed to retire to Castle Rising in Norfolk where she enjoyed a comfortable retirement and made many visits to her son's court. After her brother King Charles IV of France's death, Edward III claimed throne of France - and thus began what is known as the Hundred Years' War. Isabella was mother of four children, and lived (1292-1358).

1328-49 Queen Regnant Juana II Capet of Navarra and Pamplona (Spain)

Also Countess d'Angoulême, she signed her laws with the title: Nos, donna Johana, por la gracia de Dius reyna de Francia et de Navarra, et de Jampayne et de Bria condesa palaziana . Succeeded uncle, Charles IV, who had succeeded her father in 1316. Married to Philippe d'Évreux (1301-43), and daughter of king Louis X the Hunchback of France and Marguerite de Bourgogne, and lived (1312-49).

1330 Regent Queen Philippa de Hainault of England 
Her husband Edward III appointed her regent on many occasions when he was absent on the Continent. When the Scots invaded England as far south as Durham in1346, she raised an army, winning the battle of Neville's Cross, and taking the Scottish King David II Bruce (d.1371) prisoner. She was responsible for the introduction of weaving into England and the patron of poets and musicians. She survived the Black Death (1348) - but her daughter Joanna, en route to marry the Castilian Prince Pedro the Cruel, was struck down and died. She was daughter of Count Guillaume III de d'Avesnes of Hainault and Holland (d.1337) and Jeanne de Valois (d.1352). She had 11 children and lived (1311-69).

1330 Regent Dowager Tsarina Theodora Palailologina of Bulgaria
After her husband, Tsar Michael Shishman,was defeated and killed by the Serbians, under Stephen Uros III, at the battle of Velbflzhd (Kiustendil) she assumed the regency for step-son, Ivan Stepan Shishman, who died in exile in Napoli. She was soon deposed by her husband's ex-wife Princess Ana Nead of Serbia. Theodora was daughter of Micahél IX Palaeologos, co-emperor of Byzantium and Rita of Armenia.

A Bulgarian Zarina 1330-31 Regent Ex-Tsarina Ana Neda of Bulgaria 

After her brother had deposed her ex-husband, Michael III, she initially reigned in the name of her son, czar Ivan Stephan, until she was removed herself. Her brother, Stephen Uros III,  ruled Serbia and Bulgaria until 1355. Ana Neda was first engaged to Count Charles de Valois, but never married him. (d. after 1346).

1340-47 Regent Dowager Empress Anna de Savoie of Constantinople (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1350-65/66 De Facto Ruler of Thessalonica (Greece)
She was widow of Andronikos III (1296-1328-41) and governed for son Jean V (1332-41—47-91) jointly with the Patriarch of the Orthodox war. A civil war followed with the pretender Jean VI Kantakuzenos (1347-54) who became emperor in 1347 when her son was deposed. She lived in Constantinople until 1350 when she moved to Thessalonica which she ruled as her own portion of the empire until her death. She lived (1306-65/66).

1340-41 Empress Regnant Eirene Palailologina of Trebizond (Turkey)  
Also known as Irene Palaeologina, she was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III Palailogos and married Emperor Basileios II Komnenos of Trapezunt. They divorced in 1339 and when he died the following year she succeeded him as ruler of  the Empire wich was established after the conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Greek authority was maintained in three major locations, at Nicaea, in Epirus and at Trebizond. The latter started as heir to the Comneni and a reasonable ambition of moving on to Constantinople, but spent much of its existence in vassalage to the Mongols and Turks who ruled the plateau behind it. The city is known as Trabzon today. (d. 1341).

1341 and 1341-42 Empress Regnant Anna Anachutu of Trebizond (Turkey)  
She was daughter of Alexius II Comnenus who ruled (1297-1330), followed by her brother Andronicus III of Trebizond until 1332, his son Manuel II in 1332 and the seond brother, Basileios II Komnenos 1332-40, who was married to Eirene Palailologina, who reigned as Empress 1341-42.

1343-82 Queen Regnant Giovanna I d'Angiò of Napoli and Sicilia and Sardegna, Sovereign Duchess of Pouilles and Calabre, Princess of Capua,  Sovereign Countess of Province, Forcalquier and Piémont (Italy and France)
1374-76 Princess of Achaia and Baroness of Vostitsa (Greece) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem
Also known as Joan or Johanna of Napels, Jeanne d'Anjou or Juanna. At the age of 17 she was crowned by her Grandfather, Roberto d’Anjou, and inherited a flourishing kingdom, however tormented by dynastic troubles. In 1342 Giovanna married Andrea of Hungary, who died two years later in consequence of a conspiracy, to which perhaps the Queen herself participated in. Her brother-in-law took his revenge invading Naples. In 1346 she had married her cousin Luigi d’Anjou of Taranto. Because of the invasion she flew to Avignon in Province, in 1347 she sold it to Pope Clemente VI  who supported her as an exchange to hold back the Hungarian expansion in Italy.  After the death of her second husband, Giovanna got married with Juan of Aragon, who died very soon in consequence of an illness. Then  in the same year she married a skilful captain, Otto of Braunschweig, to better defend her reign. She didn’t have any heir and this caused succession problems. Pope Urbano VI excommunicated her because she had backed up the Anti-Pope Clemente VII. Her cousin, Carlo of Durazzo of Taranto, invaded her reign also because she had appointed as her successor Louis I d’Anjou, brother of the King of France. Giovanna fell prisoner and Carlo imprisoned her in Muro Lucano, a small town in Southern Italy, and had her strangled in 1383. She lived (1343-83).

1344 Regent Dowager Queen Maria of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia) (Syria and Turkey)
1363-73 Politically Active
After Constantine IV of Armenia, the first Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was killed in an uprising in 1344 after two years in office, she took over the regency. The new king was a distant cousin, Constantine V of Armenia, who died of natural causes in 1362. She then married Constantine VI another distant cousin, who formed an alliance with Peter I of Cyprus, offering him the port and castle of Corycus. On Peter's death in 1369, Constantine looked for a treaty with the Sultan of Cairo. The barons were unhappy with this policy, fearing annexation by the Sultan, and in 1373 Constantine was murdered. The year before she had sent a letter to Pope Gregory XI requesting military help against the Moslems. After her husband's death, the Pope urged her to marry Otto of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Jeanne of Anjou, Princess of Tarent and Oshin Korikos (or Corycos), who was regent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1320-1329 during king Leo V's minority. He was rumoured to have poisoned King Oshin and was probably responsible for the deaths of Leo's father, Oshin's sister Isabella of Armenia and two of her sons. He and his daughter, Alice was assassinated in 1329 at the behest of her husband Leo V.

Yolande de Argon Around 1400-42 Titular Queen Yolande de Aragón of  Sicily, Napoli, Jerusalem, and Aragón (Italy)
1417 Regent Dowager Duchess of Anjou and Province (France)
1424-27 Presiding over the Estates General of Anjou and Province
Daughter of Juan I, king of Aragón, she was initially called Violenta. Her father was succeeded by Martin as king of Aragón. Her marriage to Louis II of Anjou in 1400, who spent much of his life fighting in Italy for his claim to the kingdom of Napoli. She was appointed guardian of her son-in-law the Dauphin Charles who became Charles VII in 1422, but his title was still challenged by the English and their Burgundian allies. In this struggle, Yolande  maneuvered to have the duke of Bretagne break from an alliance with the English, and was responsible for the Breton soldier, Arthur de Richemont, becoming the constable of France in 1425. Yolande's early and strong support of Jeanne d'Arc, when others had reasonable doubts, suggests the Duchess' possible larger role in the orchestrating the Maid's appearance on the scene. Her younger daughter, Yolanda, was married to the heir of Bretagne, her youngest son René inherited Lorraine in 1431 and after her older son's Louis III's death, and three years later he also became duke of Anjou and heir of Sicily. She lived (1379-1442).

1406-18 Regent Dowager Queen Catalina de Lancaster of Castilla (Spain)
Widow of Enrique III (1379-90-1406) she was joint regent with Fernando de Antequera for son, Juan II (1405-06-54). She was an active regent, involved in financial matters, using her influence in negotiation about matrimonies and peace-treaties in the most important European nations. She was daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Aquitaine (1340-99) and his second wife, Constance, titular Queen of Castile (1354-94) whose father, Pedro I of Castile and Leon (1350-69), was succeeded by a brother. Catalina was considered heiress of Castilla and married her half-cousin, King Enrique, and became the mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and lived (1374-1418).

Queen of Navarra 1409-15 Vice-Reine Blanca de Navarra of Sicilia (Italy)
1425-41 Queen Regnant Blanca I Navarra,
Countess de Nemours and Everux  (Spain and France)
She was widow of Martin I de Aragón (1392-1409). His first wife was Maria of Sicilia, Duchess of Athens and he was succeeded by his father, Martin II (1409-10). 1410-12 the throne of Aragon was vacant, until Federico I de Aragon became king. He was King Consort of Navarre in her right, and after her  death kept the government of Navarre in his own hands, from the hands of their own son Carlos de Viana, the rightful heir of the line of Navarrese kings. after his death in 1479 her daughter, Leonor became Queen. Blanca was daughter of Charles II of Navarra, Comte d'Èvreux and Duc de Nemours, and lived (1385-1441).

Barbara von Cilli 1412-14, 1416-19 and 1431-33 "Stadtholder" Queen Barbara von Cilli in Hungary and Croatia
1437 "Stadtholder" of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Her husband, Sigmund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary and King of Germany from 1410, king of Bohemia from 1419 and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433. In Hungary she took over the "regni curia" when he went to Italy, first supported by her brother-in-law the Palatine Garai Miklós and two bishops. 1414-16 she went to Aachen for the coronation and participated in the Council of Konstanz before she returned and took over the government in Hungary. In the 1420's she followed her husband on his journeys during the Empire and he included her in the decision-making. During her second regency in Hungary she managed to maintain peace after a settlement was reached with the Hussites. After her coronation as Queen of Bohemia in 1437 she also acted as regent here for a few moths. After her husband's death the same year she was arrested by his successor, Albrecht II, but was able to flee to Poland. After Albrecht's death in 1439 she returned and settled at her dowry at Menik near Prague for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Herman II, Count von Cilli and Countess Anna von Schaunberg, mother of one daughter, Elisabeth who inherited Hungary and Bohemia, and lived (1390/95-1451).

1414-35 Queen Regnant Giovanna II d'Angiò of Napoli  (Italy) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem Cyprus and Armenia, Sicily, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Ramia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria
Also known as Jeanne d'Anjou, she succeeded her brother, and two years later, her second husband, Jean de Bourbon, was imprisoned after trying to seize power. She adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir in 1421. After he tried to take over power in 1423, she transferred the adoption to another relative; Louis III d'Anjou, who she had expelled in 1420 for trying to seize power. After Louis' death in 1434, his brother, Rene was appointed heir, but Alfonso took power after her death. She lived (1373-1435).

Maria of Aragón 1416-56 Governor Queen Maria of Aragón and Catalunya (Spain)

She was regent in Aragón and Cataluña during her cousin and husband, Alfonso V's warfare in Italy, conquering Napoli from Giovanna II in 1442. He was king of Aragon (1416-58), Napoli (1435-58) and Sicily (1442-58) and spend most of the time in Italy from around 1435. She was daughter of king Enrique III of Aragon and Catherine of Lancastre, had no children and lived (1401-58).

Philippa of Denmark 1420 De-facto Regent Queen Philippa of England of Sweden
1423-25 Regent of Denmark (August-May)

She had big parts of Sweden as her dowry and she acted as her husband, Erik VII of Pmerrania's representative in the country, and she spend much of her time here. During his stay abroad from 1423 she was Guardian of the Realm in Denmark and among others made a treaty with some members of the North-German Confederation of socalled Hanse-States about the walidity of the coin-system. In 1428 she successfully organized the defence of Copenhagen against the attacking Hanse-Cities. No children She lived (1394-1430).

1422-28 Guardian Dowager Queen Catherine de Valois of England 
Her husband, Henry VI died suddenly in 1422 and she was effectively exiled from court, suspicion falling on her nationality, and passed over as regent for her son Henry V by her brothers-in-law and kept away from her son. She entered a relationship and later married Owen Tudor, a Welsh courtier, who would become the founding father of the Tudor dynasty. Of their five children, two sons, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford, were to play an important role in the future of the English monarchy. She was daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau de Bavière, and lived (1401-37). 

Elisabeth of Böhmen 1437-40 Queen Elisabeth von Luxemburg of Bohemia and of Croatia-Dalmatia, Soverign Duchess of Luxembourg
1439-1440 De-facto Regent of Hungary (27.10-29.07)

Known in Hungarian as Luxemburgi Erzsébet királyné, she was daughter of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, who was joint regent and successor of his first wife, Queen Maria d'Anjou of Hungary. Her mother was Barbara Cilli. After his death in 1437, the Hungarian Estates recognized her as sovereign or Lady of the Land (Landesherrin), which pawed the way for her first husband, Albert von Habsburg's election as king of Hungary. After his death in 1439, she wanted to secure the throne for the unborn child. This would have meant that the reins of government would have been in her hands, but this the estates would not accept, and they offered the crown to Wladislas II Jagiello of Poland. In February, her son Lászlo was born and on 15 May, she had him crowned. However, the Estates declared that this had happened against the will of the people and in June, they invalidated her son's coronation. Elisabeth had secured the holy Stephan-Crown and Wladislas had to be crowned with another crown. A civil war followed among her supporters and those of the Polish king. Lászlo V the Posthumous was recognised as king in 1446 with Hunyadi Janos (John Corvinius) as regent until 1453. She lived (1409-42).

Joan Beaufort 1437-39 Regent Dowager Queen Joan Beaufort of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
After her husband, James I, was murdered, she reigned on behalf of their seven year old son son James II. Despite her efforts he became the pawn of two unscrupulous Scottish lords, Sir William Crichton and Lord Livingstone. The Black Douglas entered the fray and succeeded in defeating and executing Livingstone. Crichton, in turn, manipulated James into killing the Black Douglas. Eventually, James II defeated the Douglas family at the battle of Arkinholm. Daughter of John Beaufort and Margaret Holland, she had eight children by James I of Scotland and one with her second husband, James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn (circa 1383-circa 1451)  John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl. (d. 1445).

Leonor of Portugal 1438-40 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Aragón-Urgell of Portugal and The Agaves
Also Countess de Urgell and Duchess de Goimbra. Her husband, Duarte (1391-1433-38) had appointed her as regent of in his will for their son,  Afonso V (1432-38-81). However, she was inexperienced and, as an Aragonese, unpopular with the people who preferred the late king's brother Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. Negotiations for a compromise arrangement were drawn out over several months, but were complicated by the interference of the Count of Barcelos and the Archbishop of Lisbon, as also by her giving birth to a posthumous daughter in March 1439, and by the death of her eldest daughter, Philippa. Eventually the Cortes appointed Pedro the sole Regent, but Eleonore continued conspiring, but was forced to go into exile in Castile in December 1440. (1409-45).

1442-58 (†) De Facto Co-Regent Queen Helena Paleologina of Cyprus
The most important event in the reign of Jean II was his marriage to Helena of Byzantine-Morea. She was stronger in character than her husband, took over the running of the kingdom and brought Greek culture out of the oblivion in which it had languished for three centuries. Her actions in favour of the Orthodox faith and Greek culture naturally disturbed the Franks, who came to consider her a dangerous enemy, but she had become too powerful to attack. Greek Cypriots have always revered Queen Helena as a great heroine because of her boldness. Their daughter and heir, Charlotte, was married to João, duke of Coimbra, grandson of the king of Portugal, who used his influence in support of the Catholic party, and so incurred the enmity of the Queen that Helena persuaded King Jean II to exclude him from any share in the government, on the grounds that he might grow too powerful and attempt to seize the crown. João left the court with his wife and died within a year under circumstances which led to the belief that he had been poisoned at the instigation of Helena. In 1458  Helena died and the king, now entirely under the influence of his illegitimate son, Jacques, thought to make him his  heir. But a few months later Jean himself died and Charlotte succeeded him as Queen at the age of twenty-two. Helena lived (1432-58).

Later picture of Queen Margaret of England 1445-54 De-facto in charge of the Government Queen Margaret d'Anjou of England
1455-82 Leader of the Lancastrian Party
1460-61 Acting Regent of England
She dominated her husband, Henry VI, and was very determined to keep him on throne during the War of the Roses. She headed the Lancastrian forces, and also controlled the government during her husbands fits of insanity (1445-53). When he became incapable of reigning in 1453 shortly after the birth of their frst child, Edward of Lancaster, she presented a bill to the parliament which would have named her regent, but it was defeated and the following year she appointed Richard of York as Protector. Her husband was deposed by the Yorkists in 1461, and she and her son fled to Scotland and then to France. The following year she invaded Northumbria, but it did not achieve anything, so she once again returned to France. Gathering her forces, she again landed in England in 1470, and this time her army prevailed and Henry was replaced on the throne of England. But soon after the Lancastrian forces were defeated by Yorkists at Tewkesbury, in the battle in which her son was killed. When Edward IV regained the throne, her husband was soon put to death. Margaret herself was captured and imprisoned in Tower. Edward IV eventually ransomed her to King Louis XI and she was allowed to return to France, where she spent rest of her life in seclusion. She lived (1429-82).

Queen Dorothea of Denmark 1448 "Holder of the Royal Authority" Dowager Queen Dorothea zu Brandenburg of Denmark
1448-52 Mistress of Örebro, Närke and Värmland (Sweden)
1481-90 Regent of Slesvig-Holsten (Schleswig-Holstein)

The "royal authority" was vested in her after the death of her first husband, Christoffer 3 of Bayern. She contrasigned and authorized the decisions made by the Council of State which reigned the country. Later same year she married the new king Christian I of Oldenborg and often acted as regent during his many warfares. She also had Abrahamstrup, Kalundborg, Lolland-Falster Slesvig and Holsten, Närke and Värmland (Sweden) as security for lones she granted her husband. A month before his death, Christian granted her Slesvig-Holsten as a personal fief, and after his death she acted as regent for son, Frederik, (later king) in the Dukedoms. She lived (1430-90).

1451-61 Governor Queen Juana Enriquez de Mendoza of Navarra 
1461-62 Governor of Cataluña (Spain)
Very influential during the reign of her husband, Juan II of Aragón, who took over the crown of Navarra after the death of his first wife Queen Blanca I (1391-41). After he tortured Don Carlos, his son by Blanca to death in 1461 the nobles of Cataluny offered the crown to various neighbouring kings and princes who held to e principality for brief periods until 1479 when Juan won the battle. She was daughter of Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza and Marina de Ayala, mother of one son and three daughters, and lived (1425-68).

Charlotte of Cyprus 1458-64 Queen Regnant Charlotte of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia
As she succeeded her father, Jean II, the Grand Caraman, the Turkish ruler of Caramania, seized the opportunity afforded by a weak government in Cypern to capture Courico, the last Latin outpost in Armenia, which had been in the possession of the Lusignans since the reign of Pierre I. In 1453 the Ottoman Turks had expanded to the shores of the Bosphorus and invested Constantinople by sea and land. While she had the support of the nobility, her half-brother Jacques the Bastard, had the sympathy of the Cypriot population, and had been led to believe that his father wished him to succeed to the throne. But the barons were too strong for him, and Jacques, although archbishop, was not allowed to take part in the coronation. In 1459 Charlotte married her cousin, count Louis of Savoy, and Jacques broke into open rebellion and took refuge in Cairo. Presenting himself to the sultan, who was suzerain of Cyprus, Jacques complained that, though next male heir to the throne, he had been driven from the island, and appealed successfully for help to recover his inheritance.
In 1460, with a fleet of eighty Egyptian galleys, Jacques landed at Larnaca. The Cypriots, hating the Savoyards whom Charlotte's husband had brought to the island, received him gladly, and he was soon master of the island. Charlotte and her husband took refuge in the castle of Kyrenia, where they were blockaded for three years. The castle, which was not actively attacked, was finally surrendered by the treachery of its commandant. Queen Charlotte with her husband fled to Rome, where she died in 1487 after bequeathing her sovereignty to the house of Savoy. Her half-brother was renowned for his political amorality. She lived (1436-87).

Queen Jelena of Serbia 1458-59 Regent Dowager Despotess Jelena Paleologina of Serbia
She was the widow of Lazar II Brankovic (1456-58) and regent for son Stefan Brankovic. In 1459 Stefan Tomasevic was despot, but the same year the Ottoman Turks finally conquered Serbia. Died as nun in 1473.  

1460-63 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Mary of Guelders of Scotland (United Kingdom)
After the death of her husband, of James II, she was regent for her son, James III, and her adviser, James Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews. After their deaths, James was seized (1466) by the Boyd family, who ruled Scotland until 1469. In that year James married Margaret, daughter of the Danish king, and began to rule personally. Maria de Gelders was daughter of Duke Arnold Gelders and Catherine of Cleves and lived (1432-63).

1461-64 Titular Queen Blanca II of Navarra (Spain)
She was proclaimed Queen on the death of her brother, Carlo, but was imprisoned by her father Juan II, King of Aragon since 1458, who then became King of Navarra, and was succeeded by her younger sister, Leonor in 1479. Blanca II was married to Enrico IV of Castilla and Léon, until their mariage was annulled in 1454. She lived (1424-64).

Serbian Queen 1463-78 Dowager Queen Katarina Vukic Kosaca of Bosnia-Serbia
When the kingdom was occupied by the Ottomans in 1461, her husband Stjepan Tomasevic (1461-63) was killed and her son and daughter brought up in the Islamic faith. She escaped and lived in exile in Rome where she died. As the legal representative of the Bosnian Kingdom, she left it to the Holy See. She lived (1424-78). 

Elizabeth Woodville 1464-83 Politically Influential Queen Elizabeth Woodville of England (United Kingdom)
1475 "Guardian of the Keeper of the Realm"
In 1464 she was married privately to King Edward IV, who reigned (1461-70 and 1471-83). Apparently she was a greedy, unscrupulous woman who insisted on the King showering lands and wealth on all her relations. In 1470 her husband was in exile and she had to take sanctuary at WestMinister. In 1475 her infant old son, the later Edward V, was appointed "Keeper of the Realm" and she was named his guardian during her husband's absence from the country. When her husband died she attempted to play a part in the regency but instead her marriage was delclared invalid and she took sanctuary again. The most extraordinary point in her career was reached when the wily Richard III tempted her to come to his Court again and she went through some sort of reconciliation with him. Henry VII never trusted her and, in 1487, she went to reside in the nunnery at Bermondsey on a pension. She was daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, and Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford, of the house of Luxemburg, and had first been married Sir John Grey of Groby, a Lancastrian, who fell at St. Albans in 1461. By him she had two sons. With Edward she had 10 children, among whom was Elizabeth of York, who married Henry VII and the "Princes in the Tower", Edward V and his brother, Richard, Duke of York, who were murdered, apparently, by their uncle, Richard III. She lived (1437-65).

Madeleine de France 1470-82 Regent Princess Madeleine de France of Andorra and Foix-Beárn (France)
1479-83 and 1483-84 Regent of Navarra (Spain)
She was regent for Francesco in Foix-Beárn and Andorra 1470-83 after her husband, Count Gaston V's death. In 1479 her son succeeded his paternal grandmother in Navarra. Madeleine was daughter of Charles VII of France and Isabeau of Bavaria and lived (1443-86).

1471-75 Regent Infanta Joana of Portugal
She left one convent to act as regent for her father, king Afonso V (1438-81) and afterwards returned to another monastery. She was later declared a Saint, and lived (1452-90). 

Catherine of Cyprus 1473-74 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine Cornaro of Cyprus
1474-89 Queen Regnant of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia
1489-1510 Sovereign Countess of Alonso (Italy)

When her husband King Jacques II died, she was appointed Queen until the birth of an heir, with a council of regency among whom were her uncles, but her son King Jacques III only lived one year. The Venetians acquired increased importance, but their pretensions were resented by the Cypriot nobility, who designed to place on the throne Alfonso, a natural son of Ferdinand of Napoli. The Latin archbishop, Fabricius, who was the leader of Alfonso's party, arrived in Cyprus with two armed galleys and a letter from the Pope denouncing her uncles Andrea Cornaro and Marco Bembo as murderers of her husband, and they were killed. But the conspiracy was not supported by the Cypriots. On the arrival of a Venetian fleet at Famagusta to demand satisfaction for the murder of her uncles, the conspirators sought safety in flight. She was allowed to remain Queen of Cyprus, but had no real power, since all the principal offices of the kingdom were in the hands of the Venetians. After 15 years she was persuaded ther to leave Cyprus. To compensate her she was allowed to retain the title of Queen, with an ample allowance. In 1489 she embarked for Venice, and remained in exile at Alonso for the remainder of her life. She lived (1454-1510).

Isabel I 1474-1504 Queen Isabel I de Trastamara of Castilla and León (Spain)
She was the daughter of Juan II of Castile and León by his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. In 1469 she married  Fernando de Aragón. She succeeded her brother Enrico IV, but Alfonso V of Portugal, who supported the claim of her brother's daughter, Juana la Beltraneja, attacked Castile and León but was defeated by the Castilian army in 1476. Three years later her husband became King Fernando V the Catholic of Aragón. This union of the two main Spanish kingdoms laid the foundation of Spain's future greatness. They had five children, including Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Juana the Mad. Isabella and her husband (known together as "the Catholic monarchs") are remembered for initiating the Inquisition in 1478, for completing the reconquest of Spain from the Moors and for their ruthless expulsion of the Spanish Jews, both in 1492. That same year they sponsored Christopher Columbus's voyage, which led to the creation of the overseas Spanish colonial empire, bringing great wealth and power to Spain. She lived (1451-1504).

Leonor of Navarra 1479-80 Queen Leonor Trastmara of Navarra (Spain)
Daughter of Blanca II and succeeded to the throne in 1464, but the kingdom was occupied by her father Juan II de Arágon. Married to Count Gaston IV de Foix and lived (1420-80)

Unnamed Spanish Queen 1483-1512 Queen Regnant Catalina de Grailly of Navarra, Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchesse de Gandie, Montbauc, Pegnafiel, Countess de Foix, Bigorre, Ribagorza and  Viscomtesse de Béarn (Spain)
1512-17 Queen (restored)
Also known as Catharine de Foix-Grailly, she succeeded brother, King Francesco and until 1492 she fought over the throne with her uncle, Juan de Foix. 1483 she married Jean II d’Albert and ruled jointly with him. In 1512 the Duke of Alba occupied Pamplona and the following year the Cortes of Navarrra proclaimed Fernando the Catholic as king of Navarra, but she managed to reclaim her throne. Succeeded by son, Enrique II, and lived (1468/70-1517).  

Anne de France 1483-90 Regent Princess Anne de Beaujeu of France
1503-circa 09 Regent of Bourbon etc. 
The eldest daughter of Louis XI, she was a clever and politically able woman, who at the age of 22 was able to step in, with her husband Pierre de Bourbon, to control the unrest in the country which threatened the rule of the young King Charles VIII. She appeased the rebellious nobles and removed the old King's favourites, but refused the requests of the States General to control taxation, and became involved in civil war with Bretagne and with the Duc d'Orléans, later Louis XII. Pierre died in 1503 but Anne, who was also Dame de Thouars, continued to govern the Bourbon domains which belonged to her daughter Suzanne. One of many powerful women of the period, at the end of her life she was engaged in disputes with Louise de Savoie over succession to the Bourbon lands. Anne lived (1456-1522).

Beatrix of Aragon of Hungary 1490 Dowager Queen Beatrix of Aragón of Hungary

After the death of King Matthias Corvinius (1458-90) she was de facto regent in the interregnum. She did her utmost to prevent her stepson, John Corvinius' succession to the throne. Determined to have a word in the kingdom's government she used her considerable wealth to help Vadislav of Bohemia, a son of a sister of King Lazlo of Hungary. She married the new king - who became king Laslo VI (1490-1516), but she gradually realised that she had been deceived, after nine years her husband managed to divorce her, her possessions were confiscated and she spend the rest of her life in Napoli. Also known as Beatrice, was daughter of King Ferrante of Napoli (1431-94) and Isabelle de Clermont, she did not have any children, and lived (1457-1508).

1495-96 Co-ruler Queen Consort Giovanna "IV" of Napoli (Naples) (Italy)
She was daughter of Ferrante I of Naples (1458-94) and his third wife Infanta Infta Juana of Aragon (†9.1.1517), and married to her nephew, King Ferrante (Ferdinand) II (1469-95-96), who succeeded her brother, Alphonso II, who abdicated because of the approaching invasion of Charles VIII of France and the general dissatisfaction of his subjects. Ferrante II fled to Ischia, but when the French king left Naples with most of his army, in consequence of the formation of an Italian league against him, he returned, defeated the French garrisons, and the Neapolitans, irritated by the conduct of their conquerors during the occupation of the city, received him back with enthusiasm; with the aid of the great Spanish general Gonzalo de Cordova he was able completely to rid his state of its invaders shortly before his death in 1496. Giovanna lived (1478-1518).

Juana of Spain 1504-55 Queen Juana la Loca of Castilla, Des Asturias and Galicia
1516-55 Queen of Aragón  (Spain)
She succeeded her mother, Isabel I in 1505 and father Fernando in 1516. Her father had nominated her as heir of all his possession with her son as regent, because of her mental instability. Her husband Felipe I was king and regent 1504-06 and her son, Carlos I (and V of the Holy Roman Empire) became king in 1516. Juana lived (1479-1555).

Margaretha of the Netherlands 1507-15 and 1518-30 Stadtholder Margareta von Habsburg of the Netherlands 
Her brother, King Felipe of Spain, appointed her regent of the Netherlands. She was daughter of Emperor Maximilian and Duchess Marie of Bourgogne. Divorced from her first husband Charles VI, her second husband, Juan, the Crown Prince of Aragón and Castilla, died shortly after their marriage in 1497. In 1501 she married Duke Philiberto II of Savoie, who died three years later. She was also Countess of Artois, Bourgogne, Charolais and Franche-Comté (1482-1530), as Marguerite II. She had no children, and lived (1480-1530)

Queen Margaret of Scotland 1513-14 Regent Dowager Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland
After her husband, James IV of Scotland, was killed, she became regent for her infant son, James V, but her marriage in 1514 to Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, led to the loss of the regency to John Stuart, duke of Albany, who soon obtained custody of the king, and Margaret fled to England. She returned in 1517, during Albany’s absence, and shortly thereafter she became estranged from Angus. James was proclaimed king in 1524 but was for several years virtually a prisoner of Angus. In 1527, Margaret obtained a divorce from Angus and soon married Henry Stuart, later Lord Methven. The following year James escaped from Angus and joined his mother and Methven, and they were for a time his chief advisers. A plan of Margaret’s for a meeting between her brother Henry VIII of England and her son led James to accuse her of betrayal in 1534. They were further estranged by James’s refusal to allow her to divorce Methven. She lived (1489–1541).

Queen Catherine of England 1513 Regent Queen Catherine of Arágon of England
She was appointed regent during her husband, King Henry VIII's warfare in France. Katherine gave birth to a number of still-born children, the only one who survived was Queen Mary I Tudor. In 1533 Henry divorced her and broke with the Catholic church, and she lived in confinement until her death. She was daughter of Queen Isabel I of Castilla and Ferdinand of Arágon and initially heir to her father, but her sister, Juana La Loca, inherited both Countries. Catherine lived (1485-1536)

1521-22 Regent Queen Anna Jagiellonka of Austria
1539 Regent of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia
The daughter of king Wladislaw II Jagiello of Hungary and Bohemia and Anne de Foix-Candale. Since 1521 a wife of Ferdinand von Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, since 1526 Anna and Ferdinand were king and Queen of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia. She lived (1503-47).  

Isabel of Spain 1528, 1529-33, 1535-36, 1538-39 Regent Queen Isabel de Portugal of Spain
Regent during her husband emperor Carlos (V) of the Holy Roman Empire (1516-56)'s travels in the Empire. A strong willed woman, though delicate, she ruled the country and her children with a strong hand. Though a rarity in arranged marriages it is believed Charles and Isabella shared a strong love for one another. When she died following a miscarriage, Charles was heartbroken. He collected all the paintings that were done of her and had more commissioned to keep the memory of her alive. She was granddaughter of Ferdinand and Isabel I and mother of 6 children - among others king Felipe II (Husband of Queen Mary of England). She lived (1503-39)

1530-55 Stadtholder Maria von Habsburg of the Netherlands 
At 17, she married King Lajos II Jagello of Hungary, who was 15. Four years later, the Turks over-ran half his kingdom, including the capital, Budapest. Louis was killed at the battle, and Maria fled west, taking the Hungarian treasury with her. Her brother, Karl V, appointed her Governor of the Netherlands after the death of their aunt, Margaretha. Maria was grand-daughter of Duchess Marie of Burgundy, had no children, and lived (1505-58) 

1533-38 (†)  Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Yelena Vasilevna Glinskaya of Russia
Regent for son Ivan IV the Terrible until her death. She deposed a member of the regency-council, Prince George III of Dimitrov, and had him executed, because she feared his rights to the throne of Muscovy. Dmitrov thereafter became permanently attached to Muscovy (Moscow). She lived (circa 1506-38).

Isabella of Poland 1540-51 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella of Poland of Bohemia (Hungary)
1551-59 Ruler of Siebenbürgen
1556-59 Regent 
For son Janos II , King of parts of Hungary 1540-51 until his abdication. He later became pretender 1556-70, after the Ottomans had occupied most of the country. Isabella died 1559. 

1544 Regent Queen Katherine Parr of England

When her third husband, Henry VIII went to war with France, he made her regent. He was very sick, old, very fat, but she was able to and distract him from his many illnesses by her lively intellectual discussions, and she wrote two books on theology. She had also brought her stepchildren to Court and became close friends with all of three: the Princess Mary, who was close in age to Katherine, the Princess Elizabeth, whose intellect nearly matched Katherine's, and Prince Edward, the fragile heir to the throne. After Henry's death in 1547, she married Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudley, and died shortly after giving birth to her first child, a daughter named Mary, the year after. She lived (1512-48).

Mary Queen of Scots 1552-67 HM Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
1558-87 Titular Duchess of Touraine (France)
Mary became Queen of Scotland when she was just six days old. At age five she was sent to France to be brought up in the French court, and eventually married King Francis II, who died the next year, where after Mary returned to Scotland where a series of politically unwise love affairs and her continued adherence to Catholicism in a Protestant country led to trouble and a revolt against her. Forced to flee to England for refuge, she now faced the fears of Queen Elizabeth I who saw her as a rival to her throne. Elizabeth kept Mary under a form of imprisonment for the next 19 years. Watched closely, she was implicated in a series of conspiracies against Queen Elizabeth, and was executed. She lived (1552-87)

Lady Jane Grey 1553  Jane, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland
Lady Jane Grey was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, daughter Mary, the younger of King Henry VIII's two sisters. On May 21, 1553, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who exercised considerable power at that point in the minority of King Edward VI, joined with Jane’s father, Duke of Suffolk, in marrying her to his son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Edward VI accepted Jane as his heir and on his death she was proclaimed Queen on July 10 and the Council of the Realm recognized her claim. The rightful heir, Edward's sister, Mary Tudor, had the support of the populace, and on July 19 even Suffolk, who by now despaired of success in the plans for his daughter, attempted to retrieve his position by proclaiming Mary Queen. Jane was later beheaded (as was her husband) in 1554 having lived (1537-54)

1553-58 HM Mary I Tudor, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith 
1553-54 Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland
Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Mary restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. In 1554, the Queen married Philip, son of Spanish king Charles V (later king of Spain Felipe II), who became joint sovereign. England obtained no share in the Spanish monopolies in New World trade and the alliance with Spain dragged England into a war with France. Dogged by ill health, Mary died later that year possibly from cancer, leaving the crown to her half-sister, Elizabeth I. Mary lived (1516-58).

Marie de Guise 1554-60 Regent Dowager Queen Marie de Guise of Scotland
Married to  James V of Scotland and regent for her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots. The daughter of Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise, she was also known as Mary of Lorraine. Before her marriage to James V in 1538, she had been married to Louis d'Orléans, Duc de Longueville, who died in 1537. When James died in 1542, shortly after his daughter's birth, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, became regent. By 1554, with French aid, Marie de Guise had replaced the ineffectual Arran as regent, and she made no secret of her desire to bring France and Scotland together. Meanwhile, Protestantism was spreading rapidly in Scotland, and Marie, though at first conciliatory toward the reformers, began a campaign of suppression. In 1559 the Protestants, exhorted by John Knox, rose against the regent and declared her deposed. She received French aid, but the Protestants, allied with the English, proved the stronger force. The civil war was concluded shortly after Marie's death by the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which ended the French domination of Scotland and opened the way for the establishment of the Protestant church. She lived (1515-60).

Juana of Spain 1554-55 Regent Infanta Juana of Spain
She acted as regent for brother, Felipe II who had been appointed regent of Spain by their father, Carlos I (Emperor Karl V), but who was in England some of the time with his wife, Mary I Tudor. Juana had returned to Spain after two years of marriage to the Crown Prince of Portugal, leaving her son, Sebastao behind. In 1555 their father abdicated in favour of Felipe. Juana lived (1537-73).

1555-1572 Queen Regnant Juana III d’Albert of Navarra and Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchess d'Albert (France and Spain) 
Also known as Jeanne d'Albert, she had the additional titles of Comtesse de Foix (etc.) and Périgod, Viscomtesse de Limoges, Comtesse de Rodez, d'Armagnac, Perche, Fezensac, de L'Isle-Jourdain, Porhoët, Pardiac, Viscomtesse de Lomagne, Fezenzaguet, Brulhois, Cressey, d'Auvillars, Baroness de Castelnau, Caussade, Montmiral and Dame de La Flêche and Baugé. Married to Guillaume, duc de Clèves. Her son became king of France and trough him the post of Co-prince has passed on  the Presidents of the French Republic. She lived (1528-72) .

Catarina of Portugal 1557-62 Regent Dowager Queen Catarina von Austria of Portugal and the Algaves
Widow of João III who was succeeded by grandson Sebastião (1557-78) Her husband died without leaving instructions about a regency. A hastily convened council of nobles declared that it had been his wish that Queen Catarina should undertake the office and she was duly appointed. She was daughter of Juanna I la Loca and Emperor Maximillian. After Sebastião came of age at 14, she retired to a convent and lived (1507-78)

Elizabeth I 1558-1603  Elizabeth I  Tudor, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland 
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, succeeded her half-sister Mary. Elizabeth returned England to Protestantism while still managing to secure order. She also lay the foundation for the vast British Colonies in India and America. Since Elizabeth never married as marriage could have created foreign alliance difficulties or encouraged factionalism at home, Parliament pressured on the Queen to deal with the question of the succession, she was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, and lived (1533-1603)

Infanta Maria 1558-61 Regent Infanta Maria de Austria of Spain
Regent for brother Felipe II during his travels in the Empire. She was married to Maximillian II von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor. Their son, Archduke Albrecht of Austria, Duke of Teschen, married the daughter of Felipe; Isabella. Maria lived (1528-1603)

1559-67 Stadtholder Margareta de Parma of The Netherlands 
1572-86 Regent of Abruzzo (Italy)
Natural daughter of Emperor Charles V. She was Regent of Firenze 1536-38 and 1559-67. She was an able administrator but resigned after the Duke of Albas crushing of the Dutch opposition against the Spanish rule. She was married to the Duke of Parma and mother of a son, and lived (1522-86).

Catherine de Medici 1560-63 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine de' Medici of France
1562-89 Sovereign Duchess of Valois, Countess Auvergne and Boulogne
She was Countess of Urbino in Italy 1519-21. In 1533 she married to Henri, Duke of Orleans, who became the French king in 1547. As Queen she was very influential in bringing aspects of Italian culture to France, such as their theater and food. After her husband's death, she gained political power as regent for her sons (she had ten children). An ambitious woman, she actively involved herself in the political intrigues of the court, always trying to increase royal power. At first Catherine tried to reconcile France's opposing Catholic and Protestant factions as their violent disputes threatened national unity. But instead she initiated the massacre in 1570 of Protestants (the massacre of St Bartholomew). Succeeded mother, Madeleine de la Tour, as Countess of Auvergne and father Lorenzo II de Medici as  Countess of Urbino. She lived (1519-89)

1575-86 Rex Poloniae Anna Jagiellonka of Poland
Daughter of King Zygmunt I the Old of Poland and Bona Sforza, and was Queen and co-regent with her husband Stefan Batory, but she was not politically influential and only titular "king". After the death of her husband, she introduced nephew Zygmunt Vasa of Sweden (the son of her sister) on the throne. Anna was a follower of the Contra-reformation, and lived (1523-96).

Sophie of Denmark 1588-94 Regent Queen Dowager Sophie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Schleswig-Holstein (Slesvig-Holsten) (Denmark and Germany)
1588-1631 Royal County Sheriff of Lolland-Falster
Len and Ravnsborg Len
Widow of Frederik 2., she was regent for son Christian 4. in Slesvig-Holsten 1588-94. She was engaged in a power struggle with the Regents of Denmark, The Council of State, which had Christian declared of age in 1593, but she did not give up her position in the Duchies before the following year. She then withdrew to Lolland-Faster, where she managed her estates extremely well and became very rich and she lend her son a lot of money for his warfares. She lived (1557-1631).

1598 De facto reigning Zarina Irina Godunova of Russia
The widow of Fyodor I Ivanovich, she took the throne for ten days (7-17 January), before she retired to a convent to become a nun. After a brief interregnum, her brother Boris Godunov, was elected to succeed her. She died 1603.

Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg 1598-1621 Sovereign Duchess Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg of Luxembourg and Franche-Comté
1621-33 Governor of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium-Luxembourg)
Daughter of King Felipe II of Spain and Elisabeth de Valois. In 1598 she married Archduke Albrecht of Austria  (son of Maximilian II of Germany) and they became joint Governors of the Southern Netherlands, which was in theory an independent state, but in reality dependent on Spain. After Albrechts death the Duchies reverted to the Spanish crown, and she was appointed governor. She had not children and lived (1566-1633)

1603-12 Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita de Austria of Mantua and Monferrato (Italy)
1612-29 Governor of Lisboa (Portugal)
1633-42  Vice-reine of Portugal
First regent in Mantova for son, who died in 1612, she was later appointed Governor of Lisbon and Vice-Queen of Portugal by her brother King Felipe IV of Spain and Portugal (1605-21-65). In 1640 the Spanish were driven out of Portugal by the Duke of Bragança, King João IV and she was taken prisoner. Her aunt was Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg of the Southern Netherlands. Margarita lived (1589-1655).

1605 (†)  Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Maria Grigorevna Maluta-Skuratova of Russia
For Fedor II who ruled for 6 month. They were both killed. She lived (circa 1560-1605) .

Marina Mniszech

1606  De-Facto Ruler Zarina Marina Mniszech of Russia (18.-25. May)

Daughter of Jerzy Mniszech, Voivode of Sandomierz in Poland. In 1605 the False Dmitri I, Russian pretender, married her, in a failed attempt to establish a firm foothold in Moscow. She was the first crowned zarina in Russian history, but the fact that she was catholic and her husband's favouritism toward Poland aroused the opposition of the boyars, led by Prince Vasily Shuiski. Dmitri was killed, and Shuiski was made czar as Vasily IV. In 1607 another Dmitri appeared. Aided by the Poles after Marina identified him as her husband, he marched on Moscow and had some success, but in 1610 he was killed.She even produced an heir , Ivan Dmitrievich. Then she was married to ataman Ivan Zarudzki. After 1610 she fought for Russian throne. She was probably killed in russian jail, and lived (around 1588-1614).

Marie de Medici 1610-17 Regent Dowager Queen Marie de' Medici of France
1612-19 Governor of Normandie
1619-39 Countess d'Anjou
Daughter of Francesco de' Medici, grand duke of Toscana and became the second wife of King Henri IV in 1600. After his assassination she became regent for her son Louis XIII. She reversed the policies set by her husband. Having remained in power for three years beyond the king's majority, Marie was forced into exile after the murder of Concini in 1617. In 1619 her partisans rose in revolt, but she was reconciled to her son in 1622. After the rise to power of her former favourite, Cardinal Richelieu, she attempted  to regain influence by urging the king to dismiss his minister of state; instead Louis forced his mother into a new exile at Compiègne, whence she fled to the Netherlands in 1631, never to return to France. One of her children was the politically influential Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I of England. Marie lived (1573-1642)

1613-19 Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Ksenia Ivanovna Shestova of Russia
For Mikael Romanov (1613-45), who was elected czar, but left the direction of the state affairs to her, who had left the convent where she had been placed by Boris Godunov. In 1619 her husband, Philaret Romanov, returned from his banishment to Poland, was elected patriarch, and assumed the reigns of government. Also known as Martha, she lived (1596-1631).  

Brandenburgi Katalin 1629-30 Princess Regnant Katharina von Brandenburg of Transylvania (Hungary/Romania)
She became ruler after the death of her husband, Bethlen Gábor (or Gabriel), who was elected prince af the assassination of Báthori Gábor in 1613. A Protestant, though tolerant toward all religions, he had allied himself  with the Protestant Frederick, the Winter King of Bohemia and overran Hungary in 1619 and was elected its king the following year. After Frederick's defeat at the White Mountain, Gábor signed with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II the Treaty of Nikolsburg, by which he renounced the royal title but retained control of seven Hungarian counties and received the rank of prince of the empire. He continued his relations with the Protestant powers opposing the emperor in the Thirty Years War, but kept the interests of Transylvania paramount. He was a wise administrator and encouraged the development of law and learning. Katharina was succeeded by brother-in-law Istvan Bethlen, who died 1630. In Transylvania she was known as Brandenburgi Katalin, and lived (1602-44).

  1632-1654 Queen Kristina of Sweden 
When she succeeded her father Gustav II Adolf at the age of 6, a regency under Axel Oxenstierna reigned until she assumed full royal power in 1644. Throughout her reign, she attempted to increase the authority of the Crown, and in this she was supported by the lower estates against the nobility and the Council of the Realm. The Thirty Years' War, however, had led Sweden into an economic crisis that Christina was unable to resolve. Highly intelligent, she was interested in intellectual pursuits and was influenced by the French philosopher René Descartes, who lived in Stockholm in 1649-50. Christina never married, and in 1654 she abdicated in favour of her cousin Karl of Pfalz. She moved to Rome and later announced that she had converted to Roman Catholicism. She lived (1626-89)

Anne of France


1643-51 Regent Dowager Queen Anne d'Austrice of France
She was Infanta of Spain and the eldest daughter of Felipe III of Spain, and married Louis XIII, King of France, in 1615.  After some political maneuvering she attained full powers as Regent and as such she placed the well-being of France before anything else. She ignored the representatives of the Catholic party and made Cardinal Mazarin Prime Minister. Both continued the policies laid out by Richelieu, which decided against a peace treaty with Germany and The Netherlands. At one stage, Anne even went to war against her brother, King Felipe IV of Spain, and in negotiations refused to make any compromises. In 1648 the revolution called "the Fronde" began and would last until 1653. This rebellion started in Paris and was supported by the higher nobility as well as by the common people who had had enough of war and the ever increasing taxes. The rebels blamed Mazarin and not only demanded his removal but also wanted him expelled from France. In 1661 Mazarin died and Louis XIV took over control of the country. From then on Anna was given only representative roles. In 1666 she died of cancer, after having lived (1601-66). 

1646-62 Regent Dowager Empress Yudokia Lukyamanova Strenzeva of Russia
Acted a regent for son Alexei from July until her death one month later.  

Luigia Maria Gonzaga 1649-67 De Facto Co-Ruler Queen Ludowika Maria Gonzaga of Poland
1655-67 Sovereign Duchess of Opole and Racibórz 
Very political influential and de facto co-ruler after her marriage to Władysław IV Waza (1595-1632-48) and during the reign of his younger brother, king Jan II Kazimierz Waza (1609-48-68). Maria Ludvica Gonzaga lived (1611–67).

1652-74 Sovereign Duchess Marie Jeanne de Savoie-Nemours of Nemours (France) 
1659-1724 Duchess of Aumale
1675-84 Regent Dowager Queen  of Savoia (Italy)
Also known as Marie-Giovanna-Babtiste, she succeeded father, Charles Amédée de Savoie-Nemours of Aumale in Nemours and uncle in Aumale. After the death of her husband Carlo-Emmanuelle II of Savoia, she was regent for son Victor-Amedée of Sardegnia (1666-1732). She lived (1644-1724)

Luisa de Guzmão 1656-62 Regent Dowager Queen Luisa Perez de Guzmão e Gómez de Sandovial of Portugal
After the death of her husband, João IV, she became regent for son, Alfonso VI (1656-67), who was mentally deficient and was deposed by her brother, Pedro II. Luisa was daughter of the Duke of Medina Sidonia and lived (1613-66)

Hedvig-Eleonora of Sweden 1660-72 and 1697-98 President of the Guardian Government Dowager Queen of the Realm Hedvig-Eleonora von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden
In 1654 she married king Karl X Gustav (1622-54-60), and the following year she gave birth to her only child, the later Karl XI. After her husband's death, she became Reigning Dowager Queen of the Realm (Riksänkedrottning) with two votes in the guardian-government for her son. Even after her son married Ulrika Eleonora the older of Denmark (1656-93), she kept the position as the leading Lady in the realm. After her son's death she was again Regent grandson Karl XII. After her retirement she put all her energy in her dowries, and became very rich and build elaborate castles. She lived  (1636-1715)

Maria Ana de Austria 1665-75 Regent Dowager Queen Maria Ana de Austria of Spain
Widow of Felipe IV and regent for son Carlos V (b. 1661). Her reign was hampered by her dependence upon her Jesuit advisors and her preference for her Austrian advisors. She was preoccupied with combating Louis XIV of France's attacks on the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands. Court nobles, lead by Don Juan José de Austria gained the upper hand, and eventually forced her to resign. After his death in 1679 she again gained political influence. She lived (1635-96) 

1682 Regent Dowager Empress Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkaina of Russia 
For Feodor III. She was deposed by her stepdaughter. She lived (1651-94). 

1682-86 Tzarevna Regnant Sofiya Aleksyevna Romanova of Russia
1686-89 Autocrat
Grand Duchess Sophia was the daughter of Tsar Alexis and his first wife, Maria Iliyanova Miroslavkaya. She was also the sister of Fyodor III, who succeeded to the throne in 1676. She was an adept intriguer and outmaneuvered her stepmother, Natalia Naryshkaina, and gained the regency when Fyodor died in 1682. Sophia's attempt in 1689 was to seize the Russian throne for herself was repulsed by Peter, who confined her to the Novo-Devichy convent in Moscow. An uprising in her name by the guards regiments in 1698 impelled Peter to have her shorn as a nun and put under heavy guard (in convent). She lived (1657-1704).  

Mary II Stuart 1689-94 HM Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland
She was the daughter of King James II. In November 1677 she was married to her cousin, Willem van Oranje, who was Stadtholder of Holland. During the quarrel between James II and Willem, Mary sided with her husband. Hence, she agreed to support Willem's invasion of England in November 1688. James fled the country in December, and two months later Mary arrived in London. At once Mary rejected proposals, advanced particularly by the Earl of Danby, that she become sole ruler to the exclusion of her husband, and on April 11, 1689, she and her husband, who became known as William III were crowned joint sovereigns of England. While her husband was directing military campaigns in Ireland and on the Continent, Mary administered the government in her own name, but she relied entirely on his advice. In the periods when William was in England she willingly retired from politics. She was, however, actively concerned with ecclesiastical appointments. Mary gave birth to at least three still-born children, she died of smallpox, and was succeeded by her husband, who later was succeeded by her sister, Anne. Mary lived (1662-94)

1690-93 Member of the Council of State Queen Ulrika Eleonora  of Denmark of Sweden

Married to Karl XII and mother of 7 children. 1685 three of the sons died and in 1687 she had a miscarriage. In 1690 her husband appointed her head of an eventual regency government, but she died three years later. Her youngest daughter, Ulrika Eleonora the younger, was reigning Queen 1718-20 in succession to her oldest brother, Karl (1682-97-1718), who first reigned under a council of regency. Ulrika Eleonora the Older lived (1656-93).

Maria Anna zu Pfalz-Neuburg 1700-01 Member of Regency Council Dowager Queen María Ana de Baviera-Neoburgo y Hesse-Darmstadt of Spain and the Indies
She considered herself the "principal minister" of her husband, Carlos II (1665-1700), after their marriage in 1691, and she was politically very influential. After her husband's death, she was member of The Governing Board from 1.-16. November. The Board had no formal chairman, but she had the "preferred vote".  In 1700 Felipe V of Bourbon became king - he was great-grandson of Felipe IV, who reigned (1621-65), and became king after a war of succession between the Habsburg and Bourbon heirs to the throne. Born as Maria Anna zu Pfalz-Neuburg, she lived (1667-1740).

1702-1714 H.M. Anne Stuart, Queen of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland
1708 Lord High Admiral of England
Succeeded brother-in-law, William, who had been joint ruler with her sister, Mary II. Married to Danish Prince Jørgen (George), she gave birth to 17 children. Probably only six were born alive and only one survived infancy - William, Duke of Gloucester, who died in 1700 at the age of 12. Her reign saw the union of the parliaments of Scotland and England (1707), and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13). Until 1711 she was  greatly influenced by her close friend and confidante, Sarah  Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, who was supplanted by a new favourite, her cousin, Abigail Masham, and the Whigs were  replaced by a Tory administration. Her relative, Electress Sophia of Hanover was appointed heir in 1701, but she died a few months before Anne, and her son therefore became king Georg I. Queen Anne lived (1665-1714)

Hedvig Sofia of Holstein-Gottorp 1702-08 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedvig Sofia of Sweden of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)

Married to Friedrich von Holstein-Gottorp (1671-1702) in 1698. She stayed in Gottorp for about one year and in 1700 her only child, Karl Friedrich (1700-39), was born, and two years later her husband was killed in battle. She was proclaimed regent while the guardianship was given to her brother, Karl. XII.  She was Hereditary Princess of Sweden until her death, and her son stayed in Sweden until 1718, and was generally considered to be heir to the throne - instead his aunt, Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was chosen as reigning Queen, after the death of her brother, Karl XII. Karl Friedrich's son Carl Peter Ulrich later became Czar Peter of Russia. Hedvig Sofia was daughter of Karl XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Older, and lived (1681-1708)  

Caterina de Braganza 1704-05 Regent Infanta Caterina de Braganza of Portugal
For brother Dom Pedro II (1648-83-1706), who was ill. She was the widow of Charles III of England (1660-85), and  lived (1638-1705).

Louise von Mecklenburg-Güstow 1708-09 Regent Queen Louise von Mecklenburg-Güstow of Denmark-Norway
She was regent during her husband, Frederik 4's journey to Italy. She had been married the later king since 1695. Her husband was first married to the "left hand" in a morganatic marriage with Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg and after her death to Comtesse Anna Sophie Reventlow. The Queen became more and more engaged in her pietistic faith. She was mother of two surviving children and three other children who all died as infants, and lived (1667-1721).

Anna Ivanovna 1711-37 Sovereign Duchess Anna Ivanovna in Livonia of Kurland  and Semigallia (Latvia)
1730-40 Imperatitsa Regnant Anna Ivanovna of Russia
Her husband, Friedrich-Wilhelm of Kurland, died after two months of marriage in 1711, leaving her as reigning Duchess. 19 years later the Privy Council offered her the Russian throne on certain conditions which reduced the autocratic powers, but unrest ensued and she was made to repudiate the restrictions. Having become a full autocratic Empress, she dissolved the supreme privy council. She had patience and common-sense but preferred to sign official documents unread and leave the ruling to two Germans, Field Marshall Muennich and Count Ostermann. However, these were soon eclipsed by the Empress's lover, Ernst Buehren, or Biron, whom she brought to Russia. She had a taste for guns and enjoyed shooting through windows at birds in her garden. Lazy and easily bored, she surrounded herself with gossiping women, dwarfs and hunchbacks. Zarina or Zaritsa Anna lived (1693-1740)

Eleonora-Magdalena zu Pfalz-Neuburg

1711 Regent Dowager Empress Eleonora-Magdalena zu Pfalz-Neuburg of Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn)

Regent for grandson Karl VI until his arrival from Spain in order to succeed his brother, Joseph I. 

Elisabeta Cristina zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel 1711-14 Stadtholder and General-Captain Elisabeta Cristina von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Aragón, Catalunya and Valencia (Spain)
1735 Politically Influential in Austria

1708 she married her husband, Carlos III of Spain, who was only in control of Aragón, Cataloña and Valencia during the succession-war between the Habsburgs and Borbons, and acted as regent during his absences. In 1711 he succeeded his brother, Josef I and became Emperor Karl VI of the Holy Roman Empire, and left for Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons, she joined her husband. In 1716 she gave birth to a son, who died soon after, the following year the later Empress Maria Theresia was born and two other daughters followed. It was only in 1735 that she gained political influence, forming a party against the Spanish Council in Vienna, but also her daughter, kept her away from the government. She lived (1691-1750)

Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden 1714-41 Member of the Council of State Princess Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden
1714 Regent
1718-20 Queen Regnant
1731 and 1738 Regent
Generally known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, she succeeded her brother Karl XI. Abdicated because she came at odds with the Parliament and was succeeded by husband Friedrich von Hessen (1676-1720-51). she acted as regent both for brother and later for husband, who was succeeded by a son of a sister of hers. She lived (1688-1741).

1714-21 (†)  Governor Ann Andros of Alderny (United Kingdom Crown Dependency)
She followed George Andros as governor and was succeeded by John Andros, who became the first officially hereditary governor of the island, which at the time was a separate crown dependency. It has later been subordinated to Guernsey in the Chanel Islands, but still has its own government.

1722-29 (†) Governor Ann Le Mesurier of Alderny (United Kingdom Crown Dependency in the Chanal Islands)
She succeeded John Andros.

1725-27 Imperatitsa Regnant Catherina I of Russia 
Yekatarina was born as Maria Skavronaskaya in Livonia. In 1701 she married a Swedish dragoon, who soon afterwards went with his regiment to Riga, and never returned. After the capture of Marienburg by the Russians, she became the mistress first of General Bauer, with whom she lived at Moscow, then of Prince Menschikoff, and finally of Peter the Great, who first married her privately near Warsaw, and later publicly in 1712 at St. Petersburg. She then embraced the Eastern Orthodox religion, and took the name of Yekatarina. On the death of Peter in 1725, she was proclaimed czarina. Zarina or Zaritsa Catherina died of  intemperance, and lived (circa 1684-1727). 

1725-41 Stadtholder Archduchess Maria-Elisabeth von Habsburg of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium-Luxembourg)
Daughter of Leopold I, and appointed by her uncle, Emperor Karl VI. Her niece became Empress and Queen of Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn). Maria-Elisabeth lived (1680-1741)

Caroline von Brandenburg-Ansbach

1729, 1732 and 1736-1737 Guardian of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and His Majesty's Lieutenant within the same during His Majesty's absence Queen Caroline von Brandenburg of United Kingdom of Great Britain, Co-Heiress of Sayn-Altenkirchen

She was the power behind the throne during the whole reign of her husband, Georg II (1727-37). She acted as regent on during his trips to Hannover. She aided the career of the British statesman Robert Walpole. Caroline was joint heiress of Sayn-Altenburg, trough her mother, Eleonore Erdmuthe Louise von Sachsen-Eisenanch (d. 1696), whose mother, Johanette, reigned 1636-1701. In 1741 Caroline's nephew, Carl Wilhelm Friedrich inherited the county, but in 1783 his son, Alexander, and her son, Georg III decided to share the inheritance. Caroline lived (1683-1737).  

1730-33 Sovereign Dame Susan Le Gros Le Pelley of Sark (English Crown Dependency)
Also known as La Dame du Serq, she bought the fief after the death of the former owner, the Englishman James Milner, from his executor. She was daughter of the former Juge, Jean Le Gros, and widow of Nicolas Le Pelley, her cousin who had died in 1719. Her purchase which was an indication of the wealth derived from her late husband's privateering ventures, initiated a line of Le Pelley Seigneurs that lasted for some 120 years until 1852. As the Le Pelley family had long been prominent in the public and commercial life of Guernsey, their acquisition of the fief further strengthened Sark's association with Guernsey, and the consequent weakening of the ties with Jersey. The new Dame decided to remain in the Le Gros family house at La Perronerie, which was extensively rebuilt as the new Seigneurie, and a Colombier (Pigeon-house), the exclusive privilege of the owner of a fief hubert, was erected in the grounds to mark the house's newly acquired status. In the winter of 1731 the island suffered its worst outbreak of smallpox. Constituting about ten percent of the whole population. She was succeeded by her son Nicholas who died childless in 1742, and the Seignory passed to his younger brother Daniel who died in 1752.

1731 Sovereign Princess Louise-Hippolyte Grimaldi of Monaco , Duchesse de Valentinois, d'Estouteville, de Mazarin et de Mayenne, Princesse de Château-Porcien, Marquise des Baux, de Chilly et de Guiscard, Comtesse de Carlades, de Ferrette, de Belfort, de Thann, de Rosemont, de Thorigny et de Longjumeau, Baronne de Buis, de Saint-Lô, de la Luthumière et de Hambye,  d'Altkirch et de Massy, Dame de Saint-Rémy,de Matignon, d'Isenheim
She died in childbed and her husband became Jean I until 1733 when he abdicated in favour of their son, Honoré III (1720-33-95). She lived 1697-1731.

Maria Theresia of Austria 1740-80 Empress Maria Theresia, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess Moravia and Schlesia, Queen of Croatia and Dalmatia, Princess of Transylvania and Grand Duchess of Siebenbürgen, Duchess of Gelders, Limburg, Jülich, Luxembourg, Brabant, Quilon, Bar and Franche-Comté, Margravine of Higher-Elsass, Breisgau, Lower-Elsass and Antwerpen, Countess of Flanders, Hainault, d'Artois, Boulonge,  Namur, Ponthieu, Picardie, d'Eu, Vermandôis, Charolais, Macon, Montbeliard, Zutphen, Nevers and Rethel  and Baroness d'Ilês, Bar-sur-Seine etc
She was ruler of most of Central Europe, large parts of the Balkans and Belgium and Luxembourg. Her father, Emperor Karl VI, drew up an agreement, the Pragmatic Sanction, in order ensure the succession for Maria Theresia and her husband. Not educated in statecraft, and married to a weak but much beloved husband, Franz Stephan of Lorraine, she succeeded her father in 1740. She fought the war of succession against Friedrich II of Prussia, France, Spain and Bavaria. Between 1737 and 1756 she gave birth to sixteen children. She was healthy and strong and would appear at the opera a few hours before the birth of a child, then be driving through the streets a few hours afterwards. She loved dancing, skating and horse riding, supervised the education of her children and planned internal reforms for her countries. After 1748 Maria Theresia was given time to implement internal reforms. Justice and taxation were centralized, nobles' privileges abolished and indirect taxation introduced. The reorganized army would later enable Austria to survive the Seven Years' War. She lived (1717-80)

1740-41 Regent Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia 
She was daughter of Catherina Ivanovna and Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Her son, Ivan VI succeeded her aunt, Zaritsa Anna. She was given the title of Gand Duchess and she was regent for her infant son, who was deposed by Elisabeth. They both died in prison, and her younger children lived in seclusion in the provincial town of Horsens in Denmark, where her sister in-law, Juliane-Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel was Queen. Anna lived (1718-46). 

Elisabeth Petrovna 1741-62 Imperatitsa Regnant  Elisabeth Petrovna of Russia
Her full title was Yelisabeth, Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias, Tsarisa of Moscow, Kiev, Wladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, Astrakhan, Poland, Siberia, the Chersonnese Taurics, and Georgia, Lady of Pskov, Grand Duchess of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia and Finland, Princess of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigallia, Samogitia, Bielostock, Carelia, Tver, Yongoria, Perm, Vlatks, Bolgaria, and of other lands, Lady and Grand Duchess of Lower Novgorod, Tchernigov, Riasan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslav, Belosero, Oudoria, Obdoria, Condia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all the Northern Region, Lady and Sovereign of the lands of Iveria, Cartalinia, Kabardinia and the Provinces of Armenia, Lady of the Circassian and Mountain princes, Lady of Turkestan, Supreme Defender and Guardian of the Dogmas of the (Russian Orthodox) Church. Zarina or Zaritsa Elisabeth was daughter of Peter I the Great and was succeeded by sister’s son, Peter III (of Holstein-Gottorp). She lived (1709-62)

Maria Anna von Habsburg 1742-50 Regent Queen Mariana de Austria of Portugal
In 1742 her husband, Joâo V was hit by a stroke and assisted by advisors, she conducted the government until his death eight years later, during a period of economic stagnation and decay of the state institution. She was daughter of Emperor Leopold I of Austria, was mother of five children, and lived (1683-1754).

Anna-Maria von Habsburg 1744-46 Governor and Stadtholder Anna-Maria von Habsburg of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium and Luxembourg)
She was sister of Empress Maria-Theresa and married to her brother-in-law, Prince Karl von Lothringen. She died in childbed and lived (1718-46)

Maria-Amalia von Sachsen-Poland 1746-60 Councillor of State Queen Maria-Amalia von Sachsen-Poland of The Two Sicilies (Italy)
She became a member of the Council of State after the birth of her first son, after 9 years of marriage. Her son Carlo became son of Spain, the younger, Fernando, King of Napoli. 

Barbara Bragança 1746-58 De-facto Ruler Queen Barbara Bragança of Spain
She was very powerful during the reign of her husband Fernando III (d. 1759). Daughter of King João V of Portugal and Maria Ana de Áustria, who was regent of Portugal (1642-50). Maria Barbara lived (1711-58).

Isabel Farnesio 1759 Regent Dowager Queen Isabel Farnesio de Parma of Spain
Born as Elisabetta Farnese, she was regent until her son, Carlos III arrived in Spain after the death of her stepson Fernando III. In 1727 he inherited Parma from her father and in 1735 he became king of Duo Sicilie. She has been very powerful during the reign of her husband Felipe V (1714-46).  

Catharina II

1762-96 Imperatitsa Catharina II the Great of Russia
1762-81 Queen of Sibiria (Sibirskoye Tsartvo)
1793-96 Princess of Jever (Germany)

Zarina Yekatarina II was born as Princess Sophia Augusta zu Anhalt-Zerbst and was also Countess Regnant of  Jever in Germany and apparently also regent of Holstein-Gottorp. Her refinement and love of study contrasted with her husband, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp's vulgarity and intemperance; neglected by him, she ingratiated herself with some of the nobles. Her intrigues were discovered by Peter and, on ascending the throne in 1762, he threatened to repudiate her, whereupon she imprisoned him and had him strangled. The subsequent murder of Ivan, the next heir, left Catherine in undisputed possession of the throne. She supported progressive ideas, such as reforms in law, education, and provincial and municipal administration, but she ruled as an autocrat and suppressed Polish nationalists, which led to Poland's partition, and took the Crimea and parts of the Black Sea coast from Turkey. In 1762 Siberia was created a separate Kingdom in a Personal union with Russia until it was incorporated in the Empire. She was also famous for her long succession of young lovers. In 1793 she inherited Jever from brother and appointed her sister-in-law as administrator. Catharina lived (1729-96)

Maria-Caroline von Habsburg-Lorraine 1768-1806 De-facto ruler, Queen Consort Maria Caroline von Habsburg-Lorraine of The Two Sicilies (Italy)
1777 Councillor of State

She was daughter of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria and very influential during the reign of her husband, Ferdinando di Borbone who became King of Napoli when his father succeeded as king of Spain. When she gave birth to a male heir in 1777, she became a member of the Council of state.  Under Maria's  influence Ferdinando joined her brother in opposing the French Revolution, which resulted in the invasion of Naples. Ferdinando escaped to Sicily leaving his kingdom to become a Republic controlled by France. By June 1799 he had gathered his forces and returned to crush the opposition and regain his throne. In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother,  Joseph, as King. This forced Ferdinando to abdicate and leave once more for Sicily. He returned to Naples again after Napoleon's downfall. In 1816 Naples and Sicily were united when the kingdom of the Two Sicilies was formed. By 1820, dissatisfaction with the monarchy resulted in an uprising which  Ferdinando quelled by reluctantly agreeing to a new constitution. However, in 1821 he called on Austrian forces to overthrow the reactionary government. She lived (1752-

Juliane-Marie zu Braunschwieg-Wolfenbüttel 1772-84 De-facto Regent Dowager Queen Juliane-Marie zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Denmark and Norway
She initiated a coup d'Etat against the "premier" count Struense who had an affair with the Queen, Caroline-Mathilde of England, and total influence on the insane King Christian 7. Her son, Hereditary Prince Ferdinand and Premier Høegh-Guldberg became official leaders of the Government with her as the power behind the scenes. In 1784 they were removed by her stepson, Crown Prince Frederik (6). Her sister-in-law was Grand-Duchess Anna Pavlovna, regent of Russia 1740-41 for her oldest son, Zar Ivan, and after she was executed, her younger children lived in Denmark. Juliane-Marie lived (1729-96)

Maria Ana Vittoria de Borbon 1774-77 Regent Queen Maria Ana Vittoria de Borbon of Portugal
Wife of King José I (1750-77), who showed no interest in affairs of state and was dominated by Sebastião José Carvalho e Mello, Duke of Pombal. In 1774 her husband was declared insane, and she became regent, and began gradually to erode the power of the Duke of Pombal. Her husband was succeeded by their daughter, Maria I. Maria Ana Vittoria was daughter of king Felipe V of Spain and Isabel Farnesio, and lived (1718-81).

Maria I of Portugal 1777-1816 Queen Maria I of Portugal
1808-1816 Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Her full title was The Most High, Serene and Potent Lady Dona Maria I, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, and above and below the Seas of Africa, Lord of Guinea, of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and the Indies, Most Faithful Queen. She was granted the title of Princess of Beira by her grandfather, King Dom João V at birth, and became Princess of Brazil in 1750. She succeeded her father, but became mentally unstable and was forced to accept a Regency from 1792. Left Portugal with her family on the invasion of her kingdom by the French, in November 1807. Landed at Rio de Janeiro in March 1808. She was married to her uncle, The Most High, Serene and Potent Lord Dom Pedro III, King of Portugal etc, their son, Infante Dom Jose (1761-88) was married to her sister, Infanta Dona Maria (1746-1829). Maria da Gloria lived  (1734-1816)

1780-93/98 Co-Governante-General Princess Maria-Christina Johanna Josefa Antonia von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium and Luxembourg)
She was Duchess of Teschen 1765-98 together with husband, Albrecht of Sachsen, Duke of Teschen (1765-98) and Governor of Hungary (1766-80). Daughter of Maria Theresa.  Maria-Christina lived (1742-98)

Marie-Louise de Bourbon 1803-07 Regent Dowager Queen Marie-Louise de Bourbon of the Kingdom of Etruria (Toscana) 
1817-24 Duchess Regnant of Lucca (Italy)
Widow of Ludovico I de Borbone-Parma, who was king of Etruria (1801-03), she was regent for son, Carlo Ludovico II, who was deposed. He succeeded her as Duke of Lucca and in 1847 he inherited Parma from the French ex-Empress, Maria-Luigia von Habsburg. She lived (1782-1824)

From 1804 Regent Dowager Queen Nino Bagratuni of Mingreli (Georgia)
For King Lewan V. Mingreli was one of the new principalities that emerged after the fall of Byzantinum in 1453.

Caroline Bonaparte

1808-15 Regent Queen Caroline Bonaparte of Napoli (Italy)

She was the actual leader of the government during her husband, Joachim Murat's participation in the fighting in France. They were Duke and Duchess of Berg 1806-08. She lived (1782-1839)

1810 Regent Queen Hortense de Beauharnais of The Netherlands
1813-37 Titular Duchess of

In 1810 her husband, Louis Bonaparte abdicated as king in favour of their second surviving son, Napoleon Louis (b. 1804) after four years on the throne, and appointed her as regent, before going into exile. The following year she gave birth to a fourth son who was put in the care of his paternal grandmother, Madame de Souza. After Napoleon I's surrender, she received the title of Duchesse de Saint-Leu, and lost the rank of Queen. Her husband only received the title of Count de Saint-Leu. In 1814 she and Louis Napoleon were divorced. Her third son Louis Napoleon was later first elected President and then became emperor Napoleon III of France. Hortense was daughter of Vicomte Alexander de Beauharnais and the later Empress Joséphine (see below), and she spend the years from five to 10 on Martinique when her parents separated. She lived (1783-1837).

Marie-Louise von Habsburg-Lothringen 1812-13 Regent Empress Marie-Louise von Habsburg-Lothringen of France
1814-47 Sovereign Duchess of Parma e Piacenza and Gaustella (Italy)

Regent during her husband, Napoleon Is war in Russia. After he was deposed and they were divorced, she was Duchess regnant of Parma-Piacenza e Gaustalla in Italy (1815-47). She was born as H.I.R.H. Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Hungaria. Mother of one son, The King of Rome, who died in battle. She lived (1791-1847).

Marie Sofie Frederikke zu Hessen-Kassel 1814-15 Regent Queen Marie Sofie Frederikke zu Hessen-Kassel of Denmark
Regent during her husband, Frederik 6.s participation in the Congress of Vienna after the Napoleonic wars. She was mother of 8 children, but only two daughters survived and her husband therefore was succeeded by nephew in 1839. She lived (1767-1852).

1819-29 Queen Sofia of Guria (Georgia)
She was widow of Mamia V. In 1830 the state was annexed by Russia

1821-22 Member of the Council of State, Queen Maria Teresa d'Asburgo-Este of Sardegna and Piemont (Italy)
In 1788 she married the later King Vittorio Emanuele I de Savoia of Sardinia (1759-1824), who succeeded his brother, who abdicated in 1802. During the Napoleonic Wars the family lost much of their territories. In 1821 a riot broke out and she became a member of the Inner Council, and accepted to act as regent if needed. Two years later her husband abdicated in favour of his younger brother, she moved to her son-in-law in Modena, where she died. She was daughter of Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton von Habsburg and Maria Beatrix d'Este, Duchess of Modena, Massa e Carrara, mother of a son, who died young, and four daughters, and lived (1773-1832).

Maria II da Gloria 1826-28 and 1832-53 Queen Maria II da Gloria of Portugal and the Algarves
Also 18th Duquesa de Bragança. Her full title was The Most High, Serene and Potent Lady Dona Maria II, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and above and below the Seas of Africa, Lord of Guinea, of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and the Indies, Most Faithful Queen. Her father abdicated in her favour - to become Emperor of Brazil - and her aunt became regent for her. But Maria's uncle, Dom Miguel, was proclaimed King in 1828. She was reinstated after a bloody civil war. She first married Duke August von Leuchtenberg, Prince of Portugal (1810-25) and then Prince Ferdinand zu Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (whose cousin, Prince Albert, was married to Queen Victoria of United Kingdom), who became king consort in 1837 and was regent for their son after her death. Maria lived (1819-53)

The Princess Regent Isabel Maria of Portugal 1826-28 President of the Council of Regency Infanta Isabel Maria de Bragança of Portugal and the Algarve
Her full title was H.H. The Serene Princess and Senhora Infanta Dona Isabel Maria da Conceição Joanna Gualberta Anna Francisca d'Assis Xavier de Paula e de Alcántara Antónia Raphaela Michaela Gabriela Joaquina Gonzaga de Bragança e Bourbon and she was regent for her niece. She newer married and lived (1801-76)

Adelheid zu Sachsen-Coburg-Meiningen

1830 Regent Queen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen of United Kingdom and Ireland

Apparently regent after her husband, William IV succeeded to the throne in 1830. She was mother of two daughters, Charlotte (1819) and Elizabeth (1820-21) and three stillborn children. Born as Adelheid zu Sachsen-Coburg-Meiningen, and lived (1792-1849).

1833-68 Her Catholic Majesty Isabel II, by the Grace of God, Queen of Spain and the Indies
Her other titles were Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, Navarra, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Mallorca, Menorca, Sevilla, Cardeña, Córdoba, Cócega, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarve, Algerias, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the East and West Indies, , and the Oceanic Colonies, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Burgundy, Brabant and Milano, Countess of Habsburg, Flanders, Tirol and Barcelona, Lady of Vizcaya and Molina. She was married to Don Franciso of Spain, titular king, mother of around 14 children of whom only her son, Alfonso XII, and four daughters survived. She was deposed 1868, abdicated 1870, and lived (1830-1904).

1833-40 Regent Dowager Queen Maria Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias  of Spain
Widow of Fernando VII, she was regent for daughter Isabel II. She liberalized the constitution and sanctioned certain anticlerical measures. In 1833 she secretly married Fernando Muñoz, which made her highly unpopular when discovered. The following year Don Carlos instigated the first Carlist War. He was defeated in 1837, but the war was not officially concluded until 1839. In the meantime María Cristina was pressured into appointing a Progressionist minister and accepting a new compromise constitution. In 1840 the Progressionist leader, General Baldomero Esparto revolted, forcing her to resign and leave the country. Esparto then took over as regent. She later made an attempt to return, but failed, and retired in exile to France in 1854. She lived (1806-78)

1837-1901 H.M. Victoria, By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith and Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland (20.6.1837 - 22.01.1901)
1876-1901 Empress of India (28.04.1876-22.01.1901)
She presided over the British Empire and vast colonies. Her titles included the role of Sovereign of The Channel Islands and Lord of Mann. Also Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg. Married to Prince Albert of Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, and mother of nine children. She lived (1818-1901)

1852-53 Dame Marie Alliére-Collings of Sark (Crown Dependency of the British Monarch)
The discovery in 1833 of copper and silver loads in Little Sark led to the formation of the Sark Mining Company. To finance the venture the Seigneur got Crown permission to mortgage the island to John Alliére, a Guernsey man grown wealthy through privateering. The results were disappointing and by the time the mines were abandoned in 1847 the Seigneur was deeply in debt. The Le Pelley mortgage could not be financed from the meager rates and tithes paid in Sark. In 1852, with Crown permission, Peter Carey Le Pelley sold the fief to Marie, widow of T.G.Collings; she had inherited the mortgage from her father John Alliére. La Dame du Serq, as she was also known, died within a year and her son the Reverend W.T.Collings became Seigneur.

1853-57 Regent Dowager Queen Katarina Cavcanadze of Mingreli (Georgia)
For Nikolaus (1853-67), who the last ruler before the Russian conquest.

Empress Eugènie 1859, 1864 and 1870  Regent Empress Eugènie de Guzmán Lopez de Zuñiga Royas y Kirkpatric of France
She was regent during her husband, Emperor Napoleon III Bonapartes' warfares against Prussia. Her full name was Eugenia-Maria Ignacia Augustina de Guzmán Lopez de Zuñiga Royas y Kirkpatric, 10th Condesa de Moya de Ardalesy de Osera, Condesa de Teba, Abitas, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Vizcondesa de la Calzada etc. Her sister, Doña Paca, was 9th Condesa de Montijo, 11th Condesa de Penarañda etc. They succeeded their father, Don Cipriano de Guzman Lopez de Zuñiga Royas y Leiva, in 1839. Their mother was the American Mary Kirkpatrick. Empress Eugenie's son died young  and her titles were inherited by her sister's children and the present holder of these and many other titles are the 18th Duquesa de Alba. Eugenie's husband was President of France (1848-52) and Emperor (1852-70). She lived (1825-1920).

María Cristina de Habsburgo-Loreno 1885-1902 Queen Regent H.M. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo-Loreno y Habsurgo-Este of Spain 
She was Regent of Spain and its colonies, first during the vacancy of the throne and pending the gestation of a posthumous heir - her son Alfonso XIII (1886-1931-41), who was born 6 months after the death of her husband Alfonso XII. María Cristina was born as Her Imperial and Royal Highness Archduchess of Österreich-Ungarn, Princess of Este and had been Royal Abbess of Prague until their marriage in 1879, and lived (1859-1929).

1890 Regent Queen Emma zu Waldeck-Pyrmont of the Netherlands and Luxembourg 
1890-98 Dowager Queen Regent of the Netherlands 
Emma acted first as regent for her terminally ill husband King Willem III of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (14.-23.11.1890), and after he died, for her only daughter who succeeded to the Throne at the age of 10. Luxembourg passed to another branch of the Nassau-family. Emma was an able administrator and became extremely popular. She lived (1858-1934)

1890-1948  H.M.  Wilhelmina, By the Grace of God Queen of the Netherlands (23.11.1890-04.09.1948)
Also Princess of Oranje-Nassau etc, etc, etc. Netherlands at the time included Oostindia (Indonesia), Dutch Guyana (Suriname) and The Nederlanse Antillen. Her mother, Emma zu Waldeck-Pyrmont, acted as regent 1890-98. During World War II she was leader of the exile-government in London. Wilhelmina was married to Duke Heinrich zu Mecklenburg-Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Prince Hendrik of the Netherlands) and abdicated in favour of her only surviving child, Juliana, taking the title of Princess. She lived (1880-1964)

Maria-Anna da Bragança 1908 Lieutenant-Representant HRH Grande Duchesse Maria-Anna da Bragança of Luxembourg (19.03-18.11)
1908-1912 Grande Duchesse Regent (18.11-14.06)
She was regent during the illness of her husband, Gand Duke Guillaume (19.3.08-25.12.), and the minority of her daughter Grand-Duchess Marie-Adelheide (25.2-14.6). She was born as Infanta of Portugal and Princess of Bragança, mother of six daughters, and lived (1861-1942).

1912-19 H.G.H. Marie-Adélheïde, By the Grace of God Grande Duchess of Luxembourg (25.02-14.01)
Her Grand Ducal Highness Maria-Adelheide was also Duchess of Nassau, Countess-Palatine and Electress of the Rhine, Countess of Sayn, Hadenburg, Königstein, Krazenborgen and Dietz, Burgravine of Hammerstein, Dame of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein.The first 4 months her mother acted as regent, she abdicated in favour of her sister in 1919 and entered a convent in Bavaria. She lived (1894-1924).

Alexandra Fedorovna 1915-17 De-facto Regent Imperatitsa Alexandra Fedorovna of the Russian Empir
The Czarina was de-facto in charge of the government business during her husband, Zar/Emperor Nicolai’s time as commander-in-chief during World War I, but she obtained his endorsement of her decisions. In 1918 the whole family - including the four daughters and son were executed during the revolution. She was born as Princess Alix von Hessen und beim Rhein and lived (1872-1918).

1919-64 HRH. Charlotte, By the Grace of God Grande Duchesse of Luxembourg (15.01-12.11)
1940-44 Leader of the Government-in-Exile from Montreal (10.05-10.09)
She succeeded her sister, Maria Adelaide. During World War II she was leader of the exile-government in Canada. In 1961 her son, Jean, was appointed regent and in 1964 she abdicated in his favour. Married to Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma and mother of six children. She lived (1896-1985).

1920 Regent H.M.  Dowager Queen Olga of Greece (18.11-11.12)
Born HIH Grand Duchess Olga Konstantinovna Romanova of Russia, she was acting head of state after her grandson Alexander I (1917-20) had died after a monkey bite, until her son Contantinos I returned to take over the throne a second time - he reigned (1913-17) and (1920-22). She lived (1851-1926).

Dame Sibyl Hathaway of Sark 1927-74 Dame Sibyl Mary Beaumont Hathaway of Sark (Chanel Island)  
Also known as La Dame du Serq, she succeeded her father William Collings as the 21st Seigneur of the Sark. Her second husband, Robert Hathaway (1888-1954) became Seigneur in the right of his wife in accordance with the ancient custom, but Sibyl remained firmly in charge. She was also President and member of a number of committees of the Chief Pleas. She appointed her youngest daughter Jehanne Bell as Deputy Seigneur  1946-68. She was knighted by Queen Elizabeth and granted the title Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Sibyl outlived all but two children and was succeeded by her grandson. She lived (1884-1974)

1947  and 1948 Princess-Regent Juliana of the Netherlands 
1948-80 By the Grace of God Queen of the Netherlands 
Queen Juliana was also Princess van Oranje Nassau, Duchess van Mecklenburg-Schwerin etc, etc, etc. The Netherlands at the time included Suriname (independent 1975) and the Nederlandse Antillen. She acted as regent during her mother, Queen Wilhelmina's illness. Married to Prince Bernhard von Lippe-Biesterfeld. Later abdicated in favour of her oldest of four daughters, Queen Beatrix, and has since been known as HRH Princess Juliana of the Netherlands. She lived (1909-2004).

1952- H.M. Elizabeth II of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Defender of the Faith, Head of the Commonwealth 
Until 1953 her title was Queen of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Overseas Dominions. She is head if state in 15 countries apart from Great Britain and as Head of the Commonwealth she is the front person of the organization of many other former British colonies and territories. Elizabeth Alexandra Mary is the mother of three sons and a daughter. Married to Phillip Mountbatten, former Prince of Greece. (b. 1926-)  

1972- H.M. Margrethe the Second, by the Grace of God, Denmark's Queen 
Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces and Head of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church. The Rigsfælleskab - or
Commenwealth of the Realm - includes the external territories of The Faero Islands and Greenland. Queen Margrethe succeeded her father, Frederik 9, and married to Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, Prince Henrik. Margrete þorhildur Alexandrine Ingrid is mother of two sons. (b. 1940-)

1980-2013 H.M. Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, By the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands 
Queen Beatrix is also Princess van Oranje-Nassau, Princess van Lippe-Biesterfeld etc, etc, etc. The Kingdom of The Netherlands includes the external territories of Aruba and The Nederlandse Antillen. She succeeded upon the abdication of her mother, Queen Juliana, and abdicated in 2013 in favour of her eldest son. Married to Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Jonkheer von Amfeld (1926-2002), and mother of 3 sons. (b. 1938-).

Last update 30.04.13