Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Germany Substates 

After the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) the Holy Roman Empire was little more than a loose confederation of about 300 independent principalities and 1,500 or more semi-sovereign bodies or individuals. Threats from the Ottoman Empire or from Louis XIV of France occasionally stimulated imperial cooperation, but usually each state considered only its own welfare. The Austrian-Prussian wars, Hanover's acquisition of the English throne, and Saxony's holding of the Polish crown exemplify the particularism that prevailed. Napoleon I finally destroyed the empire. After defeating Austria and its imperial allies in 1797 and 1801, he annexed some German land and suggested that the larger territories compensate themselves by confiscating the free cities and ecclesiastical states. By the Diet's Recess (1803), 112 small states were thus seized by their neighbours. Three years later Napoleon compelled 16 German states to form the Confederation of the Rhine and to secede from the empire. On March 6, 1806, Francis II, who had previously assumed the title of Emperor of Austria, abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor and declared the old empire dissolved, but a new German Regime was established with the king of Preussia as Emperor, which lasted until 1918.
In 1806 the number the lesser territorial rulers in South and West Germany, who were not allowed to join the Confederation, were mediatized in July 1806. The mediatization did not deprive the mediatized houses their lands, but it changed their position as sovereign houses because their immediate territories came under overlordship (Landeshoheit) of the members the Confederation. The status of the former Imperial knights became similar to the territorial nobility. The houses that had the status of the Imperial Estate by 1806, were called Standesherren, but the Standesherrliche Häuser were given important political privileges that distinguished those houses from territorial titled families. In many German countries Standesherren had hereditary right to sit in the first chambers of state assemblies (similar to the House of Lords in the British Parliament).

Apart from the thusands of more or less sovereign states, the country was devided into countless lordships, that were in charge of the local government. A few are included in this list.

Also see Germany_Heads and Germany Ecclesiastical Territories

Go to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W

A                                            

Aldenburg and Knyphausen (Also see Knyphausen)

1680-1702 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Amélie de La Trémoïlle
Her son Anton, was three months old when her husband, Anton Graf von Aldenburg (1633-81) died. She was daughter of Henri Charles de La Trémoïlle and Emilie von Hessen-Kassel, and lived (1652-1732)


1738-1800 Sovereign Countess Charlotte-Sophie of Aldenburg
1738-54 Lady of the Free Lordship of Knyphausen and Noble Lady of Varel, Lady of Sengwarden, Fedderwarden and Accum
She succeeded her father, Anton II as head of the Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Knyphausen (semi-independent territory) and to the titles Frau of the Freie Herrlichkeit of Knyphausen and the Noble Lordship of Varel, and reigned jointly with her husband, the Dutch Count Wilhelm van Bentnick und Aldenburg (1704-74). Since the age of 14 she had been love with Count Albrecht Wolfgang zu Schaumburg-Lippe, and they maintained their connection, which ended in a major scandal. She lived (1715-1800).

1738-... Dowager Countess Wilhelmine Maria von Hessen-Homburg
The year after Count Anton III (1681-1738) died, Count Albrecht Wolfgang von Schaumburg-Lipe-Bückeburg was confirmed as co-guardian on her request. She was daughter of Freiderich von Hessen-Homburg and Luise Elisabeth von Kurland, mother of one daughter, and lived (1678-1770).


Altenburg

1255-70 Hereditary Countess Margaretha von Hohenstaufen of Altenburg, Zwickau, Chemnitz etc.
Daughter of Emperor Friedrich II Hohenstaufen and Isabella of England. She married Albrecht II von Thüringen, who committed adultery with Kunigunde von Eisenberg. Margaretha escaped to Frankfurt where she died after 6 weeks. She lived (1241-70).

Alt-Leiningen
The county was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Upper Rhine

1751-58 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Wilhelmine zu Pappenheim
After the death of her husband, Georg Hermann, Graf zu Leiningen-Westerburg-Altleiningen (1679 –1751), she was regent for Christian Johann, Count zu Leiningen-Westerburg und Altleiningen (1730-51-70), She was born as Reichs-Erbmarschallin und Gräfin zu Pappenheim (Hereditary Marshalll of the Realm and Countess), and lived (1708-92).


Anhalt

1586-1618 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore von Württemberg of Lichtenberg in Anhalt
Widow of Joachim Ernst, Fürst von Anhalt (1536-86) who reigned Anhalt-Köthen from 1551 and all of the parts of the Principality of Anhalt from 1570. With his first wife Agnes von Barby (1540-69) he had 3 sons and 4 daughters and they had 5 sons and 3 daughters together. She lived (1552-1618).

Anhalt-Aschersleben
Member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1266-70 Regent Dowager Princess Mathilde von Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1275-circa 1295/98 Abbess of Gernrode and Frose
Before his death her husband, Heinrich II the Fat von Anhalt-Aschersleben had named her regent in the event of his death. In the beginning she used the name "Mechtild, comitissa Ascharie et princeps in Anehalt" in the documents, the title of "princeps" soon went to her sons, Otto I and Heinrich III, and thereafter she did not issue decrees, she only accepted the decisions of her sons. In 1275 she became Abbess of Gernrode and Frose, and continued as a mild and just ruler. She lived (ca.1230-ca.1295/98).


A
nhalt-Bernburg
Member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1656-75 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore Sofie von Holstein-Sonderburg of Ballenstedt
Her son 6th and first surviving son, Viktor Amadeus, was almost 20 when he took as Reigning Prince over from her husband,
Christian II von Anhalt-Bernburg (1630-56) and she took over her dowry. Mother of a total of 15 children. She lived (1603-75).

1834-55 De-facto In-Charge of the Government Duchess Friedrike zu Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck of Anhalt-Bernburg
1855-63 Co-Regent
De-facto in-charge of the government because her husband, Alexander IV (1815-68), was mentally instable. When he was diagnosed with
Schizophrenia 1855, she became his co-regent with the accept of Duke Leopold Friedrich von Anhalt-Dessau. After Alexander's death the Duchy became part of Anhalt-Dessau. Duchess Friederike was sister of Christian IX of Denmark, and until her death she lived at Ballerstedt Castle in Anhalt-Bernburg. Friedrike Caroline Juliane lived (1811-1902).


Anhalt-Köthen  (Cöthen)
Member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1670-91 Regent Dowager Princess Anna Eleonore von Stolberg-Wernigerode
Her husband, Emanuel (1631-50-70), died after only 7 months of marriage, and she became joint regent with Johan Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau, for her posthumously born son, Emmanuel Albrecht (1671-1704), and got Imperial confirmation as regent in 1671. She lived (1651-91).

1704-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Gisela Agnes vom Rath
Following the death of her husband, Emmanuel Albrecht (1671-1704), she became regent for son Leopold (1694-1704-28), even though she was both of lower nobility and a Lutheran. Leopold was succeeded by his brother, August Ludwig (1697-1728-55). She lived (1670-1740).

Anhalt-Dessau 
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet. The vote was split among the different Anhalt Principalities and also member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1516-22 Regent Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Münsterberg
Widow of Ernst and regent for Johannes II (1504-16-51). She lived (1473-1530).

1693-96-1708 Regent Dowager Princess Henriëtte Katharina von Oranje-Nassau
She was widow of Fürst Johann Georg III (1627-60-93) and regent for son, Leopold I (The old Dessauer)
. She did not ask for Imperial confirmation of her regency, but the Landesstände (Local Estaes) paid homage to her (Hüldigung). She lived (1676-93-1747).


1706-54 Temporary in charge of the Government Anna Luise Föse
Her husband, Leopold I (The Old Dessauer) spend much of his reign away as officer in the army of Brandenburg, and she was left in charge of the government and reigned with insight and intelligence. She was daughter of a chemist and against the opposition of his mother, Henriëtte Catharina; they had married in 1798, when he took over the government after his mother's regency, which had lasted from 1683. In 1701 years she was given the rank of a Princess of the Realm (Reichsfürstin) legitimizing their children. Mother of 10 children, she lived (1677-1754).



Anhalt-Zerbst 
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet. The vote was split among the different Anhalt Principalities. Also member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1621-42 Guardian Dowager Duchess Magdalena von Oldenburg of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
1621-57 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Coswig
Her husband, Rudolf (1576-1603-21), died shortly after the birth of her son, Johan, and her brother-in-law, August von Anhalt-Köthen-Plötzkau (1575-1653), was named regent. Because of the upheavels during the Thirty Years War she had to leave Zerbst and seek refuge with her children in Wittenberg until she moved to Oldenburg with her children in 1633 and lived by her brother, Anton Günther, and they did not move back until Zerbst until 1642. In 1646 she and her son were named heirs of the Lordships Jever and Knyphausen after her childless brother. Her son inherited the title in 1667. The mother of 2 daughters and a son, she was daughter of Graf Johann XVI. von Oldenburg (1540-1603) and Elisabeth von Schwarzburg (1541-1612), and lived (1585-1657).

1667-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Sophie Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
1778-80 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Coswig
She and her daughter, Sophia Augusta, survied the smallpox but her husband, Johann, died. She was named regent for their son, Carl Wilhelm, who was Duke of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duke of Sachsen, Angaria and Westphalia, Count of Ascania, Lord of Bernburg, Zerbst, Jever and Knyphausen. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dorwy, but the following year she suffered a number of strokes and fevers and had to endure months of suffering before she died. The mother of 14 children of whom 5 survied into adulthod, she lived (1630-80).

1718-24 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Sophia von Sachsen-Weißenfels of the Administrative Office and Castle of Coswig in Anhalt-Zerbst
Widow of  Carl Wilhelm (1652-1718) and mother of Johann August von Anhalt-Zerbst. She lived (1654-1724)

1742-52 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Hedwig Friederike von Württemberg-Weiltingen of the Administrative Offices and Castles of Roßlau and Coswig in Anhalt-Zerbst
During her childhood she spend 1693-95 by her mother's sister in Oels because her family had to flee for the French troops. 1703 the family fled to Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the next year they stayed in Windsbach near Ansbach. 1705 her father died and since her mother had already been mentally unstable since 1696, she was placed under the guardianship of an uncle, but still lived at the large castle of Weiltingen an der Wörnitz until she again fled for the French in 1707. In 1715 she met Fürst Johann August von Anhalt-Zerbst and her sister, Juliana Sibylla Charlotte (1690-1735), who had been married to Karl Friedrich von Württemberg-Öls (1690-1761) since 1709, gave the permission to the marriage in the name of their mother.

1747-52 Regent Dowager Duchess Johanna Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp
After the death of her husband, Christian August (160-42-47), she was regent for son, Friedrich-August, who was Duke of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duke of Sachsen, Angaria and Westphalia, Count of Ascania, Lord of Bernburg, Zerbst, Jever and Knyphausen. Her daughter later became Catharina II of Russia, and inherited Jever after the death of her brother in 1793. Johanna Elisabeth lived (1712-60). 


Arenberg (Also see Marck)
The Duchy of Arenberg had a seat on the Secular Bench of the Imperial Diet and was
Member of the College of the Counts of Westphalia, which had one joint vote in the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet. Also member of the Electoral Rhenish Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1537-99 Sovereign Countess Margarete von der Marck
1576-99 Sovereign Princess-Countess (By the Grace of God, Princess and Countess of Arenberg)
Also known as Marguerite de La Marck d'Arenberg, she succeeded her brother, Robert III, as the sole heir of the Dutch Hause van der Marck. She was married to Jean de Ligne, Baron de Barbancon, who was named Reichsgraf von Arenberg in 1549 - he died in battle in 1568, and Margaretha vigorously defended her territory from invading forces. In 1571 emperor Maximillian II confirmed the "Reichsunmittelbarkeit" - or semi-independence - of the realm and in 1576 both she and her son were granted the title of Reichsfürst/in. She was given the right to mint her own money, and though she was of Dutch birth, she was very preoccupied with the governing of her German realm. Among others she fought against witch-hunts and backed industry and education. She lived (1527-99).


1
691-1711 Possible Regent Dowager Duchess Donna Maria Enrietta del Caretto de Savona y Grana of Arenberg
1728-42 Guardian and Administrator of Bergen op Zoom and Walhain (The Netherlands)
After the death of Philippe Charles François de Ligne, 3rd Herzog von Arenberg, Duc d'Aerschot, (1663-91) she might have been the person who was regent for son Leopold Philippe, Duke of Arenberg, Duc d'Aerschot (1691-54), who married Donna Maria Francesca Pignatelli, Duchessa di Bisaccia, Countess van Egmond (1696-1766). Apparently she acted as regent for her great-grandson Karel Philip Theodoor van Sulzbach (b.1724) after the death of her grand-daughter, Maria Henriëtte de la Tour d'Auvergne and was known as "the Dowager van Arenberg" during this period. Karl Philip became elector of Bavaria in 1777. He died in 1799 as the last Marquis of Bergen op Zoom. She was also known as Maria Enrichetta, and was Daughter of Ottone Enrico, Field Marshal of the Empire, Governor and General Captain of the Netherlands from 1682, and succeeded him to the titles of Titluar Marchesa di Savona y Grana, Countess of Millesimo, Lady and Co-Lady of Roccavignale, Co-Lady of Cosseria, Dame  di Casaleggi in 1685, and lived (1671-1744).


Aspel

1013-85 Sovereign Countess Irmgard
Also known as Saint Irmgard von Köln, the documents show her as Reigning Countess, and after her parents died, she distributed her wealth among hospitals, churches and social institutions. She lived a simple life in solitude and went on three pilgrimages to Rome. She spend her last years in Köln, where she supported Chapters and Convents. She lived (1000-85).

B

Baden

1852-1918 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Luise von Preussen
She became very influential through her involvement in the social reforms of the Grand duchy, where the wars and upheavals of the 19th century had caused extended poverty and hardship. She founded schools, hospitals and asylums, and she was engaged in the women's associations, the welfare of war veterans and her name became closely connected to the newly established Red Cross. Her husband, Friedrich I, was also very liberal and introduced vide ranging political reforms (for men). In 1870 she was given her own Secretariat in the Geheime Kabinet (Secret Cabinet) of the Granducal administration. She continued her activities after her son, Friedrich II, succeeded to the throne in 1907. After his abdication in 1918 the family had to flee Karlsruhe and moved to Neue Schloss in Baden-Baden, which had remained a private property of the family, but she continued her charitable activities even though she had turned blind because of an illness. Daughter of Prince Wilhlem of Preußen and Augusta of Sachsen-Weimar, and mother of three children, she lived (1838-1913).
 

Baden-Baden
The Margravate
had a seat on the Secular Bench of the Imperial Diet and Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1475-93 Reigning Dowager Lady Katharina von Österreich of the Administrative Office and Castle of Hohenbaden
Widow of Margrave Karl I von Baden (1453-75), who was succeeded by their oldest son, Christoph I, who build the "New Castle" and left the old one for his mother as her residence and dowry. Among her other 5 children was Margareta, Abbess in Lichtenthal, who lived (1452-95). Katharina lived (1423-93).

1570-79 Regent and Guardian Maria Jacobäa von Baden
Together with her son, Duke Albrecht V von Bayern (1528-79), she was guardian for her grandson, Margrave Philipp II von Baden-Baden (1559-69-99) after the death of both his parents, Philibert (1536-54-69) and Mechtild von Bayern (1532-65) (Her daughter). Philbert, had inherited Baden-Baden from his father, Bernhard III who was her uncle, and who had inherited his share of the state when her father died as she was his only child. The other share was inherited by her other uncle Ernst I, and their decendants;  Christoph, Philipp and Karl von Baden-Durlach claimed the regency, but she had already received the homage by the Estates and inhabitants of the margravate ("die Erbhuldigung eingenommen") and was confirmed as regent by the Emperor. She lived (1507-80).

1707-27 Regent Dowager Margravine Sibylla Augusta von Sachsen-Lauenburg
1728-33 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City and Castle of Ettlingen
She was barely 15 as she became the wife of "Türkenlouis", Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden (1655-1707). She brought large Bohemian possessions to the marriage and she was extremely appreciative of art. During the minority of her son she was joint Ruler with two others. She lived (1675-1733).

 
Baden-Durlach

1577-84 Head of the Regency Government Dowager Margravine Anna von der Pfalz-Veldenz
After the death of her husband, Karl II (1553-77) she was regent for her sons together with Elector Ludwig VI. von der Pfalz and Duke Ludwig von Württemberg. The 2 oldest sons were Markgraf Ernst Friedrich von Baden-Durlach and, Markgraf Jakob von Baden-Hachberg. The third son, Georg Friedrich inherited the whole territory in 1604. She was daughter of Pfalzgraf Ruprecht von Veldenz and Ursula, Wild- und Rheingräfin von Daun-Kyrburg und Salm and mother of 8 children, and lived (1540-77)

Baden-Hocberg zu Durlach
The Margravate had a seat on the Secular Bench of the Imperial Diet and Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1738-42 Regent Dowager Margravine Magdalene Wilhelmine von Württemberg
After the death of her husband, Margrave Karl II Wilhelm (1679-38) she became regent for her grandson, Karl Friedrich (1728-1811), together with another regent. Karl Friedrich who later became Elector of Baden and then Grand Duke was son of her second son, Friedrich (1703-32) and Anna Charlotte Amalie von Nassau-Dietz (1710-77). Magdalene Wilhelmine lived (1677-1742).


Baden-Rodemachern

After 1575-86 Regent Dowager Margravine Cecilia Vasa
Also known as C
äcilia Wasa  was allowed totake over the regency after many years of processes against the stipulation in the the will of her husband, Christoph II of Baden (1537-75). Her son, Eduard Fortunatus von Baden (1565-1600) was Margrave of Baden-Baden (1588-96). She lived a stormy life and travled a lot. She spend a year in London, where her oldest son was born, and became a friend of Queen Elizabeth I. At some point she lived at her dowry Arboga in Sweden where she started an iron-mine and was behind piracy at the Baltic sea. When Eduard Fortunatus died, his oldest son Wilhelm was only 7. He did not become Margrave of Baden-Baden until 1621 and it is not clear if either Cecilia or her daughter-in-law, Marie von Eichen (d. 1636), played any role during his minority. Apart from her oldest son she was mother of 5 sons who all were unmarried or died young. The daughter of King Gustav I Vasa of Sweden and his second wife Margareta Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, and lived (1540-1627).

Ecclesiastical Territory of Baindt (gefürstete Damenstift Baindt - Princely Ladies Chapter) (In Baden-Württemberg) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

Bautzen-Oberlausitz

1243-90 Hereditary Countess Beatrix von Böhmen
Oldest daughter of King Wenzel I of Bohemia and Kunigunde von Schwabien, she was given the rich dowries of Bautzen and Oberlausitz around Görlitz and Bautzen for her marriage to Margrave Otto III of Brandenburg (1215-67). She was mother of two daughters and four sons, and lived (1225-90).

Bayern (Bavaria) 
Member the Council of Electors of the Imperial Diet

748-54 Regent Dowager Princess Hiltrude
For Tassilo. She was daughter of Karl Martel

955-66 Regent Dowager Duchess Judith von Bayern
She was the daughter of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria. Married to Heinrich, a son of Heinrich I of Germany, who became duke of Bavaria in 948. After his death, she was regent for their son, Heinrich II with the title Dux et domina. 966-74 she was on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and afterwards she retired to the Chapter of Niedermünster in Regensburg. (d. after 985)

1055-61 Hereditary Duchess Agnes de Pointou of Bavaria  
1056-62 Regent Dowager Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
She was descended from the royal houses of Burgundy and Italy, the daughter of William V of Aquitaine and Poitou, she became the second wife of the German king Henry III in 1043. They were crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Empress by Clement II in 1046. After her husband's death she acted as Regent for her son, Heinrich IV (1050-?) She was not an experienced politician and was influenced by the nobility to part with the duchies of Bavaria and Carinthia, and entered into unwise alliances against the dominant reforming party in the Papacy. By 1062 discontent led to an uprising in which Anno, Archbishop of Köln, took over the regency. Agnes retired to a convent where she remained until her death. She lived (1024-77).


Until 1130 Duchess Judith)
First wife of Friedrich II Hohestaufen, Duke of Schwaben und Franken

1183-92 Regent Dowager Princess Agnes van Loon  

1294-98/1300 Joint Guardian and Co-Regent Dowager Duchess Mechtild von Habsburg of Upper-Bavaria 
1294-1304 Lady of Vohberg, Neuburg, Burglengenfeld, Reidenburg, Ingolstadt, Aichach, Landsberg and the other Bavarian Cities in the Schwäbische Land 
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig II von Bayern (1229-94) her oldest 19 year old son, Rudolf, claimed the right to be guardian and regent for the youngest son, Ludwig of Upper-Bavaria - later king of the German Realm under the name of Ludwig IV - but Mechtild did not accept this, and she continued to intervene in the affairs of state, and contemporary sources states that "her rule was good and masculine". Mother and oldest son continued to be at odds and in 1302 she was arrested by Rudolf and brought to München, where she signed an agreement promising never to interfere in the government again, but as soon as she was outside the boarders of Bavaria she declared the agreement null and void, and got the support of her brother, Albrecht von Habsburg, her younger son and many others. She was daughter of the German King Rudolf I von Habsburg and Gertrud Anna von Hohenberg, was mother of five children, and lived (1253-1304).


1417-36 Duchess Jacqueline zu Holland
In Holland known as Jacobäa.

1568-75 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine von Lothringen of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen in Bayern
After she took up residence at the castle, the city of Friedberg became the center of the court life and in the next years it experienced a major boom until it was devestated by the plauge in 1599 and it was destroyed twice during the Thirty Years War. She was former Regent of Lorraine, Princess of Denmark and mother-in-law of Wilhelm V, married to Renata von Lothringen.

1651-54/58 Regent Dowager Electress Maria Anna von Habsburg of Bavaria 
1654-65
Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen
After the death of her husband, of Kurfürst Maximillian I, she was regent for their son Kurfürst Ferdinand Maria (1636-51-79). She lived (1610-65).

1658-76 Politically Influential Electress Henriette Adelheid de Savoie
She had a strong influence over her husband Ferdinand Maria (
1636-79), which lead to the alliance between Bavaria and France against the Habsburgs. She was mother of 7 children, and lived (1636-76).

1704-05 Regent Dowager Princess Palatine (Kurfürstin) Therese Kunigunde Sobieska
For Maximilian II. She lived (1676-1730)

1722-45 Politically Influential Electress Maria Amalia von Habsburg
1743-45 Influential in the Holy Roman Empire 
She was married to elector Karl Albrecht of Bavaria, and was a passionate hunter, loved parties and politics. She was daughter of Emperor Josef I and Amalie Wilhelmine von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and even though she had accepted the Pragmatic Solution, she did claim parts Habsburg Inheritance after the death of her uncle in 1740, but her cousin, Maria Theresia refused this. Maria Amalia's husband was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, though, in 1742, as Karl VII. Maria Amalia supported her husband in the Austrian Succession-war, but after his death, she advised her son, Maximilian III Josef to make peace and compromise with Vienna. Her sister, Maria Josepha, was very influential as Queen of Poland from 1733. Maria Amalia lived (1701-56).

1745-90 Politically influential Duchess Maria Anna von der Pfalz-Sulzbach
As a leading member of the Anti-Austrian Patriotic Group at the Court of Munich, she played a leading role in the continued existence of the Electorate Bavaria as an unified state. Her husband, Herzog Clemens Franz de Paula, was the nephew of Elector and Emperor Karl Albrecht VII. After the death of the emperor in 1745 Maria Anna entered the political scene. She managed to persuade the new Elector, Maximillian III Joseph, to adopt a policy of neutrality. During the 7 year war, (1756–1763), during which Bavaria sided with France-Austria, she took up contact with Friedrich II von Preußen, and they engaged in a heavy correspondence. After Elector Max III Joseph died in 1777, the Bavarian throne was inherited by Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz. He seemed to be inclined to accept Emperor Joseph IIs claims on parts of the state, but Maria Anna advocated for a continued united Bavaria, and found an ally in Friedrich II, who took part in the succession-war in 1778-79. She was also one of the leading forces of a the Bavarian-Dutch movement for exchange of lands in 1784/85, and she therefore supported Friedrich IIs "Prince-Union Project" of 1785 and was able to secure the continued existence of the united Electorate of Bavaria. She lived (1722-90).

1886-1912 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Adelgunde von Bayern di Modena
From 1875, After the death of her husband Archduke Francesco V of Austria-Este, who had abdicated as reigning Duke of Modena in 1859 due to the Italian Unification, she mainly lived in Munich. From 1886 onwards she came to prominence when her brother Luitpold took over the Regency of Bavaria. They were referred to as 'Aunt Modena' and 'Poldi', and were an inseparable couple. Adelgunde had a great influence on her brother; together with Luitpold's daughter, Therese, she performed many social duties at Luitpold's side. Although regarded as plain and old-fashioned, she was nevertheless feared. Both the Bavarian ministers and the government in Berlin distrusted her as she was regarded to be the Habsburg influence in Munich. Mother of one child, Anna Beatrice, who lived (1848-49). Adelgunde lived (1823-1914).

Bayern-Inglofstadt

1445-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Margarete von Brandenburg of the City of Friedberg
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig VIII of Bayern-Inglofstadt (1403-45) she kept her father-in-law, Ludwig VII (1365-1447) imprisoned at the Neuburg in order to use him as exchange for the damage payment demanded by her brother,
Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg-Ansbach until Heinrich the Rich of Bayern paid the ransum. She kept her residence at Neuburg even though her dowry was at the Castle of Friedberg, and she died in Landshut. (d. 1465).


Bayern-Landshut/Niederbayern
Member of the Imperial Diet

1393-1404 Regent Dowager Duchess Maddalena Visconti of Lower Bavaria
After the death of her husband, Friedrich, Duke of Bayern-Landshut (1375-1393), she was regent for their son Heinrich XVI the Rich (1386-93-1450). She was daughter of Lord Barnabas Visconti of Milano and Beatrix della Scala di Verona, and lived (circa 1366-1404).

1503-04 Duchess Regnant Elisabeth
Succeeded father, lived (1478-1504
).


Bayern-München
Member of the Imperial Diet

1508-10 Regent Dowager Duchess Kunigunde von Habsburg of Bavaria-Munich
She married Albrecht IV of Bayern-München (1467-1508) against the will of her own father, Emperor Friedrich III, and joint regent for son Wilhelm IV (1493-1508-50). She later joined the Pütrich-Convent which she favoured. In spite of the resignation from the court she tried to influence the politics of the state as she acted in favour of the rights of her younger sons. She was in close contact with her brother, Emperor Maximilian I von Habsburg, and with other rulers and relatives in Europe. She was a political player in her own right and not only a "instrument" of her family. She lived (1465-1520).

Beichlingen 
1078-... Hereditary Countess Kunigunde von Meissen 

Around 1100 Hereditary Countess Mechtild of Kiev

Bedburg

1459-79 Margarethe von Limburg, Heiress of Bedbur and Hakenbroich
Daughter of Wilhelm I, Count von Limburg (d. 1459) and Metza von Reifferscheid (d. 1437) , and married to Gumprecht II von Neuenahr (d, 1484).


Bentheim-Steinfurt (Friesland)
The County was Member of the College of the Counts of Westphalia, which had one joint vote in the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet. Also the County of Hoya had a vote in the College.
Both Bentheim and Steinfurt had a vote in the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1149-65 Administrator Gertrud von Nordheim of Bentheim and Rheineck
Politically influential in in the Pfalzgrafschaft of the Rhine from 1113. After her first husband, Count Siegfred von Ballenstedt, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein was killed in battle, she fought for the inheritance of their sons Count Siegfried zu Orlamünde (d. 1124) and Wilhelm, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (d. 1140), aided by her second husband, Count Otto von Rheineck (d. 1150). Her third son Otto II von Rheineck was killed in 1149, and therefore she administered his inheritance as her own fiefs until her death, and had nothing more to do with the County Palantine by the Rhine. She managed to have her daughter Sophie named Heiress of the County of Bentheim. Gertrud was daughter of Heinrich the Fat of Northeim and Gertrud von Braunschweig, sister of Empress Richenza, and lived (circa 11190-before 1165). 

Circa 1165-76 Countess Regnant Sofia von Rheineck
Succeeded mother and married to Dirk VI of Holland. Her second son, Otto, succeeded her around 1166. (d. 1176)

1466-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Katharina von Gemen of the Office and Castle of Gronau
She was widow of
Arnold I. von Bentheim-Steinfurt, but resigned in 1480. She lived (after 1439-1502).

1533-53 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Brederode of Bentheim and Steinfurt (Germany)
1553-68 Reigning Dowager Lad of the Office and Castle of Gronau in Bentheim-Steinfurt
Her husband, Arnold II von Bentheim-Steinfurt died after 3 years of marriage and left her in charge of the government in the name of her son. She took over the castle of Gronau as her personal income in 1537. After her death, her daughter Agnes was in dispute with Anna von Bentheim-Steinfurt (Regent of Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda)were in dispute over the posession until 1571. She lived (1512-68).

1562-73 Regent Dowager Countess Anna von Tecklenburg-Schwerin of Bentheim
1566-72 Regent of Steinfurt-Wevelinghoven and Granau
Succeeded father, Konrad von Tecklenburg-Ibbenbüren as Sovereign Countess of Tecklenburg und Rheda 
in 1557, and married to Everwin III von Götterswich, Graf von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1536-62). After his death, she was regent in Bentheim and after the death Arnold III, also regent in Steinfurt. In 1580 she handed over Tecklenburg and Rheda to her son, Arnold IV, and lived (1532-82).

1603-1605 Reigning Dowager Lady Walburga von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Gronau in Bentheim
After the death of her husband, Count Hermann I zu Wied, she was regent for their son, Johann Wilhelm (circa 1580-1633) in Wied 1591-1603. After he came of age, she took over her dowry in her "native" Bentheim. Mother of 3 sons and 3 daughters and lived (1555-1628).


1610-12 Regent Dowager Countess Magdalena von Neuenahr-Alpen of Bentheim-Steinfurt 
In her own right Sovereign Countess of Neuenahr und Limburg, Hereditary Marshall of the Diocese of Köln, Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Lennep 1602-27. She inherited Neuenahr und Limburg from her half-sister, Amelia who had inherited it from her half brother in 1575. The territory of her husband was occupied by troops from Köln, and it was not until four years after the death of her husband, Arnold III, that she was able to take over the regency for her son, Konrad Gumprect von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1585-1618). She remained influential to her death. Magdelena lived (1551-1627).

 
1618-54 Regent Dowager Countess Johannetta Elisabeth von Nassau-Katzenelnbogen of Bentheim- Limburg und Burg
Widow of Count Conrad Gumprecht, she was regent for son Wilhelm, who died in 1626, and then for his successor - a nephew - Count Moritz von Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda. She was in charge of in Limburg and Burg during the Thirty Years War, which left the county devastated. In 1633 she had to flee to her sister's residence in Fürstenau, and the same year the county was hit by plague. She returned in 1637 and managed to keep the county within the Bentheim family. She lived (1592-1654). 

1632-1660 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna Elisabeth von Anhalt-Dessau of Gronau
Widow of W
ilhelm Heinrich von Bentheim-Steinfurt, and lived (1598-1660)

1674-95 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Johanna Dorothea von Anhalt-Dessau of Gronau
She was widow of Moritz zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1615-74), and she lived (1612-95).


1710-18 Regent Dowager Countess Christiane Marie Hedwig zur Lippe zu Brake of Bentheim-Tecklenburg Steinfurt and Limpurg, Lady of Linge, Rheda, Wefflinghoffen, Hoya Alpen und Helffenstein, Hereditary Guardian of Cöllin 
Second wife of Friedrich Moritz zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1653-1710) and regent for son her only son Moritz Kasimir I (1701-68). In official documents she used the title "wittiben Grafin zu Bentheim, Tecklenburg, Steinfurt und Limburg, Frau zu Linge, Rheda, Wefflinghoffen, Hoya Alpen und Helffenstein, Erb Voigtin Zu Cölln, gebohren Gräfin und Edle Fraue Zur Lippe, Confirmirte Vormünderin und Regentin pp." She lived (1669-1738).

1713-24 Regent Dowager Countess Isabella Justina van Hoorn of Bentheim und Steinfurt
The widow of Count Ernst (1661-93-1713), she was regent for Friedrich Belgicus Karl (1703-13-33), and lived (1661-1734).

1733-38 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Franziska Charlotte zur Lippe-Detmold
After the death of her husband,
Friedrich Belgicus Karl (1703-13-33), she was regent for son Karl von
Bentheim-Steinfurt, Count of Steinfurt and Alpen. After her death the regency was taken over by some of her late husband's relatives. She lived (1703-38)



Berg und Kleve
Until it was incorporated in other Principalities, it had a vote in the Imperial Diet and was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate of Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Reichskreis

1218-48 Hereditary Countess Irmgard
She was daughter of Adolf V and Bertha von Sayn. After her father's death Archbishop Engelbert II of Köln took over as regent. In 1217 she married Count Heinrich von Luxembourg-Limburg and they clamed the county in 1225, and her they were recognized as her father's rightful successors, something which curtailed the power of the bishop. She lived (circa 1200-48).

1260-1314 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Margarete von von Are-Hostaden of the County of Hückeswagen
Wife of Adolf IV. von Berg (1246-59). Daughter of Count Lothar I von Are-Hochstaden and Mathilde von Vianden, mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1214-1314).

 
1305-18 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Margaretha von Kiburg of the Linner Land (Burg Linn bei Krefeld) in Berg 
Widow of Dietrich VIII von Kleve and resigned the lordship in favour of her younger son, Johann, when she joined the Convent of Bedburg in Kleve.

1348-84 Countess Regnant Margarta
Succeeded father, ruled with several co-regents  
 
1368-84 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Mechtild von Geldern of the Linner Land (Burg Linn bei Krefeld) in Berg
First married to Godert von Leon, Herr von Millen und Eyck and secondly to Johann I Graf von Kleve, and appointed Amtmann Heinrich von Stünkede to take care of her interests. She lived (circa 1325-84)


1806-08 Co-Duchess Regnant Caroline Bonaparte
Her brother, Napoleon I appointed her Duchess of Berg together with husband Joachim Murat, who became king of Napoli and The Two Sicilies (1808-15). She lived (1782-1839).

Blankenheim
Blankenstein and Gerolstein was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Westphalia

1415 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Blankenheim-Gerolstein und
Kasselburg
Her father, Gerhard VII died in 1406 and the territory was administered by her uncle, Prince-Bishop Friedrich von Utrecht until his death in 1415. Her husband Wilhelm I. von Loon of the house of Heinsberg, then came in possession of the County. 

1468-69 De Facto Reigning Dowager Countess Marie von Croÿ
She managed to keep control of the territory for a period after her husband, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, but in the end had to give in to her in-laws. At first she pretended to be pregnant, and then petitioned Duke Charles von Burgund for aid and assistance. In 1471 her marriage to Wilhelm von Vierneburg ended the feud.

1468-70 Claimant Elisabeth von Schleiden of the County of Blankenheim
The daughter of Johanna von Blankenheim and Johann von Scheiden, she claimed the County after her cousin, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, without leaving any heirs. Elisabeth's son Dietrich von Manderscheid came in possession of the territories Blankenheim and Gerolstein in 1470, but the disagreements with other branches of the family continued for many years. 


Until 1794 Countess August von Sternberg-Blankenheim
In 1794 she fled the county for attacking French forces.

Blieskastel

1775-93 Regent Dowager Countess Maria Anna von Dalberg
Generally known as Marianne von der Leyen she became regent for son after the death of her husband, Reichsgraf Franz Karl von der Leyden und zu Hohengeroldseck. Her son came of age in 1791, but she continued to be in charge of the government. She supported the economic development and introduced social reforms, reformed the schools and in 1786 she abolished the serfdom. In 1793 she had to flee the French troops after having initially managed to keep a neutral position. She died in exile in Frankfurt am Main, and lived (1745-1804
).


Bogen-Windberg

1197-1204 Regent Dowager Countess Ludmilla of Bohemia
 When her first husband, Adalbert IV died of the wounds received in the a crusade, their three sons; Berthold III (circa 1190-1218), Liutpold, Provost in Regensburg (d. 1221) and Adalbert V. (d. 1242), were still minors and she was in charge of the county. Six years later he married Duke Ludwig I. von Bayern (1174-1231), the former enemy of her husband, who took great care of her sons, and secured their inheritance. In her second marriage she was mother of Duke Otto II. of Bayern (1206-53). She was daughter of Duke Friederich of Bohemia and Elisabeth of Hungary, and lived (circa 1170-1240).

Brandenburg
Member of the Council of Electors in the Imperial Diet

1220-25 Regent Dowager Margravine Mechtild von der Lausitz

1319-20 Regent Dowager Margravine Agnes von Bayern
She was widow of Heinrich I, who reigned after 1293 until 1308/09 and died 1318. Regent for son Heinrich II the Child (1319-20), who succeeded his cousin Waldemar. In 1322 the Margravate was inherited by Ludwig V of Bavaria.

1649-67 Politically Influential Louise Henriette von Oranje-Nassau
1650-67 In charge of the Administrative Unito of Bötzow (Oranienburg)
She was given the Amt of Bötzow for life by her husband, Kurfürst Friederich Wilhelm and renamed it Oranienburg in 1652. She was strongly interested in politics and her influence cannot be underestimated. In spte of her bad health, she joined him on his journeies, sometimes even in warfare. During the Swedish-Polish war, she advocated a truce with Polen and Habsburgers. She was daughter of Frederik Hendrik van Oranje -Nassau (1584-1647) and Amalia von Solms (1602-72) and heir to the title of Princess of Oranje and the Prince of Preussen still uses this title today. She died one year after the death of the birth of her 6th child, after having lived (1627-67).

1668-88 Political Advisor Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg
1688-89 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Unit of Potsdam
Her first husband Duke hristian Ludwig von Lüneburg Celle died after 12 years not very happy and child-less marriage and she lived at her dowry of Herzberg am Harz until her marriage to Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg 3 years later. She took over the care of his 3 minor sons and had 7 children from 1669 to 1677, and all but one reached adulthood. She also became his close political advisor. She was given the Amt Potsdam and the Calstle of Potsdam became her favourite residence and later her dowry. From 1671 she also owned Caputh and she later bought the Lordship of Schwedt, which became the basis for the Margravate of her son Philipp Wilhelm, who founded the line of Brandenburg-Schwedt. She lived (1636-89).

1684-1700 Politically Active Electress Sophie Charlotte von Hannover
During most of her marriage she sought to influence her husband, Electoral Prince Friedrich III (King of Preussen in 1701), even though the couple grew apart over the years. She was a vivacious woman, who loved the court life, entertaining, parties, music, acting, philosophical and cultural salons where as her husband was strongly pietistic and did not enjoy the court life. She is thought to have been instrumental in the downfall of the Oberpräsident (Head President) Eberhard von Danckelmann in 1697. After her husband became King of Preussen and she was crowned as Queen in 1701 she did not seek political influence any more but continued her splendid life at court until her death. The daughter of Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who later became Elector of Hannover and Sophie von der Pfalz, who was named heir to the British throne in 1701, she was mother of two sons, and lived (1668-1705).

Brandenburg-Ansbach
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Bench of the Secular Princes in the Franconian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1410-40 Temporary Regent Margravine Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut
She often acted as regent during the reign of her husband, Margrave and Elector Friedrich Hohenzollern I von Brandenburg-Ansbach und Kumblach. He was Burgrave of Nürnberg 1397-1409 and Elector from 1410. She was a very effective ruler and aide to her husband, mother of 11 children, and lived (1383-1442).

1458-86 Temporary Regent Margravine Anna von Sachsen
1486-1512 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Anna von Sachsen of the Administrative Office and Castle of Neustadt an der Aisch
After their marriage in 1458, she acted as regent during the many absences from the state of her husband, Margrave and Elector Albrecht Achilles (1414-86), Margrave of Ansbach after the death of his father in 1440, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach after the death of his brother in 1464 and Elector of Brandenburg in 1470 after the abdication of his oldest brother and at the same time he inherited all the possessions of the House of Hohenzollern. After his death, she retired to her dorwy. The mother of 13 children, she lived (1437-1512).

1543-56 Politically Active Guardian Dowager Duchess Emilia von Sachsen
After the death of her husband, Georg the Pious, she was guardian of their son, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who reigned under the regency of some male relatives until 1556. She lived (1516-91).

1558-78 Politically Active Margravine Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin
She was the most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603) until her death. She lived (1540-78).

1578-1603 Politically Active Margravine Sophia von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Brandenburg-Ansbach
After the death of his first wife, Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin, she took over her role, as the most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who had no children in any of his marriages. Sophia lived (1563-1639).

1625-39 Regent Dowager Margravine Sophia zu Solms-Laubach
She had been very influential during the reign of her husband, Joachim Ernst, since their marriage in 1612. After his death, she became joint regent for their son, Albrecht V. She was overpowered by the ordeals of the 30th year war, its devastation, famine and other problems and at one occasion she had to flee from Ansbach. She lived (1594-1651).

1645-67 Politically Influential Electress Luise Henriette van Oranje-Nassau of Brandenburg (Germany) Heiress of the Counties of Lingen and Moers (The Netherlands)
She was involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm (1620-40-88), and enhanced the relationship between Brandenburg-Prussia and the Netherlands. She initiated commercial and economic reforms and helped revive the state after the devastations of the Thirty Years War. She was also a patron of culture and learning. Her father, Stadtholder Frederik Hendrik van Oranje had stipulated in his will that she was to inherit the Counties of Lingen and Moers in the case that her brother, Willem III, should die with out issue. When this happened in 1702, her son, King Friedrich I. von Prussia, too over the regency and in 1707 it was united with Tecklenburg. She lived (1627-1667).

1723-29 Chief Guardian and Regent of the Realm Dowager Princess-Margravine Christiane Charlotte of Württemberg-Winnental
1723-29 Reigning Dowager Lady of Crailsheim
Since their marriage in 1709 she was an energetic aide of her cousin and husband, Margrave Wilhelm Friedrich, and after his death, she became "Obervormünderin und Landsesregentin" for son Fürst Karl Wilhelm Friedrich, Margrave von Ansbach (1712-23-57). She introduced administrative and social reforms, promoted trade and industry, and planned to found an university in her Dowry, but because of her early death this plan was abandoned. She lived (1694-1729).

Crailsheim functioned as Dowry on a number of occations.

1723-24 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Eleonore Juliana von Hohenzollern of Württemberg-Winnental
After the death of her husband, Duke Friedrich Carl of Württemberg-Winnental in 1698 she moved back home to Ansbach, where her daughter,  Christiane Charlotte von Württemberg, had married her cousin, Margrave Willem Friedrich and was politically influential especially during the regency of Christiane Charlotte until her own death in 1724.


Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the
Bench of the Secular Princes in the Franconian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1620-28 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth in Lichtenberg.
When she married the Polish Prince Janusz Radziwill (1579-1620) in 1617 they were granted the Castle, Office and City , and after his death, she ruled and was known as a charitable and just ruler. They had a son and 2 daughters. When she married Julius Heinrich zu Sachsen-Lauenburg (1586-1665)
, her brother Christian von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, bought the Lordship. Mother of 1 son and 2 daughters by her first husband, and she gave birth to Franz Erdmann in February 1629 and died on Christmas Eve the same year. She lived (1589-1629).

1712-14 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg of Neustadt Erlangen
She had been given the domain by her husband, Margrave Christian Ernst in 1703 and was very influential in the design of the castle, the garden and the Orangerie, until she married a second time in 1714, and lived (1674-1748).

1726-34 Reigning Dowager Lady Sophia von Sachsen-Weißenfels of Neustadt Erlangen
After the death of her husband, Georg Wilhelms, she caused a number of scandals during her 8 years at her dowry until she married the Count Hoditz vermählte
and moved to Slesia. Of her 4 children only one daughter, Christiane Sophie Wilhelmina survied into aldulthood (1701-49), but she was unmarried. Sophia lived (1684-1752).

1735-58 Co-Reigning Margravine Wilhelmine zu Preussen of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 
The sister of Friedrich the Great of Prussia she was de-facto joint regent with her husband, Friedrich von Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. She emulated the musical and cultural standards Frederick had acheived at the Prussian Court. The most lasting monument from her time there is the superb Baroque opera house. It's not clear how much Wilhelmine wrote, as most of it is lost; however her compositions include the opera Argenore and several arias.She lived (1709-58).

1764-1817 Reigning Dowager Lady Sophie Caroline von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Neustadt Erlangen
She was the second wife of Margrave Markgraf Friedrich
and after his death she moved to the Castle of erlngen, and funded a baroque court, and gave the small University Town the air of a Residential City for more than half a century. She did not have any children, and lived (1737-1817)


Brandenburg-Küstrin

1571-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margravine Katharine von Braunschweig of Crossen
After the death of her husband, Markgraf Johann von Küstrin, she took up residence at her dorwy. Mother of 2 daughters, and lived (1518-74).


 

Braunschweig-Beveren
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet, and member of the Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1687-89 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine von Hessen-Eschwege
For Ferdinand Albrecht II
.

Braunschweig-Gifhorn

1549-76 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara zu Sachsen-Lauenburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Fallersleben
Her husband, Franz von Braunschweig-Gifhorn, died at his 41th birthday from the effects of an infected foot. She was mother of 2 daughters, and her husband's Duchy returned to the main line in Celle, but she was given Fallersleben as her dorwy, and was responsible for an economical boom.



Braunschweig-Göttingen

1394-1442 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Jülich of Hardegsen
Widow of Otto I of Braunschweig-Göttingen (circa 1340-94). She was mother of 4 children, and lived (circa
1364-1442). The estate functioned as dowry on later occations also.

Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Member of the Regional Assembly of the Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Niedersächsischer Reichskreis), and member of the Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1427-39 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Göttingen.

Braunschweig-Lüneburg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1471-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Lüchow in Braunschweig
1479-86 Member of the Council of Regency of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1479-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady of Ziegenhain and Nidda in Katzenelnbogen
1495-1510 Head of the Governing Council of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
After the death of her husband Duke Otto (1438-64-71), she withdrew to her dowry in Lüchow. In 1474 she married Count Philipp von Katzenelnbogen and leased her dowry out, and left her children behind in Celle as costmary for princely widows at the time. After Philipp's death in 1479, she returned to Braunschweig, where her son Heinrich had succeeded his grandfather Friederich II (reigned 1451-57, d. 1578) as Duke a few months before. She was given a large sum to give up claims to the County of Katzenelnbogen (her step-daughter Anna (1443-94) was among the claimants of the county). In 1481 she is mentioned in the sources as her as part of the regency council, even though no official sources of her installation as regent has survived. She reformed the economy of the country, spend money on religious institutions and charity. Her son prowed to be a totally irresponsible ruler, and with the with the held of the Estates, became head of a council that virtually empowered him. She put much energy in reforming the economy but many depths remained when she again withdrew to her dorwy. 1495 was also the year that Celle was hit by the plague and she therefore reformed the hospitals. During her last years she travelled a lot visiting family, and lived (1440-1515).

1479-86 Possible Member of the Regency Council Margarethe von Braunschweig-Lüneburg
Known as Margarethe von Stargard, it appears that she sometimes stood in for her sister-in-law, Anna, when she was absent from Celle. She was the third wife of Heinrich von Mecklenburg-Stargard (1417-38-66), and mother of 2 daughters Magdalene (1454-1532), who was married to Duke Wartislaw V of Pomerania (d. 1478) and Count Burkard von Barby-Mülingen (d. 1505) and Anna, who was a nun at Ribnitz (1465-98). After her husband's death she resided at her dorwys at Plau, but she moved back to Brauncshweig around 1473. The dispute over her dowries between the duchal houses of Mecklenburg and Lüneburg continued after the Stargard line dies out and was never settled. In 1498 she entered the Convent of Wienhausen and lived there for the rest of her life. She (d. 1512).

1592-1600 Regent Dowager Duchess Dorothea af Danmark
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Winsen (
Schloss und Amt) and of Gross Rhode

1665-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Dorothea von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksburg of the Castle and and Administrative Unit of Herzberg in Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1671-89 Lady of the Lordship of Schwedt and the Castle of Caputh
1688-89 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Office and Castle of Potsdam

After the death of her first  husband Christian Ludwig Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, she took up residence at her dowry. Two years later she married Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg (1620-88) and became his close advisor and companion. He gave her the Amt Potsdam and they spend a lot of time at the castle there.  From 1673 she built the Neustadt/Dorotheenstadt in Berlin which were given city rights in 1674. The daughter of Daughter of  Duke Philipp von Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1584-1663) and Sophie Hedwig von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1601-1660), she was mother mother of 4 sons and 3 daughters by her second husband, one of whom, Philipp Wilhelm became Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt. She lived (1636-89)

1914-18 De Facto In-Charge of the Government Duchess Viktoria Luise von Prussen (August-8.11)
She was acting in the place of her husband Ernst August (1887-1913-18-53), the son of the exiled king of Hannover, Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland and Thyra of Denmark. Her husband was given the title of duke of Braunschweig by her father, Emperor Wilhelm III. After the death of her husband she feuded with her children, Ernst August, Queen Frederika of Greece and two others over the inheritance and other financial matters and even took them to court. Viktoria Luise lived (1892-1980).


Braunschewig-Lüneburg-Calenberg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet, and member of the Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1643-51 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt in Calenberg
Widow of Duke Georg of Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Calenberg and Celle (1582-1636-41), she was regent for oldest son Duke Christian Ludwig (1624-65), who was Duke of Calenberg (1641-48), Duke of Celle (1648-65) of Harburg (1651-65). Her second son, Georg II Wilhelm was Duke of Calenberg (1648-1703), of Celle (1665-1703), of Dannenberg (1773-1703), her third son, Johann Friedrich of Braunchweig-Lüneburg zu Hannover (1665-79), the fourth Ernst August of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Hannover (1679-92) and Elector from 1698. His wife, Sophie von Simmen became Heir to the Throne of United Kindom in 1702. One of Leonora's daughters, Sofie Amalie, married Frederik III of Denmark. Anna Leonora lived (1601-59).

Braunschewig-Lüneburg-Celle

1665-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg of Herzberg am Harz
1668-88 Political Advisor in Brandenburg
1688-89 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Unit of Potsdam
Her first husband Duke hristian Ludwig von Lüneburg Celle died after 12 years not very happy and child-less marriage and she lived at her dowry until her marriage to Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg 3 years later. She took over the care of his 3 minor sons and had 7 children from 1669 to 1677, and all but one reached adulthood. She also became his close political advisor. She was given the Amt Potsdam and the Calstle of Potsdam became her favourite residence and later her dowry. From 1671 she also owned Caputh and she later bought the Lordship of Schwedt, which became the basis for the Margravate of her son Philipp Wilhelm, who founded the line of Brandenburg-Schwedt. She lived (1636-89).

Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet, and member of the Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1495-1522 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth zu Stolberg-Wernigerode of the Administrative Office and Castle of Stauffenburg in Harz
Her husband, Wilhelm II zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel was deposed in 1595 after he had deposed and imprisoned his brother, Friederich. Their sons inherited the dukedom. She promoted mining and the area propored economically. (d. 1522)

1540-46 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg
Second wife of Duke Erich I (1470-1550). After a few years she converted to Protestantism, promoted the calvinist faith, and forced her husband to have his mistress, Anna Rumschottle burned as a witch. As regent for son Erich II, she introduced Protestantism to the state. She lived (1510-58).

1556-68 Politically Influential Duchess Sophie die Jagiellonin of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1568-75 Sovereign Lady of Schöning and the Amt Jerxneim
During the reign of her husband, Heinrich the Younger, she was engaged in diplomatic activities both with her native Poland and the rest of Europe, was active in Politics, and an outstanding intellectual capacity and cultural personality. After her husband's death, and the accession to the throne of her stepson, she retired to her dowry, which she reigned as a sovereign with rights over administration, juridical matters, trade and a small army. She became extremely rich, and her sisters and her husband's relatives and later their descendants fought over the inheritance, which was not settled for another 100 years. The daughter of King Zygysmund I of Poland and Bona Sforza, she had no children, and lived (1522-75). 

1569-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margarete von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Staufenburg in Harz
Her husband, Johann von Münsterberg zu Oels in Slesia, died 1565, and her brother, Duke Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in Calenberg und Göttingen, granted her the Castle as her dowry and transformed it into a hosptal, and lived (circa 1516-80).

1589-1602 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Brandenburg of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Hessen
Widow of Herzog Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Calenberg und Göttingen (1528-89), she lived (1540-1602)

1613-26 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth af Danmark of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Hessen in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1616-22 De-facto in charge of the Government
After the death of her husband, Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig-Lüneburg she reigned in her dowry. After 3 years she removed her son, Friederich Ulrich, from the government together with her brother, Christian 4 of Denmark, and she remained in charge for the next 6 years. In 1617 she founded the Retreat for the Poor with a chapel (Elisabeth Stift) During the Thirty Years War (1618-48) the castle was raided and was not repaired until 1654. Elisabeth lived (1573-1626).

1628-59 Reigning Lady Duchess Anna-Sophie von Brandenburg of Schöning in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1634-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Hessen Hessen
After her seperation from her husband, Duke Friederich Ulrich (1591-1634) she lived at the castle and reigned the territory almost as a sovereign lady. She opened a latin school. She had no children, and lived (1598-1959).

1735-47 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Luise von Oettingen-Oettingen of Blankenburg in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
During her first years of marriage she resided together with her husband, Duke Ludwig Rudolf von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, in Blankenburg, which he had been given to him by his father as apanage and 1707 Emperor Joseph I elevated the Lordship to a Principality. They held an elaborate court and she was influential with regards to political affairs and appointments to state offices. Afater his death she returned to Blankenburg where she promoted culture and art and expanded the castle. She was daughter of Albrecht Ernst I. zu Oettingen-Oettingen (1642–1683) and Christine Friederike von Württemberg (1644–1674), mother of 4 daughters, of whom 3 survived, and lived (1671-1747).

Breitenburg See Rantzau below

Breitenegg (Breiteneck)
The county was Member of the Secular Bench of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Bavaria

1534... Joint Sovereign Lady Rosina von Wildenstein
The daughter of Alexanders II von Wildenstein inherited half of the Lordship. Succeeded by husband, Karl von Welden.

1583... Joint Sovereign Lady Susanne von Wildenstein
The daughter of Alexanders III von Wildenstein, she inherited a fourth of the lordship. Married to Georgs von Rindersbach.

1583... Joint Sovereign Lady Agnes von Wildenstein
The daughter of Alexanders III von Wildenstein, she inherited a fourth of the lordship from her brother, Friedrich Karl I von Wildenstein. Married to a Lord von Haslang.

1675-87 Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Anna Theresia von Haslang
She was in charge of the government in the Tillyschen Reichsgrafschaft Breitenegg during the minority of her son, Ferdinand Lorenz Franz Xaver, Reichsgraf von Tilly und Breitenegg (d. 1724). The County of the Realm had received a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet in 1654.

1724-44 Countess of the Realm Maria Anna Katharina Theresia von Tilly
After the death of the last male of the family, Ferdinand Lorenz Franz Xaver, Reichsgraf von Tilly und Breitenegg, she inherited the County and Lordship. She promoted trade and crafts and brought prosperity to the area. Her husband, Duke Anton Sebastian von Montfort, had died in 1706 and since she had no children, she was succeeded by her cousin, Ignaz Joseph Freiherrn von Gumppenberg of the immediate Reichsgrafschaft Breitenegg.

Brunckhorst and Borckelo

1553-79 De-facto Reigning Dowager Countess Maria von der Hoya
After her husband, Jobsten Grafen zu Bronkhorst und Herrn zu Borculo, was killed in an accident the fief reverted to the Diocese of Münster, but she continued to be in charge of the administration until her own death.


Broich (or Bruch) (also see Limurg und Broich)

1682-85 Sovereign Lady Anna Elisabeth von Daun-Falkenstein
As her brother,  Da sein einziger Erbsohn Carl Alexander had been shot by Moritz von Limburg-Styrum, in 1659, she succeeded her father, Wilhelm Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. She was widow of Count Georg Wilhelm von Leiningen-Dagsburg (1636-72), and was succeeded by son, Count Johann Karl August von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenstein (1662-98). Also mother of a son who died in infancy and a daughter. She lived (1636-85)

1698-1715 Regent Dowager Countess Johanna Magdalena von Hanau-Lichtenberg von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenstein and Broich
After the death of her husband, she was in charge of the government for their son, Christian Karl Reinhard, (1695-1766). She lived (1660-1715).


1766-1806 Sovereign Lady Luise von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenberg of Broich
1806-15 Lady of Broich
Unlike her father, she was interested in her posession in Broich, in and often stayed there. She was marrried to Georg-Wilhelm zu Hessen-Darmstadt(d. 1782), the brother of the Reigning Landgrave, Ludwig IX, and as he spend most of his time, she was in charge of the representation of the state in Darmstadt after the death of his wife in 1774. Her possessions were mediatized and she lost the sovreignty and immidiate status, but kept some politcial and juridical rights, until the territories were finally annexed by Preussen in 1815. The daughter of Count Christian Karl Reinhard zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenberg und Hildesheim (169-1766) and Katharina Polyxena zu Solms-Rödelheim (1702-65), Maria Luise Albertine was mother of 9 children, and lived (1729-1818).



Ecclesiastical Territory of Buchau (Weltliche gefürstete Damenstift Buchau - Worldly Princely Ladies Chapter)
in Baden-Württemberg). See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

Reichsabtei Burtscheid (Imperial Abbey) (In Nordhrein-Westphalen/North Rhine-Westphalia)  See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)


C

Castell-Castell

1736-51 Regent Dowager Countess Friederike zu Ortenburg
After the death of her husband, Wolfgang Georg II (1694-1736) she was regent for only child, Count Christian Friederich Karl von Castell-Castell (1730-73), and lived (1712-58).

 

Castell-Remlingen
The county of Castell was Member of the College of T
he Counts of Franconia, which held one collective vote in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1668-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Sophie Juliana zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach of Obersulzbürg

After the death of her husband, Count Wolfgang Georg I von Castell-Remlingen (1610-68). Mother of 2 daughters and a son, and lived (1620-98).


1710-25 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Dorothea Renata von Zinzendorf
After the death of her husband, Graf Wolfgang Dietrich zu Castell-Remlingen, she was joint guardian for son, Ludwig Friedrich Graf und Herr zu Castell-Remlingen (1707-10-72). She was the aunt of the founder and leader of the Herrnhuts Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760). His guardian was Graf Friedrich Eberhard zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, and lived (1669-1743).


Criechingen (Also see Qstfrielsland and Rietberg)

1665-1705 Sovereign Countess Anna Dorothea von Criechingen
Succeeded her brother, Ernst Kasimir (1640- 65) and married to Count Edzard Ferdinand von Ostfriesland-Rietberg. She was succeeded by two sons, Edzard Eberhard Wilhelm, who died two years later, and Friedrich Ulrich, who were succeeded by his infant daughter, Christiane Luise, in 1710. She was daughter of Albrecht Ludwig von Criechingen (1610-51) and Altgräfin Agathe zu Salm-Kyburg, and lived (circa 1645-1705)


1710-32 Sovereign Countess Christiane Luise von Ostfriesland-Rietberg-Cirsena of Criechingen, Lady of Rollingen etc.
Only little more than one month old when her father, Count Friedrich Ulrich of Rietberg, died. He had succeeded his brother three years earlier, who again had succeeded their mother, Countess Anna Dorothea von Criechingen in 1705. Christine Louise's mother was Marie Charlotte von Ostfriesland (1689-1761). She later married Johann Ludwig von Wied zu Runkel (1705-1762) and died after giving birth to her second child, and first son, Christian Ludwig, who survived and had children with his wife, Charlotte Sophie Auguste von Sayn-Wittegenstein. She lived (1710-32).

1710-26 Regent Dowager Countess Marie Charlotte von Ostfriesland
Regent for her daughter Christiane Louise (1710-32) until her marriage to Johann Ludwig von Wied-Runkel. She was 3rd of the 10 children of Christian Eberhard I von Ostfriesland and Eberdine Sofie von Oettingen-Oettingen, she lived (1689-1761)


Coburg

1347-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Jutta von Brandenburg of Coburg-Henneberg
Inherited the landscapes of Coburg-Henneberg after her husband Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen's death. Her son-in-law - the husband of her daughter, Katharina von Henneberg, then inherited the territories and they became parts of Meissen and Thüringen, of which she was regent from 1381.

1381-90 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Henneberg of the Osterland, Landsberg, Pleißnerland, Orlamünde, Kahla, Jena und Naumburg (Saale)
1381-97 Reigning Dowager Lady of Coburg and Weißenfels
Ruled in the name of sons Friedrich, Wilhelm and Georg, who divieded the margravates of Thüringen and Meissen with their uncles after the death of her husband Margrave Friederich, who had named her as the regent in his will. Her father Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen (d. 1347) named her heir of Coburg together with her mother Jutta von Brandenburg (d. 1453) and 3 sisters, while the rest of the Henneberg territory went to his brother Johann. The surviving sons, Friedrich IV (1370-1428), Wilhelm II (1371-1425) and Georg (1380-1402) later inherited Thüringen and Meissen from their uncles. She lived (1334-97)


D

Dagsburg-Colmar (Elsass) - Egisheim, Dagsburg, Metz and Moha

1211/12-25 Hereditary Countess Gertrud von Egisheim-Dagsburg
Only daughter and sole heiress of Count Albrecht II von Egisheim-Dagsburg and Gertrud von Baden. After the death of her first husband, Theobald I of Upper-Lorraine in 1220, she married the son of Countess Blance de Champagne -the later Count Theobald IV - and after their divorce in 1222 she married Count Simon of Saarbrücken-Leiningen, Count of Dagsburg, who inherited her fiefs after her death in 1225. She had no children and lived (1205-25). 


Delmenhorst
Member of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1619-30 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Dannenberg
After the death of her husband, Anton II, Count von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst (1573-77) and Count von Delmenhorst (1577-1619), she was first regent for her oldest son, Anton Heinrich von Delmenhorst who died at the age of 18 in 1622, and then for the second son, Christian IX von Delmenhorst, (1612-1647), who was unmarried. She had nine daughters, among others, Catharine Elisabeth, Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim and Sibylle Marie, Dechaness in Herford. The other daughters inherited the possessions of their brother, but the county reverted to the Counts of Oldenburg and thereby to the Danish King. She lived (1576-1630)

Dhaun

Circa 1306-61 Heiress Hedwig of the Wildgrafschaft Dhaun and Grumbach
She was first married to Rheingraf Johann I vom Stein, and secondly to Gerlach von Brunshorn.

Until after 1361 Heiress Hedwig of the Wildgrafschaft Dhaun und Grimace
Married to Rheingraf Johann I vom Stein and Gerlach von Brunsholm and Gerlach von Brunshorn - and the foremother of the Salm-Dhaun family.
 

Diepholz

1560-76 Member of the Regency Council Margarethe von Hoya
1560- Reigning Dowager Lady ofthe Office of Auburg
1585- Regent of Diepholz
After the death of her husband, Rudolf IX, a regency council took power under the leadership of Duke Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle in the name of her son Freiderich II, and managed to become part of the council, even though she had not been desinated a seat from the beginning. She was also given the whole of the County as her dowry. In 1582 the Hoya-line died out and she tried to secure her inheritance without succes, The same year her only grandson died and 3 years later her son followed. Nominally the county fell to Braunschweig-Lüneburg but in effect she managed to act as regent for her grand-daughter, Anna Margarethe (1580-), possibly because Duke Wilhelm had become mentally ill. She reorganised and modernised the administration. The daughter of Jobst II von Hoya and Anna von Gleichen, she had been elected as Abbess of the Noble Chapter of Bassum in 1541, but remained at the court of her parents, and lived (1527-93).

Diez

1388-97 Hereditary Countess Jutta von Diez
Daughter and heiress of Count Gernard VII von Diez and married to Adolf Graf von Nassau-Dillenburg (1362-1420) and mother of one daughter, Jutta (d. 1424).

1500-23 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Hessen-Marburg of ¼ of the County of Diez and of  Katzenelnbogen
After her mother, Anna von Katzenelnbogen died in 1494 the County was in dispute among her and her sister, Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505), and a compromise was not reached until 1520. Elisabeth was married to Johann V Count of Nassau, Vianden, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Baron of Breda, Stadtholder of Gelre and Zutphen 1504-1505. She lived (1466-1523).


E

The Free Worldly Chapter for Noble Ladies of Elsey (Das freiweltliche adelige Damenstift Elsey)
(See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories).

Ecclesiastical Territory of Essen (Kaiserliche Freiweltlichen Stift Essen - Imperial Free Worldly Chapter)  (In Nordhrein-Westphalen/North Rhine-Westphalia).
(See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

F

Falkenstein and Hernstein

1155 Hereditary Countess Judith von Hernstein
After the death of her father, Count Herrand II von Falkenstein, she delegated her rights to Falkenstein and Hernstein to Duke Otto. She was first married to Nizo von Raitenbach (d. circa 1183) and Albero Wolf von bocksberg (d. circa 1230) and mother of Konrad von Hohenfels (d. 1233) and Albero Wolf von Bocksberg (b. circa 1230). Neither the date of her birth or death is known. 

1537-circa 54 Lady Regnant Anna von Haracourt of Bettingen, Dollendorf, Fischbach, Falkenstein and Everlingen
She was already old when she inherited the "Haracourt Inheritance" from the last male of the family, Count Wilhelm von Haracourt-Dollendorf-Brandenburg. Her daughter Anna von Solm, Heiress of Dollendorf (d. 1557) married as his second wife, Count Jakob von Manderscheid-Kail and, Anna von Haracourt declared that her granddaughter, Anna von Manderscheid (1630-61) should be her sole heir, but in the end the inheritance was divided among the Manderscheid-Kail and Solm families. 


Formabach

1059-90 Hereditary Countess Helwig von Formabach

1090-91 Hereditary Countess Agnes von Rheinfelden

Royal Chapter of Frauenchiemsee (Benediktinerinnen-Abtei Frauenwörth im Chiemsee ) (Abbey of the Realm (782-1201)

(See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)


Friaul 

Until 1040 Hereditary Countess Hademut of Friaul
Oldest daughter and sole heir of Weigand von Fraul and Willbirg von Ebersberg. She married Poppo I Count von Weimar-Orlamunde. 

Freiburg, Lichteneck und Nimburg

1356-58 Sovereign Countess Clara von Freiburg
She was the only daughter and heir of Count Friedrich von Freiburg and Anna von Baden. She succeeded her father, but resigned the county after two years of succession-war with her uncle, Egino IV
.
Married to Gottfried II von Tübingen Count Palantine of Böblingen. She lived (circa 1320-68).


Friesland

1077/86-1117 Sovereign Countess Gertrude Braunchweig of The Frisian Margravate and Ooster- en Westergo (Germany and the Netherlands)
1085 Regent of Katlenburg
1001  Regent of Northeim
1103-1117  Regent of Meissen und der Lausitz
1006-1117 Administrator of Katlenburg


Fürstenberg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag) and through the
Gundelfingen also member of the Bench of the The Bench of Counts and Lords of the Swabian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1804-06 Regent Dowager Princess Elisabetha Alexandrina von Thurn und Taxis
1806-circa 14 Guardian of Fürstenberg
The widow of Prince Karl Joseph Aloys (1760-99), she was regent for son Karl Egon II (1796-1804-54), who succeeded his cousin as Reichsfürst of Fürstenberg. In 1806 the principality was incorporated into Württemberg but the family kept it's title and possessions. She lived (1767-1822).

G

Ecclesiastical Territory of Gandersheim  (Kaiserlich gefürsteten freiweltlichen Stiftes zu Gandersheim - The Imperial Royal Free Worldly Chapter) (Das freie weltilche Stift Gandersheim - The Free Worldly Chapter) (In Bad Gandersheim in Niedersachsen) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

Gemen (Gehmen)
The Lordship was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Westphalia

1492-1528 Sovereign Lady Cordula
The daughter of Heinrich IV von Gemen and Anna von Wevelinghoven, she married Count Johann IV von Holstein-Schaumburg as her second husband and they founded the line of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen. The Lordship had been "reichsunmittelbar und reichsstündisch" - that is placed directly under the Realm of the Empire - since 1431.

1581-... Regent Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth Gräfin von Palandt-Culemborg
Widow of Jobst II von Schaumburg-Gemen, who had participated in the freedom-fights of the Dutch against the Spanish and as a result the lorship had been raided by the Duke of Alba in 1568.

1597-1611 Regent Dowager Lady Metta van Limburg-Bronckhorst
When her husband, Heinrich V von
Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen died, their only son, Jobst Herman, was four years old and he became regent.

1640 Heiress Agnes von Limburg-Styrum
In 1635 her sister's son; Jobst-Hermann von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen, Count of
Bückeburg, died unmarried. He was first succeeded by his cousin, Otto, but he died after four years, and she managed to secure the inheritance of Gemen against the claims of the Holstein-Schaumburg-family. She ceeded the lordship to her nephew, Count Hermann-Otto I von Limburg-Styrum. Agnes was Abbess of Vreden.

Ecclesiastical Territory of Gernrode (Damenstift Gernrode) (Das Freie weltliche Stift Gernrode - The Free Worldly Chapter) (Reichsabtei Sankt Cyrakius in Gernrode) (In Sachsen-Anhalt) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

Geroldseck und Sulz

1634-49 Hereditary Sovereign Lady Anna Maria von Sulz
She was heir to the large territory from her father, Jakob von Geroldseck und Sulz, who was the last male of the family. But conflict broke out between the Overlord, the Emperor of Austria, and the Margrave of Baden-Durlach. Austria occupied the territory and appointed Hermann von Cronberg as Lord, who had already been promised the post in 1620. Anna Maria's mother was Elisabeth Schenkin vom Limburg and married Friedrich von Solms, and she lived (1593-1649).

1687-98 Sovereign Countess Maria Anna von Sulz of Sulz and Klettgau and the Administrative Units of Tiengen and Jestetten
1694-98 Princely Landgavine of Klettgau
As the only daughter of Johann Ludwig von Sulz, she succeeded to the County and reigned alone for the first years, but the county was gradually incorporated into the lands of her husband, Ferdinand von Schwarzenberg (1652 - 1703), who was Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire and in 1694 Emperor Leopold elevated the county to a Princely Landgravate (gefürsteten Landgrafschaft). She was mother of 2 sons and 4 daughters lived (1652-98).

 

Chapter of Gerresheim (Weltlichen Damenstift Gerresheim - Worldly Ladies' Chapter) (In Nordrhein-Westfalen) During the middle ages the convent - noble chapter Canonesses (Kanonissenstift) was one of the most important in the Holy Roman Realm, but never became an Imperial Immediacy (Reichsfrei) and the Abbess did never become Princess of the Realm (Reichsfürstin) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)


Görz

1323-28 Regent Dowager Countess Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern of Görz
1323-26 and 1335-38 Regent of Treviso (Italy)
1332-34 Captain General of Aquileia and Administrator of Friuli (Italy)
After the death of her second husband, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, she was regent for son Johann Heinrich IV. Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). She was daughter of Duke Stephan I of Nieder-Bayern and Jutta von Schweidnitz, and lived (1302-60).


Groitzsch

1124-44 Hereditary Countess Bertha 

Ecclesiastical Territory of Gutenzell (In Baden-Württenberg (Swabia)) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

H

Haldersleben

1056-1116 Countess Gertrud
Her daughter Hedwig II von Stade died 1078.

Hallermund

1167 Sovereign Countess Adelheid von Loccum
She was daughter of Count Wilbrand I von Loccum-Hallermund and Beatrix on Rheineck, and first married Count Konrad von Wasse, Vizthum von Hildesheim and secondly Count Günther von Käfernburg und Hallermund. Mother of two sons and two daughters.

Hanau

1452-58 Joint Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein of Hanau
When her son, Reinhard III von Hanau (1412-52) died one year after his father, Reinhard II, she became part of the regency for his son, Philipp I the Younger, together with his maternal grandfather, Pfalzgraf Otto I. von Pfalz-Mosbach and her youngest son, Philipp I the Older, until the country was devided in 1458, when the latter became sole regent. Mother of 6 children, and (d. 1459).


Hanau-Lichtenberg
The county was member of the Bench of Counts and Lords of the Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis) (The Office and Castle of Schwarzenfels was dowry during the 1500s and 1600s)

1452-57 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Margareta von Mosbach
Her husband, Reinhard IV, died after only one year reign, her oldest son, the 3 year old Philipp IV the Younger, was given half the county and her brother-in-law Philipp the Older reigned in the south of the Mains with the Lordship Babenhausen and at the same time he was guardian for her son. Born as Pfalzgräfin von Mosbach, and lived (1432-57)

1512-14 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
After the death of her husband, she was regent for her 11 year old son, Philipp II, together with his grand-uncle Johann V von Nassau-Dillenburg, who was sole regent until his own death 2 years later and then other relatives took over the government. She had secured the support of the nobility of the county and had it confirmed by the Court of the Empire (Reichskammergericht). She lived (after 1470-1514).

1553-70 Reigning Dowager Lady Elena von Pfalz-Simmern of Schwarzenfels
Widow of Count Philipp II von Hanau. It served as the dowry for other dowager countesses of Hanau as well.

1612-26 Regent Dowager Countess Catharina-Belgica van Oranje-Nassau
1626-48 Reigning Dowager Lady of Windecken
Also known as Katharina-Belgica, she took over the reins of government after the death of her husband, Philipp Ludwig II, for their son, Philipp Moritz. In 1619 when the Emperor Ferdinand II was on his way to Frankfurt for his coronation, he wanted to pass through with 1.500 soldiers but Catharina Belgica refused him entry into the city of Hanau. In 1621 Spanish and Imperial armies ravaged her territories but her complaints to Spanish and Imperial officials were of no avail. In 1626 her son took over the rule from her; however, in 1634 the family had to flee to Holland and was able to return only in 1637. Her sisters were regents in Sedan and The Rhine. She lived (1578-1648).

1712-36 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Charlotte Wilhelmine von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld of in of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Babenhausen in Hanau-Münzenberg
When her husband, Count Philipp Reinhard von Hanau-Münzenberg (1664−1712) died she took over her dowry, and when the last Count of Hanau died in 1736 and the territory was devided among Hessen-Kassel and Hessen-Darmstadt, she was given a Palai in Hanau, the Salzhaus, where she lived until her death.
Daughter of Duke Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld and Sophie Hedwig von Sachsen-Merseburg, did not have any children, and lived lived (1685-1767).

Until 1726 (†) Erbgräfin Charlotte Christine
She died 10 years before her father, Johann Reinhard II, zu
Lichtenberg, Ochsenstein, Hanau and Münzenberg, and the country was therefore inherited by her widower, Landgrave Ludwig VIII von Hesse-Darmstadt (1691-1768), who never remarried. Mother of 5 children, and lived (1700-26).

Hanau-Münzenberg

1529-31 Joint Guardian Juliana zu Stolberg-Wernigerode
When her first husband, Philipp II von Hanau-Münzenberg (1501-29), died she was one of the guardians for her son, Philipp III (1526-61). The youngest daughter was born 2 days after her husband died. 2 years later she married one of the other guardians, Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Dillenburg, and moved with her children to Dillenburg. When her sons joined the Dutch battle against the Spanish from 1566, she was engaged and gave advice to all of them. She had 5 children with her first husband and 12 with the second. The daughter of Count Botho zu Stolberg and Anna von Eppstein-Königstein, she lived (1506-80).

1638-41 Regent Dowager Countess Sibylle Christine von Anhalt-Dessau
1641-47 and 1585-86 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle of Steinau in Steinau an der Straße
In charge of the government from the time of death of her husband, Philipp Moritz, until the death of her only surviving child Philipp Ludwig III, afterwhich she took charge of her dowry. The county was first inherited by Johann Ernst von Hanau-Münzenberg-Schwarzenfels, who died the following year. As widow she had substantial finacial claims to the county, which was in economic difficulties because of the 30 Year War, and therefore she was married off to the next heir, Friedrich Casimir von Hanau-Lichtenberg (1623-85) in 1647 after he had come of age. The couple was in various disputes during their marriage, one of the reason was that she was Reformed - like the inhabitants in Münzenberg - and he belonged to the Lutheran Faith. She lived (1603-86 ).
 
1712-36 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Charlotte Wilhelmine von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld of the Office and Caste of Babenhausen in Hanau-Münzenberg
Administered her dowey after the death of her husband, Count Philipp Reinhard von Hanau-Münzenberg (1664−1712), but after the death of the last Count of Hanau and the the incorporation of the County into Hessen-Kassel and Hessen-Darmstadt, she took up residence in a palais in the Old City of Hanau. She did not have any children, and lived (1685-1767).

1754-60 Reigning Lady Maria of Great Britain
1760-64 Regent of Hanau
When her husband, Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel, converted to Catholism, she and her 3 sons were granted the County of Hanau, which had been part of Hessen-Kassel since the death of the last count Johann Reinhard III von Hanau-Lichtenberg-Münzenberg in 1736, by her father-in-law, Wilhelm VIII, who passed over his son for this part of the inheritance. After his death, Friederich became Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel and made several attempts to reclaim Hanau, but did not succeed because of opposition from Great Britain and the protestant Estates of Hanau. She spend her last years in the Castle of Rupenheim, and lived (1722-72).

Ecclesiastical Territory of  Heggbach (Reichsabtei Heggbach - Chapter of the Realm) (In Baden-Württenberg)

(See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)


Heinsberg and Geilenkirchen

1448-69 Lady Johanna von Loon zu Heinsberg of Heinsberg, Geilenkirchen, Dalenbroich, Diest, Sichem and Zeelhem
Daughter of Johann IV von Lo
on, Herr zu Heinsberg and Johanna von Diest and married to Johann II von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1423-72) and lived (1443-69)
.

Eccleastical Territory of Herford (Reichsabtei Herford - Chapter of the Realm) (Das kaiserlich freiweltliche Stift Herford - The Imperial Free Worldly Chpater) (In Nordrhein-Westphalen) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)


Hessen
Hesse was member of the Secular Bench in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1247-65 Lady Sofia von Thüringen of Hessen 
1248 Regent Dowager Duchess of Brabant  
1250-60 Regent of Hessen       
Daughter of Ludwig of Thüringen and Hessen and Erzbet the Holy of Hungary (d. 1231). After her brother's death her uncle inherited the lands of Thüringen and Hessen. After his death in 1247, she clamed the lands in Hessen and Thüringen in the name of her son, Heinrich (b. 1244). The next year her husband, Heinrich, died and she proclaimed that the German Order was under her protection and confirmed her family's donations to the order. As she also had widespread support of the nobility of Hessen, she managed to secure her position as Lady of the two territories, and her son's later seizure of power. In 1250 she made peace with her cousin, Heinrich, who had been appointed Landgrave in 1247. She was granted the regency of Hessen during her son's minority. In 1259 the succession-war started again, she and her allies lost in Thüringen but she was able to hold on to power in Hessen, where her son was appointed Landgrave in 1292. Sophie lived (1224-75).

1471-94 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Mechthild von Württemberg of the City and Administrative Unit of Rotenburg an der Fulda and the Castle and Administrative Unit of Gudensberg
Even though she had been asked to take the regency, she transferred the regency for her two sons Wilhelm the Older and Wilhelm the Middle in Niederhessen, to her brother-in-law Heinrich III in Oberhessen. three days after the death of her husband, Ludwig II. Instead she was given a rich dorwy and she was possibly in charge of the upbringing of her sons, and she remained influential in the government of the county.She lived (circa 1444-94).

1483-94 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Anna von Katzenelnbogen of the City and Administrative Unit of Grissen and the City of Grünberg
A few days after the death of her husband, Heinrich III von Oberhessen, she relinguished all claims of the regency for her son, probably because she was only 20 years old herself, and the age of majority was 25. A source shows how she and her Councillors mends various feuds between the Council and inhabitants of Grünberg. She
was daughter and heir of Philipp I. (circa 1402-79), who was married to Anna von Württemberg, and Count of Katzenelnbogen and parts of the County of Diez, and after her death the County was in dispute between her two daughters; Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Hessen-Marburg, who inherited one part in 1500 and Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505). A compromise was not reached until 1520.

1508-09 and 1514-18 Regent Dowager Landgravine Anna von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Hessen
1510-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of Geissen, Grünberg, Borken, Felsberg, Wildeck and Rotenburg (from 1511)
Took over the regency for her Wilhelm II, who was unable to govern because of syphilis, but after his death she was removed, as regent by the Estates in spite of his will, which named her guardian and regent. The Estates named their own regents, on the pretext that she was below the age of 25, but the real reason was the fight for power among the different groups in the society. She continued her fight to become regent for Philipp (1504-25). She spoke her case before the Estates; in 1510 she claimed her right to a seat and vote at the Diet of the Realm as the rightful guardian. The emperor sympathised with her, but did not back her, but she also presented her case here. Later that year she withdrew to her dowry, but because of internal disputes in the regency college, she managed to be named regent and named her own regency government, she promised to report to the Estates once a year, but reigned independently. In 1518 she had emperor Maximilian I declare her 13 year old son of age, but the nobility continued the fight for power until it was finally defeated in 1523. She was daughter of Magnus II von Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Sophie von Pommern, also mother of a daughter, and lived (1485-1525).
 

Hessen-Darmstadt
Member of the Secular Bench in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1678-88 Regent Dowager Landgravine Elisabeth Dorothea von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
1688-1709 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Butzback
Took over as regent for son, Ernst Ludwig (1667-78-1739) after the death of her stepson Ludwig V, who died 18 weeks and 4 days after succeeding her husband, Ludwig IV (1630-61-78). The Imperial Court (Reichskammergericht) demanded that she should reign jointly with a College of Councillors, but she prevented that they could take their oath and they therefore remained subordinate "advisors" to her. During her term in office she only called the Estates (Landtag) 2 times. She worked hard on consolidating the economic and industrial situation of the Landgrave and after she took over the government in her dowry, she advised her son to do the same, but he refused her interference. She also promoted music and culture, and lived (1640-1709).      
1743-74 In charge of the Government Landgravine Henriette Karoline von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
She was in charge of the government during her husband, Ludwig IXs involvement in various wars. After their marriage in 1741 she spend a couple of years with her husband at the Prussian Garnison Prenzlau, and of the 32 years of marriage they only spend 14 together. She was an efficient administrator and made Darmstadt the cultural center of the time. Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise lived (1721-74). 


Hessen-Eschwege
Member of the Secular Bench in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1655-92 Regent Dower Landgravine Eleonora Katharina bei Rhein
Her husband, Friedrich von Hessen-Eschwege, Landgraf zu Hessen, Fürst zu Hersfeld, Graf zu Katzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhayn, Nidda und Schaumburg etc.. (1617-55) fell during the first year of the war between Sweden and Poland, and after his death, she administered the lands given to him by the Swedes. She was born as Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein, and her brother became King Karl X Gustaf of Sweden, after the abdication of Queen Kristina. 


Hessen-Homburg
Hesse was member of the Secular Bench in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1638-48 Regent Dowager Landgravine Margaretha Elisabetha von Leiningen-Westerburg-Schaumburg
After the death of her husband, Friedrich I (1585-1622-38), she was regent for son, Wilhelm Christoph Landgraf Hessen-Bingenheim
and Hessen-Homburg. She asked her brother-in-law, Philipp von Hessen-Butzbach (1581-1661) to act as joint regent, but he refused with reference to his high age, and the fact that he had already acted as regent for his nephew, Georg II von Hessen-Darmstadt from 1621. She was mother of 6 children, and lived (1604-67).

1650-63 Lady Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt of the Administrative Unit and Fief of the Castle Bingenheim
When she married Prince
Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg (1625-81) in 1650, her father transferred the and Administrative Unit and Fief of Schloss Bingenheim, and as her husband preferred Bingenheim for Homburg he was mainly known as the Landgrave zu Bingenheim
, since his younger brother, Friederich II succeeded their father, Friederich I as Landgrave of Homburg. Wilhelm Cristoph and Sofie Eleonore had 8 sons and 4 daughters, who all died before their father, who married in a second childless marriage Anna Elisabeth von Sachsen-Lauenburg. She lived (1634-63).

After 1665-88 Lady Anna-Elisabetha von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Philippseck bei Butzbach
After her Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg's first wife Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt died giving birth to their 12th child, they got married, but their marriage soon failed. Her husband tried unsuccessfully to divorce her, but she was "exiled" to the Castle of Philippseck bei Butzbach, where she became a loved "mother of the realm" (Landsesmutter) who cared for the young and the poor and among others founded several schools. She lived (1624-88).

1670 Designated as Possible Regent Landgravine Louise Elisabeth von Kurland
It was mentioned in her marriage-contract, that she were to take over as guardian regent in the event that her husband, Friederich II (1633-1708) should die when their children were minors. But she predeceased him, and lived (1646-90).

1722 Designated as Possible Regent Landgravine Christiane Charlotte von Nassau-Ottweiler
It was mentioned in her marriage-contract, that she were to take over as guardian regent in the event that her husband, Friederich III (1673-1746) should die when their children were minors. She was named co-guardian with Anton von Altenburg. (1685-1751).

1751-66 Regent Dowager Landgravine Ulrike Louise von Solms-Braunfels
She was widow of Friedrich IV (1724-46-51) and regent for son Friedrich V (b. 1848). She was engaged in legal battles over the regency with Landgraf Ludwig VIII of Hessen-Darmstadt, and lived (1731-92).


Hessen-Kassel
Hesse was member of the Secular Bench in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and the Part of the territory known as Schaumburg-Hessen was member of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly). Kassel was member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1629-43 Reigning Lady Juliane von Nassau-Dillenburg of the Office and Castle of Rotenburg in Rotenburg an der Fulda in Hessen-Kassel
Took over her dowry after the abdication of her husband, Landgrave Moritz von Hessen-Kassel. Her oldest son, Wilhelm V, took over the landgravate, and the rest of her 14 children moved with her to Rotenburg. Her younger sons were given the Landgravates of Rhinfels, Eschwege etc. She lived (1587-1643).

1637-50 Regent Dowager Landgravine Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münzenberg of Hessen-Kassel
1643-51 Lady of the Administrative Office of Schwarzenfels in Hanau
Even though she was with her husband, Wilhelm V, in Ostfriesland when he died, she was immediately named regent for their son Wilhelm VI and was in control in spite of the fact that she did not return to the Landgravate until 1640 because of the upheavals during the Thirty Years War. She was an able ruler and managed add new territory to the state. She made a truce with the emperor but formed an alliance with France and became a leading force in the Protestant Group during the warfare. As regent she chaired the Councils of Regency almost daily, she chaired various Local Diets (Landtags), which she called when she felt the need for it.
She was daughter of Count Philipp Ludwig II von Hanau–Münzenberg, and after the death of the last of Münzenberg line she claimed her rights on the basis of a inheritance-treaty from 1643, and received the Office of Schwarzenfels as security and handed over the territory as her own property. She was mother of several children and lived (1602-51).

1663-77 Regent Dowager Landgravine Hedwig Sophie von Brandenburg of Hessen-Kassel
1677-83 Reigning Dowager Lady of Schmalkalden etc.
After the death of her husband, Landgrave Wilhelm VI von Hessen-Kassel (1629-63), she first became regent for their firstborn son, Wilhelm VII (1663-70) and after his death shortly before he was about to come age, she automatically continued as regent for the second son; Karl (1670-1730). She saw herself as the sole Head of Government Affairs (alleinige Leiterin der Regierungsgeschäfte) even though she ruled together with a Regency College, whose meetings she chaired almost daily. During her time in office she also called and chaired 6 Meetings of the Estates  (Landrat). She managed to remain more or less neutral during the disputes between Protestants and Catholics in the aftermath of the Thirty Years War. She did not abdicate the regency until her son was 23, even though decrees, laws and coins were issued in his name from the time he turned 18, but he seems to have been happy with the arrangement and even after she took over the government in her dowry, she remained influential in the Landgravate. Her third surviving son, Philipp, became Landgrave of Hessen-Philippsthal. Mother of another son who died as an infant and three daughters, and lived (1623-83).

1786-1800 Reigning Dowager Lady Philippine von Brandenburg-Schwedt of Hainau
1788 Owner of a fifth of Schwedt
After her marriage to  Landgrave Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel (1720-1785) as his second wife, she established a seperate court with philosophers and other later statemen. In 1777 she secretly gave birth to a son by her sister and named him Georg Philippson, she travlled widely in Germany and France. After her husband's death, she engaged in hard disputes with her stepson , Landgrave Wilhelm IX, which led to diplomatic problems between Hessen-Kassel, Preußen und Russland. In 1788 the last male of the Brandenburg-Schwedt line died out and she and her sisters, two sisters were Friederike Sophie Dorothea, married to Friedrich Eugen von Württemberg (1736-1797) and Anna Elisabeth Luise, married to Ferdinand von Preußen (1738-1820), were allodial heirs together with two cousins of the family possessions. In 1792 she moved to Berlin after the French had occupied Mainz, two years later she married her Oberhofmeister Georg Ernst Levin von Wintzingerode, whom she managed to have named Count of the Realm. In Berlin she first lived with her sister and in 1795 she was given a big Palais by her cousin, King Friedrich Wilhelm II. She made her husband her sole heir, and he inherited  1/5 of the Brandenburg-Schwedt possessions. The daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt, Prinz in Preußen (1700-1771) and Sophie, Prinzessin in Preußen (1719-1765) she lived  (1745-1800).

 
Hessen-Marburg (Also see
Katzenelnbogen)

1483-94 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Katzenelnbogen of the Lordship and Willage of Biedenkopf
After the death of her husband, Landgrave Heinrich III von Hessen-Marburg (Oberhessen) (1440-58-83) she resided in her dowry. She was heir of
Katzenelnbogen from 1479, and lived (1443-94).

Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld

1803 Dowager Landgravine Wilhelmine Louise Christine von Sachsen-Meiningen
After the death of her husband, Adolf von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1743-61-1803), she claimed the regency for their son, Karl (1782-1803-54),  on the basis of their marriage contract. She lived (1752-1805).

1868 De-facto Guardian Dowager Landgravine Marie von Württemberg
Her husband, Landgraf Carl II (1803-68), died shortly after Hessen was occupied by Prussia and Kurhessen became a Prussian province. Her husband had named her as guardian of their sons. The oldest, Landgraf Ernst (1846-1925) did not have either the political experience or the economic capability to enable him to stand up to the consequences of the annexation. In Philippsthal, she promoted trade, agriculture and artisans and thereby managed to create economic growth. During her husband's lifetime she had already started schools, kindergartens and asylums. She spend much of her time negotiating the financial settlements for her sons and other relatives of the Hessen-Philippsthal and Barchfeld-lines with the Prussian authorities who had confiscated the fortunes of the family and introduced heavy taxes on their remaining possessions. Not until 1883 a final arrangement was reached. She was daughter of Duke Eugen II. von Württemberg (1788-1857) and his wife Mathilde von Waldeck-Pyrmont, and lived (1818-88).

Hessen-Rheinfels

1583-1609 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern of the County and Castel of Philippsburg
Her husband Philipp II of Hessen-Rheinfels (1541-67-83) had apparently recived the county from his father, Philipp of Hessen-Kassel (d.1567). They did not have any children,and she lived (1549-1609).
 

Hillesheim

1785-circa 1806 Joint Sovereign Countess of the Realm Anna Elisabeth Auguste Maria von Hillesheim
Succeeded her brother, Wilhelm-Ernst-Gottfried, Reichsgraf von Hillesheim und Herr zu Reipoltskirchen and was also
 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm of Reipoltskirchen with her sister, Elisabeth Auguste von Spee and Princess Karoline von Isenburg. The county was occupied by France and lost it's independence around 1806. The Lordship was occupited from 1801 Germany had to seed its territories in Alsace to France. But the possessions remained in the hands of her descendants by her marriage to Ambrosius Franz Reichsgraf zu Spee. She lived (1728-1807).


Hohenems
The county of Harrach was member of the College of Counts of Swabia, which held one joint vote in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and also
Member of the Bench of the The Bench of Counts and Lords of the Swabian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly), though this position was occupied by Austria

1789/89-1806 Sovereign Countess Maria Rebekka von Hohenems, Lady of Lustenau
After the extinction of the Counts of the Realm of Hohenhems in the male line in 1759, Austria took over the territory, but after a lengthily process Reichsgräfin Maria Rebekka von Harrach-Hohenems managed to claim her rightful inheritance, and from then on she shared the sovereignty with Austria after the signing of a treaty. She was married to Franz-Xavier Graf zu Harrach, Lord of Gunewald, and in 1806 the county was incorporated into Bavaria, but her only daughter, Maria Walburga, Erbgräfin Harrach-Lustenau-Hohenems-Kunewalddaughter, inherited the rights to the territory. Maria Rebekka lived (1742-1806).

1806-13 Maria Walburga, Erbgräfin Harrach-Lustenau-Hohenems-Kunewald
After her mother's death in 1806 she took over the Reichshof Lustenau, but in 1806 it became part of Bavaria. In 1811 the king of Bavaria transferred all the sovereign rights (Landesherrlichen Ansprüche und Rechte) in Vorarlberg to her, including the rights to Lustenau. Married to Clemens Alois Graf und Reichserbtruchseß Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg (1753-1817), the brother of Prince Maximilian Wunibald Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg. After her death in 1813 her son inherited the territory.


Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
The county was member of the Bench of Counts of Lords of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Franken (Franconia). From 1488 Döttingen acted as Dowry for the Countly Family.

1590 Reigning Dowager Lady N.N. of Kirchberg
Mother of Graf Wolfgang II von Hohenlohe-Weikersheim.

1611-43 Reigning Dowager Lady Magdalena von Nassau-Dillenburg of Öhringer Schloss
After the death of her husband, Wolfgang von Hohenlohe-Langenburg und Neuenstein (1546-1610), she took over her dowry. During her tenure, the socalled Lange Bau (Long Building) was constructed. She was mother of 16 children, and lived (1547-1643).

1618-38 In charge of the Government Countess Anna Amalia zu Solms-Sonnenwalde of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
1628-34 Reigning Dowager Lady im Ort Döttingen (Germany)
Amid the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War, the widow Anna Maria and took over the reins of government during the absence of her husband, Count Philipp Ernst von Hohenlohe-Langenburg-Neuenstein (1584-1628). In September 1634, she fled just in time with her mother and her children and an escort of 200 cavalry provided by the Count Palatine of the Rhine. She fled to Saarbrücken and then to Ottweiler, her mother's home town. As a widow she build a hospital and other charitable institutions in her dowry land in the "Place of Döttingen. She was mother of 10 of which most died in infancy, and lived (1585-1634).

1652 Regent Dowager Countess Sophie von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld
She was widow of Kraft VII zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (1582-1615-41) and regent for Count Johann Friedrich I von Hohenlohe in Öhringen etc. the oldest son of her 14 children. She lived (1593-1676).

Circa 1738 Reigning Dowager Lady Maria Anna Felicitas zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein of Pfedelbach
Mother of Count Graf Wolfgang II von Hohenlohe-Weikersheim


1852-63 Guardian Dowager Princess Henriette von Auersperg of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Hohenlohe-Jagstberg 
After the death of her husband, Ludwig von Hohenlohe-Bartenstein-Jagstberg in Pfedelbach, Meinhardt und Sindringen, she was guardian in one of the mediatized principalities, which had lost their immediate status in 1806, but instead came under the overlordship of one of the members of the Confederation of the Rhine, still possessing a number of important political privileges. She ruled in the name of her sons, Fürst Karl Ludwig  Bartenstein (1837-77) and Albert von Hohnenlohe-Jagstberg (1842-1969), who was created Prince in 1906. She lived (1815-1910)

1877-84 Guardian Dowager Princess Leopoldine von Stermberg of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein
In charge of the principality in the name of her son, Johannes (1863-1921), after the death of her husband, Karl (1837-77). She lived (1836-1918).

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) (The same was the case with Hohenzollern-Hechingen)


1689-98 Regent Dowager Princess Marie Clara van Berg
1712-15 Hereditary Countess of Berg-s'Heerenberg, Lady of Boxmeer, Bergh, Diksmuide, Gendringen, Etten, Wisch, Pannerden and Millingen (Netherlands)
After the death of her husband, Maximilian von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she was regent for their son Prince and Count Meinrad II Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1673-1715) together with her brother-in-law and 1695 she made the agreement with Elector Friederich III von Brandenburg on the succession in the Principality of Hohenzollern. When her brother died her second grandson, Franz Wilhelm Nikolaus, was created Count zum Bergh und Hohenzollern in 1712 af, with his mother, Johanna Katharina von Montfort as regent until 1722. Marie Clara lived (1635-1715).

1785-87 Possible Regent Johanna von Hohenzollern-Berg
Succeeded her father Count Franz von Hohenzollern-Bergh as Sovereign Countess of Berg-s'Heerenberg, Lady of Boxmeer, Bergh, Diksmuide, Gendringen, Etten, Wisch, Pannerden and Millingen in the Netherlands 1737-87, and mainly leved at her possessions in the Netherlands. After the death of her husband, Karl Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she might have been the person who was regent for Prince and Count Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, (1762-85-1805-31), her 8th and first surviving son, until her own death. The regency continued for one more year. Also mother of 4 daughters of whom only one survived into adulthood. She lived (1727-87).

1798-1806 Politically Influential Princess Amalie Zephyrine von Salm-Kyrburg in France, Germany and Sigmaringen
She left her husband, Hereditary Prince Anton Aloys of Sigmaringen, after the birth of her son, Karl in 1785, and returned to Paris, where she was born. Here she started an affair with  Vicomte de Beauharnais, but she also came close to his wife and children during the French Revolution. 1798 she resumed contact with her Sigmaringen and her son became the center of her interest. In order to be able to return to Germany and meet him, she became politically active and used her connections to the French government - the Foreign Minister Talleyrand or the Emperor himself. At the Peace-congress she acted with great self-confidence and together with her husband she negotiated the terms for the survival of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmarinen as sovereign states, at a time when most minor territories were merged, For instance Württemberg had to hand back the City of Sigmaringen in 1806 which it had been promised as part of the agreements. Her son came to Paris and married Antoinette Murat and in 1808 she returned to Sigmaringen with her son and daughter-in-law. Her husband refused her entrance to the Castle and she build a new residence close by and for the rest of her life she travelled a lot and had many social connections all over Europe. She lived (1760-1841).



Holstein-Wagrien

1164-76 Regent Dowager Countess Mechtild von Schwarzburg-Käfernburg

Holzappel
 
1648-56 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Effern of Holzappel
1656 Reigning Lady of Schaumburg, Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt
After the death of her husband, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, who had gained the position of Imperial Immidiate in 1643 from Emperor Ferdiand III (Freien Reichsunmittelbaren Grafschaft Holzappel), she was able to expand the territory in 1656 by aquireing the Castle and Lordship of Schaumburg bei Balduinstein. After her death, her daughter, The castle of Schaumburg was inherited by her daughter, Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg, took over the reign. She (d. 1656.). 


1648-1707 Reigning Lady Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg of Schaumburg, Countess of Holzappel and Lady of Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt
Another version of her title is Gräfin von Holzapfel, in Schaumburg, Holzapfel und Laurenburg. After the death of her mother, Agnes von Effert, gennant Hall, who had been in charge of the government since the death of her father, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, she took over the reigns, with great vigour and intelligence. She allowed Hugenots and Waldenses from France to settle in her territory, abolished the serfdom, gave city and trade-rights to Holzappel and founded the village of Charlottenburg. She married Prince Adolf Nassau-Dillenburg (1629-76), who added Schaumburg to his princely title. After her death, her son-in-law, Lebrecht von Anhalt-Bernburg-Hoym added Schaumburg to his title. He was the widower of her youngest daughter Charlotte von Nassau-Schaumburg (d. 1700), and their son, Victor Amadeus Adolf became Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, the son of her youngest daughter, and in 1812 his great-granddaughter, Hermine, inherited the Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel. She was married to Joseph Anton Johann von Habsburg-Lothringen (1776–1847), and died giving birth to twins in 1817, one of whom was Hermine von Habsburg-Lothringen, who was Princess-Abbess of the Theressian Royal and Imperial Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin in Prague (1835-42). Elisabeth Charlotte lived (1640-1707).


1812-17 Titular Countess Hermine zu Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym of the former Sovereign Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel
Inherited the territory after the death of her father, Viktor II Karl Friederich. 1815 she married Archduke Joseph Anton Johann von Habsburg-Lothringen (1776–1847), the brother of Emperor Franz, as his second wife, but died giving birth to twins, Hermine von Habsburg-Lothringen, who was Princess-Abbess of the Theressian Royal and Imperial Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin in Prague (1817-35-42) and Stefan Franz Viktor (1817-67), who was Governor of Bohemia and Platine of Hungary until he withdrew to his possessions in Nassau (The counties of Holzappel and Schaumburg) in 1850 because of political disagreements with the Austrian government. Here he died unmarried. She lived (1797-1817).
 
1812-41 Reigning Dowager Countess Amalie Charlotte von Nassau-Weilburg of the former Sovereign Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel
After the death of her husband, Viktor II Karl Friederich von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1767-1806-12), the former sovereign territories were first inherited by their daughter, Hermine (1797-1817) and then by her son, Stefan Franz Viktor von Habsburg-Lothringen. Amaile's three younger daughters also died young: Adelheid (1800-20), married to Hereditary Prince August von Oldenburg, Emma (1802-45) married to Georg von Waldeck-Pyrmont and Ida (1804-28), also married to August von Oldenburg. She lived (1778-1841).

Hövel

Circa 1059-after 60 Hereditary Countess Ida von Werl-Hövel of Hövel 

After 1060-... Hereditary Countess Adelheid von Lauffen of  Hövel, Unna, Telgte and Warendorf.



Hunolstein, Neumagen and Sankt-Johannisberg

Around 1497 Hereditary Steward Elisabeth of Hunolstein and Heiress of Neumagen and Sankt-Johannisberg
She was married to Cunt Salentin VII of Isenburg in Salm und Hohenstein (d. circa 1534). Her son, Anton zu Sankt-Johannisberg died 1536.

1690/1727 Reigning (Dowager) Lady of the Lordship NN. of Hüttersdorf
Widow of Otto Louis von Hunolstein, who transferred the lordship to her in 1690. He died in 1727 without children.


I

Isenburg and Wied
Member of the College of the The Counts of the Wetterau, who held a joint vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet

Until 1462 Hereditary Countess Anastasia von Isenburg-Wied
She was the last of her line and married Dietrich IV von Runkel. Their son, Friedrich IV, was created Count zu Wied in 1454.

J

Jever

1517 Miss Dorothea

1517-36 Miss Anna

1517-75 Miss Maria

1793-96 Countess Katharina
Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst and Empress Katharina II the Great of Russia
from 1762.

1793-1807 Imperial Russian Governor Dowager Duchess Friederike Auguste Sophie von Anhalt-Bernburg
After the death of her husband, Friedrich-August of Anhalt-Zerbst, who had no children, her sister-in-law, Catherine II of Russia, inherited the land of Jever and created a Personal Union with Russia, which gave her a vote in the Imperial German Diet. Catherine appointed Friederike as administrator - kaiserlich russische Statthalterin. She also continued as administrator for her nephew, Czar Paul of Russia. She lived (1744-1827).



Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark
Until it was incorporated in other Principalities, it had a vote in the Imperial Diet and was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate of Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Reichskreis

1423-27 Lady Maria d'Harcourt of Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot and Brebeke (in Germany and the Netherlands)
Daughter of Count Jean VI d'Harcourt et Aumale and Catherine de Bourbon, Princess of France. After the death of her husband Duke Rainald IV, Duke of Jülich and Geldern, Count of Zutphen, she remained Lady of a number of possessions of Jülich. In 1424, she granted freedom to her serfs. Two years she married Duke Ruprecht von Jülich-Berg, Bishop of Passau and Paderborn. She lived (circa 1389-1427)

1511-39 Sovereign Duchess Maria of Jülich-Berg-Ravensberg-Heinsberg
Succeeded her father, Wilhelm IV. She married Johann III von Marck-Kleve and their duchies were united. She was a very devout catholic and was sceptic towards the liberal reforms of both her father and husband. One of her daughters, Anne of Kleve, married Henry the VIII of England. Maria lived (1491-1543).
 
1511-54 Reigning Dowager Lady Sybilla von Brandenburg of Bensberg in Jülich-Berg
Widow of Duke Wilhelm III von Jülich and Berg (1475-1511), who had one daughter, Marie von Jülich und Berg (1491-1543), by his first wife, who married Johan III von Kleves (1490-1539). Sibylla did not have any children, and lived (1490-1524)

1585-97 Politically Influential Duchess Jakobäa von Baden of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark
Also known as Jakobea or Jakobe, she married to Johann Wilhelm (1592-1609), and since her father-in-law, Wilhelm IV, was mentally deficient and her husband mentally ill and both were unable to rule, she took the reigns after her marriage in 1585. She managed to get some councillors on her side. She stood between the catholic party around the powerful Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg, supported by the Spanish Low Countries and the protestant lead by the Counts von Broich and Valckenstein and Lords von Rheydt who tried to remove the catholic regentess with the help of the Dutch General States. Because of the intrigues of her sister-in-law, Sybille, she thought about moving back to Bavaria, but the responsibly towards her husband, made her stay in Düsseldorf. She became more and more powerful, but Sybille spread rumours about her unmoral way of life and in 1595 Von Waldenburg held her prisoner, she was accused and convicted of infidelity and kept in the castle for two years. With the help of her brother-in-law Count Leuchtenberg, she wrote a document of defence and managed to have a trial arranged, but died before the trial was called. After her death, her husband married Antionia of Lorraine (d. 1610), but did not have any children. She lived (1558-97).

1592-1609 Politically Influential Princess Sibylla of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark
Contemporary sources described her as power-mad, stupid and vendictive. She supported Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg, who became more and more powerful. In 1595 she handed over a petition against her sister-in-law, Jakobäa von Baden, to the Landtag in Grevenbroich, where she accused her of among others infidelity. She and von Waldenburg claimed to working for the healing of the insane Duke, and in this way they managed to keep power. They were rumoured to have caused the sudden and mysterious death of Jakobäa, and the rumours continued for centuries. After the death of her brother, Johann Wilhelm, she engaged in a war of succession together with her husband, Archduke Karl of Austria (d. 1618) with the husbands and children of her sisters; Marie Eleonora (1550-1608), Anne (1552-1632) and her husband, Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg (d. 1614), Magdalena (1553-33) and Pfalzgraf Johann von Pfalz-Zweibrücken (d. 1604). It was the oldest daughter of Marie Eleonora, Anna von Preussen, who inherited the duchies. Sibylle lived (1557-1627).

1609-25 Joint Hereditary Countess Anna zu Hohenzollern-Preussen und Jülich-Kleve-Berg of Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein
1618-25 Hereditary Duchess of Prussia
Also known as Duchess Anna von Preussen und Jülich-Kleve-Berg, she was daughter of Marie Eleonore von Jülich-Kleve-Berg, the heiress of the three duchies and some counties, and Albrecht II Friedrich von Preussen. 1594 she married her distant relative, Elector Johann Sigismund zu Hohenzollern of Brandenburg (1572-1619), and was the dominant force during his reign. He was regent for her father from 1609, and in 1611 he was given Prussia as a personal fief. After the death of her uncle, Johann Wilhelm zu Jülich in 1609, a succession-dispute followed with the Pfalz-Newburg's until a division was agreed upon in 1614, and the counties of Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein went to Brandenburg, though she primarily considered it as her personal possessions. After her father's death in 1618 she and her son, the kurprinz Georg-Wilhelm, took over the government, since her husband had been hit by a stroke two years earlier, and she remained in charge until her death. She lived (1575-1625).

1609-32 Joint Hereditary Duchess Anna von Jülich-Kleve-Berg
1615-32 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Office of Höchstädt in Pfalz-Neuburg
The death of her brother Johann Wilhelm in 1609 resulted in the Jülich-Kleve Succession War where the families of her own and her 3 sisters fought over the inheritance. She transferred the rights of inheritance to the areas of the Low Rhine (niederrheinischen) she possessed as the oldest surviving daughter to her oldest son Wolfgang Wilhelm. She was chocked and kept her own Evangelical faith when he converted to the Catholic Faith in order to marry the daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria to gain the support of the Catholic League in 1613, but in the end it helped him secure his mother's inheritance as Duke of Jülich and Berg in 1614. Her husband, Count Palatine Philipp Ludwig, died the same year, and she moved to her dowry the following year, she moved to her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Wilhelm IV. of Jülich, Kleve und Berg and Maria von Österreich, mother of 4 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (1552-1632).



For almost 500 years, the Administrative Office and Castle of Kaster functioned as Dowry for the Countesses and Duchesses of Jülich


K

Katzenelnbogen (Also see Hessen-Marburg)

1375 Reigning Dowager Lady Else von Katzenelnbogen of the Lordship and Willage of Biedenkopf in Darmstadt
She resided at the Wasserburg (Water Castle) after the death of her husband.

1479-94 Hereditary Countess Anna von Katzenelnbogen
Daughter of Philipp von Kazenelnbogen and married to Heinrich III von Hessen-Marburg (1440-58-83), with whom she had three sons; Friederich who died young, Ludwig III (d. 1478) and Wilhelm III (d. 1500) who had no legitimate issue and the two daughters Elizabet von Nassau-Dillenburg and Mathilda von Jüllich-Kleve who inherited her claism to the County. S
he lived (1443-94).

1500-23 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Hessen-Marburg of Katzenelnbogen and ¼ of the County of Diez
After her mother, Anna von Katzenelnbogen died in 1494, the County was in dispute among her and her sister, Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505), and a compromise was not reached until 1520 among their decendants. Elisabeth was married to Johann V Count of Nassau, Vianden, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Baron of Breda, Stadtholder of Gelre and Zutphen 1504-1505. She lived (1466-1523).


Eccleastical Territory of Kaufingen (Ritterschaftliche Stift Kaufingen - Noble Chapter) (In Hessen)
1521 mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände. Abolished 1527/32 and incorporated into Hessen-Kassel (See also Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

Eccleastical Territory of Keppel (Käppel) (Freiweltliche Damenstift Keppel/Damenstift zu Geseke-Keppel (Ladies Chapter)  (See also Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)                



K
irchenberg 


1799-1827 Sovereign Burgravine Luise of Kirchberg and Sovereign Countess of Sayn-Hachenburg, Lady of Farnrode
In 1788 she married Duke Friedrich-Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg and her territory was incorporated into his lands after their marriage. Luise Isabella von Sayn-Hachenburg-Kirchberg was daughter of Wilhelm-Georg and succeeded Johann-August (1714-77-99), and lived (1772-1827).


Knyphausen or Kniphausen and Varel
It was a sovereign "Herrlichkeit" (including Sengwarden, Fedderwarden and Accum) which was ruled by the Grafen von
Aldenburg (1667-1733) and the Grafen von Bentinck (1733 - 1806/1818), respectively. From 1825 to 1854, the "Herrlichkeit" Knyphausen was a semi-sovereign "Herrlichkeit" under Oldenburg rule, from 1854 on it was under undivided Oldenburg rule.

1680-1701 Regent Dowager Baroness Charlotte Amélie de la Trémoïlle of Knyphausen
After her husband's death at 27th of October 1680 she became regent for her unborn child. Her son, Anton II was born 8 months later at 26th of June 1681. He was Baron of the Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Knyphausen (semi-independent territory) until his death in 1738, when he was succeeded by daughter, Charlotte-Sophie von Aldenburg. Charlotte Amélie lived (1681-1738).

1738-1800
Sovereign
Countess Charlotte-Sophie of
Aldenburg
1738-54  Lady of the Free Lordship of Knyphausen and Noble Lady of Varel, Lady of Sengwarden, Fedderwarden and Accum
She married Hon. William Bentnick, Created Count Bentinck in 1732. She was daugter of Anton II von Aldenburg, Lord von Knyphausen and Varel and
Wilhelmina Maria of Hesse-Homburg

1768-83 Regent Dowager Baroness Marie Katharina von Tuyll van Serooskerken of Knyphausen
After the death of her husband, Count Christian Frederik Bentinck (1734-1768) (Son of Charlotte-Sophie von Aldenburg und Knyphausen and Willem Bentinck, Count Bentinck from 1732), she was regent for their son, Wilhelm II Gustav van Betnick (1762-35), who reigned 1768-1810, 1813 and 1818-35. The territory was annexed to the Netherlands in 1810 and occupied by Russia 1813-18. Marie Katharina lived (1743-98).

1795-98 In Charge of the Government Countess Ottoline van Reede-Lynden of Kniphausen and Varel
Her husband - and second cousin - the British-Dutch-German Wilhelm Gustav Bentinck-Rhoon, Count Bentinck, Sovereign Lord of Kniphausen and Varel (1762-1835), was in the service of the Stadhouder of Holland etc, was imprisoned in the Netherlands, and she was in charge of the government until he was released and settled in his German possessions. Mother of one son, who died 1813 and 2 daughters, and lived (1773-99).



Stewardship
of the Archbishopric of Collogne (Erzbishoftum von Köln)

Until 1474 Hereditary Marshall
Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of the Archbishopric of Köln and Heiress of Alfter
She was married to Count Johann VI von Reifferscheid, Count zu Salm (d. 1475).

1602-27 Sovereign Countess Magdalena von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Hereditary Marshall of the Diocese of Köln, Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Lennep 
1610-12 Regent of Bentheim-Steinfurt 
She inherited Neuenahr und Limburg from her half-sister, Amelia who had inherited it from her half brother in 1575. The territory of her husband was occupied by troops from Köln, and it was not until four years after the death of her husband, Arnold III, that she was able to take over the regency for her son, Konrad Gumprect von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1585-1618). She remained influential to her death. Magdelena lived (1551-1627).

Ecclesiastical Territory of Kraichgau - Kayserliche Reichsfreye Adeliche Creichgauerischen Fräulein-Stifft (Kaiserliche Reichsfreie Adeliche Kraichgauer Fräulein-Stift) and later Kraichgauer Adeliges Damenstift
(See also Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)                

L

Leiningen
The county was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Upper Rhine

From 1197 Sovereign Countess Lukarde von Leiningen
Succeeded father, Emich IV von Leiningen and married to Count Simon II von Saarbrücken. Mother of three sons - of whom one was count of Saarbrücken, one count of Leiningen and the third became bishop of Worms.

From 1467  Sovereign Countess Margarete of Leiningen-Westerburg
After the death of her brother Hesso, the last male of the family, she took possession of the lands. She was the widow of Richard zu Westerburg and became the founder of the lines of Alt-Leiningen-Westerburg and Neu-Leiningen-Westerburg. 

1815-18 Regent Dowager Princess Viktoria of Sachsen-Saafeld-Coburg
1830 Named Possible Regent in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
After the death of her first husband, Fürst Emich Carl zu Leiningen (1763-1814), she was regent for her son, Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Emich zu Leiningen (1804-56) until her marriage to Prince Edward of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767-1820). After his death, she became guardian to the heir to the throne, Victoria. In 1830, the Regency Act named the Duchess of Kent as regent in the case that Victoria should be a minor when called to the throne, but Victoria ascended to the throne shortly after her 18th birthday. For a number of years mother and daughter were at odds, but they became reconciled in the end. Her brother, Leopold, was first married to the heiress, Charlotte, who died in childbed in 1819 and then became king of Belgium. Viktoria also had a daughter, Feodora zu Leiningen (1807–1872), who was married to Fürst Ernst I. zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1794–1860). She lived (1786-1861).


Leuchtenberg

1646-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Landgräfin Maria Johanna von Helfenstein of Wernberg in Leuchtenberg
After the death of her husband, Maximilian Adam von Leuchtenberg (1607-46).

 
Lichtenberg

1473-74 Anna von Lichtenberg
Daughter and heir of Lord Ludwigs V. of Liechtenberg, a large lordship in Alsass. She was married to Philipp I the Older, who created the County of Hanau-Liechtenberg, she lived (1442-74).

Limburg and Broich

1458-79 Sovereign Countess Margaretha von Limburg
She succeeded her father, Wilhelm and was married to Wilhelm von Buren and Gumprecht II von Neuenahr, and lived (1406-79).

Co-Heiresses of the Counties of Limpurg-Sontheim, Limpurg-Speckfeld and Limpurg-Gaildorf
The heirs had one vote in the the Bench of the Fränkische Gräfen in the Imperial Diet - as the countly Limpurgian Allodial-heirs (Die gräfliche Limpurgischen Allodialerben), which had a joint vote in the Imperial Diet. Also one vote in the Bench of Counts of Lords of the
Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Franken (Franconia)

After the death of the last male member of the house of Limpurg-Gaildorf, his daughters were in dispute with the Limpurg-Speckfeld line. In 1707 an agreement was reached between the 2 surviving Gaildorf-daughters and the Speckfelders, who devided the City of Gaildorf and the Lordship of Limpurg-Gaildorf, and the 2 daughters devided their part in 2 which resulted in the' lorships of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim and Limpurg-Gaildorf-Wurmbrand. After  the last male of the Speckfeld-line died in 1713,  the conflict over the Reichslehn (Imperial Tenantcy) esclated with Preussian occupation, and an agreement was not reached until 1746, and in the following years, the Lordships of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim and Limpurg-Gaildorf-Wurmbrand - as did the Allodial inheritance of the Speckfeldischen  - got more and more devided. Between 1780 and 1790 Württemberg bought more of these statelets.

The lordship of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Gaildorf included half of the Town of Gaildorf and a part of the Office (Amt) Gaildorf (Schönberg, Unterrot, Reippersberg, Michelbächle, Kleinaltdorf, Hägenau, Spöck, Ottendorf, Niederndorf) as well as the Offices of Oberrot, Fichtenberg, Seelach, Gschwend, Gröningen (Untergröningen), Eschach und die Waibelhube.


The lordship of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Schmiedelfeld included the other half of the Town and Office of Gaildorf (Bröckingen, Kieselberg, Münster, Eutendorf, Großaltdorf), the Office of Schmiedelfeld with Sulzbach, the Office Welzheim and a number of smaller Limpurgian possessions.

1655-63 and 1673-75 Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Juliana von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg of Limpurg-Schmiedelfeld and Gaildorf
After the death of her her first husband, Schenk Johann Wilhelm Limpurg zu Schmiedelfeld, she was in charge of the affairs of state in the name of her children, Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf (1652-90) and Sophia Eleonora (1655-1722) together with the counts, Wolfgang Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Waldenburg and Heinrich Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg. 1658 she signed an agreement with Barbara Dorothea von Öttingen-Öttingen after the death of Schenk Wilhelm Ludwig von Limpurg-Gaildorf, and 1663 she married Franz von Limpurg zu Speckfeld, who took over her membership in the Regency Council, until he died 10 years later. She lived (1623-95).

 
1690-1734 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana Dorothea I von Limpurg-Gaildorf of 24/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Wurmbradische Antheil)
According to the will of her father, Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf , she inherited parts of the county jointly with her sisters, 1707 she and her surviving sister Wilhelmina Christina decided to divide their half of the Town of Gaildorf and other possessions. But it was not until after the death of the last male member of the family that they were able to take up their inheritance in 1713. They also managed to protect their claims from the King of Prussia who had been named heir to by the brother of the last Schenk Vollrat, after a long court case before the Reichshofrat. No one disputed the right of the King to the Imperial Fiefs (Reichslehen) of Limpurg or those of the two sisters in the other fiefs, lands, estates and rights, the dispute was about the right to a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet and Circles (Reichs- and Kreistagen) as well as the "Reichsstandschaft" and sovereignty (Landesherrschaft). The two sisters were not content with just administering the estates and lands; from the beginning they saw themselves as "Reigning Countesses of the Realm in Limpurg (Regierende Reichsgräfinnen) with all the attached rights, including the right to be present at the Imperial Diet and the Frankish Circle. Prussia disputed this and had the vote of Limpurg suspended. Both the Countesses and Emperor protested and in 1721 a settlement was reached which granted them the right to sit in the two assemblies. She married Eucharius Kasimir von Löwenstein-Wertheim (d. 1698) and Johann-Wilhelm von Würmbrand-Stuppach, the President of the Council of the Court of the Realm (Reichshofratspräsident) and Advisor of the Austrian Emperor. She was succeeded by her daughters, Juliana Dorothea II von Löwenstein (1794-1734) and Maria Margaretha Leopoldine von Wurmbrand (1702-56), who married her cousin, Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Assenheim. Juliana Dorothea lived (1677-1734).
 
1690-1757 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf of 24/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Solms-Assenheimische Antheil)
Second daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was only able to take full possession of her inheritance after a lengthly battle with some male members of the family. 1700 she transferred the government of her Gaildorf Lands to her husband, Ludwig Heinrich, who from then on named himself Count Solms-Assenheim und Limpurg-Gaildorf. But she named a number of conditions, among others that she was to have full rights to the incomes of the Estate of Augustusburg and that her lands were to revert to her in the event of his death - and not be incorporated into the lands of Solms. In this way she took over the reigns again in 1728, at the same time as she became guardian for the two youngest sons Johann Ernst Karl von Solms-Assenheim (1714-90) and Karl Christian Heinrich (1716-45), which led to many years of dispute over the rights to the territories with the oldest Wilhelm Karl Ludwig zu Solms-Rödelheim (1699-1778) which resulted in a number of court-cases. In 1732 her heirs received a provisorial homage for the Lordship of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim, and after her death, her children, Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim, Gräfin Dorothea Sophia Wilhelmina von Waldeck-Pyrmont, Gräfin Eleonora Friderica Juliana von Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz and Gräfin Sophia Christiana Louisa von , took the necessary steps to secure their inheritance. She gave birth to a total of 15 children and lived (1679-1757).
 
1690-99 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliane Charlotte von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf
Also known as Juliana Charlotta, she was youngest daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf and Elisabeth Dorothea von Limburg-Gaildorf. Unmarried and never able to fully take up her inheritance as it was disputed by the last male member of the family until 1713. She lived (1685-99).
 
1690-1705 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Elisabeth von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf
Youngest daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf. A source decribes homage of the condomial lordship of Wurmbrand and Solm-Assenheim after the death of her sister, Juliane Charlotte and herself (Erbhuldigung auf die Kondominalherrschaften von Wurmbrand und von Solms-Assenheim nach dem Tode der Gräfinnen Juliana Charlotta und Sophia Elisabetha von Limpurg-Gaildorf ). She lived (1688-1705).


1705-17 Joint Sovereign Countess Albertine Susanne zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of 1/3rd of Limpurg-Speckfeld
She was daughter of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, whose brother of Volrath zu Limpurg-Sponheim left five daughters and co-heirs. Albertine was married to Friedrich von Welz, and succeeded by son, Friedrich Ernst.


1705-65 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Caroline Henriette zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of 1/3rd of Limpurg-Speckfeld
When the last male member of the family died in 1713, she and 9 other female heiresses (erbtöchter) took over the reign. She was second daughter of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld. She had no children with her husband Victor-Sigismund von Grävenitz.

1705-54 Joint Sovereign Countess Amalia Alexandra Friederike zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of 1/3rd of Limpurg-Speckfeld 
In dispute over the inheritance until 1713. She was third daughter of daughter of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, she was first married to Johann Georg von Wolframsdorf and secondly to Count Joachim von Rechteren (d. 1715) and succeeded first by oldest son Count Friedrich-Ludwig von Rechteren-Limburg, who was succeeded by his son Adolf Friedrich who reigned until 1819, until he was succeeded by Amalia's youngest son, Friedrich-Reinhald. Amalia, whose daughter, Josine-Elisabeth (d. 1738) and granddaughter by the same name were also co-heiresses, lived (1689-1754).

1713-35 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmina Sofia zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Amt Schmiedefeld)
The oldest daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Graf Rudolf von Prösing (d. 1718), and succeeded by daughter, Juliane Franziska.

1713-46
Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Magdalena zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Amt Gröningen)
Second daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Ludwig-Georg von Hessen-Homburg, and succeeded by daughter, Maria.

1713-38 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Eleonora zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Amt Michelbach)
Third daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Friedrich-Karl von Erbach (d. 1731) and succeeded by two daughters Sophia Christine and Friederike.

1713-46 Joint Sovereign Countess Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Amt Obersontheim)
Fourth daughter of daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Heinrich-Friedrich zu Löwenstein-Wertheim. She was succeeded by a number of sons among others Johann-Ludwig-Vollrath Friedrich-Ludwig, who married the daughters of her sister Sophia Eleonora: Friederike and Sophia-Christine. Her two daughters, Amoene Sophia II and Karoline Christiane also shared the inheritance. Amöne Sophia I lived (1684-1746).

1713-57 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike Auguste zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim [-Schmeidenfeld-Speckfeld]  (½ of Amt Sontheim-Gaildorf)
Fifth daughter of daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Christian-Heinrich von Schönburg-Waldenburg (d. 1753) and succeeded by daughter, Sophie Henriette Freiderike. She lived (1682-1757)
 
1734 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana Dorothea II von Löwenstein-Wertheim of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Wurmbrandische Antheil)
Succeeded her mother, Juliana Dorothea I von Limpurg-Gaildorf, and married to Heinrich I von Reuss zu Schleitz (d. 1744), and succeeded by daughter, Luise. She lived (1694-1734).
 
1734-73 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf
Second daughter of Juliana Dorothea I, she was married to Christian-Wilhelm von Sachsen-Gotha (d. 1748) and Johann August von Sachsen-Gotha (d. 1767), and succeeded by a daughter from each marriage, and lived (1726-73).
 
1734-56 Joint Sovereign Countess Maria Anna Margaretha von Wurmbrand-Stuppach of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf [-Wurmbrand]
Third daughter of Juliana Dorothea I (1677-1734), and also known as Mariana gebohrne Gräfin von Wurmbrand regierende Gräfin zu Limpurg-Gaildorf (Née Countess von Wurmbrand, reigning Countess of of Limpurg-Gaildrof), she married her cousin Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Assenheim, the son of her maternal aunt, Wilhelmine Christine, who inherited a fifth of his mother's half of Limpurg in 1758. They were succeeded by their daughter Christiane Wilhelmina, and lived (1702-56).


1735-75 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana Franziska von Prösing of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Amt Schmiedefeld)
Also known as Countess Von Prösing von Limburg, she was daughter of Wilhelmina-Sofia zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Rheingraf Karl-Vollrath zu Solm-Grumbach (d. 1768), and succeeded by son, Karl-Ludwig, who married Elisabeth-Christine von Leningen, Co-Heiress von Gaildorf and then to Friederike von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein, co-heiress von Sontheim (1767-1849). Juliana-Franziska lived (1709-75).  

1738-41 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Christine zu Erbach-Erbach of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim ( Amt of Michelbach)
Daughter of Sophia-Eleonora zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she married Friedrich Ludwig von Löwenstein, joint heir of Spontheim, trough his mother Amoene Sofie I. They had one daughter, Sophie Charlotte, who lived (1739-42). Friedrich-Ludwig remarried with Sophie Luise zu Solms Assenheim, who lived (1709-73). Sophia Christine lived (1716-41).

1738-86 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike zu Erbach-Erbach of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Amt of Michelbach)
Inherited the whole Amt of Michelbach. Sophia-Eleonora zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Johann-Ludwig-Vollrath von Löwenstein-Wertheim, brother of Friedrich Ludwig. They were succeeded by son, Johann Karl, who had two sons. Friederike lived (1722-86).

1746-77 Joint Sovereign Countess Maria Friederike Sophia Charlotte von Hessen-Homburg of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim [Limpurg-Gröningen] 
The daughter of Christiane-Magdalena zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Karl-Philipp von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Barstein, inherited the castle of Untergröningen, and was succeeded by son, Ludwig Leopold (1777-98-99).

1746-79 Joint Sovereign Countess Amöne Sophia II zu Löwenstein-Wertheim of 2/6th of Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim
She was daughter of Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and married to Bertrand-Philipp von Gronsfeld-Diepenbroick, and was succeeded by son, Johann Bertrand. She lived (1718-79).

1746-93 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline Christiane zu Löwenstein-Wertheim of a Part Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim
Youngest daughter of Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and married to Karl-Christian-Wilhelm von Pückler (d. 1786) and succeeded by daughter, Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline and two sons. Karoline Christiane lived (1719-93).

1746-57 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophie Henriette Frederike von Schönburg-Waldenburg of Amt Sontheim-Gaildorf within the Country of Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmiedenfeld-Speckfeld
Known as Countess von Rechteren Limpurg, she was the daughter of Friederike Auguste zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was first married to her cousin Johann Philipp von Löwenstein-Wertheim, who was son of her mother, Friederike Auguste's sister, Amoene Sophia I. Secondly married to her relative Friedrich Ernst von Weltz, the son of Albertine von Limburg-Speckfeld. Sophie was succeeded by daughter, Friederike-Amoene, and lived (1718-57).

1754-1804 Joint Sovereign Countess Josine-Elisabeth von Rechteren of a Portion of Limpurg-Speckfeld 
Also known as Countess von Rechteren Limpurg, she succeeded her mother, Amalia zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, had no children with her husband, August Friedrich von Hohenlohe, and lived (1738-1804/5).

1756-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Wilhelmina von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Wurmbrand 
1778-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim
First inherited the parts of her mother, Marina Margarethe von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, the daughter fo Juliana Dorothea I. 
received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the Lordship after the death of her father, Wilhelm Carl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim, but was in dispute over the inheritance with a relative, Johann Ernst Carl von Solms-Rödelheim. She married Fürst Friedrich Wilhelm zu Leiningen and was mother of 3 daughters and a son; Elisabeth Christiane Mariana zu Leiningen (1753-92) married to Karl Ludwig Wilhelm, wild-und rheingraf von Salm-Grumbach, Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen (1755-85) married to Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, Caroline Sophie Wilhelmine zu Leiningen (1757-1832) married to Friedrich Magnus I, Graf zu Solms-Laubach-Wildenfels and Emich Carl, Fürst zu Leiningen (1763-1814) who was married to Sophie Henriette Reuss-Ebersdorf and Viktoria von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld. She lived (1736-1803).

1757-65 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike Amöne von Löwenstein-Wertheim of Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmedenfeld-Speckfeld (Part of the Amt of Obersontheim)
Succeeded her mother, Sophia von Schönburg-Waldenburg and married her cousin Friedrich von Pückler, who was son of her father's sister Karoline Christiane. Friederike Amöne was succeeded in the standesherrschaft (State County) by her daughter, Karoline, and lived (1739-67).

1757-74 Joint Sovereign Countess Dorothea Sophie Wilhelmine von Solms-Assenheim of 6/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Solms-Assenheimeische Antheil)
Second daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was married to Josias von Waldeck-Bergheim (d. 1763), and succeeded by son and daughter, Karoline. Her decendants bought parts of the County Limpurg-Gaildorf and parts of Limpurg-Solms-Assenheim in 1806 and created a standesherrschaft (lordship) in Württemberg. She lived (1698-1774).

1
757-62 Joint Sovereign Countess Eleonore Friederike Juliane von Solms-Assenheim of 6/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
The daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was married to Karl-Friedrich von Isenburg und Büdinge in Meerholtz, was succeeded by son and daughter, Christine, and lived (1703-62). 

1757-78 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophie Luise Christiana von Solms-Assenheim of 6/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
Third daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was married to Friedrich Ludwig von , co-heir of Sontheim. They had no children. She lived (1709-73).

1757-72 Joint Sovereign Countess Charlotte Christina von Solms-Assenheim of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
Youngest daughter of Second daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was unmarried.

1762-1802 Joint Sovereign Countess Christine von Isenburg-Meerholtz of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
Daughter of Eleonora Friederika von Solms-Assenheim, she married Georg-Friedrich-Ludwig von Waldeck (d. 1771). She sold her part to her cousin Karl Ludwig, and died (1808).

1765-87 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline Sophie Luise Maria Henriette Leopolde von Pückler of a Portion of the Amt of Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim 
The unmarried daughter and successor of Friederike Amöne von Löwenstein-Wertheim (-Welz) (1739-65). After her death, her half-brother, Friedrich (son of her father in his second marriage), inherited her part of the possessions.

1773-89 Joint Sovereign Countess Auguste Luise Friederike von Sachsen-Coburg of 6/48 of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Wurmbrandische Antheil) 
Daughter of Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz and her first husband Christian Wilhelm von Sachsen-Gotha, she was married to Friedrich-Karl von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and lived (1752-1805).

1773-80 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise von Sachsen-Coburg of 6/48 of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Wurmbrandische Antheil)
Second daughter of Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz with her second husband, Johann August von Gotha-Gotha, she was married to Grand Duke Friedrich-Franz I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1756-1837), and lived (1756-1808).

1774-1801 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline von Waldeck-Pyrmont of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
Unmarried daughter and successor of Dorothea von Solms-Assenheim. Her brother Josias (1774-88) was succeeded by son, Karl who died in 1849, and first was succeeded by son Richard (1835-49-63) and then by daughter Mathilde (b. 1826), who was married to Karl von Aldenburg-Betnick.

1783-85 Joint Sovereign Countess Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen-Dagsburg of a portion of of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim
received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the lordship jointly with her husband,
Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, after her mother, Christinane Wilhelmine Luise von Solms-Rödelheim, had resigned the quater of the Lordship of which she was heir of. Charlotte was mother of 1 son and 3 daughters, and lived (1755-85).

1787 Joint Hereditary Countess Elisabeth Christiane Mariana zu Leiningen of a portion of of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim
received a "pre-hereditary homage" as joint heir of her mother,
 Christinane Wilhelmine Luise von Solms-Rödelheim, but it was retrieved just after. She was married to Karl Ludwig Wilhelm, wild-und rheingraf von Salm-Grumbach, mother of 2 daughters, and lived (1753-92).

1788-99 Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Christine Wilhelmine von Isenburg-Büdingen of a portion Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim (And Waldeck-Bergheim)
After the death of her husband, Josias Wilhelm Leopold von Waldeck-Bergheim, joint heir of Dorothea zu Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim, she took possession of the lordship and was hailed as, regent for their 4 surviving children, of whom Josias Wilhelm Karl, Graf zu Waldeck-Bergheim (1774-1802) did not have any chidlren, and the second, Karl, who was Count of Waldeck und Pyrmont and later also of Berghaim (1778-1849), and later bought the remaining parts of his brother and sister's parts of the portion of the lordship in their hand. Christine Wilhelmine was daughter of the Danish Countess Dorothea Reventlow and Gustav Friederich von Isenburg, and lived (1756-1826)


1793-1800 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline von Pückler of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim 
Successor of her mother, Karoline Christiane zu Löwenstein-Wertheim, she married Johann-Ludwig von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (d. 1796), who had previously been married to her older sister, Friederike Luise, who died 1772. She was succeeded by two sons and three daughters; Karoline, Friederike and Luise, and lived (1746-1800).


1800-33 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline Wilhelmine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim 
Daughter of Wilhelmine Henriette von Pückler, and married to Karl-Ludwig von Isenburg und Büdingen in Meerholtz (d. 1832). She sold her part to her relative Alexander von Pückler, and lived (1764-1833).

1800-49 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike Wilhelmine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim
The daughter of Wilhelmine Henriette von Pückler, she married Karl-Ludwig von Salm, Wild- und Rheingraf von Grumbach and Co-heir von Sontheim (d. 1799) and succeeded by son, Friedrich. She lived (1767-1849).
  

1800-28 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim
Daughter of Wilhelmine Henriette von Pückler, she was married to Emil von Bentheim-Tecklenburg (d. 1837) and succeeded by three sons, and lived (1768-1828).

1800-49 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmine Elisabeth Karoline von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of a Portion of the Amt Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Sontheim
The daughter of Wilhelmine Henriette von Pückler, she married Friedrich zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg, and lived (1773-1856).

1802-06 Sovereign Countess Luise zu Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz of a portion of the Amt of Obersontheim within the County of Limpurg-Gaildorf
Also Countess of Waldeck-Bergheim and succeeded mother Christina von Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz as co-heir and co-regent in Limpurg until it was incorporated into Württemberg in 1806. Married to Alexander Graf von Pückler. She lived (1770-1826).

1803-32
Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline Sophia von Leningen of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf [-Wormbrand]
Succeeded mother, Christiane Wilhelmina von Solms-Assenheim, and married Friedrich Magnus von Solms-Wildenfels.

1803-26 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise zu Erbach-Erbach of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
Daughter of Christiane Wilhelmina von Solms-Assenheim's daughter Luise Charlotte and Franz von Erbach, married to Alexander von Pückler, who bought part of the Limbourg-Possessions of their relative, Karoline Wilhelmine von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein. Luise was succeeded by daughter, Luise von Pückler.

1803-10 Joint Sovereign Countess Franziska Auguste von Salm-Grumbach of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
Daughter of Christiane Wilhelmina von Solms-Assenheim's daughter Elisabeth Christine, who died 1792, and Karl-Ludwig von Salm-Grumbach. She was married to Wilhelm von Solms-Braunfels, and succeeded by son, Wilhelmine Caroline

1808-19 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise von Pückler of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf 
Daughter of Louise Christiane Eleonore zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Meerholz (1770-1808) and Carl Alexander August von Pückler (1751-). 1819 she sold 1/48 to her relative and co-heir to the counties, Georg Friedrich Graf von Waldeck. She was married to Freiherr August von Röder and
known as Freifrau Luise von Röder, geborene Gräfin von Pückler-Limpurg.

1810-65 Titular Countess Wilhelmine Caroline von Salm-Grumbach of 12/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf
She inherited the part of her mother, Franziska Auguste (or Franciske), though the soverign rights had been incorporated into Württemberg. She was married to Alexus zu Bentheim und Steinfurt and her parts were inherited by her decendants.

1826-52 Reigning Lady Amalie Wirths Gräfin zu Waldeck-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg Gaildorf
Non noble daughter of a civil servant, her husband Georg Friedrich Karl von Waldeck-Pyrmont und Limpurg-Gaildorf, resigned his Princely Title upon their marriage and became Count von Waldeck-Limpurg (1785-1826). Since they had no children, she inherited his standesherrliche (State Countly) possessions, and after her death, they were inherited by her husband's nephew, Richard Kasimir Alexander Graf von Waldeck in Bergheim, who handed Waldeck-Limpurg over to her sister, Mechthilde. She lived (1785-1852)

1852-88 Reigning Lady Mechthilde Emma Charlotte von Waldeck-Bergheim of Waldeck-Limpurg (13/48th of Limpurg-Gaildorf)
Her brother, Richard Kasimir Alexander Graf von Waldeck und Pyrmunt, handed the standesherrschaft (State County) over to her after he inherited it from their aunt, Amalie zu Waldeck-Gaildorf. 1888 she handed it over to her second son, William Charles Philipp Otto Count Aldenburg-Bentinck, who used the Castle Middachten by Arnheim in the Netherlands and used Gaildorf
as summer-residence. She lived (1826-99).

1958- Isabelle von Bentinck und Waldeck-Limpurg of Waldeck-Limpurg
Daughter of
William Bentinck, Count Bentinck and Waldeck-Limpurg Count Aldenburg Bentinck (1880-1924-58), she married Graf Aurel Ladislaus Franz Heirich Ernst zu Ortenburg. Her one year older sister Sophie married an italian Count. She is (b. 1925-).



Ecclesiastical Territory of Lindau  (Gefürstete Damenstift Lindau am Bodensee (Royal Ladies Chapter) (In Bavaria) (See also Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)   

  

Lippe
Member of the College of the Counts of Westphalia, which shared a vote in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet. Also
member of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1429-33 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen-Einbeck
When her husband, Simon IV, died, her oldest son, Bernhard VII, was hardly one year old and she was pregnant with the second. She was in serious disputes with her brother-in-law, Otto, Dean of the Cathedral of Köln, who was named Guardian. In 1433 gave part of the Lordship as security for lones he took out in order to secure her dowry at the Castle Brake, where she moved - without her sons. Otto died the same year and Archbishop Dietrich von Moers of Köln, the brother of her mother-in-law Elisabeth, was named regent. She lived (Ca 1411-56).

1536-40 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Magdalena von Mansfeld
After the death of her husband, Simon V, she became guardian for her 8 year old son, Bernhard VIII, the 15. Noble Lord to Lippe and 2. Count to Lippe (Edler Herr und Graf zur Lippe), and Count Adolf von Schaumburg, Koadjutors von Köln, Count Jobst von Hoya were regents until 1438. She lived (1509-40).

1563-79 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Eisenberg
After the death of her husband, Bernhard VIII (1527-36-63), she was in disputes with the regents for her son Simon VI, mainly Count Hermann Simon zu Pyrmont (d. 1576). Her son was appointed Imperial Commissioner and was in charge of mediating heredtiary disputes and gained more and more importance as the years went by. She lived (1524-83).

1627-31 Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Magdalena von Waldeck-Wildungen
Her son Simon Ludwig (1610-27-36) succeeded his half-brother, Simon VII.  (1587-1613-27) under the regency of her father, count Christian zu Waldeck. She lived (1606-71).

1636-43 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Wildungen
After the death of her husband, Simons Ludwig, she claimed the regency for her Simon Philipp (1632-36-50), but since she was only 24 and therefore not fully of age - at the time one reached the age of majority at the age of 25 - she aspired to have her father, Christian von Waldeck named Co-Guardian or Contutor - he had already been regent for Simon Ludwig. Her claims were supported by the courts and Imperial decrees, but her brothers-in-law ignored her rights and were de-facto in charge of the regency. As she feared that her sons were in danger of being taken away from her, she made contact with some troops from Hessen-Darmstadt, who secured the children and placed them under the protection of Landgrave Georg II. von Hessen-Darmstadt. Her brother-in-law Johann Bernhard made plans to divide the county between him and another brother, but this alienated the Land-states who were now on Katharina's side. In 1640 Imperial troops attacked the Castle of Detmold, and disarmed her brothers-in-law, and took up negotiations with her. 10 years later her son died without heirs, and Johann Bernhard finally inherited the county two years before his death. His brother succeeded him. Katharina lived (1612-49)

1734-47 Regent Dowager Princess Johanette Wilhelmine von Nassau-Idstein-Wiesbaden of Lippe-Detmold
Widow of Simon Henrich Adolf, she was regent for son, Simon August (1727-34-82). She was daughter of Duke Georg August Samuel and Dorothera von Öttingen.


1782-89 Possible Guardian Dowager Countess Christine Charlotte zu Solms-Braunfels of Lippe-Detmold
The son of her husband Simon August from his second marriage, Leopold I.(1767-82-1802) was under guardiahship before beling placed under Quratorship 1790-95 by his realtive, Count Ludwig Heinrich Adolf zur Lippe. In 1789 Leopold was named Prince zur Lippe. His wife, Pauline von Anhalt became regent for their son in 1802. Christine Charlotte was the fourth wife of
Simon August, had no children, and lived (1744-1823).

1802-20 Regent Dowager Princess Pauline von Anhalt-Bernburg
Widow of Leopold II, Count 1782-89 and Prince 1789-1802. Regent for Leopold III (1800-1802-51) She lived (1769-1820)
.


1691 Regent Dowager Countess Susanna Sophia von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg
During the process of her confirmation as regent, the city of Speyer was destroyed and the next agnate (male member of the family), Count Eucharius Casimir von Löwenstein asked to become co-guardian Her son, Heinrich Friedrich (1682-1721), but she had deginated Albrecht Wolfgang von Hohenloe-Langenburg as the co-gardian, and he was confirmed by the Court of the Realm, Reichsgericht. She was widow of Friedrich Eberhard zu  (1629-83), and her son was married to the joint sovereign Countess Amöne Sophie von Limpurg (1684-1746). Susanna lived (1646-91).

The Bishopric of Lübeck and the Principality of Eutin

1727-28 “Supporter and guardian “ Albertine Friederike von Baden-Durlach of the Bishopric of Lübeck and the Principality of Eutin
When her 17 year old son, Adolf Friedrich von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp succeeded his brother as Prince-Bishop of Lübeck one year after the death of her husband Christian August von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (1673- 1726), she acted as his “supporter and guide”, according to the National Swedish Biography, because he was still a minor, and she also gave him her estates Stendorf, Mönch-Neversdorf and Lenzahn to provide him with an income. In 1751 he became king of Sweden. Her oldest daughter, Hedwig Sophie von Hostein-Gottorf (1705–1764), was Princess-Abbess of Herford, another Joanna Elisabeth von Hostein-Gottorf (1712- 1760), was regent of Anhalt-Zerbst (And mother of Catherine the Great of Russia). She had a total of 10 children and lived (1682-1755)

M

Magdeburg

9?? Metropolitana Edith of Germany
She was Emperor Otto I's first wife. (Date of tenure of office to be determined)

 

Manderscheid
Inherited the seat in the Imperial Circle Estate of Westphalia (Regional Assembly) from Blankenheim-Gerolstein

1548-53 De facto Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Wied-Runckel of Manderscheid-Blankenheim 
After the death of Arnold of Manderscheid-Blankenheim, two male relatives are appointed guardians of her children, but they does not seem to have taken much part in the governing of the county, and she was in fact the regent until her oldest son, Hermann, came of age. Two of her daughters became Princess-Abbesses of Essen - Elisabeth VI and VII and another, Margarethe was Abbess of Elten and Vreden. A son, Johann, was Prince-Bishop of Strassburg. Margarethe von Wied later married a Count of Bentheim, and (d. 1571).

1780-1811 Countess Augusta
Married to Christian Phillip von Sternberg - their son became Franz-Joseph von Sternberg-Manderscheid.



Mansfeld
The county was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Upper Saxonia

1486-1503 Regent Margaretha von Mansfeld of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort
After the death of her husband, Ernst I, she became regent for one year old son, Albrecht VII. She lived (1450-1531).

1546-60 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Amalie von Leising of Mansfeld-Vorderort zu Bornstädt, Dame de Penig
After the death of her husband, Philipp II (1502-46), she was regent for son, Bruno II (1545-1615). Their three other children died young. She was daughter of Hugo von Leisnig and Dorothea Schenkin von Landsberg, and lived (1508-60).

1567-79 Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort
After the death of her husband, Count Johann von Mansfeld, she became regent for son Ernst VI (1561-1609). She was daughter of Duke Ernst I von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Sofie von Mecklenburg, and lived (1534-96).

1632-37 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes Reuss zu Gera of Mansfeld zu Heldrugen,
After the death of her husband, Ernst Ludwig von Mansfeld, (1605-32) she became regent for son, Christoph Heinrich (1628-37) until his death. She was daughter of Heinrich II Reuss zu Plauen, Lord zu Lobenstein, Gera,  Herr zu Ober-Kranichfeld and his second wife n Magdalene von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and lived (1600-42).

1647-58 Regent Dowager Countess Barbara Magdalena von Mansfeld-Hinterort of Mansfeld-Eisleben
After the death of her husband,  Johann Georg II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, she was regent by his oldest son Hoyer Christoph II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, (1636-53) from his marriage to Barbara Maria zu Stolberg in Schwarza (1596-1636). Barbara Magdalena became regent for her own son, Johann Georg III, when he succeeded older half-brother at the age of 13.She was daughter of Count David von Mansfeld zu Schraplau (1573-1628) and his second wife, Juliane Marie Reuss zu Gera (1598-1650). She later married Anton von Werthern, Georg Andreas Schwab von Lichtenberg  and Georg Albert von Mansfeld-Vorderort (1642-96/97), and lived (1618-96).

1780-94 Countess Regnant Marie Isabella von Mansfeld-Vorderort-Bornstedt of Mansfeld, Princess of Fondi
The oldest daughter of Heinrich Paul Franz II, Count von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Fürst von Fondi and his second wife Marie Josefa Czerninova z Chudenicz, she was the sole heiress of the Mansfeld-Querfurt Line of the Conts of Mandsfeld. She had married the Bohemian Prince Franz Gundackar von Colloredo, and 1789 the Emperor of Austria granted them the right to merge their name and shields, and they founded the new line of Colloredo-Mansfeld. Anna Maria Isabella Ludmilla Johanna Adalberta Michaela Franziska was mother of nine children, and lived (1750-94).



Marck and Schleiden (Also see Arenberg)

1773 Sovereign Countess Louise-Marguerite von der Marck of Marck and Schleiden, Baroness of Lummen, Seraing-le-Château and Schaffenburg (Germany and France)
She succeeded her father, Ludwig-Peter de La Marck van Schleiden (1701-50-73), and married to Charles Marie Raymond de Ligne, Duc d'Arenberg et d'Aerschot (1721-78). Mother of eight children, and lived (1730-1820).

Mecklenburg-Güstrow

1720-56 Reigning Lady Duchess Augusta zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow of the Administrative Unit of Dargun
After the death of her mother, Dowager Grand Duchess Magdalene Sibylle von Holstein-Gottorp with whom she had lived at the Castle of Güstrow after the death of her father Gustav Adolf zu Mecklenburg, she was given the Amt as her appanage, and she set up a court with 150 employees became known as The Princess of Dargun. She introduced a number of reforms in her area, which consisted of 45 villages, especially within education and health and she founded schools in villages which had hitherto not had any. She was strongly influenced by the Pietist movement and gradually became more and more religious. She was in close contact with her relatives at various courts, especially the Danish and that of Sachen-Wernigerode, and lived (1674-1756)

Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Güstrow
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet. Also member of the Regional Assembly of the
Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Niedersächsischer Reichskreis)

1521-47 Reigning Lady Anna von Brandenburg of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz
1547-67 Reigning Dowager Lady
The wife of Albrecht VII of Mecklenburg she was given the territories (Städte und Ämter) as her dorwy for life.  Her husband died in 1547 and she moved to the renovated castle of Eldenburg. She was a devout Catholic, but in 1559 her son,
Johann Albrecht I expelled the munchs and priests from her lordship, which was the only place that had not joined the reformation.

1576-51 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna Sophie von Preussen of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz in Mecklenburg-Schwerin
She also resided at Eldenburg after the death of her husband, Johann-Albrecht I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was mother of 3 sons, and  lived (1527-91)

1592-1608 Guardian Dowager Duchess Sophie von Holstein-Gottorp of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Güstrow (Germany)
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Offices of Rehna, Wittenburg and Lübz
1603-08 Administrator of Schwerin
After her husband, Duke Johann VII of  (1558-76-92) committed suicide at Stargard, she became guardian for her sons, Duke Adolf Friedrich I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628) and Johann Albrecht II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (1590-92-1610-36) and yielded substantial influence over the government in Schwerin. After the death of her brother-in-law Sigismund August was Duke (1576-1603) and his uncle, Ulrich III (1603) she signed a treaty with the new Duke Karl which left her with the administration of Schwerin until her sons came of age. She was engaged in heavy disputes with the Treasurer Andreas Meier, whom she accused of fraud and she demeaned to have the financial control transferred to her at the Assemblies of 1604 and 1606, but it was denied. She was active in trade and commerce and modernised her residence in her dowries where she possessed full sovereignty over her dowries except the role as fief-overlord over the nobility. But her territories were occupied several times during the Thirty Years War. Her sons accused her of mismanagement and their relationship was never good. She lived (1569-1634).

1636-37 Designate Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Eleonora Maria von Anhalt-Bernburg of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
She was
the third wife of her husband, Johann Albrecht II von Mecklenburg-Güstrow, and gave birth to his first surviving son, Gustav Adolf, in 1633. He named her, as regent and guardian in his will, jointly with the reformed Elector Kurfürst Georg Wilhelm von Brandenburg. Johann Albrecht wanted his son to be raised in the Calvinist faith, but the Lutheran duke Adolf Friedrich von Mecklenburg-Schwerin protested. He demanded that she withdrew to her dowry in Strelitz and left the child with him. At the funeral the present princes tried to mediate but failed, she refused to close her Calvinist chapel. Her opponents tried to oust her from the castle with all means. Adolf Friedrich kidnapped his nephew from the Castle of Güstrow and raised him with his own children in the Lutheran faith in Bützow, and he also took over the guardianship of Güstrow. She appealed at the Emperor and was confirmed as regent in 1639 (got reichshofrätliche Bestätigung), and tried to find support in Sweden. Even though Adolf Friedrich harassed her, she did not move to her dowry until 1644, and from then on her 11-year-old son lived at Güstrow Castle. At the same time the Swedish, Imperial and Prussian troops crossed through Mecklenburg several times, causing much looting and hardship. Also mother of three daughters, she lived (1600-57).

1658/1661-65 Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Maria Catharina von Braunschweig-Danneberg
When her husband, Adolf-Friederich I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628-58) died, she became regent for her newborn son, Adolf-Friederick II, who became Duke of Strelitz (1658-1708). On 14.02.1661 she and her stepsons got imperial confirmation of the regency (reichshofrätliche Bestätigung). Her oldest stepson was Christian Ludwig I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1623-92) the other  Karl von Mecklenburg-Mirow. Her oldest son was Friederick von Mecklenburg Grabow (1638-58-88). Of her 11 children, her daughters Christine (1639-93) and Marie Elisabeth (1646-1713) were Princess-Abbesss of Gandersheim Maria Catharina lived (1616-65).

1673 Regent Duchess Isabelle Angélique de Montmorency
Her husband, Christian Ludwig I, appointed her regent during his absence in the war against the Netherlands. They had married in 1664 but she had remained in France where she was deeply involved in the political affairs, but her pro-French and her relationship with Kammerjunker Bernstorff and she soon returned to France. She had been married to the Hugenot Gaspard IV. de Coligny, Duke de Châtillon, who was killed in a duel after a few years. Her posthumously born son, Gaspard, died in 1657. During the Fronde she supported the Prince de Condé, who was finally defeated by Cardinal Mazarin, which ended the independent position of the nobility. King Louis XIV considered her as expert in German Affairs and sent her at a diplomatic mission to Braunschweig where she managed to recruit Hannover as French allied. She was daughter of François III de Montmorency-Boutteville, Count de Luxé and Elisabeth Angélique de Vienne and lived (1627-95).

1713-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sofia Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel of the Administrative Office of Bützow in Mecklenburg-Schwerin
After the death of her husband, Duke Friederich Wilhelm zu Mecklenburg in Schwerin, she took over her dorwy, the Amt Bützow-Land, where
she set up a court in her dowry, which formed a small German Reformed congregation, which survived after her death. She did not have any children but her husband had at least 9 with different misstresses. She was daughter of Landgraf Karl von Hessen-Kassel, and lived (1678-1749)

 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz

1709-51 Reging Dowager Lady Christiane Emilie Antonie zu Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Mirow
After After the death of her husband Duke Adolf Friedrich II von Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was mother of 2 children

Sophie Christine Louise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1706-08) and Karl Friedrich Ludwig Herzog zu Mecklenburg, Prinz zu Mirow (1708-52). She lived (1681-1751)


1752-53 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Albertine von Sachsen-Hildburghausen
1753-62 Reigning Dowager Lady of Mirow
Her son, Adolf Friederich IV (1738-94), succeeded his uncle Adolf Friederich III in December 1752 since her husband, Karl Ludwig Friederich zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz zu Mirow had died in June the same year, and she acted as regent for a year. As guardian for her younger children, she signed the "Successionagreement" (andesgrundgesetzlichen Erbvergleich (LGGEV)) in 1755, which resulted in a new consitution in the Duchy which consolidated the powers of the nobility (Ritterschaft) and conserved the backward position of the area wich lasted until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Her only daughter, Sophie Charlotte, was married to King Georges III of Great Britain. She lived (1713-61).

 
Mecklenburg-Wismar

1222-27 Regent Dowager Duchess Katarina von Lauenburg

Meissen (Meißen) (later part of Sachsen)

1221-30 Regent Dowager Margravine Jutta von Thüringen of Meissen
After the death of her husband, Markgraf Dietrich von Meißen, she was regent for her 5 year old son, Heinrich, jointly with her brother, Landgrave Landgraf Ludwig IV von Thüringen who tried to incorporate the Margravate in his territories, but she fought back. In 1223 she married Count Poppo VII von Henneberg and together they fought off her brother. She was daughter of Landgave Heinrich I, Count Palatine of Sachsen and Heiress Presumptive (Eventualerbin) to Thüringen and Sachsen, and her son eventually became Landgave and Count Palatine of the two territories in 1247. She was mother of 5 children by her first husband and 3 by her second, and lived (circa 1183-1235).


1381-90 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Henneberg of the Osterland, Landsberg, Pleißnerland, Orlamünde, Kahla, Jena und Naumburg (Saale)
1381-97 Reigning Dowager Lady of Coburg and Weißenfels
Ruled in the name of sons Friedrich, Wilhelm and Georg, who divieded the margravates of Thüringen and Meissen with their uncles after the death of her husband Margrave Friederich, who had named her as the regent in his will. Her father Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen (d. 1347) named her heir of Coburg together with her mother Jutta von Brandenburg (d. 1453) and 3 sisters, while the rest of the Henneberg territory went to his brother Johann. The surviving sons, Friedrich IV (1370-1428), Wilhelm II (1371-1425) and Georg (1380-1402) later inherited Thüringen and Meissen from their uncles. She lived (1334-97)


1323-29 Regent Dowager Margravine Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk of Meissen
1329-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of Gotha
When her husband, Friedrich I. von Meißen (1257 -1323) died, she became regent for their son, Friedrich II. Landgraf von
Thüringen und Markgraf von Meißen (1310-49). She was daughter of Elisabeth von Orlamünde and Lord Otto zu Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, who died when she was 4 and after whom she inherited castles of Arnshaugk bei Neustadt an der Orla, Triptis, and Oppurg and lands in the area around Schleiz, and also mother of one daughter, Elisabeth (1306 -1367), who married Heinrich II. von Hessen. Elisabeth von Arnshaugk lived (circa 1284-1359).

1381 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Henneberg
Regent for Sons



Montfort-Tettnang
The county of Tettnang was member of the Bench of the The Bench of Counts and Lords of the Swabian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1520-25 City Regent Dowager Countess Magdalena von Öttingen
After the death of her husband Count Ulrich VII, she was named regent of the city (Stadtregentin). In 1521 Emperor Karl V gave her Blutbann as a fief and in 1525 she was faced with a peasant uprising. Her second husband was Count Johann I von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg (d. 1529). After her death, Emperor Karl V gave the county as a fief to her nephew, Hugo XVI von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg, Count of Montfort-Tettnag, who was first married to her granddaughter, Maria Magdalena von Schwarzenberg zu Hohenlandsberg (1510-43), the oldest of the 14 children of her daughter, Eva von Montfort-Tettnang (1494-27). Another of Eva's daughters, Maria Jakobe (1515-94) was Princess-Abbess of Buchau. Magdalena lived (1473-1525).

 

Muskau

1625-74 Sovereign Lady Ursula Catharina zu Donha
Succeeded her father, Burggraf and Graf Karl Christoph zu Dohna, Herr zu Muskau (1595-1625), initially under the regency of her mother, Ursula von der Schulenburg-Lieberose. Married to Curt Reincke von Callenberg. She lived (1622-74).

1625- Ursula von der Schulenburg-Lieberose
After the death of her husband, Karl Christoph, she was regent for their 2 year old daughter.

1709-14 Regent Doager Sovereign Lady Ursula Regine Marie von Friesen von Muskau
After the death of her husband, Count Curt Reinicke von Callenberg (165-1709) she was in charge of the government in the name of her son, Johann Alexander Graf von Callenberg. She lived (1658-1714).

1785-99 Sovereign Lady Clementine Cunigunde von Callenberg
Her father Georg Alexander Heinrich Hermann Graf von Callenberg, transferred the Standesherschaft to her and her husband, Ludwig von Pückler auf Branitz, they divorced 1799, when she married Curt Friedrich August von Seydewitz. After her first husband's death, her son, Ludwig Heinrich Hermann, Count and later Prince von Pückler took over as Standesherr von Muskau. She lived (1770-1850)




N

Nassau

13....Reigning Dowager Lady  Irmgard von Isenburg of Burg Grebenhausen (Wasserburg)
Widow of Count Gerlach

Nassau in Diez (Dietz)
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet

1632-42 Regent Dowager Countess Sophia Hedwig of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
Also Countess Regnant of Spigelberg 1631-42. Widow of Ernst Kasimir, Count of Nassau, Katzenelnbogen, Vianden and Diez, Baron of Dillenburg, Governor of Rhineberk, Lieutenant-governor of Gelderland and of Utrecht, Stadtholder of Friesland 1620 and of Groningen and Drenthe in 1625. She was regent for Hendrik Casimir I and lived (1592-1642)

1664-79 Regent Dowager Princess Albertina Agnes van Oranje-Nassau  
1679-96 Reigning Dowager Lady of Oranienburg
Born as Countess of Nassau-Katzenelnbogen-Viaden-Diez-Buren-Leerdam-Lingen and Moers, and was also regent for son Hendrik Casimir II in
and Friesland, Groningen and Drente. She lived (1634-96)

1696-1708 Regent Dowager Princess Henriëtte Amalia Maria von Anhalt-Dessau
Also Governess-General of Friesland, Groningen and Drente and 1702-07 Regent in Oranje/Orange. She lived (1666-1726).

 

Nassau-Ottweiler

1593-1616 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Weilburg
Widow of Count Albrecht
von Nassau-Ottweiler, Ottweiler, Hohenburg, Kircheim, Lahr and Mahlberg, a leading follower of the reformation and diplomat. Mother of 14 children and lived (1541-1616).

 

Nassau-Saarbrücken (Also see Saarbrücken)
Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1429-38 Regent Dowager Countess Elisabeth de Vaudemont of Nassau-Saarbrücken
She was daughter of Duke Freiderich of Lorraine and Marguerite de Vaudémont-Joinville and grew up in the boarder-area between France and Germany and was bilingual. After the death of her husband Count Philipp I. she took over the regency of the country for her under-age sons. She translated four "Chanson de geste" in German and wrote her own novels and is known as the first German female author . (After 1393-1456).

1677-81 Regent Dowager Duchess Eleonore Clara von Hohenlohe-Gleichen of Nassau-Saarbrücken
After her husband, Gustav Adolf von
Nassau-Saarbrücken, fell in battle after an engagement at Kochersberg, she was regent for son, Ludwig Kraft von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1663-77-1713). During her reign, she abolished the serfdom in the county in a proclamation with the titulature: "Wir Eleonore Clara, Verwittibte Gräfin und Vormünderin zu Nassau Saarbrücken und Saarwehrden, Frau zu Lahr und Wiesbaden und Jdstein, geb. Gräfin von Hohenlohe u. Gleichen, Frau zu Laneenburg u. Granichfeld. She lived (1632-1709).

1735-38 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Amalia zu Nassau-Dillenburg of Nassau-Idstein and Nassau-Saarbrücken
See Nassau-Usingen
 

Nassau-Siegen
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet

1638-45 Regent Dowager Countess Ernestine de Ligne
After the death of her husband, Johann VIII of Nassau-Siegen, Marchese di Monte Caballo, (1583-1638) regent for their son, Johann Franz Desideratus, who was created Fürst of Nassau-Siegen, in 1652. He lived (1627-99). In 1650 she signed the treaty re-establishing the Stift of Keppel, which was ruled by a Princess-Abbess but under the sovereignty of Nassau with the titulature "ihre fürstliche Gnaden, die fraw Princessin Ernestine de Ligne und des Reichs verwittibte grävin zu Nassau Siegen". She lived (1594-1663).



Nassau-Usingen
Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1718-34 Regent Dowager Princess Charlotte Amalia von Nassau-Dillenburg of Nassau-Usingen (Germany)
1735-38 Reigning Dowager Lady of Saarbrücken
After the death of her husband, Fürst Wilhelm Heinrich (1684-1702-18) she was regent for son sons, Karl (1712-18-75) and Wilhelm Heinrich (1718-68). She turned the principality into a "modern" state. She reformed the administration was reformed and eparated it from the court. She created a national archive in the Castle of Idstein, which founded the basis of the Archives of Hessen and she created a library which founds the basis for the National Library of Hessen today. She also introduced schools, but she limited the rights of the Jewish community. But she was not able to give the Principality a "suitable" place in the Empire, and even allowed her sons to split up the country, which weakened the state a lot. 1734 Karl was declared to be of age by Emperor Karl VI but she continued as regent for Wilhelm Heinrich, who became Duke of Saarbrücken, Ottweiler, Jugenhein and Wöllstein in 1735/42. She lived (1680-1738).

Nassau-Weilburg

1597-1628 Reigning Dowager Lady Erika von Isenburg-Birstein of the Castle and Administrative Office of Burgschwalbach
Widow of Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg, she died in Berleburg where her the youngest of her 2 daughters,
Elisabeth Juliane (1598-1647) was married to Count Ludwig Kasimir von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1643) and Count Georg von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1680). The oldest, Anna (1597-1645) was married to Count Friedrich X von Leiningen-Dagsburg. She lived (1569-1628).

1593-1616 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of the Lordship of Wehen
The lordship was poor and she managed to revitalise the economy and build a school in the area. She was widow of
Albrecht von Nassau-Weilburg in Ottweiler, Hohenburg, Kirchheim, Lahr and Mahlberg (1559-74-93),  and lived (1541-1616).

1602-55 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Elisabeth of Hessen-Darmstad of Wehen
The first years, she resided at the Castle of Wehen together with her mother-in-law, Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg, and after her death, she took over the reign of the lordship. She was widow of a younger son, Count Johann Kasimir von Nassau-Gleiberg (1593-1602), who died the year after their marriage.  Her only daughter, Anna Eleonore was born 6 months after her father's death, and later married
Duke Ludwig Friedrich of Württemberg-Mömpelgard (1586 +26.1.1631). Elisabeth lived (1579-1655)

 
1675-78 Joint Gardian Dowager Countess Christiane Elisabeth von Sayn-Wittgenstein of Nassau-Weilburg
When her husband, Friedrich von Nassau-Weilburg (1640-75), died after a fall from a horse, her sons, Johann Ernst and Friedrich Ludwig (1665-84), were placed under guardianship with her and Johann von Nassau-Idstein and after his death in 1679 Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Ottweiler, and her sons lived with him in Ottweiler until they came of age. She lived (1646-78).


Neuburg

1248-63 Hereditary Countess Agnes von Andechs-Meranien of the Counties of Neuburg and Schärding am unteren Inn in Krain and Ried
She was daughter of Duke Otto VII von Meran and Beatrix von Bourgogne, and after her brother Otto VIII, she was the last of the dynasty of Andechs. First married to Freiederich II of Österreich and after their divorce in 1243 to Duke Ulrich von Kärnten. She did not have any children, and lived (circa 1215-63). 



Neuenahr and Limburg

1578-1600 Sovereign Lady Anna Walburga von Neuenahr-Bedburg of Moers, Bedburg, Garsforf, Rosberg (Germany)
She succeeded her brother Hermann. Moers was occupied to by the Archbishopcy of Köln 1584-88, by Maurits van Oranje 1588-94, Bedburg and Garsdorf was claimed by Adolf Bentheim-Steinfurt and Roesberg was held by the Ketler family 1578-circa 1595 until she sold the lordship to this family. She was first married to Philipp von Hoorn and in 1575 to Adolf von Neuenahr. In 1594 she transferred Moers to Maurits and installed Adolf as heir in Bedburg. She lived (1522-1600)

1589-1602 Sovereign Countess Amelie von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Acting Hereditary Marshal of the Diocese of Köln, Acting Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Lennep (The Netherlands and Germany)
She was in charge of Vianden and a number of attatched possessions 1579-87
as an inheritance from her first husband, Heinrich von Brederode (1531-68). She married Friedrich II von der Pfalz in 1569, but he died in 1576. In 1589 she inherited Limburg from her halfbrother, Anton. The county had been occupied by the Diocise of Köln since 1584. In 1590 she was  was given the rights of use of Alpen, Helpenstein, Lennep and Erbvogtei of Köln by her half-sitster, Magdalena, who was the owner of the territories after the death of their brother. Alpen was occupied by the Republic of the Netherlands in 1597 and the following year by the Spanish Low Countries wich also occopied. Helpenstein and the Stewardship of Köln. 1600 she took possession of Alpen and, she still held the right of Linnep and Limburg, and was succeeded by sister, Magdalena,  the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575. Also known as Amalia, she was daughter of Gumprecht II. von Neuenahr-Alpen, Count of Limburg (1505-1552/1556) and Carda von Schaumburg (d. 1540) in her second marriage, and lived (1539-1602)

1602-27 Sovereign Countess Magdalena von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Hereditary Marshall of the Diocese of Köln, Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Linnep 
1610-12 Regent of Bentheim-Steinfurt 
She inherited Helpenstein, Linnep, Erbvogtei Köln, Alpen and Hackenbroich from her brother, Anton, in 1589 and the following year she gave her half-sister, Amalia, the right of use to the lordsphis. On the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575 she inherited Limburg after the death of Amalia in 1602. The Archbischopcy Köln had occupied Limburg since 1584, but gave it back to her in 1610. She installed her son Konrad Gumprecht as Commissioner and resigned Limburg and Linnep in his favour in 1616. The territory of her husband was also occupied by troops from Köln, and it was not until four years after the death of her husband, Arnold III, that she was able to take over the regency for her son, Konrad Gumprect von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1585-1618) After Konrad Gumprecht's death she installed his widow, Johanette Elisabeth as regent in Limburg and transfers Linnep to her as dowry. Magdalena was daughter of Gumbrecht II von Neuenahr-Alpen of Limburg and Amöna von Dhaun, and remained influential to her death, and lived (1551-1627).

1618-54 Regent Dowager Countess Johannetta Elisabeth von Nassau-Katzenelnbogen of Bentheim- Limburg und Burg
Widow of Count Konrad Gumprecht, she was regent for son Wilhelm, who died in 1626, and then for his successor - a nephew - Count Moritz von Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda. She was in charge of in Limburg and Burg during the Thirty Years War, which left the county devastated. In 1633 she had to flee to her sister's residence in Fürstenau, and the same year the county was hit by plague. She returned in 1637 and managed to keep the county within the Bentheim family. She lived (1592-1654). 



Neu-Leiningen
The county was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Upper Rhine

1726-39 Regent Countess Dowager Margrethe Christiane Augusta Danneskiold-Laurvig
Widow of Karl-Ludwig of Neu-Leiningen-Westerburg and regent for her two sons Georg Karl I August Ludwig (1717-26-87) and Georg Ernst Ludwig (1718-26-59-65) who were joint rulers. She was daughter of Count Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve (natural son of king Frederik III of Denmark), and Countess Antoniette Augusta von Altenburg (natural line of the Counts of Oldenburg). Margareta lived (1694-1761).

 

Ecclesiastical Territory of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Reichsstift Niedermünster in Regensburg - Chapter of the Realm) (In Bavaria) Also see Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)



Nisangau

1086-1108 Heiress Judith von Böhmen of Nisangau and the Land Bautzen and the Area Around Dresden

 

Nordamark

1003-07 Regent Dowager Countess Godila von Rothenburg of… and Guardian of Nordmark 


O

Ecclesiastical State of Obermünster in Regensburg (Reichsunmittelbaren adeligen Damenstift Obermünster - The Free Noble Ladies Chapter) (In Bavaria)

(See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

 

Oettingen-Oettingen und Oettingen-Wallerstein and the Lordships of Ober- and Unterwallbach and Eberstall

1802-18 Regent Dowager Princess Wilhelmine Friederike von Württemberg
After the death of her husband, Kraft Ernst (1748-1802), she was regent for son, Ludwig Kraft until the principality was mediatized, which changed its position as sovereign houses, but it kept important political privileges and juridical rights, and she reigned the territory until her death. Mother of 12 children: Ludwig Kraft (1791-1870), Karl Kraft Ludwig (1792-95), Friederich Kraft (1793-1842), Franz Ludwig Kraft (1795-1813), Karl Anselm (1796-1842), Sophie (1797-1880), Marie Charlotte Therese (1798-1804), Franz Joseph Karl (1799-1800) and Marie Therese (1799-1859), Louise (1801), Charlotte Wilhelmine Sophie (1802-93) and Marie Ernestine (1803-72) (born 9 months after the death of her father) and a step-daughter Friederike Sophie Therese Antonie (1776-1831). She lived (1764-1817)



Lordship of Oberschloss zu Kranichfeld and its Villages

1630-52 Reigning Lady Anna Sophia von Anhalt zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
She was widow of Count Carl Günther zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, who acquired the Oberschloss zu Kranichfeld in 1620, and she reigned there after his death. They had no children and the county of Schwarzburg was inherited by her brother-in-law, Anthon. Kranichfeld was divided in the Oberschloss and Niederburg and it meant that many streets, houses and even rooms were divided between the different overlords. Anna Sophia had the village given city rights in 1651. She was preoccupied with youth and education and she founded an Academy for women, she was a poet, philosopher, and lived (1584-1652).

 

Oldenburg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and m
ember of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1667-96 Dowager Countess Sophia Katharina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
After her husband, Anton Gunther von Oldenburg (1583-1667) died, his inheritance was split up because they had no children and his natural son, Reichsgraf Anton I zu Aldenburg did not have any rights of inheritance. The county was inherited by the King of Denmark, she remained in charge of parts of it as her dowry and resided at the Castle of Neuenburg. She was daughter of Duke Alexander of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg and Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and lived (1617-96).



Ortenburg
Member of the College of the Counts of Wetterau which held a joint vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet and
member of the Secular Bench of the Bavarian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1702-04 Regent Dowager Countess Amalia Regina von Zinzendorf
After the death of her husband,
Georg Philipp von Ortenburg (1655-1702) she became regent for their son, Johan George (1686-1725
). She reformed the school-system and introduced compulsory primary education.
She lived (1663-1709).

1725-35 Regent Dowager Countess Marie Albertine von Nassau-Saarbrücken in Usingen
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg she took over thet government in the name of her 10 year old son, Karl III. (1715-76). She tried to strenghten the position of the inhabitants of the county, which was isolated between the Electorate of Bavaria and the Immediate Abbey of Passau, and asked for the right of citizenship first by the Elector and then by the government of Landshut, which was positive, but it was never realized. Of her 3 sons 1 survived into adulthood and so did 5 of her 6 daughters. She lived (1686-1768).

1787-91 Regent Dowager Countess Christiane Luise von Salm zu Gaugrehweiler
After the death of her husband, Count Karl Albrecht zu Ortenburg (1743-87) she became regent for son, Joseph Karl, Count and Lord zu Tambach, Lord zu Birkenfeld etc. (1780-1831). She was in charge of the government during the second Napolian war, and she used all of her authority to limit the suffering of her people caused by the troops that marched through the county, and because of her intervention the county was recognized as neutral. She was born as Wild- und Rheingräfin zu Gaugrehweiler
, and lived
(1754-1826).

 

Ostfriesland (Also see Criechingen and Rietberg)
Member of the
Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly), and possibly also of the Imperial Diet

1391-1409 Regent Dowager Chiefess Foelkeldis
After her husband Ocko fell in battle in 1391, she was regent for sons Widzelt (d. 1399) and Keno II (1391-1417).


1466-94 Regent Dowager Countess Theda Ukena
She was granddaughter of the Friesian chief Fokko Ukena and married Ulrich Cirksena who was created count of Ostfriesland in 1454 one year after their marriage. After his death she was first regent for son Enno I, who drowned in 1491 and then for Edzard I. She successfully led her troops in warfare against other major chiefs and counts in the Friesland area.

1540-65 Regent Dowager Countess Anna von Oldenburg
She lived (1501-75)

1561-99 Politically Influential Countess Katharina Vasa av Sverige of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1565-1610 Reigning Lady of Pewsum including the Manningaburg and the Mill of Pewsum
1599-1610 Dowager Lady of the Amt Norden and Berum, Woquard Loquard and Campen
Katharin Wasa was influential during the reign of her husband, Edzard II von Ostfriesland and was an active participants with her brother-in-law, the joint ruler with her husband. She used her dowry to buy the Lordship of Pewsum and she extended the castle of Manningaburg. She was very active with charity work. When her husband died, she demanded the soverignty of the administrative offices she was given as her dowry, but her son, Enno III, maintained that she would only recieve the incomes from the lands as stipulated in her marriage contract, but she only accepted this after he sent 200 soldiers to the area. She was daughter of king Gustav I Vasaother of 6 sons and 5 daughters and lived (1539-1610)

1648-51 Regent Dowager Countess Juliane von Hessen of Ostfriesland 
She was widow of Count Ulrich II and was regent for Enno Ludwig, 1st Prince of Ostfriesland. Her reign was marked by the 30th War and plague, but she managed to bring the territory trough the worst ordeals. She lived (1606-59).

1656-77 Reiging Dowager Lady Juliana Sophia von Barby-Mühlingen of the Administrative Office of Pewsum
Her husband, Enno Ludwig I, Graf and Fürst von Ostfriesland transferred the Office to her as her dowry. She was daughter of Count Albrecht Friedrich and Sophia Ursula of Oldenburg in Delmenhorst, and mother of 2 daughters. (1636-77)


1665-90 Regent Dowager Princess Christine Charlotte von Württemberg-Stuttgart
1690-99 Reiging Dowager of the Administrative Office of Pewsum
She was regent for Christian Eberhard, who was born after his father, Georg Christian's death. She held Pewsum as her dowry, and lived (1645-1699).


Öttingen-Baldern und Dahstuhl

1798 Sovereign Countess Philippine Karoline
She succeeded Friedrich-Wilhelm-Notger-Joseph (1725-78-98) and married Rudolf Count and Prince de Colloredo-Mansfeld (1776-1843). The county was occupied by French forces in 1798. She lived (1776-1842).


P

Parkstein
As Lady of Reitpolskirchen, she had a seat in the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Upper Rhine

1777-... Sovereign Countess Karolina Franziska Dorothea zu Pfalz-Zweibrücken
She was a natural daughter of Karl-Theodor, Elector and Count-Palatine and married to Prince Friedrich-Wilhelm zu Isenburg-Birstein. It is not clear when the county was incorporated into one of the other German states. Also Lady of Reitpolskirchen etc. She lived (1762-1816).



Pfalz (The Palantine)

1535-38 Regent Dowager Electress Mechtild von Savoien-Achaien
From 1430 the progressing blindness of her husband Ludwig III von Wittelsbach, Elector of the Palatine, forced him to transfer more and more of his powers to his brother, Otto, and in 1435 she was appointed joint regent together with brother-in-law and a Council of 25. The following year she became regent for her son, Ludwig IV after his death, but died before he came of age. She lived (1390-1438)

 1556-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Dorothea af Danmark og Norge of Neumarkt in Pfalz
After the death of her brother, Hans, in 1532, she was considered a serious contender to the Danish and Norwegian Throne by her Habsburg relatives, who still supported her father, Christian 2, who had been imprisoned and died in prison in 1559. Her mother, Elisabeth von Habsburg (Isabel of Spain), died 1526 and together with her brother and sister, she grew up at the court of her grat-aunt and aunt, the Governor Generals of the Netherlands, Margaret I and Maria. She was married to Friedrich II von Pfalz (1482-1556). After his death, she transferred her claims to the Danish throne to her sister, Christine, Regent of Lorraine from 1545. In spite of her Catholic relatives and the new Calvinist Elector of the Palitinate, she kept her Lutheran faith in her dowry where she lead a lavish life and remained in close contact with her Habsburg relatives for the rest of her life. She did not have any children, and lived (1520-80).

1610-14 Dowager Countess Luisa Juliana van Oranje
For son king Friedrich V (The "Winther-King" of Bohemia). Her sisters Catharina Belgica van Oranje was regent in Hannau and the Dowager Landgravine zu Hessen-Kassel, Amalia van Oranje, had a major role in the Thirty Years War, and leader of the Evangelican States at the Westphalian Congress (1637-after 1647)

1618-19 Joint Administrator Elizabeth Stuart
Already as a child she was involved in intrigue as part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to put her onto the throne of England (and, presumably, Scotland) as a Catholic monarch, after assassinating her father and the Protestant English aristocracy. In 1613 she married Elector Palatine Friedrich V. (1596-1632) and soon became a dominating force at her husband's court because of her energy and strong personality. In her husband appointed xxx as administrator and it seems that she was given a joint role in the government during his absence. in 1610. In 1619 the Protestant estates of Bohemia rebelled against the Roman Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and offered the crown of Bohemia to her husband as an influential member of the Evangelical Union.. After he accepted the crown his allies in the Union abandoned him, and his brief reign as the King of Bohemia ended with his defeat at the Battle of White Mountain only two months after their coronation - and earned him the derisive nickname of 'the Winter King'. After this battle Imperial forces invaded the Palatinate lands and they had flee to Holland in 1622. An Imperial edict formally deprived him of the Palatinate in 1623. He lived the rest of his life in exile with his wife and family at the Hague, where she remained for another 28 years until the Restoration of the British monarchy, when she travelled  to London to visit her nephew, King Charles II, and died while there. Among their 13 children was Karl Ludwig (1617-1680), who regained the Palatinate at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Elizabeth, Princess-Abbess of Herford (1618-1680) and the later Electress Sophie of Hannover and Heir to the English throne (1630-1714). She was the eldest daughter of James of Scotland and Great Britain and Anne of Denmark, and lived (1596-1662).

1690-1709 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Elisabeth Amalie Magdalene von Hessen-Darmstadt of Neuburg an der Donau in Pfalz
Her marriage to Elector Philipp Wilhelm von der Pfalz was a happy one. She had secretly converted to the Catholic faith before the marriage and the couple promoted culture and art in Düsseldof before they withdrew to Neuburg, where she remained in charge after her husband's death. Her 23 pregnancies resulted in 9 sons and 8 daughters who made important marriages to the Emperor of Austria, Kings of Spain, Portugal and Poland and the Duke of Parma. She lived (1635-1709).

1742-60 Politically Influential Princess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Pfalz
1761-93 "Reigning" Lady of Oggersheim
The oldest daughter and heir of 
Pfalzgraf Joseph Karl Emanuel when married cousin Carl Theodor in a double-marriage with her sister, Maria Anna, who married Duke Klemens von Bayern. Since her brother's had died, she was the prime heiress to the lines of Sulzbach and Neuburg, and after their marriage her husband was elected Kurfürst von Pfalz. She is described as a lively and happy person who engaged in various erotic adventures, and on the political arena she was able to promote her political ideas in the Kurpfalz. Especially in the first years of the Seven Year War she was the center of the court and was able to promote her interests in the duchies of Jülich and Berg. In the first years of their marriage her husband was described as weak, ill, melancholic and unable to stand up to her, but in 1760 he started to take the affairs of state into his own hands. Her only son died the day after his birth in June 1761, and because of her husband's numerous affairs, she withdrew to the Schloss Oggersheim in 1768, where she founded her own court and pursued artistic interests and also became well loved among the population as a benefactress. Her husband inherited Bayern in 1777 but they only saw each other for a few times for the rest of their lives. After her husband had moved to München she became Landesmutter (Mother of the Real) in Kurpfalz, and he concentrated on the upbringing of children of her sister, Maria Franziska and Friedrich Michael von Pfalz-Zweibrücken. The Pfalz remained neutral in the revolutionary wars, but later it was drawn into the fightings and she escaped to Mannheim, her castle was looted and burned down. She lived (1721-94).

 

Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken

1733-35 Regent Dowager Duchess Karoline von Nassau-Saarbrücken of Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken
After the death of her husband, Herzog Christian III, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld, Bischweiler und Rappoltstein from 1717 and Duke of Zweibrücken 1731, she became regent for their son, Christian IV (1722-35-75). One of her daughters, Karoline Henriette Christine, became known as the Grand Countess of Hessen-Darmstadt (die große Landgräfin) during her marriage to Ludwig IX. Her mother-in-law was Catharina Agathe, Sovereign Countess von Rappoltstein from 1676. Caroline was mother of 2 daughters and another son, and lived (1704-74).

 

Pfalz-Lautern

1655-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Maria Eleonores von Brandenburg of the Wadgasserhof in Kaiserslautern
After the death of her husband Count Palatine Ludwig-Philipp zu Pfalz-Simmern-Kaiserslautern, she took over the government in her dowry, her 4 oldest sons died as infants, the 5th, Ludwig Heinrich Moritz, survived to succeed his father and also her oldest daughter, Elisabeth Marie Charlotte (1638-64), survived and married Georg III of Liegnitz (1611-64), and she lived (1607-75).


Pfalz-Neuburg

1615-32 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Anna von Jülich-Kleve-Berg of the Castle and Administrative Office of Höchstädt
The death of her brother Johann Wilhelm in 1609 resulted in the Jülich-Kleve Succession War where the families of her own and her 3 sisters fought over the inheritance. She transferred the rights of inheritance to the areas of the Low Rhine (niederrheinischen) she possessed as the oldest surviving daughter to her oldest son Wolfgang Wilhelm. She was chocked and kept her own Evangelical faith when he converted to the Catholic Faith in order to marry the daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria to gain the support of the Catholic League in 1613, but in the end it helped him secure his mother's inheritance. Her husband, Count Palatine Philipp Ludwig, died the following year, and she moved to her dowry after yet another year, she moved to her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Wilhelm IV. of Jülich, Kleve und Berg and Maria von Österreich, mother of 4 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (1552-1632).

 

Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Neuburg
Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis) and also member and member of the Secular Bench of the Bavarian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1532-43 Guardian Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Hessen
1541-43 Regent of the Duchy
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig II, she was regent for son, Wolfgang, jointly with her brother-in-law Ruprecht. In 1541 her son was granted the fief of the realm (reichslehn) and two years later he officially took over the government. In 1557 his childless relative, Pfalzgraf Ottheinrich of Pfalz-Neuburg, abdicated in his favour.  (1502-1532)

1606-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Countess Palatine Dorothea Maria von Württemberg of Hilpoltstein
As the Protestant line of Duchy of Duchy of
Pfalz-Neuburg place their "surplus sons" in the Church, they began to secure them an income through samll parts of lands, which they held for life and reverted to the Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg.

1606-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Countess Palatine Dorothea Maria von Württemberg of Hilpoltstein in Pfalz-Neuburg
As the Protestant line of Duchy of Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg place their "surplus sons" in the Church, they began to secure them an income through samll parts of lands, which they held for life and reverted to the Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg. The widow of Duke Otto Heinrich II von Pfaz-Neuburg of Hilpoltstein, Heideck, Allersberg and Sulzbach.

Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Landsberg

1692-97 Administrator Dowager Hereditary Princess Charlotte Friedrike von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken in Landsberg         
Charlotte Friedericke was the widow of Herditary Prince (Erbprinz) Wilhelm Ludwig of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Landsberg (1648-75), whose father, Friederich Ludwig died in 1681, and she became the administrator of the territory of Landsberg in the name of Christian II of the line of Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler, who died in 1692, and King Karl XI of Sweden, who was of the line of Pfalz-Kleeburg. She was mother of 2 sons and a daughter who all died in infancy, and lived (1653-1712).


 

Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein and Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken
Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis) and also member of the Secular Bench of the Bavarian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1569-84 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Anna von Hessen
After the death of her husband Duke Wolfgang von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken (1526-69), she became joint guardian for their fourth and fifth sons, Friedrich von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein (1557-97) and Karl (1560-) together with her brother Onkels Landgraf Wilhelm IV. von Hessen-Kassel, Kurprinz Ludwigs VI. von der Pfalz and her two older sons Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg und Johann I. von der Paflz-Zweibrücken. She was mainly engaged with her sons upbringing and education - in the orthodox Lutheran faith. She lived (1529-91).

1597-1608 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina Sophia von Leignitz of the Administrative Offices of Flossenbürg and Vohenstrauß and parts of Parkstein-Weiden
Widow of  Pfalzgraf Friedrich II. von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkestin, who had
been given the Offices of Parkstein, Weiden und Flossenbürg, when his father died. Since both their sons and their daughter died as infants the seigneurial rights returned to the Principality of Pfalz-Neuburg, but she remained in charge of her dowry and resided at the Castel of Friedrichsburg bei Vohenstrauß, that her husband had buildt. She was daughter of  Heinrich XI. von Liegnitz, Brieg und Goldberg., and lived (1561-1608).

1635-40 Regent Dowager Duchess Luisa Juliana von der Pfalz-Simmern-Sponheim of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz
After the death of her husband, Herzog Johann II (1591-1604-35), she reigned the Duchy in the name of her son, Friedrich. Her oldest daughter, Elisabeth Louise Juliana, Pfalzgräfin v.d.Pfalz-Zweibrücken, was Äbtissin zu Herford 1649-67. She lived (1594-1640).


Pommern

See Poland Substates

Preussen
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1618-25 Hereditary Duchess Anna zu Hohenzollern of Prussia
She inherited  Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein in 1609, and was also known as Duchess Anna von Preussen und Jülich-Kleve-Berg, she was daughter of Marie Eleonore von Jülich-Kleve-Berg, the heiress of the three duchies and some counties, and Albrecht II Friedrich von Preussen. 1594 she married her distant relative, Elector Johann Sigismund zu Hohenzollern of Brandenburg (1572-1619), and was the dominant force during his reign. He was regent for her father from 1609, and in 1611 he was given Prussia as a personal fief. After the death of her uncle, Johann Wilhelm zu Jülich in 1609, a succession-dispute followed with the Pfalz-Newburg's until a division was agreed upon in 1614, and the counties of Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein went to Brandenburg, though she primarily considered it as her personal possessions. After her father's death in 1618 she and her son, the kurprinz Georg-Wilhelm, took over the government, since her husband had been hit by a stroke two years earlier, and she remained in charge until her death. She lived (1575-1625).

1806-1810 Politically Active Queen Luise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz
She was married to the rather weak and hesitant king Friedrich Wilhelm III, and she showed both courage and intelligence in a difficult situation for the country. In 1806 she and a group of followers realized that reforms were needed in order to revitalize the kingdom, and she used the crisis for a new start. As the politicians and military leaders did not know what to do, she personally met Napoleon I in Tilsit in 1807, and tried to limit the consequences of the Prussian defeat to the Napoleonic forces. She became a European myth of female beauty, charisma and warmth of her heart. Mother of 7 children, she died of a pneumonia, and lived (1776-1810).

1848-61 Politically Influential Queen Elisabeth von Bayern
After the revolution of March 1848 her husband, king Friedrich Wilhelm IV, never really recovered, and she became his closest advisor. After he suffered several strokes, she arranged that her brother-in-law, Prince Wilhelm, became regent. He was a liberal and reformist polititian and the party around General Leopold von Gerlach got the idea to name the Queen regent, but she refused. They had no children and when her husband died in 1861, Wilhelm became king. She spend the rest of her life traveling through Europe, and lived (1801-73).


Pustertal

Until circa 1072 Hereditary Countess Richardis in Pustertal

Putbus (A (non reigning) County and later Principality at the Island of Rügen in Northern Germany)

Circa 1789-91 Regent Dowager Countess Sophia Wilhelmina von der Schulenberg
In a proclamation she freed a number of her serfs with the following titulature:"
Ick Sophia Wilhelmina, Verwittwete Gräfin und Herrin zu Putbus, geborene Gräfin von der Schulenberg, als ... Vormünderin meiner beyden ... Söhne Wilhelm Malte und Moritz Carl Grafen und Herren zu Putbus Uhrkunde und bekenne hiermit für mich, meine Erben und nachfolgender Herrschaft, ..... So geschehen zu Putbus den 4. Juni 1789. Gräfin und Herrin zu Putbus. Her son, Wilhelm Malte (1783-1854), was created a Prince by the Swedish in 1807 and a Prussian Prince in 1817.

1907-30 Princess and Lady Marie von Wylich und Lottum
She inherited the possessions of the family and was recognized as Princess and Lady to Putbus at the Island of Rügen in Mecklenburg after the death of her father, Wilhelm von Wylich und Lottum, who had inherited a relative. She was married to
Franz von Veltheim (d.1927)
and had no children and was succeeded by sister. She lved (1858-1930).

1930-34 Princess and Lady Asta Eugenia
After the death of her sister,
The Council of Nobility recognized her as Fürstin und Herrin zu Putbus, Fideikommißherrin auf Lossa in Neumarkt in Schlesien and Fideikommißherrin auf Putbus. She was married to Karl von Riepenhausen (d.1929) and had no children, and was succeeded by her sister, Victoria's son, Malte von Veltheim. She lived (1860-1934).

 

Pyrmont (Also see Waldeck)
The county was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Westphalia from 1495

1524-52 Hereditary Free Lady Elisabeth von Pyrmont
Daughter of Heinrich VI, Reichsherr zu Pyrmont and Metza Waldbott von Bassenheim and married to Philipp von und zu Elz. Succeeded by son, Friederich, whose daughters devided the inheritance. Margarete was heiress of Dreiborn, Elisabeth, heiress of Erenberg and Dreiborn and Irmgard Felizitas was  heiress of  Pyrmont (d. before 1586), who married Franz von und zu Eltz (d. after 1609). Their grandaughter, Irmgard Felizitas succeeded her father, Franz von und zu Eltz, Herr zu Pirmont, Uttingen und Wulmeringen. Her mother was Margareta von Eltz and she first married Kaspar von und zu Eltz (d. 1649) and then Johann von Saffenberg (1585-1649)

1560-86 Hereditary Free Lady Elisabeth Irmgard Felizitas von und zu Eltz of  Pyrmont
She married Franz von und zu Eltz (d. after 1609). Their grandaughter, Irmgard Felizitas succeeded her father, Franz von und zu Eltz, Herr zu Pirmont, Uttingen und Wulmeringen. (d. 1586),

Until 1649 Hereditary Free Lady Elisabeth Irmgard Felizitas von und zu Eltz of  Pyrmont
The daughter of Franz von und zu Eltz, Herr zu Pirmont, Uttingen und Wulmeringen Margareta von Eltz, it is not known when she succeeded her father. She was first married Kaspar von und zu Eltz (d. 1649) and then Johann von Saffenberg. In 1652 the Freiherren Waldbott von Bassenheum inherited parts of Pyrmont. She lived (1585-1649).

 

Ecclesiastical Territory of Quedlinburg (Reichsäbtissin zu Quedlinburg - Abbess of the Realm) (Das kaierlich freie weltliche Reichsstift Quedlinburg - The Imperial Free Worldly Chapter of the Realm) (In Sachsen-Anhalt) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

 

Raabs zu Nürenberg

1192-1200 Hereditary Burgravine Sophie von Raabs of Raabs zu Nürnberg, Lady of Cadolzburg, Raabs and Abensberg
She was heiress of Nürnberg, Cadolzburg, Raabs and Abensberg, and after the death of her father of Konrad II, Graf von Raabs, Burggraf von Nürnberg, her husband, Count Friedrich I von Zollern was appointed Burgrave zu Nürnberg by Emperor Heinrich VI. After her husband's death in 1200 she sold the Market of Raabs and the countly rights to Duke Leopold of Austria, but the western part, with the main city of Litschau, was inherited by her sister Agnes and her husband, Count Gebhart Hirschberg-Tollenstein (Oberpfalz-Nordgau), whose son, Gebhart the Younger, sold the counties of Litschau and Heidenreichstein to Duke Albrecht I of Austria in 1297. Sophie was mother of two sons, who became ancestors of the two lines of the Hohenzollern-family, and a daughter. She lived (1170/75-1218).


Rantzau with Breitenburg and Parts of Pinneberg (The Reichsgrafschaft existed 1650-1734)
The county was member of the Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Niedersächsischer Kreis)

1721-22/26 In charge of the government Countess Charlotta Luisa von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Homburg of Rantzau
In 1721 her husband, Reichsgraf Wilhelm Adolf von Rantzau-Breitenberg, was accused of being responsible for the murder of his brother Christian Detlev, who had been arrested, perhaps on charges of "sodmoy" (homosexuality) in 1715. Wilhelm Adolf took over the government and even paid king Friedrich Wilhelm I. of Preussen to keep Christian Detlev in prison, but he returned in 1720 and was killed the following year. Wilhelm Adolf travelled to Copenhagen to ask King Frederik VI of Denmark, Duke of Holstein, to confirm him as holder as the fief, he suggested that he would accuse him of the murder of his brother. Wilhelm Adolf escaped but caught in 1722, the county was occupied by troops from Holstein, and in 1726 he was conviected as an acomplice of the murder of his brother, conviced to life imprisonment and a fine of 20.000 reichstalern. He died in 1734 without heirs, and the County reverted to the Duke of Holstein - the king of Denmark. Charlotte Luise was daughter of Count Christian and Christine Christiane Magdalena von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg

1726 Claimenant Catharina Hedwig von Rantzau-Breitenberg of the Reichsgafschaft Rantzau Breitenburg and Parts of Pinneberg
1726-32 Lady of Breitenburg, Løvenholm etc.
After the life imprisonment of her brother, she claimed the county, but had to give up her claims. Anyhow, after a lengthly process afgainst the king of Denmark, she was allowed to keep 3 fiefly estates, but had to pay the 230.000 reichstalern costs of the process, an enormous ammounth. She was married to Johann Freiderich, Count and Lord zu Castell-Ruedenhausen, she was the mother of one daughter, Countess Friederike Eleonore zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Heiress of Breitenburg (1701-60), who married Carl Friederich Count zu Castell-Remlingen and through her, Breitenburg came back to the line of Rantzau auf Ahrensburg. She lived (1683-1732)

1732-60 Lady Friederike Eleonore von Castell-Rüdenhausen of Breitenburg
Inherited the estate after her mother, Catharina Hedwig von Rantzau. Her brother and 3 sisters all died as infants. Married to Karl Friederik Gottileb Graf von Castell-Remligen, was succeeded first by son and after his death in 1762 by daughter. She lived (1701-60)

1762-1802 Lady Frederike Louise Amone von Castell-Remlingen of Breitenburg
Succeeded her brother, Christian Adolf Friederich Gottlieb (1736-62), who inherited the estates after their mother Friderieke Eleonore in 1760. She married Frederik Graf von Rantzau (1729-1806) and was succeeded by her son August Wilhelm Frantz von Rantzau-Breitenburg. She lived (1736-1802)


Rappolstein

Around 1147-56 Herrin Emma von Rappoltstein
Succeeded by Engeolf I von Urslingen
, Lord of Rappolstin 1156-88.

1377-1400 Herzlaude, Herrin von Gross-Rappoltstein und Hohenach
Married to Heinrich III Graf von Saarwerden. She kept her paternal inheritance but transferred the lordships of her husband to his brother, the Archbiship of Köln, Friederich III von Saarwerden. She lived (1372-1400).

1676-83 Sovereign Countess Catharina Agathe of Rappoltstein und Hohenach, Lady zu Geroldseck am Wasichin 
Succeeded aunt, Countess Anna-Elisabeth. Her husband Christian II, Pfalzgraf bei Rehin, Duke von der Pfalz-Birkenfeld und Bischweiler also became Graf von Rappoltstein etc. She lived (1648-83).



Rechteren-Limpurg
Held a seat and vote in the College of Frankish Counts of the Realm (F
ränkischen Reichsgrafencollegium)

1754-1804 Joint Sovereign Countess Josine Elisabeth
Also known as Countess von Rechteren Limpurg, she was joint Countess with her brother Friedrich-Ludwig (1748-45-1806-14), Their mother was Countess Amalia Alexandrina Friederike, Countess of Limpurg-Speckfeld, co-heir to a portion of the county, who lived (1689-1754) and was daughter of the last count of the whole county, Volllrath, who died 1712. Josine Elisabeth was married to Prince August Wilhelm zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1720-60), and lived (1738-1804). In 1806 Rechteren was incorporated into Bavaria.


Reinheim

B.C. 300 Celtic Chiefess of an area near Reinsheim, close to Saarbrücken

Reipoltskirchen
The county was member of the Bench of Counts and Lords of the Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis). The County was divided into several parts after 1608 and inherited by several branches of Amalia's decendants.

1602-08 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Amalia von Leiningen-Westerburg
Born as Gräfin zu Falkenstein she inherited the Lordship after the death of her relative, Count Johann III von Honhenfels-Reipoltskirchen. According to her will, the sons of her sister Sydonia zu Falkenstein; Casimir and Steino von Löwenhaupt inherited the Lordship. Steino's daughter, Elisabeth Amalia, married Count Philipp von Manderscheid and the family thereby inherited parts of the lordship. Amalia lived (1546-1608).

1645-47 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Elisabeth Amalia von Löwenhaupt of Reipoltskirchen, Countess of Falkenstein (Part of Johan Casimir)
After the death of her father, Steino, she was joint heiress to the lordship, which became a co-lordship (Erbgemeinschaft or Ganerbschaft) when the male line had died out. She was daughter of the Swedish Count Steno von Löwenhaupt, Graf zu Rasburg and Falkenstein (1586-1645), who was the son of Axel Lewenhaupt af Raseborg and Sidonia von Daun, Gräfin von Falkenstein, and Magdalena von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1574-1639). She was married to Count Philipp Dietrich von Manderscheid-Kail and they united the Manderscheid-lines. She lived (1607-47).

1767-77 Dowager Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm Christine Wilhelmina von Löwenhaupt (Part of Johan Casimir)
1767-1803 Lady of
Ober- und Niederbronn
Her husband Philipp Andreas von Ellroth, died after 18 months of marriage. He had bought part of the Lordship by the von Löwenhaupt-owners. But the Elector of Pfalz-Zweibrücken took possession of the territory. In 1777 she sold her part of the lordship to the Princess Karoline von Isenburg, the natural daughter of Elector Karl Theodor. In she,
the v
erwittweten Gräfin von Löwenhaupt, was granted 11,300 Gulden for her share in the Lordships of Ober- und Niederbronn at the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation) which distributed the German lands in to larger entities.

1777-93 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm Karoline von Pfalz-Zweibrücken
1779-1803 Lady of Berzweiler, Seelen, Rudolphkirchen und Niederkirchen
Also known as Fürstin Karoline von Isenburg, Gräfin von Parkstein, she bought the Ellrodtian part of the lordship and reached an agreement with the the co-owner, the Countess of Hillesheim, and the documents was approved by her father, Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz in 1779.
In 1803 she was granted an eternal grant for her share in Reipoltskirchen and the other Lordship on the Left Side of the Rhine (Herrschaft Reipoltskirchen und anderen Herrschaften am linken Rheinufer), which had been seeded to France, and she was also compensated for her income from the shipping tax on the river.

1785-93 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm
Anna Elisabeth Auguste Maria von Hillesheim (Part of Steno)
She succeeded her brother, Wilhelm-Ernst-Gottfried, Reichsgraf von Hillesheim und Herr zu Reipoltskirchen. The county was occupied by France from 1793. In 1801 Germany had to seed its territories in Alsace to France.
But at the reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation) which distributed the German lands in to larger entities, she was granted 5.400 Gulden for her part in lordship. Furthermore, the possessions remained in the hands of her descendants by her marriage to Ambrosius Franz Reichsgraf zu Spee. She lived (1725-...).

1785-1806 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm Charlotte Elisabeth Regina von Hillesheim (Part of Steno)
Held the Lordship jointly with her sister and the Princess Karoline von Isenburg. Unmarried.
She lived (1728-1807).

Reuss zu Ebersdorf
Member of the College of the Counts of Wetterau which held a joint vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1710-17 Guardian Countess Erdmuthe Benigna zu Solms-Laubach
She was guardian for son, Heinrich XXIIX after the death of her husband, Heinrich X. Some male relatives were regents. She lived (1670-1732).


Reuss zu Gera
Member of the College of the Counts of Wetterau which held a joint vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1572-90 Guardian Dowager Lady Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde of Reuss zu Gera und Lobstein
Her son Heinrich II Posthumous, was born two months after her husband, Heinrich XVI Reuss zu Plauen, Gera and Krainchfeld, died in April. Her son was also Lord of 1/6 of Lobstein from 1577 and 1/3 of Ober-Kranichfeld from 1596 until he inherited all the estates of Ober-Kranichfeld and Lobenstein in 1616. She lived (1547-95).

1686-98 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
The widow of Heinrich IV she was joint regent with another relative, Heinrich I of Reuss zu Schleiz, during the minority of Heinrich XVIII. 
She was mother of 8 sons, all naimed Heinrich as all males in the Reuss-family: Heinrich XIII, (1673-74), Heinrich XIV (1674) Heinrich XVI (1676-77), Heinrich XVIII, Graf Reuss von Gera (1686-1735) (167-1735), Heinrich XX (1678-89), Heinrich (1680-1731) (whose son, Heinrich XXIV, succeeded Heinrich XVIII in 1735) and finally of Heinrich XXVII (1683-1706), and she lived (1645-1716).


Reuss zu Greiz (Senior Line)  

1859-67 Regent Dowager Princess Karoline zu Hessen-Homburg
For Heinrich XXII (1846-59-1902). She lived (1819-72) .


Reuss zu Obergreiz
Member of the College of the Counts of Wetterau which held a joint vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1629-47 Guardian Dowager Countess Juliane Elisabeth zu Salm-Neufville
After the death of her husband, Heinrich IV Reuss zu Obergreiz (1597-1629) she was guardian for son, Heinrich I, who was raised to the status of Counts in 1673. His relatives, Heinrich II von Reuss zu Schleiz was regent until 1637 and Heinrich III zu Schleiz until 1647. She lived (1602-53).

1697-1717 Regent Dowager Countess Henriette Amalie von Friesen of Reuss-Obergreiz and Reuss-Dölau
Regent for Heinrich I (1697-1714) and Heinrich II (1697-1722) who also became joint counts of Reuss-Dölau in 1698.

1722-43 Regent Dowager Princess Sofie Charlotte von Bothmer
She was born as Countess von Bothmer. Acted as regent for two sons Heinrich X (1718-22-23) and Heinrich XI (1722-23-1800).


Reuss zu Schleiz
Member of the College of the Counts of Wetterau which held a joint vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet

1640-53 Guardian Dowager Countess Juliana Elisabeth zu Salm-Newville
After the death of her husband, Heinrich III, she was guardian for son, Count Heinrich (1639-92). Some male members of the family were regents. She was born as Wild- und Rheingraf zu Salm, and lived (1602-53).


Reuss zu Untergreiss
Member of the College of the Counts of Wetterau which held a joint vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1678-98 Guardian Dowager Countess Anna Dorothea von Ruppa
After the death of her husband, Heinrich IV, she was guardian for son, Heinrich XIII (1672-1733). She lived 1651-98).


Rhein

1195-1204 Hereditary Pfalzgräfin Agnes Hohenstaufen
The Countess Palatine by the Rhine was married to Heinrich IX der Welf. 
of Bavaria. Her son was the later Heinrich X of Bavaria and Sachsen. She was daughter of Duke Magnus von Sachsen and married to Heinrich.

[1214 Otto II, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein 
Married to Agnes who was daughter and Heinrich I, Pfalzgraf and heiress to the ancient Duchy of Franconia. She lived (1201-67).

1619-20 Regent Dowager Electress Louise-Juliana van Nassau
For son, the Kurfürst.

Rheinfelden 

1090-91
Hereditary Countess Agnes von Rheinfelden 

Rheineck
Member of the
Electoral Rhenish Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1431-34 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Hanau of Rieneck
1434-60 Reigning Lady of the Office and Castle of Mainberg bei Schweinfurt in Henneberg
After the death of her husband, Thomas II (1408-31), she was regent for their two sons Philipp the Older, Lord of Grünsfeld, Lauda und Wildenstein (d, 1488) and Philipp the Younger, Lord of Lohr, Gemünden, Brückenau und Schildeck (d. 1497), until her marriage to Count Wilhelm II von Henneberg-Schleusingen (1415-44). Instead her brother took over as regent. She declined any rights of the county of Rieneck but received her dowry of 8.000 Guilders and Mainberg from her new husband. Mother of another 5 children. She was oldest daughter of Reinhard II and Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, and lived (1408-60).

1500-01 Administrator of the Fief Dowager Burggravine-Johanetta von Salm
After the death of her husband, Burgrave Jakob von Rheineck, she administred the fief for the remainder of the year. Her son Jakob II, reached his age of majority in 1508 and Archbispho Hermann of Köln granted him the fief of Rheineck. As he died without male heirs in 1539, Köln withdrew the fief, but his niece, Mezza claimed the inheritance, it was not until 1571 after a court process, that her sons Johann and Wilhelm von Warsberg were declared as rightful heirs. Concequently Archbishop Salentin von Isenburg of Köln granted the Burgravate as a hereditary fief. Johnanette married Philipp Beissel von Gymnich in 1501, she was daughter of Wild- und Rheingrafen Johann V. and Johanna von Salm, and lived (circa 1465-after 1516).

 

Rietberg (Also see Criechingen and Ostfriesland)
The county was member
of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1565-circa 76 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Rietberg

After the death of her husband Count Johann II of Rietberg, and Lord auf Esens, Stedesdorf und Wittmund (1541-1562) she acted as regent for her daughters, Armbard and Waldburgis. The county was occupied by the Landgrave of Hessen, and in 1565 the daughters were granted the fief (des Lehens erneut belehnt). In 1567 she granted Wittmund City Rights.

1565-76 Hereditary Countess Armgard of Rietberg
1576-84 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg
She was daughter Johann II and Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt. After her father's death, the county was occupied by the Landgrave of Hessen, but her mother protested and in 1565 she and her sister, Walburgis, were given the firef again. In the inheritance was desided. Armgard received Rietberg and Walburgis the Harlingerlands. Armgard or Irmgard was first married to Erich Count von Hoya (from 1568) and from 1578 with Simon VI. von der Lippe. She did not have any children and was succeeded as Countess by her sister, Walburgis.

1565-84 Lady Walburgis of the Harlingerland
1584-86 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg
The two sisters were granted the territory three years after their fathers death, and in 1576 the inheritance was settled. She was married to Count Enno III von Ostfriesland. After having given birth to two daughters she died two months after the birth of her only son, who only lived a few days. Her two daughters seems to have been taken in the care of EnnoIIIs mother, Anna of Sweden. Walburgis was succeeded by daughter, Sabine Catharina von Ostfriesland (b. 1582) with her father as regent for a number of years. The younger daughter, Agnes, married Lord Gundacar zu Liechtenstein and Nicolsburg in 1603. The marriage-treaties resulted in various law-suits - the last ended in 1835 - where the Princes of Liechtenstein claimed the County of Rietberg and they still use the weapon and title for side-lines of the family. Walburg was the last of the house of Werl-Arnsberg, and lived (1555/56-86)

1586-1618 Sovereign Countess Sabine Katharina Cirksena von Ostfriesland of Rietberg
She was four years old when her mother and predecessor, Walburgaof Rietberg, died, and her father, Enno III Cirksena von Ostfriesland, acted as regent. She was married to her uncle, Count Johann von Ostfriesland - who had converted to catholism - with papal dispention because they were too closely related. She also converted and introduced the catholic faith to her county. She died giving birth to her 11th child, and lived (1582-1618). 

1586-1616 Hereditary Lady Agnes Cirksena von Ostfrisland und Rietberg of Dietrichstein-Wichelstädt, Esens Stedesdorf and Wittmund
The sister of Countess Sabine Katharina of Rietberg, Agnes was the first wife of Gundacker von Liechtenstein, Lord of Wilffersdorf and Riegelsdorf, Governor of Austria (1614-17) and 1st Prince of Liechtenstein (1623-58). Mother of two sons. Her husband's second wife was Sovereign Duchess Elisaberh Lukretia of Teschen (1599-1653). Agnes lived (1586-1616). 

1660-68 Regent Dowager Countess Anna Catharina zu Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Rietberg
After having been Princess-Abbess of Thorn 1646-47, she resigned in order to marry Count Johann IV von Rietberg, and after his death she was regent for son Friedrich Wilhelm (1650-77) who fell by Straßburg, and was succeeded by his brothers Franz Adolph Wilhelm, (1677-80) and ( 1687-88) and Ferdinand Maximilian (1680-1687), who were both Diachons and Domherrs of the Cathedral Straßburg, and Anna Catharina remained the virtual ruler of the territory. Ferdinand Maximilian was succeeded by his niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska. Anna Catharina's older sister, Maria Sophie (1620-74) was Abbess in Elten and the other Anna Salome (1622-88) in Elten. They were daughters of Altgraf Ernst Friedrich, (1583-1639) and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen (†1649). Anna Catharina's daughter, Bernhardine Sophia was Princess-Abbess of Essen 1691-1726. Anna Katharina lived (1624-91).

1690-1758 Sovereign Countess Maria Ernestine Franziska von Ostfriesland of Rietberg 
Her father Count Ferdinand Maximillian died in July 1687 and she was born one month later. Firstly her father's older brother, Franz Adolf Wilhelm took over the government. He had resigned in 1690 after three years of regency, having willed the county to his niece. Emperor Leopold I appointed the Prince-Bishops of Münster and Paderborn as her guardians. 1692 Her mother, Joannette Franziska von Manderscheid-Blankenheim, received the renewal of the fief in her name, but the same year Johanette married Count Arnold Moritz Wilhelm von Bentheim-Steinfurt, and Maria Ernestine Franziska grew up in Düsseldorf. She married Count Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz, and lived most of her life in Austria. She left the government in the hands of her husband and after his death in the hands of her son, Wenzel Anton Graf von Kaunitz (1711-94), who later succeeded her as Count of Riedberg. Mother of 13 children and lived (1687-1758).


Rothenburg

1003-07 Regent Dowager Countess Godila von Rothenburg of Rothenburg and Guardian of Nordmark
She was related to Bishop Wigfried von Verdun (959-83) who secured the paternal fief for her sons, after the death of her first husband Lothar III, Count von Walbeck. Her oldest son, Werner, born in 990 when she was 13 years old. She had two more sons and a daughter in the first marriage, and two children with her second husband, Hermann II, count von Werl (circa 980-after 1024), whom she married in 1007. She lived (circa 977-1015).


Ecclesiastical Territory of Rottenmünster (Rotenmünster/Rothenmünster) (Zisterzienserinnen-Reichsabtei Rottenmünster - Chapter of the Realm) (In Baden-Württemberg). (Also see Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

S

Saarbrücken  

Around 1130-after 1147 Sovereign Countess Agnes of Saarbrücken
She married Frederick II Hohenstaufen, Duke of Schwaben und Franken, who lived (circa 1090-1147) as his second wife. Apparently mother of Judith (1135-91), who married Ludwig II of Thüringen (1128-72). Agnes (d. after 1147).

1233-71 Countess Regnant Lauretta zu Saabrücken-Linange
Succeeded father

1271-74 Countess Regnant Mathilde


Sachsen
Member of the Council of Electors in the Imperial Diet

1106-26 Hereditary Countess Wulfhild
Daughter of  Duke Magnus von Sachsen and married to Heinrich IX of Bavaria. Her son became Henrich X of Bavaria and Sachsen

1106-42 Countess Elike Bilika von Kriechen-Burgwerben und der Pfalzgrafschaft in Sachsen
Sister of Wulfild. Married to Otto  von Askanien, Graf von Stallusstadt. Their son was Margraf Albrecht I der Bär von Sachsen-Brandenburg

1142-43 Regent Dowager Duchess Gertrud von Suppilenburg of Sachsen

1190 Heiress Jutta von Thüringen of Altenwied, Bilstein und Neu-Windeck and the Pfalzgrafschaft Sachsen 
Only child of Landgrave Ludwig III of Thüringen and Margrete von Kleve, she married Dietrich, Count of Wettin Groitzsch (1159-1207). Their second daughter, Mathilde was Heiress of Altenwied and married Heinrich II von Sayn. Jutta lived (circa 1175-after 1208/16).

Until 1195 Hereditary Kurgräfin Sophia

1481-1501 Dowager Lady Anna von Sachsen von Bayern-Landshut of the Administrative Office of Rochlitz in Sachen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig she returned back to Saxony and exchanged her Bavarian dowries with Rochlitz, where she lived with a large court. The reason for the exchange seems that she wanted to be close to her mother, Margarethe von Österreich, who mainly lived at Altenburg and Colditz. Anna lived (1536-1501).

1537-57 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth zu Hessen of the Castle, City and Administrative Unit of Rochlitz, the Castle and Administrative Unit of Kriebstein with the cities of Waldheim and Hartha in Sachsen
Also known as Elisabeth von Rochlitz she recived the lordships as dowry after the death of her husband, Johann zu Sachsen (1498-1537). She was the first territorial ruler in Germany to give her citizen freedom of confession and conscience, but her father-in-law, Duke Georg of Sachsen, "makes sure" that she is excommunicated, which meant that all citizen were declared free and she was no longer under princely protection. But she accepted the Evangelican preacher Magister Schütz aus Kassel, who was send to her lordship by her brother, Landgrave Philipp von Hessen, who had already introduced the reformation in her lands. She lived (1502-57).

1541-61 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina von Mecklenburg of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Wolkenstein
An early supporter of Martin Luther, she was in opposition to her brother-in-law, Duke Georg of Mecklenburg, who tried to bribe her to remain Catholic. Her husband, Heinrich von Sachsen-Freiberg,  at first suppressed Lutheranism, but Freiberg became Lutheran. After Gerorg's death in 1539 they moved to Dresden and introduced the reformation here. Heinrich died in 1551, and she spend the rest of her life in her dorwy, the Castle and Administrative Unit of Wolkenstein. She was mother of six children, and lived (1477-1561)

1546-53 In-charge of the Government Electress Agnes von Hessen
1553-55 Reigning Dowager Lady of Weissenfels and Weissensee
She was in charge of the government as her husband, Moritz was away in various wars. 1547 she was awarded with the title of Kurfürst (Elector) and Duke of Sachsen-Wittenberg. In 1553 he was wounded in the battle of  Sievershausen and died shortly after. Their only surviving child was a daughter, Anna von Sachsen (later married to and divorced from Willem of Oranje) and therefore he was succeeded by his brother August. Agnes lived (1527-55).

1553-85 Politically Influential Electress Anna af Danmark
Reigned at the side of her husband, Kurfürst August von Sachsen (1626-86), with whom she lived a very harmonious marriage. She was especially when it came to the fights over religion from 1574, her opponents blamed her of  „Gynaecocracy“, and she always took the side of the Lutherans in the fights with the Calvinists. In 1563 she intertwined in the negotiations between Denmark of Sweden together with her mother, Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg, and managed to end the long war between the two countries, she initiated that her husband took the side of her brother, Frederik II, and had Emperor Maximilian II. act as mediator in the conflict. She was also a very able trader and industrialist, and in 1578 her husband transferred the administration of all the Electoral Domains to her and she was a pioneer within modern agriculture. She was also knowable with medical plants, and even the Queen of Portugal asked for her help. In 1548 she was handed over the administation of her dowries in Weissenfels, Freyburg (or Sangerhausen). The daughter of Christian III of Denmark and Norway, she signed her letters, 'Anna, born as Royal Danish Stock, Electress of Sachsen.' She was mother of 15 children, and lived (1532-85).

1591-1604 Guardian Dowager Electress Sophie von Brandenburg of Sachsen (Germany)
1591-1622 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Offices and Castles of Rochlitz, Colditz and Borna, the Office and Castle of Leisnig with the Cities of Leisnig and Döbeln in Sachsen
After the death of her husband, Christian I (1560-86-91) she was guardian for their son, Christian II (1583-91-1611) and other children. She was very much involved in the religous fights during her lifetime and on her demand the Kalvinist Chancellor Nikolaus Crell and a big part of the Saxon nobility were arrested and after a lenghtly process executed in 1611. A very able administrator, she extended her dorwy over the years, held a large court with many civil servants, and Colditz expereinced a time of cultural and commercial growth. The castle remained the dowry of Saxonian Dowager Electresses until 1753. She lived (1568-1622).


1611-41 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Hedwig af Danmark of the Calstle and Administrative Unit of Lichtenberg bei Prettin and the and Administrative Units of Schlieben, Schweinitz und Seyda
The first to reside at the castle, which had been, build between 1574-82. As reigning dowager lady she was in charge of the police and courts, she shared her authority with the Elector but her subjects considered her as their lady. She founded churches, aided the poor, the sick and the weak. As the sister of the Danish king and the sister-in-law of the British king she became an important figure for her brother-in-law, Elector Johann Georg I, and she was involved in arranging the marriages of five of his seven children. Because of her positions her territories were hardly attacked during the Thirty Years War, and she acted independently granting letters of free passage etc., something that was normally the prerogative of the Elector, and she maintains her independence against her brother-in-law also when it came to trade and commerce. She did not have any children with her husband, Kurfürst Christian II. (1583-91-1611). She was the 7th and youngest child of Frederik II of Denmark and Norway (1534-59-88) Sofie von Mecklenburg-Wismar and lived (1581-1641).

1656-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Magdalena Sibylla I von Preussen of the and Administrative Unit of Colditz, The Estate of Krakau in the and Administrative Unit of Grossenhain, the and Administrative Unit of Lichtenwalde and the foreworks of Frankenberg, Sachsenburg, Neusorge, Zadel and Baselitz as well as Eilenburg
After the death of her husband Johann Georg I. von Sachsen (1585-1656) she took over her dorwy of Colditz - the other possessions she already aquired during their marriage, but she resided in Dresden. She was mother of 10 children and lived (1586-1659).

1680-87 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Magdalena Sibylle II. von Brandenburg of the and Administrative Unit ofmFreiberg-Colditz and the Vorwerk zu Fischersdorf
Widow of the Elector Johann Georg II as his second wife, daughter of Christian zu Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1581-1655) Ermuth Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, mother of 3 children, and lived (1612-87).

1691-1717 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Anna Sophie af Danmark of Castle and Administrative Unit of Lichtenberg auf bei Prettin
She was a very staunch protestant and supported her daugther-in-law
Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth in her decition not to convert to catholisim and join her son, Friederich August, who had converted in order to become King of Poland. She been given castle at the time of her marriage in 1666, and her sister Wilhelmina Ernestina (1650-1706), the widow of kurfürst Karl II of Hannover (1651-85), lived here from 1685. Anna Sophie lived (-1717)

1695-96 In charge of the Government Electress Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth
1697-1727 Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Pretzsch
The year after her marriage to Friederich August II he succeeded his brother as Kurfürst. From 1695 he  spend two years in Hungary fighting the Turks as Imperial Commander-in-Chief. She remained a Protestant after the court became Catholic and refused to join her husband for his coronation as King August II of Poland, but withdrew to her dowry Pretzsch. She did return to Desden for a number of official occations during the years. August was engaged in war with Sweden and in 1704 he resigned as King of Poland. Never the less the Swedes occupied Sachsen in 1706. He was king again 1709-33. The Protestants gave her the honorary name of the Praying-Pillar. Her husband had at least 13 known maitresses and a substaitial number of children. She lived (1671-1727).

1733-57 Politically influential Queen Maria Josefa von Habsburg of Poland and Sachsen
When her husband, Elector Friederich August II von Sachsen or King August II of Poland (16961733-63) was in Poland she functioned as his representative, if not as an official regent in Sachsen. Ministers and ambassadors reported to her and she maintained a large network of corrresponce. She was a powerful personality, who exerciesed great influence over her husband, and whose authority was recognised by all members of the court. She also participated actively in the negotiations in the Reichstag (Assembly). All of her surviving 11 children made good marriages, but this alignment with Austria and the rest of Catholic Europe provoked the aggression of Prussia, and led to the Seven Years War, which began in 1756, when Sachsen was occoupied by King Friederich II. Her husband escaped to Poland, but she chose to stay back and organised the defence together with her son, Friederich Christian and his wife, Maria Antonia, and she used her big international network to do her best to save the electorate from total destruction. As there were no male Habsburg Heirs to the Austrian Empire she and her sister Maria Amalia (influential in Bavaria since 1722), had been given precedence in the succession in the secret "Pactum Mutuae Successionis", but later her uncle, Karl VI, paved the way for the succession of his daughter, Maria-Theresia in 1740 through the Pragmatic Sanction. Instead she tried to have her husband Holy Roman Emperor after the death of Karl VI and his successor, Karl VII, in 1744. five years later. She lived (1699-1757).

1763-68 Regent Dowager Electress Maria Antonia of Bavaria of Sachsen 
Her husband, Elector Friedrich Christian died 10 weeks after ascending to the throne and she became regent for their son, Kurfürst and later king Friedrich-August. She
was in charge of the treasury and took part in the most important government
decisions, and her brother-in-law was only regent concerning the "electoral affairs" (jura electoralia). She was a composer, poet and painter under the the pseudonym ETPA (Ermelinda Talea Pastorella Arkadia- which was her secret name as member of the Roman Academy of the Arcadians. After her brother, Maximillian II Joseph died in 1777 she claimed the Bavarian Palatinate, but the title was inherited by a very remote relative. She was daughter of Elector Karl of Bayern who later became Emperor Karl VII. She lived (1724-80).

1763 De facto Acting Premierminister Maria Amalia von Brühl Mniszchowa in Sachsen
Her father, Heinrich Graf von Brühl, intrusted her with the running of the government during his illness, which lead to his death on 28 October 1763. She was politically influential from 1752 and as the wife of the Polish Court Marshall Jerzy August Mniszech she also became an influential opponent of King Stanisław August Poniatowski of Poland from 1764.  She was well educated and known as a good politician and a good intriguer. In 1770 she created with Teresa Ossolińska a union called "quintumvirate". The members were their husbands and other very powerful polish aristocrates: Wessel, Radziwiłł and Zamoyski and they initiated the declaration of the act of interregnum in Poland. She lived (1736-1772).


Sachsen-Altenburg
Member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1602-43 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Marie von Pfalz-Neuburg of Dornburg an der Saale
Widow of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Sachsen–Altenburg (1562–1602) and mother of the next four Dukes of Altenburg: Johann Philipp (1597–1639), Friedrich (1599–1625), Johann Wilhelm (1600–1632) and Friedrich Wilhelm II. (1603–1669). The daughter of Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Neuburg (1547–1614) and Anna von Jülich–Cleve–Berg (1552–1632), she lived (1575-1643).

1672-75 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth Sofie von Sachsen-Altenburg of Altenburg
1675-80 Reigning Dowager Lady of the towns of Kapellendorf and Berka, with Gartenhaus in Weimar

In 1672 her unmarried cousin Duke Friedrich Wilhelm III, died, and she inherited Altenburg - and her husband, Duke Ernst I of Sachsen-Gotha added Altenburg to his title. He was already in charge of Tenneberg, Waltershausen, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg, Tonndorf, Heldburg, Eisfeld, Salzungen, Frauenbreitungen, Wasungen, Kranichfeld, and from 1672 also of Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Krainburg, Eisenberg, Stadtroda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Grafenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonneberg, Haldburghausen, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen and Römhild. When he died in 1675, their oldest son Friedrich I became Duke of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg etc. Elisabeth Sofie had already inherited the Saxon claim to Jerusalem when her father, Johann Philipp, died in 1629. She
was mother of 18 children, and lived (1619-80).

Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1566-84 Co-Guardian Duchess Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern
Her husband,
Johann Friedrich II, was Elector of Saxony (1554-56) and Duke of Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach, (1529-95), had attempted to win back the dignity of Elector through taking up arms. He was defeated and imprisoned for life by the Emperor and Imperial Diet. She then lived with her brother-in-law, Johann Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, together with her two sons, Johann Casimir von Sachsen-Coburg (1564-1633) and Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Eisenach and after his brother's death also in Coburg (1566-1638), but later she set up her own court in the Zollhof zu Eisenach, in 1571 at the Castle of Wartburg and finally at the Castle of Eisenberg. In 1570 the Imperial Diet had reinstated her sons and named three electors; Friedrich III. von der Pfalz, August von Sachsen as Johann Georg von Brandenburg as their guardians and in 1572 the duchy was divided in a part for each son. 1578-81 they both studied at the University of Leipzig, and in 1586 they assumed the reigns in their duchies. Johann Friederich II was still imprisoned and died one year after her. Her two oldest sons died in infancy, and she lived (1540-94).

1681-87 Politically Influential Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Sachen-Coburg
Her 5th and only surviving son, Wilhelm August,, was born 3 months after the death of her first husband, Adolf Wilhelm in 1668, and her brother-in-law, Johann Georg I, became regent with her as guardian, and took over the whole Duchy when her son died at the age of 3. She was influential during the reign of her second husband, Duke Albrecht III (1648-81-99). Their only son died within the first year of his life in 1678. Her sister, Clara Augusta, Reigned Weisshof as Dowager Duchess of Württemberg from 1682. Marie Elisabeth lived (1638-87).

1900-05 Guardian Dowager Duchess Helene zu Waldeck und Pyrmont of Albany
Her son, Karl Eduard, succeeded his uncle as Duke of Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha. Her husband, Prince Leopold of the United Kingdom and Great Britain, Duke of Albany etc., had died already in 1884. Ernst von Hohenlohe-Langenburg acted as regent. Helene's sister was Dowager Queen Regent Emma of the Netherlands, and her second child Alice, married Prince Alexander von Teck, Earl of Athlone, the parents of the later Queen Mary of United Kingdom. Helene lived (1861-1922).

[Sachsen-]Coburg-Henneberg
Later the Princely County was diveded among the various branches of the house of Sachsen, including the Elector of Sachsen, Duke of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, the Duke of Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld, Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha and Sachsen-Altenburg.

1347-53 Regent Dowager Duchess Jutta von Brandenburg

Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and member
of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1691-1705 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Friederike Baden-Durlach of Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
Married Duke Friedrich I (1646-1691) as his 2nd wife in 1681. She had been married to Albrecht V Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1634-67) as his 3rd wife and might have reigned a dowry 1667-81, possibly Crailsheim. She did not have any children and lived (1645-1705).

1693-1702 "Joint Administrator" Princess Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha
After the death of her father, Duke Friedrich I. (1646-91), she moved to the Castle of Altenburg, where her step-mother, Christine Friederike Baden-Durlach, had her dowry. But when her brother, Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha (1676-1732) took over the government in 1693, she moved back to Friedenstein to assist him with the government affairs. 1702 she married Hereditary Prince Johann August of Anhalt-Zerbst. Her mother was  Magdalena Sibylla von Sachsen-Weißenfels (1648-81), did not have any children and lived (1675-1709)

1732-40 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Magdalena Augusta von Anhalt-Zerbst of Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
Widow of Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha (1676-1732), of their 18 children 7 sons and 2 daughters survived. She lived (1679-1740).

1732-67 Political Advisor Duchess Luise Dorothea zu Sachsen-Meiningen
Very influential during the reign of her husband, Friedrich III (1699-1732-72). She was a friend of Friedrich the Great, was in close contact with Diderot, Rousseau and Voltaire, who visited her in 1753. Luise Dorothea lived (1710-67).

Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld

1828-31 Regining Lady Dorothea Luise von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of the Principality of Lichtenberg
After her divorce from Herzog Ernst I von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld she was granted the principalty, which was an enclave in Sachsen, and the inhabitants saw her as their "landesmutter" - mother of the state. She newer saw her two sons, Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha and Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria of United Kingdom. 1826 she married Maximilian Graf von Pölzig und Beiersdorf. As the only daughter of Duke August, she was the heir of Altenburg, died of cancer in Paris, and lived (1800-31).

 

Sachsen-Eisenach

1668-71 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Sachsen-Eisenach
1681-87 Politically Influential of Sachen-Coburg
Her 5th and only surviving son, Wilhelm August,, was born 3 months after the death of her first husband, Adolf Wilhelm, and her brother-in-law, Johann Georg I, became regent and took over the whole Duchy when her son died at the age of 3. She was influential during the reign of her second husband, Duke Albrecht III (1648-81-99). Their only son died within the first year of his life in 1678. Her sister, Clara Augusta, Reigned Weisshof as Dowager Duchess of Württemberg from 1682. Marie Elisabeth lived (1638-87).


1741-51 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Sophie Charlotte von Brandenburg-Schwedt of Sangerhausen 
Second wife of Duke Wilhelm Heinrich von Sachsen-Eisenach–Jena (1691–1741) who did not have any children with either of his wifes. She was daughter of Margrave Albrecht Friedrich von Brandenburg–Schwedt (1672–1731) and Marie Dorothea von Kurland (1684–1743). She lived (1706-51).


Sachsen-Hildburghausen

1724-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Sophie Albertine von Erbach-Erbach
Regent for Ernst Friedrich II (1707-24-45). She lived (1683-1742).

1745-48 Regent Dowager Duchess Karoline von Erbach-Fürstenau
After the death of her husband, Ernst Friedrich II (1707-45), she was regent for son Ernst Friedrich III (1727-45-80). She lived (1700-58).


Sachsen-Meiningen und Hildburghausen

1763-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-Philippstahl
After the death of her husband, Anton Ulrich (1687-1743-63), she became regent of her son, For August Friedrich (1754-63-82). The relatives in Gotha had hoped to get part of the Meissen-inheritance but the emperor installed her as Sole Regent and Chief Guardian of her children (Regentin und Obervormünderin). The duchy was totally bankrupt as she took over the regency. Both failed harvests, the 7 years war and the many warfares of her husband's family had ruined the state.  She began financial reforms, reorganised the army, humanised the juridical system, introduced religious tolerance, created a modern school system, and promoted the cultural life. She appointed young and able ministers and also reformed the administration. She also took care of her husband's 10 and her own 8 children, though most of them died in infancy. She lived (1730-1801).

1803-1821 Regent Dowager Duchess Luise Eleonore von Hohenlohe-Langenburg
After the death of her huband, Duke Georg I (1761-63-1803) she was regent for son, Bernhard II. (1763-1803-82).  She lived (1763-1837)  
 

Sachsen-Merseburg

1692-1701 Reigning Dowager Lady Christiane von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksborg of the Castles and Administrative Units of Delitzsch and Sangerhausen
Also known as Holstein-Glücksborg she administrated the castle as her dowry after the death of her husband, Christian I von Sachsen-Merseburg (1615-57-91). When she moved to the castle with her court, she initiated the creation of a modern baroque-garden. She lived (1634-1701)

1694-1709 Guardian Dowager Duchess Erdmuthe Dorothea of Sachsen-Zeitz of Sachsen-Merseburg
1709-20 Reigning Dowager Lady of (Delitzsch?)

After the death of her husband, Christian II von Sachsen-Merseburg (1653-94) Her four oldest sons died in infancy, the fifth, Moritz Wilhelm (1688-1731) succeeded his father, and the youngest, Friedrich Erdmann lived (1691-.1714), was married to  Eleonore Wilhelmine von Anhalt-Köthen (1696-1726) Erdmuthe Dorothea lived (1661-1720)

1704-36 Reigning Dowager Lady Luise Elisabeth von Württemberg-Bernstadt of the Castle of Jahnschen in Forst
Her husband, Philipp Sachsen-Merseburg zu Lauchsätt (1657-90), was killed at Fleurus. During her residence, the city of Forst experienced its last feudal peiod of economic growht. All her 3 children died in infancy, and she lived (1673-1736).

1731-34 Reigning Dowager Lady Henrietta Charlotte von Nassau-Idstein of the Castle and Administrative Office of Delitzsch
The widow of Moritz Wilhelm (1688-1731) she held the castle as her dowry. (1688-1734).

Sachsen-Lauenburg

1619-26 Dowager Reigning Lady Maria von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Franzhagen
Already in 1608 she built a court church in her future dowry where she took up residence after the death of her husband, Duke Franz II. von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1547–1619). The daughter of Duke Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and mother of 13 children. She lived (1566–1626).

 

Sachsen-Weimar
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1605-17 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Dorothea Maria von Anhalt af Sachsen-Weimar und Jena
Was Princess-Abbess of Gernrode 1586-93. After the death of her husband, Duke Johann, the Duchy and her sons came under the guardianship of the unpopular Electors of Sachsen-Albertine (Albertinischen Kurfürsten). She concentrated on the education of her 8 surviving sons who shared and expanded the inheritance: Duke Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Weimar (1594-1626), Friederich (1596-1622), Duke Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, zu Remda, in Eisenach, Creuzburg, Gerstungen, Salzungen, Gotha, Heldburg, Eisfeld, Weimar, Jena, Burgau, Berka, Buttsadt, Lobeda, Eisenach, Ilmenau, Kaltennordheim, etc, (1598-1662), Duke Albrecht of Sachsen-Eisenach, (1599-1644), Duke Ernst I the Pious von Sachsen-Gotha, in Tenneberg, Waltershausen, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg und Tonndorf, Heldburg, Eisfeld und Salzungen, Frauenbreitungen und Wasungen , Kranichfeld, Altenburg, Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Krainburg, Eisenberg, Stadtroda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Grafenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonneberg, Haldburghausen, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen und Römhild (1601-75), Friedrich Wilhelm, (1603-19) and Bernhard (1604-39), who became Duke of Franken in 1633, and the posthumously born daughter, Johanna (1606-09). Dorothea Maria lived (1574-1617).

 

Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1758-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
Guardian for son Karl August (1757-58-1828) - she was a very learned person, a well known intellectual, composer and musician. She was a promoter and supporter of Johann Wolfgang Goethe, and lived (1739-1807).

1805-06 In charge of the Government Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt
While her husband, Karl August (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1757-1828), was in Preussian war service during the Napoleonic Wars, she handled the affairs of state, and after the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt, the victorious French troops assembled in the residential city of Weimar and met with Napoleon Bonarparte and persuaded him to stop the plunderings of the city, which gave her the posititon as "saviour of the nation" (Retterin des Vaterlandes). After the end of the wars, her husband was raised to the position of Grand-Duke. Of her 7 children, 3 survived into adulthood. She lived (1757-1830).

Sachsen-Weißenfels-Querfurt

1680-87 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Johanna Walpurgis von Leiningen-Westerburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Dahme in Sachsen-Weissenfels-Querfurt
Second wife of August von Sachsen-Weißenfels-Querfurt who died in 1680, who had 8 surviving children by his first wife, Anna Maria von Ostfriesland, and 3 who died as infants. She herself had 1 son who died at the age of 19, one stillborn son and a surviving son, Duke Friedrich von Sachsen-Weissenfels-Dahme (1673-1715), who was given the Office of Dahme as his Dukedom when he reached adulthood. She lived (1647-87).

1712-30 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Friederike Elisabeth von Sachsen-Eisenach of the Castle and Office of Dryburg in Langensalza
Secured strong social accents to the reforms of her husband, Johann Georg (1677-1712). Her only son and 3 oldest daughters died as infants. Only Johanna Magdalene (1708-60), survived into adulthood and married Ferdinand Kettler, Duke of Kurland and Semgallen, but they did not have any children. The youngest daughter, Friederike Amalia, was born 2 weeks before her father passed, died at the age of 2. She was Daughter of Duke Johann Georg I von Sachsen-Eisenach and Countess Johanetta von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, and lived (1669-1730).

1715-29 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Emilie Agnes Reuß zu Schleiz of the Administrative Office and Castle of Dahme in Sachsen-Weissenfels and Fürstlich Drehna and Vetschau in Brandenburg (Germany)
After the death of her second husband, Duke Friedrich von Sachsen-Weissenfels-Dahme (1673-1715), she took up residence at the Castle of Dahme - that had been given to her husband as a younger son in the Weissenfels-family - it had previously been held as dorwy of his mother,  Johanna Walpurgis of Leiningen-Westerburg. Later she also used the Lordships of Drehna and Vetschau from her first marriage to Count Balthasar Erdmann von Promnitz (1656-1703). She did not have any children in her second marriage. She was daughter of Heinrich I Reuss von Schleiz and Countess Esther von Hardegg auf Glatz und im Machlande, and lived (1667-1729).

1746-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of Langensalza in Sachsen-Weißenfels
Widow of Johann Adolf II. von Sachsen-Weißenfels (1685-1746). Mother of 4 sons who died as infants and one daughter who died at the age of 10 in 1751. The daughter of Duke Friedrich II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalena Augusta von Anhalt-Zerbst, she lived (1715-74).

Sachsen-Wittenberg

1298-13.. Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes von Habsburg
After the death of her husband, Duke Albrecht II, she was regent for their son Duke and Prince Palantine Rudolf I. (circa 1285-98-1356) She was daughter of Emperor Rudolf, and  lived (circa 1257-1322).

Sachsen-Zeitz

1718-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Maria Amalia von Brandenburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Bertholdsburg in Schleusingen
When her second husband, Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Zeitz, von Sachsen-Zeitz died, she moved to her dowry. 1 son and 2 daughters died as infants, the Hereditary Prince at the age of 10 and only Dorothea Wilhelmine survived and married Wilhelm VIII von Hessen-Kassel. Maria Amalia had first been married to Herditary Princes Karl von Mecklenburg-Güstrow, who died the same day their only child was born and died. She lived (1670-1739).

Sachsen-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt

1713-48 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Friederike Philippine von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg of Neustadt an der Orla
Widow of Friedrich Heinrich von Sachsen-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt and joint guardian for her son Moritz Adolf Karl (1702-59), who chose to become a catholic cleric and was first bishop of Königgrätz and then of Leitmeritz, and he resigned from the Duchy. It seems that she continued to be in charge of the City and Office of Neustadt. She was daughter of Duke Philipp Ludwig von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg and Anna Margaretha von Hessen-Homburg. (1665-1748).


Ecclesiastical Territory of Säckingen (Seggingen or Seckingen) (Damenstift Säckingen - Ladies Chapter)) (In Baden-Württemberg) (See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories)

Sagan (in Schlesia)

1800-39 Sovereign Duchess Wilhelmine Biron von Kurland of Sagan, Representative of the Sovereign Dukes of Courland
The Duchy of Sagan was a fief of the Crown of Prussia, acquired from the Lobkowicz in 1786 by Duke Peter of Courland and confirmed for male line with succession to the nearest female on the death of the last male. The Biron von Courland line continued with Peter's brother, but on Peter's  death in 1800 Sagan passed to the eldest daughter Princess Katharina Friederike Wilhelmine. She was first married to Prince Jules de Rohan-Guéméné until they divorced in 1805. Her second husband was Prince Vassili Trubetzkoi (d.1841) whom she divorced in 1806. In 1818 she married Carl Rudolf Graf von der Schulenburg, but had no children and was succeeded by sister, Pauline. Wilhelmine lived (1781-1839). 

1839-44 Sovereign Duchess Pauline Biron von Kurland of Sagan and Representative of the Sovereign Dukes of Courland
Succeeded sister, Wilhelmine to the Duchy in Schlesia. Married to Prince Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Hechingen, who died 1838. She ceded the title to her son Constantin, Fürst von und zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1801-1869) in 1842. Since she had no children with his wife Princess Eugènie de Beauharnais von Leuchtenberg, she sold to her sister Dorothea all her portion of the allodial estates of the Duchy. Constantin continued negotiations with his aunt, which concluded on 16 Oct 1843 with the sale of the title and all claims, subject to actual possession by Dorothea being delayed until 1844. Pauline lived (1782-1845).

1844-62 Sovereign Duchess Dorothea Biron von Kurland of Sagan and Representative of the Sovereign Dukes of Courland
She succeeded after her sister Pauline renounced the title in her favour. The third sister, Johanna Catharine (1783-1876), who was divorced from Francesco Pignatelli Duca di Acerenza also renounced her rights in favour of the youngest sister. Dorothea was married to Edmund de Talleyrand-Périgord, Duc de Dino et de Talleyrand, French Foreign Minister, and her sons got the title of Duke of Sagan in 1844, again the succession was conferred to males, and following their extinction to the  nearest female was confirmed by the King of Prussia in 1845 and in 1846. Dorothea lived (1793-1862).


Salm-Daun (Dhaun)
Daun was was member of the Member of the Bench of Counts and Lords of the Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1693 Regent Dowager Countess Anna Katharina von Nassau-Ottweilder
For Wild- und Rheingraf Karl (1693-1733). She lived (1653-1731)

1733-38 Regent Dowager Countess Luise von Nassau-Ottweilder
For Johann Philipp. She lived U1686-1773)

1750 Regent Dowager Countess Karoline Friederike zu Salm-Grumbach
After the death of her husband, Johann Friedrich (1727-50), she was regent for two sons Karl Leopold Ludwig (1748-50) and Friedrich Wilhelm (born and dead 1750). She was born as Wild- und Rheingräfin in Grumbach, and lived (1733-83).


S
alm-Dyck
Member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1727 Regent Countess Dowager Anna Franziska von Thurn und Taxis
Regent for August Eugen Bernhard, Altgraf von Salm Reifferscheid zu Dyck (1706-27-67). She lived (1683-1776)

1775-76 (†) Regent Countess Dowager Auguste von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach of Salm-Dyck 
After the death of her husband, Johann Franz Wilhelm (1714-67-75), she was regent for son, Altgraf Joseph Franz Maria von Salm Reifferscheid zu Dyck (1773-75-1801). She lived (1743-76)

1776-1801 Regent N.N. 


Salm-Grumbach
The County was member of the Member of the Bench of Counts and Lords of the Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis)

1799-1801 Regent Dowager Countess Wilhelmine Friederike zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
1801-06 Regent of Salm-Horstmar
She was first regent for husband Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Theodor (1720-63-99) and then for son Wild- und Rheingraf Wilhelm Friedrich Karl August von Salm zu Horstmar (1799-1865), who was sovereign count of Salm-Grumbach until the territory was occupied by the French in 1801. He was then made count of Salm-Hostmar, and she continued as his regent until the territory was incorporated in Prussia. The counts continued as titular counts. Friederike lived (1767-1849).


Salm-Hostmar
Member of the Imperial Diet

1801-06 Regent Countess Dowager Friederike zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
For son Wilhelm Friedrich Karl August, Wild- und Rheingraf von Salm zu Horstmar (1799-1803-65). She lived (1767-849)

Salm-Kyrburg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1794-1801 Regent Dowager Princess Johanna Franziska Antonia von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
For Reichsfürst Friedrich zu Salm-Kyrburg, Fürst zu Ahaus und Bocholt, Wild- und Graf von Renneberg (1789-94-1801-59). She lived (1765-90)

Salm-Salm
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet

1738-51 Heiress Princess Dorothea
After the death of her father, Ludwig Otto of Salm (1674-1738), her husband, Count Nicolaus Leopold of Salm, Duke of Hoogstraten (1701-70), was named Sovereign Prince of Salm-Salm by the Emperor. She lived (1702-51)

1773-83 Regent Princess Dowager Marie Luise Eleonore von Hessen-Rheinfels
1794-.. Possibly Regent of Salm-Kyburg
Until 1777 she reigned alone, then she became regent for Konstantin Alexander Joseph, Fürst und Reingraf von Salm zu Salm, Wildgraf von Daun und Kyburg, Rheingraf von Stein etc. (1773-78-1828). In 1794 her late husband's relative, Friedrich III von Salm-Kyburg died, and she possibly became one of the regents for his son, Friedrich IV (1789-94-1801-59) whose mother had already died. Marie Luise Eleonore lived (1732-1800).

Salm-Reifferscheid
Member of the Imperial Diet

1678-93 Regent Countess Dowager Ernestine Barbara Dorothea Sibylle zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort
For Altgraf Franz Wilhelm I von Salm Reifferscheid zu Bedbur (1672-78-1734). She lived (1654-98).

1755-56 Regent Countess Dowager Maria Franziska Esterházy von Galantha of Salm-Reifferscheid zu Bedbur
Regent for Siegmund (1735-55-98). She lived (1702-78).


Sayn
Sayn was
member of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly), the Lordship of Blankenburg was Member of the Lower Saxonian Circle Estate (Niedersächsischer Reichskreis)

1
246-47 Regent Dowager Countess Mechthilde von Wied-Neuenburg of Sayn, Castle and Town of Hachenburg, the Lordship of Blankenburg, The Borough of Freusburg, The Castle of Hilkenrod, the County of Hadamar, the Juristiction of Banne Maxsayn and all other rights of court belonging to the County of Sayn
1247-after 1283 Reigning Dowager Lady of Löwnstein and her other Dowry Lands

She was the second wife of Heinrich III von Sayn (1206-1246), known as "the fat" because he was more than 2,13 meters tall and very strong. In his will he had named her late sister-in-law, Adelhaid's four sons;  Johannes, Count von Sponheim, Lord Heinrich zu Heinsberg, Lord Simon von Sponheim und Kreuznach and Count Eberhard von Sayn von Eberstein, as his sole heirs, and after a year she handed over the county and lands to them, with the right to her dowries for life. She was daughter of Count Lamtert von Wid-Neunburg and had no children. (D. after 1283).

1456-89 Hereditary Lady Elisabeth von Sirck of Furbach, Monklar and Meinzberg, The Fief of  Lützelburg and other Lordships
She inherited the Lordships from her uncle, Jacob von Sirck, Churfürst von Trier and her father. Her possessons were incorporated into the County of Sayn. Her husband, Gerhard II., Count of Sayn, Lord of Homburg, (1452-1493), was and influential statesman in the German Empire and was named Stadholder of the Westphalian Courts. She was mother of 9 sons and 7 daughters, though most of them died as infants. She lived (1435-89).


1606-08 Hereditary/Sovereign Countess Anna Elisabeth von Sayn of Sayn-Sayn
Heiress to her uncle, Count Heinrich IV. von Sayn, Lord Herr zu Homburg, Montclair und Meinsberg (1539-1606), who was the last Count von Sayn-Sayn of the male line of Sayn-Sponheim. He inherited the county jointly with her father, Hermann after death of their uncle Sebastian II, and after her father's death in 1588, he reunited the County. In 1605 he transferred the government to her husband, who asumed the title of Count Wilhelm III von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, because of ilness, and had him make a guarantee that he would support the Lutheran confession, but he soon replaced the Lutheran priests with Reformed. After her death, the county was in dispute and some territories were occupied by foreign powers. Wilhelm was succeeded by their oldest son, Ernst in 1626. She lived (1572-1608).


Sayn-Altenkirchen

1648-1701 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Johanette of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen
Initially co-ruler with sister, Ernestine, but in 1648, they later split up the county in 1648. Her part is normally known as Sayn-Altenkirchen for short. Married to Johannes-Georg I von Sachsen-Eisenanch. Their daughter, Eleonore Erdmute Louise, died 1696 in 1741 her grandson, Margrave Carl Wilhelm Friedrich von Brandenburg-Ansbach inherited the Reichsgrafschaft from his childless uncle, Duke Wilhelm Heinrich von Sachsen-Eisenach. Johanette zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen lived (1632-1701).


Sayn-Hachenburg
The county was part of the Imperial Circle of the Lower Rhine-Westphalia and the bank of the Counts of The Lower Rhine-Westphalia in the Imperial Diet (Niederrheinisch-Westfälischen Reichskreis & Grafen dem Niederrheinisch-Westfälischen Reichsgrafenkollegium) Around 1800 the territory was circa 250 square kilometres and had about 12.000 inhabitants.


1648-52 Regent Dowager Countess Luise Juliane of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenberg and Altenkirchen
After the death of her son, the hereditary count, the county was occupied by the Archbishop of Köln, but Luise Juliane continued to fight for her rights. In the Peace-treaty of Westphalia in 1648 both she and her two daughter: Johanette and Ernestine's right to rule the county was confirmed. She continued to act as regent for her two daughters who split the County among them, until she withdrew from Hachenburg Castle to Friedenwald Castle. She lived (1603-70).

1648-61 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Ernestine Salentine of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Hachenburg
In the beginning co-ruler with sister, Johanette, but they split up the county in 1648, when their right to the inheritance was confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia. Her part became known as Sayn-Hachenburg for short. She was married to count Salentin Ernst von Manderscheid-Blankenheim, Kirchenberg and the Nassau-Weilburg families, and is now one of the titles of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Ernestine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Hachenburg was succeeded by son and in 1676 by her daughter, Magdalena-Christina. She lived (1626-62).

1676-1715 Countess Magdalena-Christina von Manderscheid von Sayn-Hachenburg
Succeeded brother, who had succeeded their mother, Countess Ernestine, co-ruler of Sayn-Hachenburg. She was married to a Burggrave von Kirchberg and trough her, the county of Hachenburg ended up with the Nassau-Weilburg family of Luxembourg.

1799-1827 Sovereign Countess Luise Isabella von Sayn-Hachenburg-Kirchberg
Also Burgravine of Kirchberg she was married to Duke Friedrich-Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg and her territory was incorporated into his lands after their marriage. She was daughter of Wilhelm-Georg and succeeded Johann-August (1714-77-99), and lived (1772-1827).

Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (Ruling house until 1810) (Also see Wittgenstein)
Until 1806 members of the College of the Counts of the Wetterau, who had one vote in the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet

1694-1705 Regent Dowager Countess Hedwig Sophie zu Lippe-Brake
After the death of her husband Count Ludwig Franz  (1660-1694) she acted as regent for son, Casimir (1687-1741) and her brother, Count Rudolf zur Lippe-Brake, was co-guardian. She was dominated by a pietistic Protestantism and the country was still devastated by the consequences by the Thirty Years War. She lived (1669-1738)

1944-55 Guardian Dowager Princess Margareta Fouche d'Otrante
Guardian for Prince Richard (1934/44-) after her husband Gustaf Richard was reported missing during WWII. The family went into exile in her Sweden, where she was born. Prince Richard later married HRH Princess Benedikte of Denmark. She lived (1909-2005).


Schauenburg

Until 1196/1200 Countess Regnant Uta 


Schaumburg
Member of the College of the Counts of Westphalia in the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet and also
member of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1526-33 Reigning Dowager Countess Anna von Schönberg of Die Schaumburg auf dem Nesselberg
Widow of Count Anton von Schaumburg, and she resided in the Castle at the Moutain of Nesselberg

Took over the castle and territory as her dowry after the death of her husband, Anton, the last count to reside in the castle.


1640-46 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth zur Lippe-Alverdissen of Schaumburg with the Administrative Offices of Stadthagen, Bückeburg, Arensburg and Hagenburg (Germany)
Succeeded her son, Count Otto von Holstein-Schaumburg, who died 1640 without issue. In 1643 she transferred her rights to her brother Count Philip zur Lippe-Alverdissen, and ruled with him as co-regent till her death three years later. His descendants assumed the name Schaumburg-Lippe. (d. 1643).


Schaumburg-Lippe
The vote in the
Member of the College of the Counts of Westphalia in the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet was shared with Hessen-Kassel (Hessen-Schaumburg)

1787-99 Regent Dowager Countess Juliana Wilhelmine Louise von Hessen-Philipstahl
Regent for son Georg-Wilhelm (1784-1860, Count 1787-1807 and thereafter Prince). With the help of English troops she forced the Hanoverians out of the county. She lived (1761-99). 


Schleswig-Holstein (Slesvig-Holsten)
The Danish King was Duke of Slesvig-Holsten until 1864. See Denmark Heads. Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet (The castle of Kiel mainly served as Dowager Seat during the 1500s)

1404-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig of Holstein
After the murder of her husband Gerhard IV, she was regent for their son, Heinrich IV. Gerhard was count of Holstein-Rendsburg (1382-1404) before he was given Slesvig as a hereditary fief with the title of Duke by Queen Margrethe I of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1386. She was engaged in various fights with King Erik 6. of Pommern of Denmark, who complained, and various dukes are asked to mediate, and in 1410 they make a truce. She was mother of 3 sons and two daughters, including Heilwig, who married Dietrich von Oldenburg, whose son, became Christian I of Denmark in 1448, and inherited Slesvig in 1459.

1481-90 Regent Dowager Queen Dorothea af Brandenburg
The "royal authority" was vested in her after the death of her first husband, Danish king Christoffer III of Bavaria  in 1488. She contrasigned and authorized the decisions made by the Council of State which reigned the country. Later same year she married the new king Christian I of Oldenborg and often acted as regent during his many warfares. She also had Abrahamstrup, Kalundborg,Lolland-Falster Slesvig and Holsten, Närke and Värmland (Sweden) as security for lones she granted her husband. Later regent for son, Frederik, (later king) in the Dukedoms. She lived (1430-90)

1588-94 Regent Queen Dowager Sophie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Schleswig-Holstein
Widow of Frederik 2. She was regent for son Christian 4. in Slesvig-Holsten 1588-94.She was engaged in a power struggle with the Regents of Denmark, The Council of State, which had Christian declared of age in 1593, but she did not give up her position in the Duchies before the next year. Withdrew to Lolland-Faster, where she managed her estates extremely well and became very rich and she lend her son a lot of money for his warfares. She lived (1557-1631)


Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg)

1714-41 Dowager Lady Sofie Amalie Ahlefeldt possibly of Sønderborg
After the death of her husband, Frederik Vilhelm (1668-1714), she was daughter of Frederik Ahlefeld, Count of Langeland and Maria Elisabeth Gräfin zu Leiningen-Daghesburg-Hardenburg, administered her dowry. She lived (1668-1741).

Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (Holsten-Sønderborg)

1627-33 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Dorothea von Schwarzburg
Retained undivided possession of the estate after the death of her husband, Duke Alexander of Sønderborg. She handed over the estates to her son, Hans Christian (1627-53).

1653-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna zu Oldenborg-Delmenhorst
After the death of her husband, Hans Christian, she was regent for her 12 year old son, Christian Adolf in very difficult times, as the territory was marked by the wars between Denmark and Sweden. After her son came of age, she witdrew to her dowry, Gammelgård. She was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Dannenberg. Both her brothers died young and unmarried, one sister, Katharine Elisabeth, was Abbess of Gandersheim and two of her sister's, Clara and Sidonie, married a relative of her sister, Duke August Philipp of Holstein-Beck. She lived (1605-68).


Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhage (Holstein-Franzhage) (Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Franzhage)

1702-09 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Eleonore Charlotte von Sachsen-Lauenburg
She married
Christian Adolf von Holstein-Sonderburg in 1676. In 1668 king 1668 King Frederik III had removed him from the duchy because his heavy dephts. She travelled to Copenhagen to try to persuade the king to hand back the territories, but instead they settled in Franzhagen. After her husband's death, she was in charge of the government because of her sons had married below their staus. Leopold Christian (d. 1707) and Ludwig Carl (d. 1708). She lived (1646-1709).

1709 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Barbara Dorothea von Winterfeld
After the death of her mother-in-law, Eleonore Charlotte von Sachsen-Lauenburg, she tried to continue running the estates of the small duchy, but she had to give up and moved to Hamburg where she died in powerty. (d. 1739).

Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg)

1766-79 In charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Henriette Auguste von Lippe-Detmold
Her son, Frederik Henrik Vilhelm of Holsten-Glüksborg was 19 when he succeeded his father, Frederik of Glücksborg, and continued in Danish military service. She lived (1725-77)

1779-1824 In charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Anna Karoline von Nassau-Saarbrücken
After the death of her first husband, Frederik Henrik Vilhelm/Friedrich Wilhelm, she remained in charge of the Duchy, also after her marriage to Duke Friedrich Karl Ferdinand of Braunschweig-Bevern (d. 1809) in 1782. One year after her death the title of Duke of Glücksborg was inherited by Duke Wilhelm zu Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Beck, whose son became king Christian 9 of Denmark in 1863. She was daughter of Wilhelm Heinrich von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1718-35-68) and Sofie von Erbach, and lived (1751-1824).


Schlewig-Holstein-Gottorf (Holstein-Gottorp) (Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp)
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet and member of the Regional Assembly of the Lower Saxon Circle Estate (Niedersächsischer Reichskreis)

1586-1604 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christina von Hessen-Kassel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Kiel
1587-93 Regent of Gottorp
Her oldest son, Friederich II succeeded his father, Adolf (1526-33-86) as Duke of Gottorp at the age of 18. He died after one year and was then succeeded by the second, Philipp (1570-87-90) and after his death for the youngest,
Johan Adolf (1575-1590-1616).
Her husband had been given the duchy after the death of his father, King Frederik I of Denmark and his older brother, Johann was given Hadersleben (Haderslev) but he died without issue in 1591. She was mother of a total of 10 children, and lived  (1543-1604).

1616-36 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Augusta of Denmark
1616-39
Reigning Dowager Lady of  the Castle and Administrative Unit of Husum in Holstein-Gottorp
After the death of her husband, Johan Adolf, she was politically influential and ruled Husum as her dowry. She was mother of Duke Friedrich, and lived (1580-1639).

1659-60 Possible Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Sachsen of Holstein Gottorp
1660-84 Reigning Dowager Lady of  the Castle and Administrative Unit of Husum in Holstein-Gottorp
At the time of the death of her husband, Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Gottorp, her fifth and oldest surviving son Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp was just 18 and she might have been his guardian for the first year. At least she did not move to her dorwy, the Schoss vor Husum (The Castle outside Husum) until 1660. She expanded her residence and promoted arts and culture, music and gardening. Among her other 15 children was Marie Elisabeth, who had been Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg until her death in 1755. She lived (1610-84).

Circa 1695-1704 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Frederikke Amalie af Denmark of Holstein-Gottorp
1695-1704 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Kiel
She must have had some kind of political influence after the death of her husband Duke Christian Albrecht of Holstein Gottorp in 1695 and not the least after her son, Friedrich (1671-1702) married Princess Hedvig Sofia of Sweden in 1698 and spend some time in Sweden. Federikke Amalie also visited her sister, Queen Ulrike Eleonora in Stockholm. After her son was killed in battle, Hedvig Sofia became regent, but stayed in Sweden. Federikke was daughter of king Frederik 5. of Denmark, and lived (1649-1704).

1702-08 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedvig Sofia of Sweden of Holstein-Gottorp
Married to Friedrich von Holstein-Gottorp (1671-1702) in 1698. She stayed in Gottorp for about one year and in 1700 her only child, Karl Friedrich (1700-39), was born, and two years later her husband was killed in battle. She was proclaimed regent while the guardianship was given to her brother, Karl. XII. She was Hereditary Princess of Sweden until her death, and her son stayed in Sweden until 1718, and was generally considered to be heir to the throne - instead his aunt, Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was chosen as reigning Queen, after the death of her brother, Karl XII. Karl Friedrich's son Carl Peter Ulrich later became Czar Peter of Russia. Hedvig Sofia was daughter of Karl XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Older, and lived (1681-1708). 

1763-73 Duchess Katharina of Russia 
She initiated grand repairs of the castle. In 1773 she officially gave up the Russian claims to the Duchies of Slesvig-Holsten, which her husband Peter III had inherited from his father Carl Friederich, who was married to Anna Petrovna of Russia, and who grew up in Russia after both his parents died in 1739. In exchange the Danish king gave up the Counties of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst.

Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Nordborg)

1658-81 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Osterholm
The castle of Østerholm was built by Duke Hans in 1592 and she took in possession as her dowry after the death of her husband
Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg (1581-1624-58), who was succeed by his only child by first his wife, Johann Bogislaw of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (1629-58-69-79), who was deposed. Among her 5 children was Dorothea Hedwig, who was Princess-Abbess in Gandersheim (1665-78) until she married Count 1678 Gf Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld. Eleonore lived (1608-81).

1699-1723 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Charlotte von Anhalt-Harzgerode of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Osterholm
Widow of
Duke August of Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg (1635-99), she was mother of 8 children. Her husband Joachim Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (1699-1722) and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Plön (1706-22), had three daughters by his first wife Magdalene Juliane von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1686-1720) and a stillborn child by his second wife, Juliane Luise von Ostfriesland (1698-1740), who apprently did not occupy Østerholm, who was taken over by the King of Denmark in 1729 and torn down 4 years later. Elisabeth Charlotte lived (1647-1723).


Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (Holstein-Plön)  or Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Nordburg-Plön - Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Pløn

1390 Guardian Dowager Countess Anna zu Mecklenburg
The widow of Count Adolf VII of Holstein-Plön (who reigned 1358-90), she made a treaty on behalf of King Albrecht von Mecklenburg of Sweden and Duke Johan of Mecklenburg, which transferred the regency of Sweden, Mecklenburg and the Counties of Mecklenburg, Schwerin and Rostock, to king Albrecht's brother. She signed the treaty together with Abbot Johan Doberum, 14 Mecklenburgian knights and various Mayors. 

1671-circa 73 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Dorothea Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp
Her son, Hans Adolf (1634-71-1704) participated in various wars in the service of the German Emperor, and left the government in her hand and then in the hand of her daughter-in-law, Dorothea Sophia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. Dorothea Auguste was widow of Joachim Ernst of Plön, the areas of Kenfeld and Ahrensbök, during whose reign the armies of Wallenstein went through the Duchy in 1627, the Sweeds looted in 1643 and the Danish-Swedish war 1657-60 devestated the state. She lived (1602-82).

1673-1704 In Charge of the Government Duchess Dorothea Sophia zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1704-06 Member of the Guardian Government
1704-22 Titular Duchess of Reinfeld and Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Office
After her marriage to Hans Adolf, Of the Grace of God Heir of Norway, Duke to Schleswig-Holstein (1634-71-1704), who participated in various wars in the service of the German Emperor
 and spend very little time in Plön, she took over the government from her mother-in-law Dorothea Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp. After his death she was given the title of titular duchess and Castle of Reinfeld as her dowry. She lived (1653-1722)

1704-06 Head of the Guardian Government Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Marie Sofie von Slesvig-Holstein-Nordburg
1706-67 Reigning Dowager Lady of Ahrensbök
As her husband, Adolf August had died 4 days before his father, Hans Adolf, she became regent for 2 year old son, Leopold August, but he died at the age of 4 and an interregnum followed for a number of years, and she moved to her dowry in Ahrensbök. She lived (1683-1767).

1722 Regent Dowager Duchess Juliane Luise von Ostfriesland
Also known as Juliana Louise. When her husband, Joachim Friedrich Herzog von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Pløn on 25. January, she was pregnant and became regent awaiting the birth of a heir, but the day after she gave birth to a still-born daughter on 28. May, the Danish king entered the Castle of Plön and took it into posession. Her husband had 4 daughters with his first wife, 2 of whom were Canonisses in Gandersheim but died at Plön and Augustenburg. She died in Harzgerode, the former residential town of the family of late mother-in-law Elisabeth Charlotte von Anhalt-Harzgerode (1647-1723), and lived (1698-1740).

1730-62 Titular Duchess Dorothea Christine von Aichelburg of Reinfeld and Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Reinfeld in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Nordburg
Her son  Friedrich Carl (1706-61) was born 3 months after the death of her husband, Prince Christian Carl von Holstein-Nordborg (1674-1706). The king of Denmark granted him the name of Schleswig-Holstein-Nordborg-Carlstein. Her brother-in-law Joachim Friedrich (1668-1722), inherited the Duchy of Plön from a relative later in 1706, but since his daughters could not inherit the title, it went to Friedrich Carl, after a decree from the Danish king, who determined that her marriage to Christian Carl had been "equal" and not Morganatic and occupied the territory on his behalf. The next in line, the duke of Holstein-Rethwisch sued, her son counter-sued, and the matter dragged on for years until the Rethwisch-line died out in 1729 and her son inherited Rethwisch as well. 1730 her son married Christiane Irmgard Reventlow, the nice of Anne Sofie Rventlow, the morganatic wife of King Frederik of Denmark, and finally in 1731 the Emperor determined the case in the favour of her son, who was invested with the title and she was then grated the Administrative office of Reinfeld as her dowry. Another version of her surname is von Eichelberg, and she lived (1674-1762).

1761-79 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Irmgard Reventlow von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg of Nordborg and Plön
Since there was no male heirs, the Duchies returned to the Danish king after the death of her husband,
Frederik Carl (1706-61), but she remained in residence at the lands as her dowry. She was mother of four daughters. The only one to marry was Charlotte Amalie Vilhelmine (1744-70), who married Prince Frederik Christian von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (1721-94). Christine Ermegaard lived (1711-79).


Schönburg

1534-52 Joint Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Amalie von Leißnig zu Penig of Schönburg and Hertenstein, the Lordships of Glauchau, Waldenburg and th Lichtenstein, and the Estates of Hohnstein, Lohmen, Wehlen and Kriebstein
As part of the guardinship for her sons, Johann Ernst, Georg, Hugo and Wolf she was able to expand the possessions that her husband, Ernst II, had collected: The secularized Convent of Remse, the Lordship Klösterle in Bohmia and Rochsburg in Sachsen. In 1542 Lutheranism was introduced in the lordships.



Schwaben (Swabia)

1015-.. Regent Dowager Duchess Gisela von Schwaben of Swchaben 
Heiress of Schwaben. 1024-39 Co-Regent of Germany, 1026-39 Co-Regent of Italy, 1027-39 Co-Regent of The Holy Roman Empire, 1032-39 Co-Regent of Bourgogne

1106-43 Hereditary Duchess Agnes of Franken
Daughter of Emperor Heinrich IV (1050-56-1106). Her husband, Friedrich I Graf Hohenstaufen became Duke of Franken and Schwaben and was succeeded by their son, Friedrich II. Agnes' second husband was Leopold III, Markgraf of Austria who died 1136. Agnes lived (1074-1143).


Schwabeck

1705-06 Sovereign Lady Dowager Duchess Mauricienne Fébronie de La Tour-d'Auvergne von Bayern
Also known as Mauritia Febronia, Princess d´Evreux , she was daughter of Frédéric Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, Duke de Bouillon (d. 1652) and Eleonore Katharina von Berg (d. 1657), she grew up under the protection of King Louis XIV, and married Duke Maximilian Philipp of Bayern, Landgraf von Leuchtenberg (1638-1705), who acted as regent 1679-80 for his nephew, making her the first Lady of the electorate. After her husband's death she reined the lordship. It was during the War of the Spanish Succession. Her husband had received Letters of Protection from both the Habsburg Emperor and the King of France to prevent the lordship from being looted, and she vehemently secured that the foreign soldiers lived up to the letters. She had no children, and lived (1652-1706)


Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
 
1349-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Hohnstein of Greifenstein
After the death of her husband, Count Günther XXI. von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, who worked as a diplomat in the service of Emperor Ludwig IV. Mother of a son and 4 daughters. (d. 1380).
 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet and member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1547 Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Katharina von Schwarzburg of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Known as Katharina the Brave for her opposition against the Duke of Alba

1597-1658 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara zu Braunschweig of the Administrative Office and Castle of Heringen an der Helme in Schwarzburg
Due to her wise actions during the Thirty Year War, she managed to save the city from plundering and war taxes.  She was widow of
Wilhelm I. Count of Schwarzburg, Lord of Hohenstein

1646-62 Regent Dowager Countess of the Empire Ämilie Antonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 
1663-70 Reigning Dowager Lady of Könitz
Also known as Amalia Antonia, she acted as regent for son Albrecht Anton (1641-1710), after the death of her husband, Reichsgraf Ludwig Günther. When her son came of age, she took over the administration of Könitz as the last feudal ruler. Her two sisters, Catharina Elisabeth, was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim (1625-49), and Sedona Princess-Abbess of Herford (1640-49). Ämilie Antonia lived (1614-70).

1744-50 Dowager Princess Christine Sophie von Ostfriesland
Widow of Fürst Anton Friederich von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1692-1718-44). She lived (1688-1750).

1807-14 Regent Dowager Princess Karoline-Louise von Hessen-Homburg
After the death of her husband, Ludwig Friedrich, she was regent for son Friedrich Günther (1793-1807-67), who was succeeded by his younger brother Albert (1798-1867-69). She lived (1771-1854).


Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

1666-89 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Marie-Magdalene zu Pfalz-Birkenfeld of Auleben
Widow of Count Anton Günther I von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1620-42-66).


Schweinfurt

Until 1104 Hereditary Countess Beatrix von Schweinfurt  


Slawien-Stettin

1219-? Regent Dowager Duchess Irmgardis af Danmark
After the death of her husband, Kasimir II. she became regent for son, Wartislaw III. She cooperated closely with Miroslawa and both relied heavily on support from Denmark, but when Count Heinrich von Schwerin attacked the area in 1223, King Valdemar II the Victorious was unable to support his sister and her relatives. 


Ecclesiastical Territory flingen (bei Ulm) (In Baden-Württemberg)

See Germany Ecclesiastical Territories

Solms-Rödelheim

1716-22 Regent Dowager Gräfin Charlotte Sybille von Ahlefeld of Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim
As guardian (vormundschaftliche Regentin) for her son, Lothar Wilhelm Ernsts (1703-22)  she filed a case at the Reichskammergericht against her brother-in-law Ludwig Heinrich over the inheritance of the territories of the Lorship of Cratz von von Scharffenstein in 1718, 2 years after the death of her husband, Georg Ludwig. The case closed when Lothar died in an accident and she reached a settlement with Ludwig for her and her 2 daughters, the Countesses Catharina Polyxena epousé zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg ((1702-65) and Maria Sophia Eleonora Wilhelmina epouse zu Wartenberg, got financial compensation, but they did not sell their part of the Cratz-inheritance to Rödelheim until a few years later. She was daughter of Friederich von Ahlefeld-Rixingen and Maria-Elisabeth zu Leiningen and lived (1672-1726).



Sponheim

1323-29 Regent Dowager Countess Loretta von Salm of Sponheim-Starkenburg
1329-... Dame of Frauenberg
Sole regent for son. She managed to consolidate the family's reign of the county and created a flourishing economy. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dowry, where she had full regal powers. (b. 1297).


Steinfurt
M
ember of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1421 Hereditary Lady Luitgard von Bentheim
She inherited Steinfurt from her maternal grandfather, Ludolf VIII von Steinfurt, since her mother, Mechtild, had died the previous year. Luitgard ceded the lordship to her father, Everwin I, and thus to her stepbrothers. She later married Wilhelm von der Lecke, Lord van Berg-s'Herenberg.  

1566-72 Regent Dowager Countess Anna von Tecklenburg-Schwerin of Steinfurt-Wevelinghoven and Granau
Succeeded father, Konrad von Tecklenburg-Ibbenbüren as Sovereign Countess of Tecklenburg und Rheda in 1557, and married to Everwin III von Götterswich, Graf von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1536-62). After his death, she was regent in Bentheim
1562-73, and after the death Arnold III, also regent in Steinfurt. In 1580 she handed over Tecklenburg and Rheda to her son, Arnold IV, and lived (1532-82).


Sternstein and Neustadt an der Waldnaab
Member of the Secular Bench of the Bavarian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1653-80 De facto Regent Princess Augusta Sophie von der Pfalz-Sulzbach
Her father, August von der Pfalz-Sulzbach, died in 1632, and her mother Hedwig sent her to Sweden to live with her great-aunt, Queen Hedwig-Eleonore zu Holstein-Gottrop. Augusta Sophie married Prince Wenzel Eusebus Lobkowitz of Neustadt, who as Chancellor of the Emperor was away most of the time and left the administration of the semi-independent principality to her and in 1673 he officially appointed her regent. A few years after his death in 1677 moved to Nürnberg. Mother of four children, and lived (1624-82).

Stolberg

1574-78 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Walburga zu Wied of the Town, Adminsitrative Office and Winery of Butzbach in Stolberg
Widow of Count Ludwig zu Stolberg, whose sister was Princess-Abbess Anna II von Quedlinburg. He inherited Königstein from his relative Count Eberhard IV zu Eppstein-Königstein in 1535, Wertheim, Breuberg from his daughter Katharina, the widow of the last count of Wertheim und Breuberg, Michael III, 1556, but it fell to their younger daughter Anna zu Stolberg-Rochefort and her husband Ludwig III von Löwenstein in 1598.

1710-18 Regent Dowager Countess Christine von Mecklenburg-Güstrow of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Hohnsteinschen Forst, Gedern and Schwarza
As her husband Ludwig Christian zu Stoberg-Gedern-Schwarza und Hohnstein and brother-in-law Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode died soon after each other, her 3 surviving sons, Christian Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode, Friedrich Karl zu Stolberg-Gedern and Heinrich August zu Stolberg-Schwarza, each inherited parts of the counties. In Wernigerode she was regent for her oldest son, Christian Ernst, with confirmation of Emperor Joseph until 1714 and for the youngest until 1718. In spite of the fact that her duties as regent meant that she had to travel a lot, she also collected a large library and was in close contact with her relatives in Denmark, Brandenburg and various Saxon lines. In order to prevent the citizen getting drunk and engaging in fights, she issued a decree closing all inns on holidays. King Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Preußen protested against this in 1713, but she managed to persuade him to accept her decision. She maintained an extensive correspondence with several of the influential Pietistic theologians of the time. She gave birth to 24 children with in 23 years: Gustav Adolf (born and dead January 1684), a daughter (born and dead in 1684), Gustav Ernst (1685-89), Friederike Charlotte zu Solms-Laubach (1686-1739), Emilie Auguste zu Stolberg-Rossla (1687-1730), Christine Luise (1688- August 1691), Albertine Antonie (1689-August 1691), Karl Ludwig (1689- August 1691), Gustave Magdalene (1690-March 1691), Christian Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode (1691-1771), Christine Eleonore zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Büdingen (1692-1745), Friedrich Karl zu Stolberg-Gedern (1693-1767), Ernestine Wilhelmine zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Wächtersbach (1695-1759), Ludwig Adolf (1697-98), Heinrich August zu Stolberg-Schwarza (1697-1748), Friederike Luise (1696-97), Sophie Christiane (1698-1771), Ferdinande Henriette zu Erbach-Schönberg (1699-1750) Rudolf Lebrecht (1701-02), Ludwig Christian (September-November 1701), Auguste Marie (1702-68) (a Canoness in Heford, created Fürstin in 1742), Karoline Adolfine (1704-07) and Philippine Luise zu Isenburg-Philippseich (1705-44). Her sister, Louise married King Christian 6 of Denmark and a number of her decendants were in Danish service. She was the 5th daughter of Duke Gustav Adolf zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Magdalene Sibylle von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp and lived (1663-1749).

Stotel

1326-36 Regent Dowager Countess Alburgas von Bederkesa
Together with the Deacon Giselbert von Holstein she reigned for her sons Rudolf III. and Johannes III. after the death of her husband, Johannes II. She was the only daughter and heir of Sir Dietrich von Bederkesa, gen. Scheele, and inherited numerous estates from him. Also known as Abele van Betderkhesa, and lived (circa 1290-around 1375).


Stühlingen

1582 Hereditary Landgravine Maximiliane von Pappenheim of Stühlingen, Lady of Hohenhöwen
She succeeded her brother, Hereditary Marshal Maximilian von Pappenheim, and was married to Count Friedrich Rudolf von Fürstenberg.

Styrum

1809-25 Reigning Lady Maria Margaretha von Humbracht
She inherited the former immediate lordship in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of her brother-in-law, Count Ernst von Limburg-Styrum-Styrum, who was on journey to Frankfurt to marry her, and had willed the Lordship her to her. He was the widower of her sister, Sofie Charlotte von Humbracht (1762- 1805). She sold it in 1825. She lived (1755-1827)



Suppilenburg

1134-44 Duchess Regnant Gertrud
Daughter of Emperor Lothar III, married to Heinrich V of Bavaria and Sachsen and mother of Heinrich Lowe

973-84 Politically Influential Duchess Hadwig of Swabia
973-94 Reigning Dowager Lady of her Dowries in Swabia
After the death of her husband Burchard III in 973, she continued to be called "Dux" in the Imperial decrees and remained influential in the Duchy and her dowry lands though out the reigns of the next two dukes. She donated large sums to the neigboring convents and had close contact with her sister, Abbess Gerberga II. of Gandersheim and her brother, Heinrich of Bavaria, who made several attempts to take over the Duchy of Swabia until his final defeat in 784, which also meant the end of her political influence. Daughter of Duke Heinrich I. of Bavaria and Judith, the sister of the Frankish king Otto I, she had no children and lived (938/939/940/945-994).

T

Tecklenburg  
Member of the College of the Counts of Westphalia, which held a joint vote in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet, and also m
ember of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1140-44 Regent Dowager Margravine Hedwig
Countess Regnant of Gudenberg in Hessen 


1202-circa 06 Regent Dowager Countess Oda von Berg-Altena
Regent for son Otto I von Tecklenburg after the death of her husband, Count Simon. Otto was succeeded by daughter, Helwig.  


1261-circa 64 Hereditary Countess Heilwig von Tecklenburg Daughter of Count Grafen Otto I. von Tecklenburg and Mechthild von Holstein-Schauenburg and married to Otto II von Bentheim-Tecklenburg (d. circa 1279). Her oldest son was Otto III of Tecklenburg, the second  Ekbert I. of Bentheim and her daughter Gertrud was Abbess of Metelen from 1287

130
1 Hereditary Countess Richardis von Bentheim
She was the heir of her father, Otto V von Bentheim-Tecklenburg/Tecklenburg-Ibbenbüren, and married Count Günzel VI von Schwerin-Wittenburg-Boizenburg (d. 1327). Her daughter, Richardis, married king Valdemar V of Denmark.

1557-80 Sovereign Countess Anna von Tecklenburg-Schwerin of Tecklenburg und Rheda 
1562-73 Regent of Bentheim
1566-72 Regent of Steinfurt-Wevelinghoven and Granau
Succeeded father, Konrad von Tecklenburg-Ibbenbüren, and married to Everwin III von Götterswich, Graf von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1536-62). After his death, she was regent in Bentheim and after the death Arnold III, also regent in Steinfurt. In 1580 she handed over Tecklenburg and Rheda to her son, Arnold IV, and lived (1532-82).



Teschen (Also part of Slesia, now Poland and Bohemia (now Czech Republic)

1625-53 Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth Lucretia of Schlesia-Teschen-Freistadt
She succeeded brother, Friedrich Wilhelm of Cieszyn (Teschen), and was successful in maintaining her independence against the co-regency of her husband, Fürst Gundacar von Liechtenstein (who was first married to Countess Agnes of Ostfriesland-Rietberg). After her death, the Duchy went to Bohemia. She lived (1599-1653).


1704-43 Princess of the Realm Ursula Katharina zu Altenbockum of Teschen 
1705-43 Dame of the Castle and City of Hoyerswerdaer 
After her divorce from Prince Georg Dominicus Lubomirski she became the mattresses of August the Strong of Sachsen, and gave birth to a son, after which she was named Reichsfürstin. She was involved in the fall of the Saxon Chancellor Beichlingen. She later married Prince Friedrich Ludwig von Württemberg, who died 1734. Shortly before her death, she sold the Lordship of Hoyerswerda to August III. She was born in Lithuania and lived (1680-1743).


Thurn und Taxis
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet and member of the Electoral Rhenish Circle Estate (Regional Assembly). The lordships of Scheer and Friedberg were members of the Bench of the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate and the Lordship of Eglingen of the Bench of the The Bench of Counts and Lords of the Swabian Circle Estate


1628-46 Acting Imperial Postmaster General Alexandrine de Rye in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and and Postmaster General in the Spanish Netherlands, Burgundy and Lorraine
Shortly before his death, her husband, Count Leonhard II von Taxis, had named her guardian for their minor son, Lamoral Claudius Franz von Thurn und Taxis, and after his death, Emperor Ferdinand II confirmed the guardianship and appointed her to the post of Postmaster General (Generalpostmeisterin der Kaiserlichen Reichspost und Generalpostmeisterin in den Spanischen Niederlanden.) in the name of her son. Also King Felipe IV of Spain appointed her as Postmaster General in his territories. Despite the difficulties of the Thirty Years War she showed herself as an able organzator and was able expand the area covered by the Post of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1637 the new Emperor Ferdinand III confirmed her temporary appointment and the following year he named her daughter, Genoveva, as designated successor should Lamoral Claudius Franz die without heirs. When he turned 25 she resigned. She was daughter of Philibert Bar de Balançon Comte de Varax and Claudine de Tournon-Roussillon, and lived (1589-1666).

1871-83 and 1885-88 Guardian Dowager Hereditary Princess Helene in Bayern
The widow of Erbprinz Maximilian, who died 1867, she was guardian and administrator of the estates of her sons, Maximilian (1862-71-85) - who succeeded his grandfather, Maximilian Karl - and Albert (1867-1952). One of her sisters was Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungaria (Sisi) another, Elisabeth, married the King of Bavaria. Helene was born as Herzogin in Bayern and lived (1834-90). 

1990-2002 Guardian Dowager Fürstin Maria Gloria von Thurn und Taxis (Germany)
Fürstin Gloria was guardian for son Albert, who succeeded his father Johannes (1926-90) as Fürst and owner of the wast family estates and properties in 1990. Albert is born 1983 and has two older sisters. Maria Gloria is born Gräfin von Schönburg-Glauchau (b. 1960-).  


Thüringen/Thuringia
Member of the Imperial Diet

1140-44 Regent Dowager Margravine Hedwig von Gudensberg
Also Countess Regnant of Gudensberg-Orlamünde-Arnshaugh
(1137-48), regent for son Ludwig II.

1180 Regent Landgavine Jutta Hohenstaufen von Schwaben of Thüringen
In 1150 she married Ludwig II (1128-72)
and in 1168 she initiated the building of the burough of Weeissensee as a princly residence. When her sons; Landgrave Ludwig (1172-90) and Hermann and were taken prisoners by Heinrich dem Löwen (Henry the Bear), she ruled the Landgravate. Her high position shows in the mentioning of her name in various official documents isued by her husband, and when her  second son Hermann I succeeded his brother as Landgrave (1190-1217) he called him self - among his many other titles "Son of the Landgravine Jutta, who is a sister of Emperor Freiderich I." She was the sister of Friedrich III Barbarossa, Duke of Swabia (1147-52), King of Italy (1154-86), King of Germany (1152-90), Comte de Bourgogne (1156-90), King of Bourgogne 1178 (d. 1190), mother of four sons and one daughter, and lived (circa 1135-1190)

1227 Regent Landgravine Elisabeth of Hungary
1227-31 Reigning Dowager Lady of Maburg and Wehrda
She became regent as her husband, Ludwig IV the Holy of Thuringa, went off on a cursaide, but he died on his way to Israel. After his death she refused to take over the regency and left it to her brother-in-law, and instead dedicated herself to the care of the poor and sick and was later declared a saint. She lived (1207-31).

 

 

Hofmark Tutzing in Bayern.
The territory included Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas

......Maria Anna von Haimhausen auf Tutzing
Married to Reichsfreiherr Maximilian Ernst von Gözengrien

Until 1721 Maria Anna Franziska von Götzengrien auf Tutzing
Half of the Bavarian citizen were not direct subjects of the King but of "lords of the manor" - in either secular or clerical Hofmarks, which posessed lower juridstiction and other privilleges. She and her sisters inherited the territory from their mother, .Maria Anna von Haimhausen auf Tutzing.

1721-30 Maria Ursula Sabrina von Götzengrien auf Tutzing
Female "Lords of the Manor" - Hofmarksherscherinnen was not usual, but it was not unheard of since the land was hereditary within the gentred nobility. Among her duties was to exercise the lower civil and penal juridisction through a "ritter", to collect taxes in the name of the king and to supply men to the army. She also held a trade monopoly and managed the estate and agricultural aspects

1730-31 Maria Adelheid Maximiliana von Götzengrien auf Tutzing
Continued to live in the manor together with her sister, Maria Theresia Cäcilia and her niece until she got married in 1738. When her husband died already 1743 she returned.

1731-47 Maria Cäcilia Theresia Violanda von Götzengrien auf Tutzing
Returned to her family's possessions after the death of her husband, Freiherr Ferdinand Joseph von Vieregg, whom she had married  in 1710. He was father of 5 surviving children aged 24 to 1½ years from 2 earlier marriages. She gave birth to 9 children between 1711 and 1723. Only the oldest daughter, Maria Christina Adelheit and 4 sons survived. Back in Tutzing she agreed with her 2 surviving sisters that she would take over the administration of the Hofmark. Her sons went to university and her daughter helped her with the duties in the territory wich had a total of 80 inhabitants. Her pharmaceutical knowlege was of great help to the villagers. She was deeply involved in the daily life of her subjects and the ecclesiastical life of the territory. She experienced financial problems during the Bavarian war with Austria during the succession-war 1742-45. During the end of her reign she left more and more of the administration to her daughter and left the Hofmark to one of her sons and retired to the Ladies Chapter in Moosburg. Her oldest son, Matheus Karl Anton, received the Estate of Tutzing with Starnberg and Rösselberg and 1748 he married Maria Theresa Renata Chlotildis Baronin de Spontin, her younger son, Maximilian Ernst von Götzengrien, married the daughter and only heir of Hans Albrecht Viehbeck von und zu Haimbhausen


V/W

Waldeck-Pyrmont (Also see Pyrmont)
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes of the Imperial Diet. Waldeck was member of the Bench of the Secular Princes Upper Rhenish Circle (Regional Assembly) (Oberrheinischer Reischskreis) and Pyrmont was Member of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Westphalia from 1495

1118-52 Countess Richardis von Waldeck
Married to Rudolf II von Stadet (d. 1114)

1763-66 Regent Dowager Princess Christiane Henriette von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
After the death of her husband, Karl August (1704-63) she was regent for son Friedrich I, Fürst zu Waldeck and Graf von Pyrmont (1743-63-1812). She was born as Pfalzgräfin von Birkenfeld, and lived (1725-1816).

1845-52 Regent Dowager Princess Emma von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym 
For Georg Viktor (1831-45-93). She was very popular and became known as "Fat Emma" (Dicke Emma). Grandmother of Queen Emma who was regent of the Netherlands 1890-98. Princess Emma lived (1802-58).  


Vechta und Vlotho

1248-circa 1302 Reigning Countess Jutta von Ravensberg
She was daughter of Count Otto II of Ravensberg and inherited the lands of Vechta and Vlotho after her husband, Heinrich III, Count von Vechta und Vlotho. She sould the possesions around Vechta and in Emsland to the bishop of Münster. (d. after 1302)


Weimar
(Later part of Sachsen)

1067-1100 Countess Regnant Adelheid  
Werl-Arnsberg
1124…. Hereditary Countess Ida von Werl  



Wertheim
The County of Wertheim had a seat of the Bench of Counts and Lords of the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Asssembly) of Franconia

1571-1614 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Stolberg of Wertheim and Bereuberg
The three daughters of Count Ludwig of Stolberg, Lord of Wertheim am Main and Königstein am Taunus were heiresses. Their husbands: Count Dietrich VI von Manderscheid-Schleiden, Philipp von Eberstein and Ludwig von Löwenstein alternated in the government for one year at the time until the possessions were divided in 1581. Elisabeth's first husband died in 1593 and the following year she married Wilhelm von Kreichingen. She had no children.

1598-99 Sovereign Countess Anna von Stolberg-Königstein-Rochefort of Wertheim and Rochefort
Daughter of Ludwig zu Stolberg-Königstein. In 1532 he had inherited the possessions of the House of Eppstein-Königstein and in 1556 he inherited the county of Wertheim She was married to Count Ludwig zu Löwenstein-Scharffeneck (1530-1611), who added Wertheim to his name and was Stadtholder of Styria, Carinthia and Carnolia. She lived (1531/48-99).
 

Wevelinghoven

1439-92 Joint Heiress Anna von Wevelinghoven
Daugther of Wilhelm II von Wevelinghoven and married to Heinrich IV von Gemen and they were succeeded by their daughter, Cordula. She lived (1423-circa 92).

1439-? Joint Heiress Irmgard
Sister of Anna, she married
Johann VI. von Reifferscheid in 1433. She received the Lordship of Alfter and the Erbmarschallamt Köln after an agreement with her husband in 1461.


Windberg-Ratelberg-Winzenburg

From 1122 Regent Dowager Countess Hedwig von Assel-Woltingerode
After the death of her husband, Hermann I she became regent for their minor son, and is always portraited as Reigning Countess the many documents left over from her. She married Count Adalbert II von Bogen in 1123. Her oldest daughter, Beatrix von Windberg was Abbess of Quedlinburg and Neuenheerse (d. 1160), also mother of a son who died as a child and another daughter in her first marriage. In her second marriage she was mother of three sons and one daughter; Heilwigm Abbess of Geisenfeld. She was daughter of Margrave Poppo III. von Assel-Woltingerode of Istrien and Richardis von Sponheim, and lived (circa 1080-circa 1162).


Winzenburg

1160-80 Sovereign Countess Sophia von Winzenburg
Married to Albrecht the Bear of Brandenburg.


Virneburg
The County was member of the
Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly).

1593-1604 Sovereign Countess Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbaden
The widow of Joachim von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1540-82), two relatives were appointed regents and guardians for her children, and she spend lot of energy keeping on to her dowry Neurburg and preventing her young son from being taken abroad for "proper catholic education" by the Spanish Duke of Alba, the governor of the Southern Netherlands (Manderscheid was within the Luxembourgian interestsfere). Her son Philipp Dietrich died in 1590 and her daughters and son-in-laws were engaged in a fight over the succession, which was solved in the way that the three son-in-laws alternated in reigning the country one year at a time. In the end the county of Schleiden was divided among the three. She later inherited the country of Virneburg from her brother-in-law, Count Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Scheleiden-Virneburg, who was the last male member of the line. She secured the succession for her oldest, and only daughter Elisabeth, who took over the inheritance in 1604 and transferred the county to her husband and son. Magdalene lived (1546-1604).

1604-21 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth von Manderscheid-Schleiden of Virneburg in the Eifel
Her mother, Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbanden, had inherited the country from her brother-in-law Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Scheleiden-Virneburg in 1593. Elisabeth took over the inheritance after her mother's death, and her husband, Count Christoph Ludwig (1568-1618) assumed the name of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virenburg, and their descendants reigned as Counts co-regnant of the immediate County of Werthem. In 1613 the emperor confirmed the title for her son, Count Friedrich-Ludwig zu  (1598-1657), who lost his entire estates 1622 for siding with the Elector Palatine, but was reinstated by the Treaty of Westpahlia 1648. Elisabeth lived (1569-1621).

 

Wittgenstein (Also see Sayn)

1357-84 Sovereign Countess Adelheid von Wittgenstein
Succeeded her brother, Werner IV., the last male of the family and together with her husband, Salentin von Sayn-Homburg, they founded the new line, and he used the title of Count von Sayn zu Wittgenstein from 1361.He descended from the Counts of Sayn, who owned the Offices and Lordships of Hachenburg and Altenkirchen, and his father inherited Homburg from his mother.


Vohnburg

....Markgravine Adela
Married to Emperor Friedrich III of the Holy Roman Empire

Noble Chapter of Vreden (Hochgräfflichen Stift  zu Vreden - High Countly Chapter)

Also see Germany Ecclesiastical Territories

Wied

1591-1603 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Bentheim-Steinfurt
1603-1605 Reigning Dowager Lady of Gronau in Bentheim
After the death of her husband, Count Hermann I zu Wied, she was regent for their son, Johann Wilhelm (circa 1580-1633). After he came of age, she took over her dowry in her "native" Bentheim. Mother of 3 sons and 3 daughters and lived (1555-1628).

Württemberg
Member of the Secular Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet and
member of the Bench of the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate (Regional Assembly)

1419-26 Regent Dowager Duchess Henriette de Montbelliard
Sovereign Countess of Montbeliard, which was incorporated in Württemberg as Mömpelgard, 1397-1443. She lived (1387-1444).

1450-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Countess Mechthild von der Pfalz of Böblingen, Sindelfingen, Aidlingen, Dagersheim, Darmsheim, Dettenhausen, Döffingen, Holzgerlingen, Magstadt, Maichingen, Ostelsheim, Schönaich and Steinenbronn
After the death of her husband Ludwig von Württemberg she was in a year long dispute with her brother-in-law Ulrich and her brother  Pfalzgraf Friedrich over the guardianship of her two sons. In the end she retired to her dowry, before she married Archduke Albrecht VI., the younger brother of Emperor Friedrichs III, though they mainly lived apart, from 1456 mainly in Rottenburg lebte, but she remained in the possession of her main dowry Böblingen. Her court was an intelectual and cultural center and she promoted convents, churches and the University of Tübingen. She lived  (1419-82)

1496-1503 Reigning Dowager Lady Duchess Barbara Gonzaga of Böblingen
After the death of her husband Eberhard V von Württemberg (1445-57-96), she took up residence at her dowry. Her only daughter, Barbar had died after a few months. She was Daughter of  Ludovico II, Margrave of Mantua and Barbara of Brandenburg, and lived (1455-1503)

1551-64 Reigning Dowager Lady Duchess Sabina von Bavaria of Nürtingen
After the birth of the Crown Prince Christoph  in 1515 she fled the threaths of her husband Ulrich with both her children to her brothers, the Bavarian Dukes Wilhelm und Ludwig, and only after her son acended to the throe she was able to return to Württemberg , where she took up residence in her dorwy in Nürtingen, where she held a small court, wich became a local center of  Protestantism. She lived (1492-1564)
.

1568-circa 72 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna-Maria von
Brandenburg–Ansbach

1608-14 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sybilla von Anhalt of Leonberg
Widow of Herzog Friedrichs I, and in spite of their apparently unhappy marriage, they had 15 children. She was very rich and used a lot of money for the interior of Leonberg. She lived (1564-1614).

1628 Chief Guardian Herzogin Barbara Sophie von Brandenburg
1628-36 Reigning Dowager Lady of Kirchheim,
As Chief Guardian (Obervormünderin) of her 14 year old son, she was politcally active. She had withdrawn to her dowry after her husband's death but returned to Stuttgart in 1632. She lived (1584-1636).

1635-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowger Duchess Anna Sabina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön of Leonberg
Also known as Anne- Sabine von Holstein-Sonderburg, she was widow of Duke-Administrator Julius Friedrich von Württemberg in Juliusburg (1588-1635) and held the castle and landscape as her dorwy. She was daugher of Johann, Duke von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön and Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt-Zerbst, mother of 8 children, and lived (1593-1659).

1677-93 Co-Regent Dowager Duchess Magdalena Sibylle von Hessen-Darmstadt
1677-1712 Reigning Dowager Lady of Leonberg
After the death of her husband, Duke Wilhelm Ludwig, she was regent for their son Eberhard Ludwig (1676-77-1733) together with some co-regents, among other her brother-in-law, Friedrich-Karl. She formed a form of alternative government against the administrator, she initiated intrigues and changed side as she saw her own advantages. She was daughter of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt and grew up in Sweden, and lived (1652-1712).

1705-33 Politically Influential Wilhelmine von Grävenitz
Known as Die Grävenitz, she was the mistress and from 1706 the official Maitresse of Duke Eberhard Ludwig and she gained control of the whole administration and engaged a "secret police" in order to maintain her  poistion. She surrounded the Duke with her protégés and confidants, became the center of a court party and sold offices. In 1707 she had married Eberhard Ludwig married to the left hand, but the marriage was dissolved because of pressure from the Emperor. She went in exile in Switzerland followed by the Duke until they both returned in 1710 after she had been married to the Landhofmeister Graf von Würben. When Eberhard Ludwig's only son died in 1731 he returned to his wife, Johanna Elisabeth von Baden-Durlach with the hope of producing a new heir, but he died of a stroke two years later.After his death she fled to Berlin and was procecuted by his nephew and successor, but a compromise was reached. Christine Wilhelmine Friederike lived. (1686-1744).

1735-57 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Johanna Elisabetha von Baden-Durlach of Kirchheim
She lived alone in the Alte Schloss in Stuttgart after her husband, Eberhard Ludwig, had left her. Her only son, Friedrich Ludwig died in 1731, and when her husband died 4 years later, she took up residence in the Castle of Kirchheim. She lived (1680-1757)
.


1737-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Maria Augusta von Thurn und Taxis
She was widow of Carl Alexander and mother of the three dukes Carl Eugen (who was declared to be of age before time to end her regency), Ludwig Eugen and Friedrich Eugen. The protestant Parliament of Württemberg were against her appointment because she was catholic, and they appointed Karl Friedrich von Württemberg-Öts as administrator, but she was supported by Emperor Karl VI. Daughter of Fürst Anselm Franz von Thurn und Taxis and Maria Ludovica von Lobkowitz, Duchess of Sagan (1683-1750). She lived (1706-56).

1770-93 Politically Influential Duchess Franziska von Hohenhem
Her husband, Freiherr Friedrich Wilhelm von Leutrum, was employed at the court of Duke Karl Eugen of Würrtemberg 1728-37-93). She became his Maitresse in 1770 and divorced her husband two years later. From then on they lived at the castle of Hohenheim. 1774 she was created Reichsgräfin von Hohenheim Karl Eugen's wife, Elisabeth Friederike Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth died in 1780 and they married secretly three years later, but the Catholic Church did not accept that he married a protestant until 1785. The following year, she received the rang of a Duchess. She had a moderating influence on her husband, who developed in a less absolutist and ruthless direction than in his first years. She also engaged in charitable work. After her husband's death she moved to Sindlingen. Daughter of Freiherr Ludwig Wilhelm von Bernerdin in Sindlingen and Johanna von Vohenstein zu Adelmannsfelden, did not have any children and lived (1748-1811).

1816-19 Politically Influential Queen Katharina Pawlowna of Württemberg
She married her cousin, Wilhelm von Württemberg, shortly after he became King. In her only three years as Queen, she had brought an unusually modern social structure to the state. She founded the first Württemberg savings bank, created schools with modern curricula, hospitals, children's homes and institutions for feeding the poor, which she paid for partially from her immense Russian dowry. As the Russian Grand Duchess she was a member of the Russian-Orthodox Church and remained so.Her first husband, Herzog Georg von Oldenburg died in 1812. She was daughter of Tsar Paul I and Maria Fjodorovna ( Sophie Dorothea Augusta von Württemberg
), and lived (1789-1819).

 

Württemberg-Neuenstadt

1682-1700 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara Augusta von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Office of Weißenhof bei Weinsberg
Moved to her dowry after the death of her husband,
Herzog Friedrich. They had 12 children, but only 3 sons survived into adulthood. She lived (1632-1700)

1742-51 Lady Princess Eleonore Wilhelmine Charlotte zu Württemberg-Neuenstadt
After the death of their uncle, Carl Rudolf, she and her sister, Friederikke, lived in the Castle. They were daughters of Duke Friedrich August and Gräfin Albertine Sophie Esther von Eberstein, the last of her family and heir to the Castle of Gochsheim and some other possessions that were eventually inherited by the main line of the Württemberg family. She lived (1894-1751)

1742-81 Lady Friederikke von Württemberg-Neuenstadt
She was the first Abbess of the Protestant Secular Chapter of Vallø in Denmark 1738-43, and lived (1699-81).

Württemberg-Oels

1664-72 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Maria of Münsterberg-Oels
The only child and heir of the Slesian Duke Karl Friedrich of Münsterberg-Oels, who died 1647, she was married Silvius Nimrod von Württemberg (1622-64), and after her father's death, he was granted the Duchy by emperor Ferdinand III and he founded the line of Württemberg-Oels , the first Slesian line, and after his death, she was regent for two sons, Silvius Friederich (1651-97) and Christian Ulrich (1652-1702), who were declared prematurely of age by the Emperor against her protests. She lived (1625-86).

Württemberg-Stuttgart

1674-98 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Maria Dorothea Sophie von Oettingen-Oettingen of Nürtingen and Kirchheim
After the death of her husband, Eberhard III (1617-74), she took over her dowry and resided there until her death. She was his second wife, and had no children. She lived (1636-98)

 

Last update 24.02.14