Guide to Women in Leadership
See also Turkey Heads
Asten and Odryseem (Thrakia)
BCE 43-28 Regent Dowager Queen Polemakratia .
Regent for son King Kotys.
BCE 250 Regent Dowager Queen Etazeta
After the death of her husban, king Nicomedes I, she continued to rule on behalf of their infant sons. Zialas, a grown-up son by an earlier wife, Ditizele, had previously fled to Armenia. Now Ziaelas returned, at the head of some Galatians. Although she was supported by neighbouring cities and Antigonus, Ziaelas conquered first part, then all of Bithynia. Etazeta and her sons, including another Ziboetes, fled to Antigonus’ court in Macedonia.
BCE 125-111 Regent Dowager Queen Regnant Nysa of Cappadokia
130-? Reigning Dowager Queen Laodike II Nysa of Capadokia
After the death of her husband, Ariarathes V, she poisoned 5 stepsons and ruled in the name of her own son's name.
Caria-Harlikarnassos and Kos
BCE ca. 480 Queen and Admiral Artemisia I of Karia-Harlikarnassos and Kos
As a vassal of Persia, Artemisia was obliged to recruit her own small force when Xerxes invaded Greece - in fact, Artemisia commanded five ships in her own right. Artemisia alone of his commanders advised Xerxes against a naval battle with the Greeks but Xerxes, however, chose to follow the advice of his male advisors, and met the Greeks on the sea in the channel of Salamis on 20th September 480 BCE. Artemisia was aboard one of her ships, commanding their movements. After the inital confusion, the Persians took the offensive. Though she only had one ship left, Artemisia herself disabled the ship of King Damasithymus of Calynda, with whom she may have had a personal grudge. At a council, Artmesia spoke her mind - she had opposed the war from the beginning and opposed its continuation. Artemisia advised Xerxes to leave his trusted commander Mardonus to pursue the Greeks whilst Xerxes himself return home, and would still maintained his dignity whether in victory or defeat. For her wisdom, Xerxes entrusted Artemisia with the care on his sons, and returned home to a kingdom racked by rebellion and conspiracy, to which he ultimately became a victim. Artemisia is said to have returned to Halicarnassus and ruled till her own son was of age, her kingdom prospering from her good relations with Persia. Artemisia's popularity and fame was such that many of the wives of the Kings of Halicarnassus were named after her till well into the 4th century BCE.
BCE ca. 353-50 Queen Artemisia II of Karia-Rodhos-Harlikarnassos
Also Satrap of Asia Minor or Vice-Reine of the Persian King. Ca. 377-53 she had been co-ruler with her husband and brother, King Mausolos of Karia and Rodhos, who died 353. She build a huge mausolaeum for him, which became of the 7 wonders of the world.
BCE 340-35 and 334-20 Queen Ada of Karia
She was co-ruler with her husband, King Orontobates. Not related to any of the others.
BCE. ca. 40 Queen Regnant Aba
1107-24 Regent Dowager Sultana
Widow of the Seljuk Sultan Kilj Arslan, and married to three Turkish chiefs in succession who acted as guardians of her son, Sulatan Tughril Arslan. In 1124 the principality was concurred by the Danishmendide-Turks.
BCE 3-A.D. 6 Regent Dowager Queen Thea Ourania
Regent for son Pharaateces after the death of her husband, Phraates IV.
BCE 334-ca. 323 Regent Princess of Persia
For her and Alexander the Great's son Herakles.
Pontus (Pontos) or Pontoiraklaia
BCE 306-302 Regent Dowager Queen Amantis (Amastrin) of Herakleia-Pontica and Pontus
BCE 300-281 Queen Regnant Arsinoe II Piladelphos of Herakleia, Pontica, Kassandria and
BCE 281-279 Resided in Kassandreia
In 302 she married Lysimachos of Persia and divorced shortly after the birth of her son, Alexandros. 280-79 she was co-ruler of Macedonia and in 276-70 she returned to Egypt as co-ruler of her brother and husband Ptolemos II Piladelphos. She was murdered by her sons in 270 and her ex-husband, Lysimaekos invaded the country.
120-115 Regent Dowager
After the death of her husband, king Mithradates V, she ruled in the place of her 11 years old son, Mithradates VI. Eupator Dionysos. About 115 BCE, she was deposed and thrown into prison by her son. She was daughter of king Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Syria and Queen Laodice.
7/8-23 Queen Regnant Pythodoris I Philometer
Also known as Pantos Pythodorida, she succeeded husband, Polemon I, and married King Archelaos of Cappadocia. Succeeded by daughter and her son.
3-40 Regent Queen Antonia Thryphaena
38-40 Regent of Thrace
Regent for son King Polemos who succeeded her mother and in Thrace after the murder of her husband, Kytos, who was succeeded by their oldest son, Rhoemetaces
112-? Regent Dowager Queen Regnant Gespæpyris
Born as Princess of Thrace, she ruled on behalf of her son Mithridates VI
62-47 Princess Musa Orsobaris
A small city principality in the Kingdom of Bythania in Asior Minor.
BCE 138-before 127 Regent Dowager Queen Ri-'nu
Other versions of her name is Riinu or Rihinu, and she was regent for son Phraates II.
1191-1200 Melike Mama Hatun
After the death of her brother Nâsırüddin Muhammed (1168-1191), she directly administering the Anatolian beylik whose capital was Erzurum – one of the small states in the area. She was dethroned by the Beys and replaced by her son Melikşahonce she had started searching for a husband among the Mamluk nobility.
After the Frankish crusaders conquered Byzans the old Empirical family moved to Trapezon by the Black Sea, and set up a state there. For their predecessors see Greece Heads
1284-85 Empress Regnant Theodora Comnenus
Daughter of Manuel I (1238-63) and succeeded three brothers. She was deposed.
1340-41 Empress Regnant Irene
She succeeded her husband Basil Comnenus (1332-40). Deposed and died the same year
1341 Empress Regnant Anna Anachoutlou
Daughter of Alexius II Comnenus who ruled (1297-1330) and succeeded sister-in-law. She was deposed and died the year after.
1349-55 In Charge of the Government Dowager Empress Irene of
1355-67 Politically Influential
After the death of her husband, Emperor Basil, a palace coup followed and his first wife, Irene Palaiologina and her supporters seized power. She was then sent her off with her two young sons to Constantinople where they could be guarded by Irene Palaiologina's father, Andronikos III Palaiologos. Their time in exile seems to have been spent as witnesses of the palace revolutions taking place both in Trebizond and in the Byzantine Empire. When John VI Kantakuzenos won the Byzantine civil war, he overturned the weak and violent government of Michael and put her son, Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1338-90) on the throne. She seems to have struggled for power with the nobles and especially the Doranites family who unsucessfully revolted in the capital, while her son retired to the castle fortress of Tripolis for security. In 1351 she went with an expedition to Limnia with Michael Panaretos and seized the city from the lordly pretensions of Constantine Doranites. After the civil war ended, Irene seems to have played still some part in the government of Trebizond and in 1367 accompanied her son when her grandaugter Anna was married to the king of Georgia. She also was present at the baptism of her great-grandson Basil, renamed later Alexios IV of Trebizond. (d. after 1382)
Last update 30.07.10