Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

FEMALE GOVERNORS
prior to the 20th century

Listed are women who were government of countries, understate entities
outlying territories and provinces


Circa 2459-2401 Governor of Markellashi in the Elam District (Iraq)
Daughter of King Dungi of Ur (2450-01) in the Mesopotamian Area - today's Iraq.

B.C. circa 1790-1745 Mayor Kirum of Khaya-Sumu's City in Ilansura (Mesopotamia)
One of the many daughters of King Zimri-Lim of Mari. She was married to Khaya-Sumu of Ilansura and her father appointed her Mayor of Khaya-Sumus' city. She not only administered the city, but also dispensed political advice to her father. This displeased her husband, who also married her sister, Shimatum, creating a bitter rivalry, and in the end she returned back home to her father.

Nesihonsu of Nubia and Egypt 990-969 Governor of Foreign Countries Queen Nesihonsu of Egypt, Viceroy of Nubia
Politically influential in Egypt during the reign of her husband and uncle pharaoh and High Priest of Amon Pinodzhem II of Egypt, who appointed her Vice-Queen and Chief of Foreign Countries. She was daughter of High Priest of Amon and pharaoh Smendes II.

Unnamed Greek Lady Circa 353-50 Satrap of Asia Minor, Queen Artemisia II of Karia, Rodhos and Harlikarnassos (Turkey)
As Satrap of Asia Minor, she was Vice-Reine of the Persian King. Circa 377-53 she had been co-ruler with her husband and brother, King Mausolos of Karia and Rodhos, who died 353. After Mausolos' death in 353, she became ruler in her own right, and constructed the 49 meters high monumental tomb "Mausoleum" at the center of the city which is a magnificent piece of art in the Hellenistic world and one of the Seven Wonders of the antique era.

340-35 and 334-20  Satrap of Asia Minor, Queen Ada II of Karia (Turkey)
Also Satrap of Persia, and was co-ruler with her brother and husband Idrieus, and after his death she ruled alone for three years until her younger brother, Pixadarus (341-335), deposed her. She moved to her fortress Alinda, where she held out for several years. When her Pixadarus died, she his son-in-law Orontobates, claimed the throne, but Ada prevented this, but later married him. In 334, Alexander The Great invaded Halikarnassus and re-appointed her to the throne.

Circa 774 Governor Cara Zon of Carcasson (Spain)

A Marurian-Arab Princess. She defended the city-state against Charles the Great. 


1196-1261 Hereditary Sheriff and 3rd Countess Ela Salisbury Longespee of Salisbury  (United Kingdom)
1226-28 and 1131-36 Countess of Wiltshire
1240-57 Abbess of Lacock

Married to William Longsworth, Earl of Salisbury by the right of his wife (d. 1226), son of king Richard I. She was a woman of strong character. She and William de Longespee each laid a foundation stone of the new Salisbury Cathedral. During one of his long journeys abroad, when others feared he had been lost, she refused to marry any of the suitors who had their eye on her fortune and steadfastly believed in her vision of his return. She was proved correct. On his death, William was the first to be buried in the Cathedral and his fine tomb stands in the nave. Ela founded two religious houses in his memory, one for men at Hinton Charterhouse and the other for women at Lacock. It is said that she laid the foundation stones for both on the same day, 16 April 1232, requiring a journey of 16 miles. Ela joined Lacock Abbey as a nun in 1238, and in 1241 became it's first abbess. She lived (1187-1261).


Unnamed warrior lady 1216-18 Hereditary Sheriff Lady Nicola de la Hay of Lincolnshire and Constable of Lincoln Castle (United Kingdom)
Succeeded father, also as Lady Hay, together with Phillip Mar of Nottingham. She defended her territory against attacking forces during  the rebellion against King John. She was married to Gerad de Camville and lived (circa 1160-ca.1218).

1236-40 Acting Caliph-Governor Dayfat Hatun of Syria
Acted in the name of her grandson Yusuf II al-Malik an Nasir Salah al-Din.

1283-85 Governor Queen Constance de Aragón of Sicily (Italy)
In 1262 her father, Manfredo, arranged her marriage to Infant Pedro of Aragon. Manfredo lost his crown and life in 1266, and she was his heir - though the throne remained in the hands of Charles of Anjou, a brother of King Louis IX of France. Her husband gave her in her own right the title of Queen, before succeeding to the throne in 1276. In 1282 her husband - now Pedro III made a triumphant entry into Messina, and in the following year she left for Sicilia, and it was announced that the Infant Jaime would be heir to Sicily as the elder son, Alfonso, would remain heir of Aragon. In the case of Jaime's minority, Constance would act as regent. Pedro III had to depart Sicily, leaving Constance in charge. In November 1285 Constance's husband died at Villafranca de Penadres where he was buried, and the following year Jaime was crowned - though both she and her son were excommunicated by the pope. When in 1291 her eldest son, Alfonso III, died childless Jaime succeeded him, remaining king of both countries until 1296 when Fadrique, Constance's third son, became King of Sicilia. Constance returned to Spain and lived (1249-1301).

Agnes af Danmark 1286-92 Regent Dowager Queen Agnes af Brandenburg of Denmark
1286 Royal County Sheriff of Lolland-Falster
Regent for Erik IV after her husband, Erik V was assassinated. Lolland-Falster was her dowry which she administered as a royal fief, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She later married Count Gerhard II of Holsten and became mother of another son, Johann, and died 1304.

1326-28 and 1328-29 Acting Vicar Margarete van Holland of Pisa (Italy)
Acted as representative of her husband Emperor Ludwig IV, who was Lord of Pisa 1326-29.

A contemporary picture of an unnamed Persian queen 1338-39 Acting Caliph Governor and Principal Minister Sati Beg Hatun of the Mongols Il Khans Empires in Persia (Iran)
Used the title Al-sultana al-radila Sati Bek Khan Khallad Allah mulkaha - The just sultana Sati Bek, may Allah perpetuate her reign, and was daughter and sister of some of the earlier rulers. After Mohammad was overthrown, she took power and married Suleiman, who became titular co-ruler. The Mongols Il Khans controlled Persia  as a sort of local Mongol authority under the Great Horde.  

1354-59 Acting Governor Jelena Subica of Rama (Bosnia)
Regent for the ban (governor) Tvrtko I (1353-77/91), who succeeded his uncle, her husband, Stjepan II Kotromanic, initially with his father, Prince Vladislav as regent. After his death she took over as regent. 

1359-63 Sovereign Countess Marie de Capet-Bourbon of Vestitza (Greece)
1364 Governor of Kephalliena (Greek Island State)
1364-70 Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Morea) (Greece)
Succeeded the Baronesses Agnes and Guillermetta (Wilhelmina). In Kephalliena and Achaia she followed her husband Hugues de Lusignan.

Unnamed Spanish Queen 1395-97 and 1398-99 Regent-Governor Queen Maria López de Luna of Aragón (Spain)
Acted as stand-in for husband, King Martin, who was in Sicily where he was also king. She was Countess de Luna and (d. 1406). 

1409-15 Vice-Reine Blanca de Navarra of Sicilia (Italy)
Widow of Martin I de Aragón (1392-1409). His first wife was Maria of Sicilia, Duchess of Athens and he was succeeded by his father, Martin II (1409-10). 1410-12 the throne of Aragon was vacant, until Federico I de Aragon became king. Blanca lived (1385-1441)

1411-19 Governor and Sultan Tandu of Baghdad (Iraq)
Also known as Tindu, she belonged to the Jalarid Dynasty, a branch of the Ilkhan Mongol rulers, and daughter of king Awis. She was first married to al-Zahir Barquq, the last Mamluk king of Egypt. She did not like life in Cairo and her husband let her go back to Baghdad, where she married her cousin Shah Walad bin Ali, the Governor for the Caliph, and after his death she acceded to the throne, had coins stuck in her name and the khutba (sovereign's prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques. She was one of the last Mongol rulers in the area.

1416-56 Governor Queen Maria of Aragón and Catalunya (Spain)

Regent in Aragón and Cataluña during her husband, Alfonso V's warfare in Italy, conquering Napoli from Giovanna II. 


Unnamed Ethiopian Lady Around 1434 Governor Princess Medhyn Zemeda of Damot (Ethiopia) 
Also held the high office of "keń bituedded" Daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob (ruled 1434-68) appointed his daughters to high state offices and governors in the provinces. Her sister, Byrhan Zemeda, held the office of "gyr bituedded". 

Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Meszih of Amhara (Ethiopia) 
Also daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob.

Around 1434 Governor Princess Dyl Semra of Tigraj (Ethiopia)
Also daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob.

Around 1434  Governor Princess Atsnaf Semra of Godzham (Ethiopia) 
Also daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob

Around 1434 Governor Princess Rom Genejda of Scheua (Ethiopia) 
Also daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob.

Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Segedu of Geń (Ethiopia) 
Also daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob.

Around 1434 Governor Princess Sofija of Gyddym (Ethiopia) 
Also the Princess Tsebele Marjam (or Abala Marjam), Amete Gijorgis and Bahyr Mengyscha were governors, but it is not known of which provinces.

1451-61 Governor Queen Juana Enriques de Melagar of Navarra 
1461-62 Governor of Cataluña/Catalunya (Spain)
For her husband, Juan II of Aragón, who took over the crown of Navarra after the death of his first wife Queen Blanca I. 

1481-1521 Royal County Sheriff Queen Christine von Sachsen of Denmark of Tranekær, Næsbyhoved, Koldinghus and Ribe Len (Denmark)
1500-02 In charge of the government in Sweden 
Married to King Hans of Denmark, Norway and Sweden and was given the fiefs for her personal use after he became king. In 1500-02 she was in charge of the government in Sweden during his engagement elsewhere. She was under siege from the Swedish nobility and kept in captivity 1502-03. After Hans' death in 1513 she withdrew to her fiefs, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She died (1521). 

1484-95  Sheriff Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott of Dronningholm, Denmark
A major land-owner, she was married to the Swedish Councillor of State and lagmand Erengisle Nilsson, who died 1469. She was in dispute with her husband's children of first marriage over her Swedish castles, and with her step-mother, Anne Present, over the ownership of Vallø-Castle, which Birgitte had inherited from her mother, Karen Falk. She was supported by the Danish king, who appointed her Lensmand (County Sheriff) of the Royal Lands of Dronningholm, and as such she was in charge of  local administration. She sold many of her possessions to king Hans. Much of her troubles with inheritance and keeping on to her lands must be seen as a result of her having no children. (d. 1498)

1504-12 Politically Influential Mette Iversdatter Dyre in Sweden 
1515-circa 27 County Sheriff of Hørby (Denmark)

Known as Mätta Ivarsdotter in Sweden, she was very influential during the regency of her third husband was Svante Nilsson Sture, who was Regent of Sweden for King Hans of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. She was Svante's assistant and advisor, and an  influential power in the national counsel. In important questions the great men rather went to her than to her husband. In 1507 she defended Stockholm Castle and in 1510 she was his representative in Finland. After her husband's death in 1512 she was in dispute with her step-son, Sten Sture the Younger, about some of her dowry. In 1515 King Christian 2. appointed Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Bishoply Fief of Hørby near Holbæk and as Chancellor of the Convent of Saint Agnete in Roskilde. Her first two husbands were the Norwegian Councillors of the Realm, Anders van Bergen (d. 1491) and Knut Alvsson (d. 1502). She lived (circa 1460-ca.1527).


Margaretha of the Netherlands 1507-15 and 1518-30 General-Stadtholder Margareta von Habsburg of the Netherlands 
Her nephew, Emperor Karl V, appointed her regent of the Netherlands. She was daughter of Emperor Maximilian and Duchess Marie of Bourgogne. Divorced from her first husband Charles VIII pf Framce, her second husband, Juan, the Crown Prince of Aragón and Castilla, died shortly after their marriage in 1497. In 1501 she married Duke Philiberto II of Savoie, who died three years later. She was also Countess of Artois, Bourgogne, Charolais and Franche-Comté (1482-1530), as Marguerite II. She had no children, and lived (1480-1530)

Lensmand Anne Meinstrup 1507-18 and 1523-35 County Sheriff Anne Meinstrup of Højstrup, Denmark
Also known as Anne Holgers, she was first married to Holger Eriksen Rosenkrantz and secondly to Jørgen Ahlefeldt, who was killed in battle in 1500. After this period she took care of herself and her own possessions, inherited from her parents. In 1507 she took over the fief of Højstrup as security (becoming Lensmand or County Sheriff) for a major lone she had given to King Hans. Around 1516 she was appointed Hofmesterinde (Mistress of the Court) of Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg. From the following year until 1522 she stayed in Northern Germany because she had criticized the relationship of King Christian 2 to Dyveke. After Christian fled the country, she returned and was re-appointed both Hofmesterinde and Lensmand. During the civil war, Grevens Fejde (War of the Count), she supported Count Christoffer, while her son, Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz, supported the later Christian 3., but was killed in battle in 1534. Some months later Count Christoffer had called for a meeting at the "Assembly in Ringsted", and here she was killed by peasant-soldiers. She lived (circa 1475-1535). 

Unnamed North African Lady 1510-52 Governor Sayyida al-Hurra of Tetouán (Morocco)
First confirmed as prefect and then appointed governor of the city state of Tetouán ("Hakima Tatwan"). She was the undisputed leader of the pirates in the western Mediterranean. She was married to Sultan Al-Mandri and after his death she married Ahmad al-Wattasi, who reigned (1524-49). After her first husband's death, she gained the title al-hurra (Sovereign Lady). She was member of the Andalusian noble family, Banu Rashid, who immigrated to Morocco after the Christian conquest of Muslim Spain. She was deposed in 1552. 

1513-50 County Sheriff Else Pederdatter Tot of Sundsherred, Denmark
1521-47 County Sheriff of Nørvangsherred and Hønberg 
She was first married to Claus Krummedige and secondly to Thomas Nilsson (Lange). Today the family spells the name Thott.

1514-15 Acting  Governor Maria Alvarez de Toledo of  Hispanola/Las Isla Espanola (Spanish Possession)
Today The Dominican Republic and Haïti. Her husband, Diogo Colón, was Vice-roy 1509-14 and 152023.

1515-19 De Facto Governor Alfonsina Orsini of The Republic of Firenze (Italy)

As mother of the de facto ruler of Florence, Lorenzo II de' Medici, she was able to govern during his absence. She was involved in the strategic planning of Florence's war with the French and the plans for making a treaty as well as her oversight of Pope Leo's entry into Florence in November 1515. Her governorship was indicative of the increasingly signora nature of the Medici regime and that she had far more power, influence and authority than the previous generation of Medici women. She was the daughter of Roberto Orsini, Conte Tagliacozzo and Catherine San Severino and married to Piero "il Unfortunato" de' Medici, who lived 1503. Apart from Lorenzo, she was mother of  Clarissa de' Medici, and lived (1472-1520).


1527-circa 75 Governor-in-absentia Aldonza de Villalobos Manrique, Isla de Margarita (Venezuela/Spanish Possession)
Normally known as Aldonza Manrique. After her father's death, her mother, Isabel Manrique, had the king transfer the governorship to her in 1527 - with the condition that while she was under age or was unmarried, the governorship was held by "a man with appropriate age", and her mother therefore appointed a number of governor-lieutenants.  In 1535 Aldonza married the conqueror Pedro Ortiz de Sandoval, who came to Santo Domingo from Peru. In 1539 the Council of the Indians confirmed her rights, but she did not take over before 1542, when she and her husband ruled as lieutenant-governors.  There are no documents evidencing she ever traveled to the island, and it cannot be taken for granted that her husband did it either. After her husband's death in 1546, Aldonza retained the title of Governor of Margarita, but continued  to live in Santo Domingo, until her daughter, Marcela, got married aged 14 with Juan Gómez de Villandrando, who became the new lieutenant-governor on behalf of Aldonza. In 1561 the island was invaded, and Marcela's husband killed. In 1565 Aldonza traveled to Spain with her daughter and two grandsons, and requested to the Council of the Indians the island Governorship to be transferred to one of those, Juan Sarmiento de Villandrando. The petition was accepted after 10 years, after she had already died. Aldonza lived (circa 1520-75)

1530-33 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Rud of Roskilde Vor Frue Kloster, Denmark 
Married Rigsråd Henrik Krummedige, who was Councillor of the Realm in both Denmark and Norway. In 1502 she was in charge of the defence of the Norwegian boarder-castle Båhus in his absence. She was an extremely able land-owner, farmer and trader. Since 1531 she also had possession of a number of minor fiefs in Norway, administered by her son-in-law, married to her only daughter, Sofie. She left an extensive correspondence with her daughter, son-in-law and other relatives, and according to the costum of the time, she were in charge of the upbringing of her grandchildren, before her death in 1533. 

1530-55 General-Stadtholder Maria von Habsburg of the Netherlands 
At 17, she married King Lajos II Jagello of Hungary, who was 15. Four years later, the Turks over-ran half his kingdom, including the capital, Budapest. Louis was killed at the battle, and Maria fled west, taking the Hungarian treasury with her. Her brother, Karl V, appointed her Governor of the Netherlands after the death of their aunt, Margaretha. Maria was grand-daughter of Duchess Marie of Burgundy, had no children, and lived (1505-58) 

1532 County Sheriff Sofie Podebusk of Malmøhus, Denmark (now Sweden)
Malmøhus is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, which was part of Denmark until 1658 until it was incorporated in Sweden. 

1534-36 Acting County Sheriff Kristine Friis of Ørum, Denmark
She took over the administration of the fief after her husband's death

1535-68 Royal County Sheriff Queen Sophie von Pommern of Denmark of Lolland-Falster (Denmark)
Lolland-Falster was given to her as a dowry (Livgeding) when her husband, King Frederik I ascended to the throne in 1523. Also given the German Castles Kiel and Plön and adjourning areas in Holsten. She lived (1498-1568).

1535-36 Dowager Country Sheriff Kirstine Lykke of Gislumsherred , Denmark
As Lensmand she was in charge of the local administration, had juridical authority and acted as the official representative of the Danish king. 

1535-36 Acting County Sheriff  Mette Mogensdatter Gøye  of Ravnsborg, Denmark
She was daughter of Mogens Gøye til Krenkerup and after the death of her husband, Johan Oxe til Nielstrup, she acted as County Sheriff or Lensmand until her own death one year later. Mother of one daughter, Pernille Johansdatter Oxe (b. 1530)

1540-45 County Sheriff Anne Arvidsdatter Trolle of Åsum and Elleholm Len, Denmark (Now Sweden)
Widow of Axel Eriksen Urup til Ugerup, who was Lensmand or County Sheriff of Sölvesborg etc. until his death. After his death she was in charge of the two fiefs in Skåne, which was  incorporated in Sweden in 1658.

1541 Governor Doña Beatriz de la Cueva de Alvarado of Guatemala (For Spain)
After the death of her husband, Pedro de Alvarado, she maneuvered her own election and became the
only woman to govern a major American political division in Spanish times. A young and ambitious woman who styled herself the Hapless One (La Sin Ventura), she was drowned a few weeks after assuming office in the destruction of Ciudad Vieja by a sudden flood from the volcano Agua. She was succeeded by brother, Francesco de la Cueva y Villacreces, Governor 1540-41 and 1541-42.

1542-51 Acting County Sheriff  Sophie Pedersdatter Lykke of Holmekloster, Denmark
1560-63 and 1563-70  County Sheriff of Lister Len, Norway
Married to Councillor of the Realm, Jacob Hardenberg, who died 1542. Thereafter she administered the possessions of her three young daughters together with her own lands. She was very unpopular. Her peasants protested to the king against her, and in 1557 she was convicted of illegally selling cattle. In 1560 she was given Lister Len as security for a lone, and moved to Norway. Also here the peasants complained against her, and she broke the ban against exporting timber abroad, and she lost the fief, but managed to get it back later the same year, because of her good connections. She lived (circa 1510-70)

1544-60 Governor Brites de Albuquerque, of Pernambuco (Brazil)
Widow of Duarte Coelho Periera (1534-44) and succeeded by son Duarte Coelho de Albuquerque, who was governor for the Portuguese King (1560-72).

Lensmand Ide Mogensdatter Munk

1545 Dowager County Sheriff Ide Mogensdatter Munk of Abrahamstrup Len, Denmark

A major land-owner, also known as Ida, she was married to Oluf Nielsen Rosenkrantz til Vallø, and their daughter was Birgitte Olufdatter Rosenkrantz til Øster Vallø. Ide died 1586.


1548-49 Acting County Sheriff  Ingeborg Gjordesdatter Drefeld of Lundenæs, Denmark
Widow of Peder Galt Ebbesen til Birkelse etc, Lensmand til Lundenæs. 

1549-74 County Sheriff  Abele Hansdatter Breide of Näsbyholm, Denmark (Now Sweden)
After the death of her husband, Mikkel Hals til Näsbyholm, she acting Lensmand or County Sheriff of the fief, in Skåne, which has been part of Sweden since 1658.

Eline Gøye  1550-61 Acting County Sheriff  Eline Gøye of Skjoldnæs, Denmark
Married to Mourits Olufsen Krognos and Vincents Juel. She was daughter of one of the country's major landowners, Mogens Gøye, but he had many children, and she therefore only inherited half of the estate  Clausholm together with a brother. She was in dispute with her sister-in-law Anne Rosenkrantz, and in 1561 a compromise was reached, which according to Eline favourized Anne. Later same year Anne also was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) Skjoldnæs, which Eline had got after the death of her first husband. She was sister of another major landowner and Lensmand, Birgitte Gøye, and lived (circa 1510-63)

Until 1551 County Sheriff Birgitte Bille of Sandby Len, Denmark (Now Sweden)
Until 1553 County Sheriff of Katsløse Len (Denmark)

Her husband, Jens Torbensen Rosenspare died in 1553. Sandby is situated in the landscape of Skåne that was annexed by Sweden in 1658. 


1552-53 Acting County Sheriff  Sidsel Jensdatter Ulfstand of Kalundborg, Denmark
1554-circa 75 County Sheriff of  Villands Herred (Skåne) 
Married Councillor of the Realm and Lensmand (County Sheriff), Knud Pedersen Gyldenstierne, and after his death she acted as administrator of his fief for about a year. In 1552 she was given charge of Villands Herred in the south of Sweden, and she was an able administrator accumulating quite a big wealth. She died circa 1575.

A Danish Nobel Lady 1555-56 Acting County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter Lykke of Stege, Denmark
First married to Anders Bentsen Bille til Søholm and then to Otto Jørgensen Krumpen til Trudsholk and was acting Lensmand or County Sheriff of the fief after the latter's death. Her branch of the family Lykke was also known as Lykke Munk til Overgaard. She died after 1574.

1555-56 County Sheriff Sidsel Parsberg of Gårdstange, Denmark (Now Sweden)
Gårdstange is situated in the landscape of Skåne which was annexed by Sweden in 1658. 

1556-64 Regent for the Governor Mah Cucak Bigum of Kabul, Afganistan
Acted for Governor Miza Muhammad Hakim (1556-85) hereditary representative of the Grand Mogul of India. She was murdered in 1565 

Margaretha II of the Netherlands 1559-67 and 1580-82 Stadtholder Margaretha de Parma of The Netherlands 
1572-86 Perpetual Governor of L'Aquila (Italy)
Also known as Madama or Margarita de Austria, her full title was er full title was Archduchess of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Princess of Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily. She was daughter of Emperor Charles V and his mistress Johanna van den Gheynst. Her first husband was Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Firenze (1510-37), the son of  the Black servant Simonetta da Collavechio and Cardinal Giulio de Medici ( the later Pope Clement VII),  was finally assassinated a few months after their wedding in 1536. She then received the titles of Feudal Duchess of Borbona, Penne and Posta  and Feudal Lady of Campli, Castel Sant'Angelo (now Castel Madama), Civita Ducale (now Cittaducale), Leonessa, Montereale and Ortona, Lady of Amatrice, Borbona, Posta which she held until her death. In 1538 she was married to Ottavio Farnese (1525-86), whose father was given the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza by his father, Pope Paul III. In 1545 she became mother of twins. Her half-brother, King Felipe II of Spain, appointed her Governor-General of the Netherlands, and she proved to be an able administrator, but resigned after the Duke of Alba's crushing of the Dutch opposition against the Spanish rule. She then returned to Italy and was governor of L'Aquila by her brother. Her son Alessandro Farnese was Governor-General of the Netherlands until 1580 when he was replaced by her. After his return, she was kept a virtual prisoner in Namur, until she was allowed to return to Italy in 1583 where she died three years later. She lived (1522-86).

1559-71 Royal County Sheriff  Dowager Queen Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Denmark of Koldinghus Len (Denmark)
She was the widow of Christian III and after his death she withdrew to her dowry which she also administered as a fief-holder, Lensmand, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She was very influential as head of the family. She lived (1511-71)

A Danish Nobel Lady 1561-67 County Sheriff Anne Rosenkrantz of Skjoldnæs, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Albert Gøye, in 1558 she was left in charge of the family possessions. Her land's were scattered all over the country, but she managed to unify most of it, and she achieved the right to appoint the judges within her jurisdiction. Anne was involved in many disputes with her relatives, among others the sister-in-law Eline Gøye, and in 1561 she was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff ) of Skjoldnæs after Eline was removed from this position. In 1566 Anne was ordered to give up the fief again - but only pawed way for the newly appointed Lensmand the following year. She lived (1522-89). 

1561-62 and 1562-72 Acting County Sheriff  Magdalene Banner of Skivehus, Denmark
She was left in charge of the fief after the death of her husband. At the time 20-25 percent of all lands were actually administered by widows

1562-73 Acting County Sheriff  Margrethe Hennekesdatter Rantzau of Skodborg, Denmark
She was married to her relative, Jesper Hansen Rantzau, Amtmand in Flensborg and Lensmand in Schmoel, Skodborg, Haderslev and Tørning Len and took over the administration of one of his fief after his death, 

1563-65 Acting County Sheriff Susanne Bølle of Stege, Denmark
She ran the fief during her husband, admiral Jakob Brokenhuus' imprisonment in Sweden

1563-64 County Sheriff  Else Ulfstand of Svaløv, Denmark (Now Sweden)
The fief of which she was Lensmand or County Sheriff  is situated in Skåne, which was incorporated into Sweden in 1658 

1563-87 County Sheriff  Margrethe Ugerup of Søfed, Denmark (Now Sweden)
The local administration and juridical system was in the hand of a royal appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) who each administered a Len (fief). It was normally the local manor-owner, and if that was an unmarried woman she was in some cases appointed Lensmand in her own right, in other cases she administered the Len after her husband's death. 

1564-66 Dowager County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Reventlow of Åstrup Len, Denmark

She was the second wife of Erik Krabbe (1510-64), and after his death, she was in charge of the fief until a new Lensmand (County Sheriff) was appointed. She lived (1525-1606).


1565-74 Acting County Sheriff  Birgitte Gøye of Kapelgård, Denmark
1565-66 County Sheriff of Tølløse
1565-71
Acting County Sheriff of Kappelgården and Ringkloster
1571-72 County Sheriff of Åkær
1572 County Sheriff  of Ydernæs
Married Councillor of the Realm, Admiral Herluf Trolle in 1544 after she had managed to break off another engagement. They had no children, and in 1564 they founded Herlufsholm Boarding school for children of the nobility and she was Chancellor 1565-67. In 1571, after she had lost her other fiefs, Dowager Queen Dorothea, gave her the fief Åkær by Horsens, but after the Queen's death, Birgitte also lost this possession, until she was given Ydernæs for life. She lived (circa 1511-74).

1565-66 Acting County Sheriff Mette Rosenkrantz of Kalundborg, Denmark
1565-67 County Sheriff of Strø (Skåne)
All her life she was extremely rich, and together with her sister, Birgitte, she inherited Valor, a very big possession, she administered Skarhult for her children of the first marriage with  Councillor of the Realm Steen Rosensparre, and her second husband, Chancellor Peder Oxe,  had given her possession for life of his enormous lands, which she could not inherit, since they had no children. She also inherited lands from her mother and she was probably the biggest landowner of her time. She lived (circa 1533-88).

1565-85 Acting County Sheriff Abele Skee of Lundenæs, Denmark
In charge after her husband's death.

1565-67 County Sheriff Elsbet Brade of Fliginde, Denmark (Now Sweden)
Fliginde is situated in Skåne, now Sweden. 

1566-? County Sheriff  Sidsel Oxe of Broby (Now Sweden)
1571-92 County Sheriff of  Rødinge, Denmark 
1573-74 Dowager County Sheriff  of Ålborghus 
Broby and Rødinge is situated in Skåne, the latter she administered Rødinge together with Beate Bille. 

Gørvel Fadersdatter 1567-70 Acting County Sheriff Gørvel Fadersdatter Sparre of Vefre and Høgby, Denmark
1574-81 Acting County Sheriff of Verpinge (Skåne)
1574-1605 County Sheriff of Borgeby 
1582-1605 County Sheriff of Börreringekloster and Froste herred 
1586-1605 County Sheriff of Sørby 
1599-1605 County Sheriff of Skotsherred
1601-05 County Sheriff of Hiøgby and Lindholm (Skåne)
She was one of the last members of the "Nordic nobility" which existed during the Union between Denmark, Norway and Sweden. She had possessions in all three countries. She was an only child and inherited Norway's largest estate Giske from her mother's brother in 1537. During the War of the Count 1534-36 she was kept prisoner with her seven step-children at her second husband's estate, Varberg in Skåne, and also gave birth to her only son, who died 1548. She secured her possessions by giving large grants to the king, and in exchange she became County Sheriff or Lensmand for life of Verpinge, and she were later given other fiefs to administer for the crown for life. She continued to grant most of her Norwegian estates to the crown, and in 1601 she appointed king Christian 4 as her sole heir after the death of her only child, Nils Ulfstad. Married to the Swedish Councillor of the Realm, Peder Nilsson Grip (d. 1533), Truid Gregersen Ulfstand ( d. 1445) and Lave Axelsen Brahe (d. 1567). She lived (circa 1509-1605)

Lensmand Tale Ulfstand

1567-.. County Sheriff Tale Holgersdatter Ulfstand of Rørum Len, Denmark
1595-99 County Sheriff of Hesselbjerg Len (Skåne)

Her husband, Poul Pedersen (Laxmand) den yngre til Stenholt, died 1557. At first she administered Rørum jointly Else Ulfstand and later with Lisbeth Rosenkrantz. She owned the castles of Skabersjö, Häckeberga and Høgestad in Denmark and in the landscapes that was conquered by Sweden in 1658.


1567 Dowager County Sheriff Vibeke Podebusk of Odensegård Len, Denmark
1568-69 Dowager County Sheriff of Stege Len

She was widow of Evert Bildt. She was owner of Ranholt and Lindholm Castle and in 1580 she was given the right to appoint judges. (d. 1596)


1567-.. County Sheriff Else Ulfstand of Rørum, Denmark
She administered Rørum, in Skåne, together with Tale Ulfstand.

1567 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Podebusk  of Odensegård, Denmark
1568-69 Acting County Sheriff of Stege 
She was widow of Evert Bildt. She was owner of Ranholt and Lindholm Castle and in 1580 she was given the right to appoint judges. (d. 1596)

1571-92 Dowager County Sheriff Beate Klausdatter Bille of Rødinge Len, Denmark (now Sweden)

Beate Bille was married to Otto Tygesen Brahe, Councillor of the Realm and Fief holder of Helsingborg. She administered the Len in Skåne, now Sweden, jointly with Sidsel Oxe. She was mother of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe, and lived (1526-1605).


1573 Acting County Sheriff Anne Corfitzdatter Hardenberg of Helsingborg (Sweden)
Of high nobility, she was chamber-maid to Queen Dorothea 1557-71, and here she got to know  king Frederik 2 (king from 1559) who fell in love with her, and wanted to marry her, but this met widespread opposition. In 1572 she married Councillor of the Realm, Oluf Mouritsen Krognos, who died after only six months marriage. She lived at her dowry Bregentved and managed to keep her husband's family at distance with the help of the royal family. She (d. 1589).  

1575-76 Acting County Sheriff Karen Mogensdatter Gyldenstierne of Bygholm and Skt. Hans Kloster, Denmark
1586-?
County Sheriff of Snersted (Skåne)
After the death of her husband, Holger Ottesen Rosenkrantz, she administered his fief for a period. Rosenkrantz was Stadtholder in Norway, and later became military commander of the realm. She was in charge of the vast estates inherited by her two sons, until they came of age. Later also Lensmand of Snersted, which is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden. She lived (1544-1613). 

1576... Adelantada Juana Ortiz de Zárate of Corrientes, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, Adelantado of Chile (Chile)

Following the death of her father, Juan Ortiz de Zárate, Adelanto and Governor, founder of the City of Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, she inherited the estates of the family and apparently Emperor Charles V named her Adelantado of Chile. She was married to Juan de Torres de Vera y Aragón, who became Governor in 1578, and mother of Juan Alonso de Vera y Zárate. Apparently her mother was the Inca Princess, Leonor Yupanqui, daughter of Tupac-Hupalla (Originally Auqui Huallpa Tupac) puppet-emperor in 1533.


Marchioness of Bergen op Zoom 1577-82 Superintendent Maria Marguerite de Mérode of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)
Given the Marchionate as a fief by the States of Brabant. It had been administered by the king of Spain after the death of her uncle, Jan IV van Glymes, who died childless in 1567. Joint administrator with her husband, Jan baron van Wittem from 1578. Both were deposed by the Dutch after they sided with the Spanish, and the possession was given to the Prince of Oranje and not until 1588 is the eldest of their three daughters, Maria, given the Marchionate as a fief. (1560-88)

1578-79 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Eriksdatter Lange of Ålborghus, Denmark
After the death of her first husband, Jens Nielsen Kaas, she was acting Lensmand (County Sheriff) until a successor was appointed. Afterwards married to Knud Brahe (1555-1615). She died 1622.

1580 Dowager County Sheriff Birgitte Rosenkrantz of Kalundborg Len, Denmark

She was widow of Bjørn Kaas who was Lensmand in Helsingborg and Malmöhus. She later had a relationship to her late husband's cousin, Gjord Kaas. Because it was considered to be incest at the time, she was executed on the command of King Christian 4. When Gjord went into exile, and when returned after 17 years he too was executed. According to the legend she is today the "White Lady" a ghost at Stårup Castle.


1580-1604 County Sheriff Ingeborg Skeel, Segelstrup in Denmark
1586-1604
Dowager County Sheriff of Amtofte and Strekhals 

A major landowner, she held the fief for life. She was widow of Otte Banner (1515-85), and lived (circa 1545-1604)


1580-81 Acting County Sheriff of Gårdstange Anne Verner Parsberg, Denmark (now Sweden)
1580-93 County Sheriff of Vram, Visby, Stibberup and Revinge
She was married to Hans Skovgaard til Gundestrup (1526-80), Councillor of the Reaml and Lensmand of Helsingborg. 

1582-1611 County Sheriff Karen Banner of Orlofgård, Denmark
1611-13 Acting County Sheriff of Jungshoved
1612 Acting County Sheriff  of Vordingborg
She held Orlofgård after the death of her first husband Gregers Ulfstand and Jungshoved after the second,  Henrik Lykke.

1583-1603 Acting County Sheriff Beate Brade of Gislumsherred and Ramsø , Denmark
She was given the fief for life as security for a lone. She was widow of Jørgen Lykke.

1583-84 Dowager County Sheriff Karen Henriksdatter Friis of Aalborghus Len, Denmark

Acting Lensmand or (County Sheriff) after the death of her husband, Bjørn Andersen Bjørn til Stenalt, Bjørnsholm, Voer, Gunderupgård og Strandbygård. 1562-66 Judge in Zealand, Councillor of State 1567, Lensmand of Fredsgård, Stege,
Københavns Slot, Roskildegård, Tryggevælde, Århusgård og Ålborghus. They had 3 children and he had 6 children with his first wife, Sidsel Ulfstand. Karen Friis lived (1541-1601).


1585-86 Dowager County Sheriff Kirstine Lykke of Vordingborg Len, Denmark

Also known as Kirsten Lykke, she was charge of the administration of the fief after the death of her husband, Eiler Grubbe til Lystrup (1532-85), who was at one time Chancellor of the Realm. In 1594 she married Niles Gyldenstierne til Bjørnholm, and lived (1558-1630)


Ingeborg Skeel

1585-1604 Dowager County Sheriff Ingeborg Skeel of Sejlstrup Len
1586 County Sheriff of Amtofte and Strekhals Len, Denmark

She was an able farmer and trader, and administered both her own and her husband's estate. After the death of her husband, Otto Banner til Asdal, she took over the administration of the fief, and after her mother, Karen Krabbe died the following year, she took over her two small royal fiefs; Amtofte in Thy and Strekhals in Mors (Northern Jutland). There are many stories about her as an evil mistress, who killed the architect of one of her estates and a harsh employer towards the peasants, but the stories does not seem to be based on facts. She had no children, and lived (circa 1545-1604).


Karen Krabbe Until 1586 County Sheriff Karen Krabbe of Amtofte and Strekhals, Denmark
Married to Nils Skeel (d. 1561). After her death her daughter, Ingeborg Skeel, took over her fiefs.

1586-87 County Sheriff Kirstine Andersdatter Lindenov of Vesterstad Len, Denmark (now Sweden)

Kirsten Lindenov was widow of Steen Clausen Bille (1527-86), who was Judge, diplomat and soldier, and she held the fief, which is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden. She owned the estate of Herrevad Kloster and Sellerup in her own right. After 17 years of marriage she had a son followed by one more son and a daughter (d. 1612).


1586-1626  County Sheriff Beate Hvitfeldtof Møllerud and Epholt (Skåne), Denmark (now Sweden)
1615-26 County Sheriff of Lunde and St. Peders Kloster
She was widow of Knud Ulfeld and held the small fiefs as security for some loans.

1586-89 County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Gyldenstierne of Snersted in Skåne, Denmark (now Sweden)

Her husband Jørgen Marsvin (1527-81) was Lensmand at Landskrona and Member of the Danish Council of State until his death. She lived (1542-89).


1587-95 County Sheriff Pernille Gøs of Vesterstad, Denmark (now Sweden)
Vesterstad is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden in succession to Kirstine Lindenov.

1587-90  County Sheriff Tale Tot of Åhus and Åsum, Denmark, (now Sweden)
Åhus and Åsum is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden

Sophie of Denmark 1588-94 Regent Queen Dowager Sophie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Schleswig-Holstein (Slesvig-Holsten) (Denmark and Germany)
1588-1631 Royal County Sheriff of Lolland-Falster and Ravnsborg
Widow of Frederik 2., she was regent for son Christian 4. in Slesvig-Holsten 1588-94. She was engaged in a power struggle with the Regents of Denmark, The Council of State, which had Christian declared of age in 1593, but she did not give up her position in the Duchies before the following year. She then withdrew to Lolland-Faster, where she managed her estates extremely well and became very rich and she lend her son a lot of money for his warfares. She lived (1557-1631).

1589-93 Governor Luisa Grinalda, Espírito Santo (Brazil)
After the death of  her husband, Vasco Fernandes Coutinho, she acted as governor for the King of Portugal, until she returned to her homeland and died in a convent in Èvora some years later.

1589-94 County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter of Nederby, Denmark (now Sweden)

Nederby is situated in the Landscape of Skåne.

Lensmand Anne Gyldenstierne

1591 Dowager County Sheriff Anne Gyldenstierne of Malmøhus Len, Denmark (now Sweden)
1591-92 Dowager County Sheriff of Kalundborg Len, Denmark

Malmøhus is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden.


1592 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Daa of Hald, Denmark
After her the death of her husband, Jørgen Skram, she took over the administration of the fief. Daughter of Claus Daa af Ravnstrup.

1594 County Sheriff Tale Ulfstand of Malmøhus Len, Denmark (Now Sweden)

In various documents she wrote her name as Thaale Wlffstandt til Skabersøe. She took over as Lensmand after the death of her brother Hack Holgersen Ulfstand, who had been Government Councillor, Councillor of State, Marsk, Knight of the Order of the Elephant and after the death of King Frederik 2, guardian for his son, Christian 4, but in 1590 he was executed for treason. (d. 1604).


1595-96 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Braade of Åkjær and Sønderlyngherred, Denmark
In charge of the administration of the fief after her husband died.

1596-99 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Rosenkrants of Hindsgavl, Denmark
After the death of her husband,  Hans Johansen Lindenov.

1596-... Governor and Admiral Isabel Barreto de Castro, Santa Cruz (Solomon Islands - then a Spanish Possession)       
After the death of her husband, Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, Spanish navigator (1541-96), she proclaimed herself governor and took command of the fleet as the only Admiral of the Spanish Amada. Her husband had been given command of a small fleet by his uncle, the  Governor-General of Peru in 1567. After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there. They left for the islands in 1595 and on the way they discovered the Marquesas de Mendoza Islands and another large island which they named Santa Cruz, and resolved to establish the colony there. Some of the crew murdered one of the native chiefs, and a bloody war was begun against the invaders. Afterward there was a mutiny among the troops. These adversities undermined Mendana's health, and he soon died, leaving the government to Isabel. Soon after she and the chief pilot, Quiros resolved to abandon the colony, and she directed her ships to the Philippines.  She held the title “La Amiranta de la Mar Oceana”. 

1600-01 Acting County Sheriff Mette Ulfstand of Lykå and Sølvitsborg in Blekinge and Høgby and Vefre in Skåne, Denmark (Now Sweden)
After the death of her husband, Knud Grubbe

1600-12 County Sheriff Mette Urne of Vemb Skibrede Len, Norway

Administered the fief in her own name after the death of her husband, Alexander Durham, until she passed away herself in 1612. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway.


1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Elisabeth Trolle of Dalby in Skåne, Denmark (Now Sweden)
Acted after her husband, Gabriel Sparre, had died.

1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Else Lindenov of Dalum, Denmark
Widow of Absalon Gø til Kærstrup

1601-02 Acting Joint Acting County Sheriff Agate Sefeld of Bygholm, Denmark
Took over after the death of her husband, Niels Skram til Urup together with daughter.

1601-02 Acting Joint County Sheriff Elsebet Skram of Bygholm, Denmark
Acted together with her mother.

1603-16 Acting County Sheriff Viveke Gris of Sandby in Skåne Denmark (Now Sweden)
1608-40 Lensmand of Hørjre (Skåne)
She was widow of Peder Munk, and held the fief of Hørjre for life.

1603-04 Acting County Sheriff Anne Brok of Onsø, Norway
After her husband, Erik Mortensen (Mormand) had died. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway

1604-05 Acting County Sheriff Anne Rønnow til Skousborg of Hagenskov and Eskebjerg
1604....  County Sheriff of Strynø , Denmark
After the death of her husband, Erik Hardenberg.

1606-07 Acting County Sheriff Adel Hansdatter of Sorø, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Anders Kristensen

1607-08  Acting County Sheriff Lensmand Maren Jul of Visborg in Gotland, Denmark (Now Sweden)
She acted after the death of her husband, Herman Jul til Aabjerg

1607-08 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Brun of Frølands Skibrede and Ejdsberg Sogn, Norway
She administered the fief after the death of her husband, Peder Knutsøn (Maaneskjold) til Akervik. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway

Marie de Medici 1612-19 Governor Dowager Queen Marie de' Medici of Normandie
1610-17 Regent of France and 1619-39 Countess d'Anjou. Daughter of Francesco de' Medici, grand duke of Toscana and became the second wife of King Henri IV in 1600. After his assassination she became regent for her son Louis XIII. She reversed the policies set by her husband. Having remained in power for three years beyond the king's majority, Marie was forced into exile after the murder of Concini in 1617. In 1619 her partisans rose in revolt, but she was reconciled to her son in 1622. After the rise to power of her former favourite, Cardinal Richelieu, she attempted  to regain influence by urging the king to dismiss his minister of state; instead Louis forced his mother into a new exile at Compiègne, whence she fled to the Netherlands in 1631, never to return to France. One of her children was the politically influential Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I of England. Marie lived (1573-1642)

1610-11 Acting County Sheriff Beate Hvidtfeld til Møllerød of Gersherred in Skåne, Denmark (Now Sweden)
Mistress of the Court of the Queen and widow of Knud Ulfeld.

1610  Acting County Sheriff Elsebet Jul of Hammershus, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Hans Lindenov til Øsløf

1611-12 Acting County Sheriff Ellen Marsvin of Odensegård, Denmark
1620-39 County Sheriff of Dalumkloster 
1626-38 Acting County Sheriff of Davinde 
Fru Ellen Marsvin was of high noble family and one of the biggest landowners of her time Fru means Mrs but at the time the title was only used for noble ladies. Her daughter, Kirsten Munk, was married to King Christian IV. The local administration and juridical system was in the hand of royal appointed lensmænd (fiefholders) who each administered a len (fief). It was normally the local manor-owner, and if that was an unmarried woman she was in some cases appointed Lensmand in her own right, in other cases she administered the len after her husband's death. She lived (1572-1649).

1612-29 Governor Margherita de Austria of Lisboa (Portugal)
1633-42  Vice-reine of Portugal
1603-12 she was regent in Mantua and Monferrato for son, who died in 1612, she was later appointed Governor of Lisbon and Vice-Queen of Portugal by her brother King Felipe IV of Spain and Portugal (1605-21-65). In 1640 the Spanish were driven out of Portugal by the Duke of Bragança, King João IV and she was taken prisoner. Her aunt was Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg of the Southern Netherlands. Margarita lived (1589-1655).

1612-13 Dowager County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Lykke of Arnsborg Len, Denmark

After the death of her husband, Klavs Maltesen Sehested til Højris og Nøragergård. She lived (1568-1645).


1612  Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Brade, Landskrona in Skåne, Denmark (Now Sweden)
She acted after the death of her husband, Kristen Bernekov.

1613-14  Acting County Sheriff Else Bilde of Århusgård, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Karl Bryske. 

1614-16 Acting County Sheriff Karen Skinkel of Holbæk, Denmark
She was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Anders Dresselberg til Vognserup.

1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Mette Hardenberg of Bøvling, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Preben Gyldenstierne til Vosborg.

1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Kristine Hardenberg of Dalum and Strynø, Denmark
In control of the fief after her husband Axel Brade til Elved died

1616 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Krafse of Søbygaard, Denmark
Acted after the death of her husband, Mogens Gø.

1616-40 County Sheriff Karen Andersdatter of Hven, Denmark
She was the mistress of King Christian 4. in the years 1613-16 and mother of two daughters, who died in infancy, and the son; Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve with him. She (d. 1673)

1617-18 Acting County Sheriff Sofie Belov of Skivehus, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Kristen Tot til Boltinggård.

1617-18 Acting County Sheriff Jutte Gyldenstierne of Verne Kloster and Ingedals Skibrede, Norway
She acted as fiefholder after the death of her husband, Kristoffer von der Grøben til Fitseband. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway

1618-19 Acting County Sheriff Anne Hansdatter Baden of Kronborg, Denmark
She acted after the death of her brother, Kristen Hansen (Baden) til Nørård. 

1618-... County Sheriff Else Galde of Verne Kloster and Ingedals Skibrede, Norway
The fief was given to her and her husband, Siverd Gabrielsen (Akeleje) til Krengerup and Kambo for the duration of their lifetimes. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway.

1618-19 Acting County Sheriff Sofie Oldeland of Brunla and Numedalen, Norway
After her husband, Kasper Markdanner, had passed away. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway

Around 1620 Governor Elena de Caso, Dos Ilheus (Brazil)
The Vice-Kingdom of Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire. She was followed on the post by Antonio Ribeiro.

1620 Acting County Sheriff Sofie Rostrup of Kalundborg, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Sten Brade til Knudstrup.

Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg 1621-33 Governor Isabel Clara Eugenia of Austria of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium-Luxembourg)
 Joint Duchess of Burgundy, Lothringen, Brabant, Limbourg, Luxembourg and of Gelders, Joint Countess of Vlaanderen, Artois and Bourgogne and Tirol, Palatine  of Hainault, Holland, Namour and of  Zuytphen, Margravine of the Holy Roman Realm, Joint Lady of Friesland,  Salins,  Mechelen, of the City, Cities and Lands of  Utrecht, Overijssel and Groeningen 1598-1621. Daughter of King Felipe II of Spain and Elisabeth de Valois. In 1598 she married Archduke Albrecht of Austria  (son of Maximilian II of Germany) and they became joint Governors of the Southern Netherlands, which was in theory an independent state, but in reality dependent on Spain. After Albrechts death the Duchies reverted to the Spanish crown, and she was appointed governor. She had not children and lived (1566-1633)

1622 Acting County Sheriff Helle Jørgensdatter  Marsvin of Arnsborg, Denmark
In 1601 she had inherited Vapnö, one of the three biggest manor houses in Halland. She became acting County Sheriff after the death of her husband, Jakob Bek til Beldringe

Queen Nzinga 1623-63 Queen Nzinga M'Bandi of Ngola and Kongo (Angola and Congo)
1623-26 Governor of Luanda for the Portuguese
Also Known as Pande Doña Ana Souza. Nzinga (or Jinga) was Queen of the N'dongo and Matamba kingdoms. She assigned women important government offices. Constantly driven east by the Portuguese, Nzinga organized a powerful guerrilla army, conquered the Matamba, and developed alliances to control the slave routes. She even allied with the Dutch, who helped her stop the Portuguese advancement. After a series of decisive setbacks, Nzinga negotiated a peace treaty with the Portuguese, but still refused to pay tribute to the Portuguese king. Two of her war leaders were reputedly her sisters, her council of advisors contained many women, and women were called to serve in her army. She was daughter of N'Gola Kiluanzi Kia Samba and succeeded her brother. Lived (1581-1663) 

1623  Acting County Sheriff  Anne Lykke of Kalundborg with Arts, Skippinge and Samsø and County Sheriff of København, Denmark
A major landowner, she took over as County Sheriff after the death of her husband Kaj Rantzau til Rantzausholm, She was owner of Harridslvesgaard Castle 1623-31.

1624 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Gyldenstierne of Dragsholm, Denmark
Acted after the death of her husband, Oluf Ronsensparre      

1624-? Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Hansdatter of Kullegaard in Skåne, Denmark (Now Sweden)
She was widow of Bernd Vacke

Birgitte Brokkenhus 1630-31 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Brockenhuus of Nyborg, Denmark
She acted as administrator of the fief and local representative of the king after the death of her husband, Jakob Ulfeldt til Ulfeldsholm. They were parents of Corfitz Ulfeldt, Chancellor of the Realm etc. and husband of Leonora Christine, the daughter of King Christian 4.

1631-32 Acting County Sheriff Jytte Brok of Vestervig, Denmark
After her husband, Jørgen Skeel, died.

 

1632-4.. County Sheriff Karen Christoffersdatter Pax of Kornerupgård Len, Denmark

Widow of Erik Madsen Vasspyd til Vinderup (d. 1615). She apparently (d. 1650).


1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Lindenov, Ålborghus , Denmark
After the death of her husband, Otto Skeel.

1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe von der Lühe of Ryfylke, Jøderen and Dalerne (Stavangers Len), Norway
After the death of her husband, Jørgen Brukkenhus til Sebberkloster. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway 

1637-48 Stadholder Countess Ursula von Solms-Braunfels of the Principality of Orange (France)

Appointed to the post after the death of her husband, Christoph, Burgrave and Lord zu Dohna-Schlobitten, who had been an Aide of the Princes of Anhalt-Köthen, Advisor of Elector Friederich V. von der Pfalz, the Winter-king of Bohemia, before he was appointed Governor of Oranje in 1630 by her brother-in-law, Friedrich Heinrich of Orange-Nassau, Stattholder of the Netherlands, who was maried to her sister, the politically influential Amalia zu Solms-Braunfels. She was followed on the post by her son Friedrich (1621-48-60-88). The daughter of Count Johann Albrecht I von Solms-Braunfels in Braunfels and Gambit and Countess Agnes zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, she lived (1594-1657).


1641-42 Acting County Sheriff Maren Skram of Mariæ Kirkes Domprovsti (Oslo), Norway
After the death of her husband, Hartvig Hvitfeld til Skjelbred. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway, and Mariæ Kirke is the Cathedral of Oslo.

1643-76 Hereditary High Sheriff Lady Anne Clifford of Westmoreland (United Kingdom)
Anne Clifford was the third and only surviving child of George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, and his wife Margaret Russell. When she was 15, her father died, and the vast estate was inherited by his brother, and from that moment her mission in life was to regain her inheritance. She married and had five children, but her husband was obstructive to her claim for the inheritance. Six years later he died, and she married Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who did support her claim. Eventually she did inherit the estate in 1643 in the middle of the Civil War raging. Lady Anne was now 60 years old, and spent the next 26 years rebuilding churches and castles. Skip ton, Pen dragon, Appleby, Borough and Brougham Castles were restored to their former glory. As a devout Christian she built and restored churches and almshouses. She lived (1590-1676)

1644-46 Acting County Sheriff Anne Bek, Laholm in Halland, Denmark (Now Sweden)
After the death of her husband Kristen Bülow til Ingelstad

1645-54 Acting County Sheriff Regitze Grubbe of Hven, Denmark (Now Sweden)
She was widow of Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve til Vindinge (1615-45), the son of Karen Andersdatter and Christian 4. Hans Ulrik was given the fief Kronborg for life in 1641, and apparently took over as acting fiefholder of Hven from his mother in 1640. Regitze lived (1618-1689).

1646-47 Acting County Sheriff Anne Lunge of Kalø, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jost Høg til Gjorslev

Margaret Brent before the Council demanting the right to vote 1647-51 Exequtrix and Acting Lord Proprietor Margaret Brent of Maryland (USA)
1648 she appeared before the assembly and requested two votes. She asked for one for herself as a landowner and one as Lord Baltimore's attorney. Together with two brothers and a sister, she had arrived from England to Maryland 10 years before. She became a substantial landowner and she was named with Governor Leonard Calvert as joint guardian for Mary Kittamaquund, daughter of the chief of the Piscataways. Margaret Brent was not the only woman to claim land in her own right or to pursue her own interests in court. However, she chose to do so; she was not forced. Her continuing unmarried state was unusual in a settlement where the male/female ratio was about six to one. In 1645, the civil war raging in England between Charles I and Parliament spilled over into Maryland. Richard Ingle, a Protestant and a partisan of the English Parliament, invaded St. Mary's City, destroyed the property of Catholic settlers. Governor Leonard Calvert and other settlers fled to Virginia, and the population of the colony dropped drastically. Late in 1646, the Governor returned with soldiers to reestablish Calvert control. However, Governor Leonard Calvert died in 1647 with his own and Maryland's affairs still in turmoil. From his deathbed, exhorting her to "Take all and pay all," he appointed Margaret Brent his executor, a testimony to his faith in her abilities. The most pressing problem was paying Leonard Calvert's soldiers, who were on the verge of a mutiny. Margaret averted that disaster by having the assembly transfer to her Leonard Calvert's power of attorney for his brother Lord Baltimore. Because Leonard Calvert's estate was not sufficient, she sold some of Lord Baltimore's cattle to pay the soldiers. Her most famous action, requesting two votes in the assembly, occurred while she was trying to resolve the Calvert affairs. Ultimately, Margaret's actions in averting disaster were commended by the assembly to Lord Baltimore, who could not see beyond the loss of his cattle. The Brents never regained his favour and relocated to Virginia by 1651, where she set up a large planetation. She lived (1610-71).

1647-53 Royal County Sheriff Dowager Hereditary Princess Magdalene Sibylla von Sachsen of Denmark of Lolland-Falster, Denmark
After her husband, Hereditary Prince Christian died, she withdrew to her dowry in the south of Denmark, but in 1652 she married Duke Friedrich Wilhelm II zu Sachsen-Altenburg (d. 1669), with whom she had her first child Johanna Magdalene in 1656 and the next, Friedrich Wilhelm II, in 1658. She lived (1617-68).

1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Anne Rammel in Skåne, Denmark (Now Sweden)
Took over after the death of her husband, Knud Ulfeld til Østergaard. 

1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Lunge of Koldinghus, Denmark
In charge of the fief after her husband, Mogens Bilde til Tirsbæk died. 

1649-51 Acting County Sheriff Kristense Lindenov of Hindsgavl, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Klavs Sehested til Tim og Ørslev

1650-57 Captain-Donataria Dame Beatriz de Mascarenhas  of the Islands of Flores and Corvo , The Azores (Portugal)
She was daughter of Don Martinho Mascarenhas, 2. Conde de Santa Cruz and Joana de Vilhena and married her relative João Mascarenhas (circa 1600-68), who was 3. Conde de Santa Cruz by the right of  his wife. Las Ilhas das Flores e Corvo are remote part of the Azores. Beatriz lived (circa 1610-57).

1650-51 Dowager County Sheriff Jytte Styggesdatter Høeg of Århusgård Len, Denmark

Another version of her name was Jutte Høg, and she acted as administrator of the fief after the death of her husband, Niels Krag til Trudsholm. She lived (1589-1659).


1651-61 County Sheriff Anne Gyldenstierne of Hagenskov Len, Denmark

Married to Jørgen Brahe to Hvedholm (1585-1661), she was daughter of Predbjørn Gyldenstierne (1548-1616) and Mette Hardenberg (1569-1629), mother of a number of children, and lived (1596-1677).


1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Dorote Bjekke of Bakke Kloster, Norway
After the death of her husband, Daniel Bild til Morland. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway

1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Margrete Hvitfeld of Dragsmark Kloster, Norway
After her husband, Thomas Dyre til Sundsby, had died.

1652-54 Acting County Sheriff Anna Margrethe von Gøtzen of Abrahamstrup with Hornsherred , Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jørgen Schult til Finstrup.

1652-58 Acting County Sheriff Karen Lange of Søbygaard, Denmark
Acted after the death of her husband, Kristoffer Gø til Assendrup.

1652-...  County Sheriff Elsbet of Kullegaard in Skåne, Denmark (Now Sweden)
It is not known how long she was in charge of the fief. She was widow of Thomas Jakobsen.

1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Skeel of Stege , Denmark
After the death of her husband, Henrik Rammel.

1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Krafse of Hald, Denmark
She became acting fiefholder after her husband, Frans Pogvisk til Ranvholt had died.

1655-67 Vice-Reine Geronima of Aragona, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, 5th Duchess of Monteleone, Countess of Borrello (Italy) 
She was daughter of  Ettore III, IV Duca di Monteleone (1572–1622 ) , Viceroy of Catalogna  and Caterina Caracciolo Countess of S. Angelo dei Lombardi.

1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorte Abilgaard of Antvorskov Denmark
After the death of her husband, Wentzel Rotkirk

1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Daa of Akershus, Norway
After the death of her husband, Gregers Krabbe til Torstedlund. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway

1656-59 County Sheriff Dorothea Sehested of Hasnø Kloster and Hardanger Len, Norway
After the death of her husband, Peder Jul, she was given control of the fief for two years. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway

1656-... County Sheriff Anne Blomme of Koldinghus, Denmark
After the death of her husband Hans Schak, she was given the fief for life, but it is not known when she died.

1656-58 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Fris of Nyborg, Denmark
After her husband, Mogens Kaas til Støvring, had died.

1657-58 Acting County Sheriff Edel Rosenkrantz, Landskrona in Skåne , Denmark (Now Sweden)
She acted after the death of her husband, Kristen Bernekov.

1658 Acting County Sheriff Anne Vind of Kronborg, Denmark
She acted after the death of her husband, Arent von der Kuhla

1658-90 Governor Marie Bonnard du Parquet of Martinique (French External Territory)
After the death of her husband, governor Jacque Dyel de Parquet (1635-46 and 1647-58), she took over as regent for the oldest of their six children, who had been designated as governor by the French king. After an insurrection of the colonists, she left for France but died at sea.

1659 Dowager County Sheriff Elisabeth Avgusta Christiansdatter of Kalundborg Len, Denmark

Frøken (Miss) Elisabeth Augusta was daughter of King Christian 4. of Denmark and Kirstine Munk. According to contemporary sources she gambled a lot and was not a good "housewife", and therefore she had to sell the estates of Boller and Rosenvold, which she inherited from her mother in 1658 in order to pay off her debts. She administered the fief for the remaining part of the year after the death of her husband, Councillor of the Realm (Rigsråd) Hans Hansen Lindenov, til Fovslet, Allingkloster, Hundslund, Gavnø, Oregaard and Borgeby. Like her sisters, she was sometimes known as Christansdatter and held the title of Countess of Holsten. Her only daughter, Sophie Amalie Lindenov (1649-88), inherited the estates and bought a number of new ones. Her husband, Claus Då til Krængerup, Vedtoftegård og Dåsborg, was murdered in 1678 apparently on her command. 1681 she had Dåsborg named a Free-lordship (Barony) of Lindenborg with her nephew, Christian Gyldenløve, as heir, since her only child had died as an infant. Elisabeth Augusta lived (1623-77).


Before 1659-6... Acting County Sheriff Anne Skeel of Ørum, Denmark
Acted as local administrator after the death of her husband, Kristoffer Hvas til Herregaard.

1660-61 Acting County Sheriff Kristense Lykke of København with Smørrum, Sokkelund and Ølstykke Herred, Denmark
Acted after the death of her husband. The English version of København is Copenhagen, the Capital of Denmark.

1661-62 Acting County Sheriff Katherine Sehested of Dragsholm, Denmark
Acted after the death of her husband, Siverd Urne til Raarup. 

1661-62 Dowager County Sheriff Margrethe Frederiksdatter Reedtz of Århusgård Len, Denmark

After her husband, Malte Sehested til Ryhave og Boller, had died. She (d. 1697).


1670-85 Royal County Sheriff Queen Dowager Sophie Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Denmark of Lolland-Falster Len and Hørsholm Len, Denmark
She already got the fief as security for loans to her husband, Frederik 3, in 1660, and she also administered the estates of Ibsholm and Dronninggaard. She was quite influential during the reign of her husband from 1648. She was mother  of among others, Prince Jørgen (George) the husband of Queen Anne of England and Scotland. Sophie Amalie lived (1628-85)

Unnamed Dutch American Lady 1674-88/89 Acting Patron Maria van Cartland van Rensselaer of the Patroonship of Rensselaerswijk in New Amsterdam (USA)
After the death of her husband, Jeremia van Rensselaer, she acted as patron for son. The Dutch colonized the area which later became New York after it was sold to the British. She lived (1645-88/89) 

1699-1714 Royal County Sheriff Queen Dowager Charlotte Amalie zu Hessen-Kassel of Denmark of Lolland-Falster Len, Denmark
Widow of Christian 5 (1646-70-99). Though her husband was Head of the Lutheran Church she resisted the pressure to give up her Reformed faith, and was a big sponsor of Reformed and Calvinist communities in Copenhagen. She gathered a number of estates and became quite wealthy. Mother of four children, she lived (1650-1714)

Marie-Louise von Hessen-Kassel 1711-33 Governess Dowager Princess Marie-Louise von Hessen-Kassel of Friesland, Groningen, Drente and Gelderland (The Netherlands)
1759-65 Governess of Friesland
Her husband Johan Willem Friso van Oranje-Nassau,, had been non hereditary Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and she ruled for son, Willem IV, Price of Oranje and Nassau and for Grandson Willem V, after the death of his mother, Princess Anne. Known as Marijke Meu, she was the sister of Friedrich, who became king of Sweden in 1720 after the abdication of his wife, Queen Ulrika Eleonora, and she lived (1688-1765)

Elisabeta Cristina zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel 1711-14 Stadtholder and General-Captain Elisabeta Cristina von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Aragón, Catalunya and Valencia (Spain)
1735 Politically Influential in Austria

1708 she married her husband, Carlos III of Spain, who was only in control of Aragón, Cataloña and Valencia during the succession-war between the Habsburgs and Borbons, and acted as regent during his absences. In 1711 he succeeded his brother, Josef I and became Emperor Karl VI of the Holy Roman Empire, and left for Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons, she joined her husband. In 1716 she gave birth to a son, who died soon after, the following year the later Empress Maria Theresia was born and two other daughters followed. It was only in 1735 that she gained political influence, forming a party against the Spanish Council in Vienna, but also her daughter, kept her away from the government. She lived (1691-1750)


1712-24 Acting Governor Hannah Callowhill Penn of The Colony of Penn (British Possession/USA)

Her husband was given the lands by the King of England in 1693. In 1712 he was paralyzed and she became acting governor or Proprietor of the Colony of Penn. He died in 1718 but his son (her stepson) did not “take power” until 1724. The last of the Penn-family to rule the state of Pennsylvania was deposed in 1776. She lived (1671-1727).  


1714-21 Governor Ann Andros of Alderny (United Kingdom Crown Dependency)
Followed George Andros on the post and resigned in favour of John Le Mesurier, who became the first official hereditary governor of the island, which at the time was a separate dependency. It was later subordinated to Guernsey in the Channel Islands, but still has its own government. She lived (1684-1729)

1722-29 (†) Governor Ann Le Mesurier of Alderny (United Kingdom Crown Dependency in the Channel Islands)
Succeeded John Le Mesurier, who had succeeded Ann Andros the year before. She was succeded by Henry Le Mesurier (.1713-30-44-79). Ann lived (1684-1729).

1725-41 Stadtholder Archduchess Maria-Elisabeth von Habsburg of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium-Luxembourg)
Daughter of Leopold I, and appointed by her uncle, Emperor Karl VI. Her niece became Empress and Queen of Austria-Hungaria. Maria-Elisabeth lived (1680-1741).

Anne of Great Britain 1751-59 Governess Dowager Princess Anne of Great Britain of Friesland, Nassau and Oranje etc. (The Netherlands)
After the death of husband, Willem IV van Oranje-Nassau, she became regent for her minor son. In government affairs, she at first pleased by her quick actions and decisions; however, she was also tyrannical and unpredictable. Born as daughter of the future King George II of Great Britain, she was Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and from 1727 also Princess Royal. When she died after a long period of consumption, her mother-in-law, Marie-Louise von Hessen-Kassel, became regent for the second time. Anne lived (1709-59).

1754 and 1761 Governor-Regent Muglani Suraiya Bigum of Lahore (India)  
Regent for Muhammad Amin Han, who lived 1751-54 and was governor for the Emperor of the Mongul-Afgan Empire of India in 1754.

1756-70 Royal County Sheriff Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene zu Brandenburg-Kumblach of Denmark of Hørsholm Len, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Christian 6, she became administrator of the fief of Hørsholm, but the system of fiefholders (County Sheriffs or Lensmand) as local administrators had been abolished, and she was the last Dowager Queen to be given a dowry. She lived (1700-70)

Carolina of Oranje-Nassau 1765-66 Governess Princess Carolina of Oranje-Nassau of Friesland (The Netherlands)
Her parents third, but first surviving child, and in 1747 it was decreed that the position of Stadtholder could be inherited by females, however her brother, the future Willem V, was born the following year. Her brother became Stadtholder in 1755, aged three, first with their mother, Anna of Hanover and then with their grandmother, Marijke Meu as regents. After the death of the grandmother, Carolina became regent in the Northern Provinces. She had 15 children with her husband, Prince  Karl of Nassau, Count of Saarbrücken and Saarwerden, Herr of Lahr, Mahlberg, Wiesbaden and Idstein. She lived (1743-87).

1780-93/98 Co-Governante-General Princess Maria-Christina Johanna Josefa Antonia von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium and Luxembourg)
Duchess of Teschen 1765-98 together with husband, Albrecht of Sachsen, Duke of Teschen (1765-98) and Governor of Hungary (1766-80). Daughter of Maria Theresa.  Maria-Christina lived (1742-98)

Unnamed Russian Lady 1784 Co-Administrator Princess Natasha Shelikova of the Colony Alaska (Russia)
The first white woman to live in Alaska. Married to the first Russian manager of the Alaskan territory, Gregory Shelikof. They grew barley, millet, peas, beans, gourds, parsnips, mustard, beets, potatoes, turnips and rhubarb. They picked berries and hunted. When Natasha's husband would leave to go on expeditions she was left in charge. Perhaps one could consider her the first woman Governor of Alaska, if not in title, then in action. 

Around 1795 Governor Queen Ana Jambakur-Orbeliani of Imerati of Mingrelia (Georgia)
Widow of King Davit II of Imerati and Amierati (1756-82-92-95), who was forced to abandon his throne when attacked by King Irakli II of Georgia, but returned when the latter faced an invasion by the Turks. Continued in rebellion until 1792, when he retreated into Russia, and was allowed to settle at Akhaltzykh. She abandoned her children, was received with honour at Moscow and appointed as Governor . Daughter of Prince Mamuka Jambakur-Orbeliani and a Princess of Kvenipneveli-Sidamoni of Ksani. Mother of one son and four daughters (1765- 1832).

From 1804 Acting Governor Marie Louise Ferrand, Hispanola (Las Isla Espanola) (Spanish Possession)
Today the island houses two countries: The Dominican Republic and Haïti. She was probably the wife of Jean Louis Ferrand, who was governor of the islands (1804 –1809). Marie Louise lived (1753-1811).

Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte

1809-14 Governor General and Titular Grand Duchess  Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparteof Toscana   (Italy)

1805-14 she was Sovereign Princess of Elba e Lucca-Piobino. The eldest of Napoleon's sisters. Elisa-Anne-Maria married Felix Baciocchi, a former officer of the Royal Corsican regiment, on 1 May 1797. On 18 March 1805, Napoleon handed over the principality of Piombino to her, to which that of Lucca was added three months afterwards. She proved to be extremely serious in her duties as sovereign, taking an interest not only in improving the roadways and opening a school and an academy, but also showing a knowledge of military affairs. In 1809 she was made Governor General with courtesy title of Grand Duchess. After the fall of Napoleon, she lived in various places, including Moravia, Trieste, and Bologna, where she was known by the name of the Countess Compignano. She lived (1777-1820)

1805-15 Reigning Abbess-General Bernarda de Orense of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her full title was noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey.


1829-31 Governor Kuini Liliha of Oahu, Hawaii (USA)

When her third husband, The Hon Alii Boki (Poki Kama'ule'ule), went off to the New Hebrides to harvest sandalwood, he entrusted her with the administration. One of her new responsibilities was to become legal guardian and sole trustee of the properties of Kamehameha III, who became king as a child. This was opposed by the Regent, Queen Kaahumanu. When her husband and his entourage of chiefs were lost at sea and pronounced dead, she was left permanently in administration as royal governor. Her second husband had been Prince Kahalaia Luanu'u. She (d. 1839).


1831-41 Governor Chiefess Kapiolani of Kao, South-Kona and Hawai'i, Hawaii (USA)

Daughter of Chiefess Kekikipaa, formerly married to Kamehameha I. She lived (circa 1781-1841). 

Unnamed Ethiopian Noble Lady 1839-51 (†) Governor Weyzero Elleni of Hamasen (Eritrea)
Murdered together with grandsons in the fighting with the Emperor of Ethiopia.

Circa 1840-51 Governor MaMotshiame of the Central Province of the Bulozi Kingdom (Zambia)
1851-58 Makololo Morêna of Bulozi (or Barotseland)
Her father, king Sebutuabe, appointed her as governor of a central province. On his deathbed, he appointed her as his successor. She later abdicated in favour of brother, Sekeletu. She died (1888)

1840-42 Governor Queen Kalakaua of Maui , Hawaii (USA)

Also known as, Kaheiheimalie, she was member of the Royal family, married first to Kaleimamahu and afterwards to his half brother  King Kamehameha the Great. (d. 1842)

1842-44 Governor HRH Princess Anna Keahikuni-i-Kekauonohi of Hawai'i of Maui, Hawai'i (USA)

The daughter of Prince Kinau Kahoanuku of Hawaii and Princess Kahakuha'akoi Wahini-pio of Maui, she was married to King Lihohilo Kamehameha II,  Prince Keali'iahonui (whose first wife was Queen Elizabeth Ka'ahumanu, whose first husband was king Kamehameha the Great) and Levi Ha'alelea. Princess Anna lived (1805-51).

Queen Kekauonohi

Until 1844 Governor HRH Princess Kekauonohi of Kauai of Hawaii (USA)
1844-51 Member of the Privy Council of Hawai'i

The granddaughter of Kamehameha I, she was one of the five wives of Kamehameha II. In 1828 she married Aaron Keliiahonui, son of Kaumualii the last King of Kauai, and she married Levi Haalelea in 1850. Stephen Reynolds in his Journal (now in the Peabody Essex Museum) noted at her death that she was "the last of the old stock of chiefs – one of the best of them – good natured, benevolent, liberal and generous." She lived (1805-1851). 

Around 1878 Governor HRH Princess Ruth Luka Ke'ekikolani of Hawai'i, Hawi'i (USA)
Married HE The Hon. Alii William Pitt Leleiohoku, and John Young Davis. She lived (1826-83)

Princess Miriam Kapili Likelike Kekaukuohi of Hawaii 1878-80 Governor of Hawaii HRH Princess Miriam Kapili Likelike Kekaukuohi of Hawaii (USA)
Sister of King David La'amea Kamanakapu'u Mahnulani Nalaiaehu-o-kalani Lumialani Kalakaua I and Queen Lydia Kamakaeha Liliu-o-Kalani. She was granted the title of HRH Princess in 1874 and mother of Crown-Princess Victoria Kauilani Kalaninuiahilakalapa Kawekiu-i-Lunalilo' (1875-95) who was heiress to the throne from 1891. Princess Miriam lived (1851-87).

1878-91 Proprietor Malie  of Swain Island (American Samoa)
Took over as managing owner after the death of her husband Eli Hutchinson Jennings (1814-56-78) in the name of her son, Eli Hutchinson Jennings  Jr. (1863-1920). The 3.25 square kilometer ring of land surrounding a brackish lagoon never recognized by the international community, that behaved as an independent state until 1925, when annexed by the USA. Culturally and geographically it belongs to the Tokelau Islands, but today it is part of American Samoa, and is still owned by the Jennings family. She (d. 1891)   

1880-84 Governor of Hawaii HRH Princess Victoria Kinoike Kekaulike of Hawaii (USA)
Daughter of HH Princess Kinoike Kekaulike and Alii Kuhio Kalaniana'ole, she was married to Alii David Kahalepouli Piikoi and mother of two sons. In 1891 the oldest, HRH Prince David La'amea Kahalepouli Kawananakoa, was appointed Heir Presumptive after HRH Princess Victoria Kauilani. After her death in 1899 he was second-in-line for the Hawaiian throne. He died in 1909 and therefore his son, Prince David succeeded Queen Lydia Kamakaeha Liliu-o-Kalani as head of the royal house in 1917. Princess Victoria lived (1843-84). 

1880-95 Governor of Kauai HRH Princess Virginia Kapo'oloku Po'omaikelani of Hawaii (USA)
1888-95 Guardian of the Royal Tombs 
Daughter of HH Princess Kinoike Kekaulike and Alii Kuhio Kalaniana'ole and married to Hiram Kahanawai, a cousin of King Kalakaua. She lived (1839-95).

1888-1902 Representative of the British and Judge Mary Slessor, Okoyongo District (Nigeria)
An ordinary Dundee mill worker who became a notable missionary in West Africa. With enormous strength of will she unflinchingly took on the authorities to bring genuine benefits to the natives, setting up many schools, hospitals and churches throughout the region. Called 'Great Mother' by the Nigerians, she provided healthcare and education and stamped out barbaric tribal practices such as human sacrifice, ritualistic rape and the murder of twins. She lived (1848-1915)

1896-1944 Captain and Governor HRH Princess Beatrice of United Kingdom and Ireland of the Isle of Wright (United Kingdom)
The ninth child of Queen Victoria, she was private secretary of her mother 1874-1901. She married Prince Henry of Battenberg and after his death of malaria in Ghana, she succeeded him as governor of the Isle of Wright. Mother of three sons and a daughter, the later Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain. Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore lived (1857-1944).

1920-21 Joint Proprietor Ann Eliza Carruthers-Jennings of Swain Island (American Samoa)
Joint managing owner with her brother, Alexander Hutchinson Jennings, and was married to the Britton, Irving H. Carruthers, who had been named executor and trustee, and they lived in American Samoa. The 3.25 square kilometer ring of land surrounding a brackish lagoon never recognized by the international community, that behaved as an independent state until 1925, when annexed by the USA. Culturally and geographically it belongs to the Tokelau Islands, but today it is part of American Samoa, and is still owned by the Jennings family. She lived (1897-1923) 

Last update 18.03.08