Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership
Female Heads of State of  China
(Female Suffrage in the Kwangtung Province 1911, Universal suffrage 1947) An ancient Empire became a republic 1912 and a communist People’s Republic 1947

See also China Ministers and Chinese Substates

Around BCE 306 Politically Influential Dowager Queen Xuantaihou of the Qin Dynasty
After the death of her husband, King Wuwang she had a relationship with a King of the Yiqu Statelet in today's northwestern Shenxi Province. She had two sons with him, but had the king killed and incorporated the lands of Longxi (Gansu), Beidi (Yinchuan of Ningxia) and Shangjun (Yulin, Shenxi Prov) in the Kingdom her son, King Zhaoxiangwang of Qin, who ruled 306-251.

Before BCE 246 Regent Dowager Empress Xuan of the Qin Dynasty
She ruled the State of Qin as regent for 41 years even after her son had become an adult. After she became old, it still took him three years’ work to curb her power. She was seen as an astute politician and had laid the base for Qin Shihuangdi to unite China.

BCE 195-179 De-facto ruler Queen Han Lu Hou
During the reign of Han Hui Di she took over the administration together with the concubine Qi and her son Zhao.  187-179 she was sole ruler with a number of nominal kings. Succeeded by son, king Han Wen Di  (180-157)

BCE 141-135 Regent Dowager Empress Dou
She was regent for her grandson, Emperor Wu Di, who struggled to build a coalition of support to challenge her influence.  According to Sima Qian, imperial patronage swung back and forth like a pendulum depending on who momentarily enjoyed the upper hand. She wielded her influence by supporting scholars associated with "Daoist" thinking and when the Confucians tried to bypass consulting with her, the Daoists became enraged and had several Confucians secretly investigated. (d. 135).

BCE 74-67 Regent the Dowager Empress
Co-regent for emperor Liv Shi

1-6 Dowager Empress
The widow of emperor Lui Xin (BCE 5-A.D. 1), she reigned together with Minister Wang

88-97 Queen Dou of the Han Dynasty

105-106 Regent The Dowager Empress
After the death of Emperor He, she announced that he had left two young sons who had been brought up outside the palace, but that the elder brother, Liu Sheng, was suffering from an incurable illness and was unfit to rule. She therefore placed the younger, Liu Long, upon the throne, and even when he died a few months later, aged just over a year old, she again passed over Liu Sheng in favour of Liu You, a nephew of Emperor He, later known as Emperor An (reigned 106-125). Inevitably, much of the information formed an intimate secret of the state, and all the decisions and announcements were made on the authority of the Dowager alone.

-21 Regent Queen Deng of the Han Dynasty

144-50 Regent Queen Liang Na of the Han Dynasty

168-73 Regent Queen Dou Shi of the Han Dynasty  

189 Politically Influential Empress Dowager He Mou of Han
She was the chief consort of Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty China. Along with her half-brother He Jin, she was able to temporarily dominate power at the imperial court after the death of Emperor Ling in 189, during the reign of her son Liu Bian (b. 176), they presided over the imperial court. Throughout much of the year, she acted as balancing force between the enunuch faction, led by Jian Shuo and Zhang Rang, and the official faction, led by He Jin and Yuan Shao. The climax of the struggles came in September, when He Jin was assassinated by the eunuchs at the imperial palace. In the chaotic fighting which followed, she lost all the members of her clan of political importance, including her brother He Miao and mother, the Lady of Wuyang. Her son was deposed in favour of his younger half-brother Liu Xie. Empress Dowager He was accused of the murder of Empress Dowager Dong and ordered to move to the Yongle Palace, outside the main palace complex. She was poisoned there by order of Dong Zhuo on 30 September 189. She was originally from a butcher's family from Wan county in central China

290-291 Co-Ruler Dowager Empress Yang Zhi of China
She married Emperor Wu after the death of her cousin, Empress Yang Yan in 276. Their only son, Sima Hui died in 283. After he conquered Eastern Wu in 280, he became largely obsessed with feasting and women, and tired of handling important matters of state and her father, Yang Jun and uncles Yang Yao and Yang Ji became those who made actual decisions and became very powerful. She was instrumental in keeping Crown Prince Zhong's wife Jia Nanfeng from being deposed after she personally had several of the crown prince's pregnant concubines killed. After her husband's death her father became regent for the mentally deficient new emperor. The regent quickly showed himself to be autocratic and incompetent, drawing the ires of many other nobles and officials. He ordered that all edicts should be signed by both the emperor and Yang Zhi before they could be promulgated. When the allies of Empress Jia attacked, she wrote an edict ordering assistance for Yang Jun and put it on arrows, shooting it out of the palace, but then made the bold declaration that the Dowager Empress was committing treason. Her father was quickly defeated, and her clan was massacred. Yang Zhi was deposed from her position and made a commoner, and her mother, Lady Phang was executed and Yang Zhi committed suicide by refusing to eat. (d. 292).

291-300 De facto Ruler Empress Jia Nanfeng of China.
When her
mental deficient husband, Emperor Sima Zhong, succeeded to the throne the father of his stepmother, Dowager Empress Yang Zhi was named regent, and they kept her away from the government. She staged a coup deposing Yang Zhi and her father, Yang Ju and taking over power and since then made all the important decisions for the state and effectively ruled the country. She eliminated any who appeared to be a threat to her position, including a her husband's pregnant concubines, and in 291 she deposed her husband's stepmother, Empress Yang Zhi and her father, Yang Jun, who was the regent., In addition, her victims even included the Crown Prince. In  300 the King of Zhao led a coup against her, and she was killed along with several others in her faction. In addition, Emperor Zhong was placed under house arrest. Not long after putting down this insurrection and regaining power, the kings began to fight amongst each another.

325-35 Regent Queen Yü Hon of Dong

349 Regent Empress Dowager Liu
After her father, the last  Han Zhao emperor Liu Yao, was captured by the Later Zhao's founding emperor Shi Le in 329, she fled together with her brothers Crown Prince Liu Xi and Prince Liu Yin of Nanyang from the capital Chang'an to Shanggui. Soon after her brothers were defeated and killed and she was captured by Zhang Chai. In 348 Emperor Shi Hu picked their son as his Heir and she was named Empress. When the Emperor grew ill the following year, he appointed his two sons as joint regents for her son, Shi Shi, but when he died she took over as regent for her son, holding power jointly with her husband. She tried to placate the sons of the later Emperor giving them high posts, but instead they marched on the capital. She then tried to placate them by offering them the office of regent and the nine bestowments, but instead he executed her husband, and then forged her to sign an edict deposing her son. She was given the title of Princess Dowager of Qiao, but soon both she and her son were executed. She lived (318-349).

466-71 Empress Teng Shi of Wei (Toba-Tatarian Dynasty)
She lived (441-90)

515-28 Regent Ling Taihou of Wei
Her extravagant spendings in favour of Buddhism resulted in a revolt and she and her son were thrown into the Yellow River and around 1000 courtiers were murdered. In the following chaos the Northern Wei-Empire (Bei Wei) were divided among various warlords.

626-636 Politically Influential Empress Zhangsun of China
Married to Emperor Taizong (Li Shimin) of the Northern Wei Dynasty. She was of Xianbei (an ancient ethnic) group in China origin and grew up on the central plains and received a very good education there, having a particularly good command of literature and history. At the time of Li Shimin's rivalry for the throne with his royal brothers, Zhangsun repeatedly cleared Li Shimin before Emperor Gaozu of the misdeeds with which he had been falsely framed. During the Xuanwumen Mutiny in which Emperor Gaozu's sons fought for the throne, she made a personal appearance in order to raise the army's morale, thus ultimately helping Li Shimin get rid of his political enemies. She continued to assist in the handling of state affairs after her husband became emperor, and lived (300-36).

660-705 Empress Wu Zetian of China
690-705 "Emperor"
She was the favourite concubine of Emperor  Kao Tsung, giving birth to the sons he wanted. Wu managed to outflank her eldest sons and moved her youngest, and much weaker son, into power. She in effect ruled, telling him what to do. In 690, Wu's youngest son removed himself from office, and Wu Zetian was declared emperor of China. She lived (625-705).

690-710 "Chief Administrator" Shangguan Wan'er in China
She had been Empress Wu Zetian's trusted aide prior to her enthronement, and for several decades the destiny of the Tang Empire was in the hands of these two exceptional women. Historical data show that they were instrumental in maintaining the stability, prosperity and development of the Tang Dynasty. Her grandfather was involved in a power struggle during Emperor Gaozong's reign and was, along with her father, executed by Wu Zetian. Wan'er learned reading and writing from female officials in the imperial palace, and was later givenr the responsibility of drafting edicts. Eventually all memorials submitted to Wu Zetian were first read by Wan'er for her opinion before being approved by the empress. By the age of 19, Wan'er was the second most powerful person in the imperial court, second only to Wu Zetian herself. She was apponted Zhaorong and responsible for the imperial harem. During the reign of Emperor Zhongzong, Wan'er proved an invaluable helpmeet. In one palace coup, she coolly and efficiently directed the guards to attack leaders of the rebellion, and so suppressed the uprising. Wan'er was also a positive influence on the Emperor, and encouraged him to build schools and so foster literary talent. After Wu Zetian's resignation Shangguan Wan'er sought the new Empress Wei's patronage. The empress enjoyed power for only a short time and was put to death when Li Longji, Prince of Linzi, stormed the palace. As a member of Empress Wei's clique, Shangguan Wan'er was also killed. Shangguan Wan'er lived (664-710)

705-10 Politically Influential Princess Anle
After the death of Empress Wu Zetian, t
he court of the reinstalled emperor Zhongzong was controlled by the clan of his wife, Empress We, her daughter Princess Anle and Wu Sansi, a relative of late Empress Wu Zetian. In 710 Empress Wei enthroned the minor Li Chongmao  (posthumous Tang Shaodi). Only the rebellion of Li Longji could reestablish the power of the house of Li, and the deposed emperor Ruizong was reinstalled. Princess Taiping  was the last to challenge the ruling house, and in 712 Ruizong abdicated in favor of Li Longji

710 Politically Influential Princess Taiping of China
Together with her nephew Xuanzong she conspired to put an end to Empress Wei's attempted usurpation of power. He killed Empress Wei, the wife of his recently dead uncle Emperor Zhongzong, in a palace coup which placed his own father, Emperor Ruizong, on the throne. Xuanzong himself succeeded the throne in 712.

710 Regent Dowager Empress Wei Shi
For Emperor Li Chan Mao of the Tang Dynasty. He was deposed 710.

1013-16 Supreme Commander of the Palace Shao-shi
was a female official in the palace service organization and appears to have earned all her promotions through meritorious service. She had served in the palace of Taizong (r.976-997) when he was a feudal prince. When Taizong became emperor, she was made siyi (Director of Clothing) then promoted to shanggong (Chief-of-services) responsible for the Women’s Service Organization within the palace. In 997, Zhenzong (r.998-1022) named her qun furen (Commandery Mistress) and in 1013, the emperor created a new title of gong siling (Supreme Commander of the Palace) in her honor. In 1033, Renzong (r.1023-1064) posthumously promoted her to minor wife status by naming her taiyi (One of Supreme Deportment) and in 1044 to xienfei (Worthy Consort). She (d.1016)

1021-33 (†) Regent Dowager Empress Liu Zhangxian Mingxiao of China
When her husband, Emperor Heng (998-1022), who was also known as Sung Chen Tsung or Tseng Tsung, became insane in 1021, she assumed power, unofficially, in the de facto administration of the empire, but someone else was appointed as the official regent, and efforts were made to keep her from the regency for her stepson, Emperor Zhao Zhen (1010-22-63), two years later. As regent she was able to consolidate her power and govern as de facto sovereign. She held court, with the young emperor, behind the lowered screen. She alone made the final decisions on state policies and delegation of power. Liu left a will stipulating that another palace woman, Yang (c.1033) should succeed her as regent even though Renzong was already 23 years old. Her wishes were not honored as neither the emperor nor his ministers were willing to tolerate another regency. Also known as Chengtian, she lived (969-1033).

Politically Influential Dowager Empress Yang Zhanghui of China
The regent, Dowager Empress
Liu created a special post for her as huang taifei (Supreme Consort) and left a will stipulating that Yang was to succeed her as regent to Emperor Zhao Zhen (1010-22-63), who was 23 at the time and did not want a regent. She was able to obtain numerous favors and offices for the next three generations of her paternal family. Zhao Zhen continued to listen to her advice and after the early deaths of his three sons the question of succession became a great concern and in 1059, she persuaded him to adopt the son of a cousin who became Emperor Yingzong (1064-1067). She lived (983-?)

1041-55 Politically Influential Noble Consort Zhang Wencheng of China
was a favorite secondary consort of Emperor Zhao Zhen (1010-22-63) or Renzong, and her power was felt both within and without the palace. Her brother, Huaji (c.1054) and her uncle, Yaozuo, all gained high positions and prospered through her influence.  Her power was unique in the Northern Song Dynasty. Mother of three daughters who all died as children, and lived (1024-55).

1063-64 Dowager Empress Cao of China
She lived (1017-79)

1085-93 (†) Reigning Dowager Empress Gao (De fei) of China
She lived  (1031-93)

1100-01(†) Reigning Dowager Empress Xiang Shi of China

1127 and 1129-31 Regent Empress Meng Zhaoci of China
1127-28 Regent in Jiling
She was selected over 100 candidates by Supreme Empress Dowager Gao (1031-1093), to be principal consort for her grandson, Emperor Zhao Xu (1085-1100). She became empress in 1092 but while she was favored by both Gao and by her mother-in-law, Xiang (1045-1101), the emperor was enamored of another palace woman, Liu (d.1113). She managed to escape the Jin, who attacked the capital, and when Emperor Qinzong (1126-1127), was taken north. To gain a semblance of legitimacy the commander Zhang named her as regent for Zheng, who had taken over the throne. Shortly after, she learned that one the sons of Huizong (reigned 1101-1126), had arrived at Kaifeng, and she sent a letter where she declared declared this prince as the legitimate emperor, and retired from her regency. Zhang was thus pressured to retire in favor of Huizong and was later told to commit suicide. 1127-28, she kept control of the North Eastern Province of Jiling after the Song Dynasty lost control of Northern China to the Liao Dynasty in 1127 and moved to the south, establishing the Southern Song Dynasty, which lasted until 1279. Two years later, in 1129, when Gaozong was defeated in battle at Yangzhou and narrowly escaped capture, two discontented leaders of his bodyguards forced him to abdicate in favor of his three-year-old son. Meng was again asked to serve as regent. Eventually Gaozong was able to regain the throne and she retired after having served as regent for 25 days. In the same year, Gaozong sent her with an imperial guard west into Jiangsi so that if he were to be captured or killed a she would represent the legitimacy of the Northern Song Dynasty. She lived (1077-1135). 

1189-95 De-Facto Ruler Empress Li Ciyi of China
Her husband
Guangzong (ruled 1189-95) was mentally unstable, and his continued illness created a vacuum for Empress Li to become a force in court politics. Unfortunately, she proved to be irresponsible, arrogant, and temperamental and alienated officials. She was able to give positions to numerous members of her family and others whom she favored. After she was implicated in the assassination of her husband’s favorite concubine in 1191, the emperor worsened and eventually, the officials forced Empress Dowager Wu to name a new emperor in 1195. She lived (1144-1200).

1225-32 Politically Influential Dowager Empress Yang Gongshu Renlie of China
had plotted to be named Empress, and when her husband, Emperor Ningzong died, she helped Prince Yun to be installed as Emperor Lizong, and he invited her to take part in the deliberations of government behind the lowered screen, and worked closely with the Chief Councilor, Shi until her death. She was an active patron of the arts and it has been established that she is the same person as Yang Meizi, author of many poetic inscriptions that accompany paintings by Southern Song court artists.She lived (1161-1232).

1241-46 Grand Khanum Regnant Törägänä of the Qagans of China - The Mongol Empire
Also known as Töregene Khâtûn, she was head of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, after the death of her husband, Ögedei Khan Güyük Khan in 1246. The dynasty ruled most of China and Chinese Turkistan, covering Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan et cetera. She managed to balance the various competing powers within the Mongol Empire, and even within the extended family of the descendants of Genghis Khan. Her husband had nominated a son by another wife to succeed him, but when the lesser khans appointed her regent, she appointed her favorites to high positions in the imperial household, and managed to keep a Kurultai from being held until it was sure her son Güyük was favored by the majority. During her reign, foreign dignitaries arrived from the distant corners of the empire to her capital at Karakorum or to her nomadic imperial camp. Emirs, governors and grandees jostled along the same roads as princes and kings. The Seljuk sultan came from Turkey — as did representatives of the Caliph of Baghdad. So did two claimants to the throne of Georgia: David, the legitimate son of the late king — and David, the illegitimate son of the same king. The highest-ranking European delegate was Alexander Nevsky's father, Grand Prince Yaroslav II Vsevdodovich of Vladimir and Suzdal, who died suspiciously just after dining with her. (d. 1265).
1241-46 Senior Minister Fatima Katun of the Qagans of China - The Mongol Empire
Among the new ministers appointed when Töregene Khâtûn became regent and dismissed all of her husband's ministers. The Persian chronicler Juvaini, who disapproved of women's involvement in politics, wrote that she enjoyed constant access to the regent's tent. According to him, she "became the sharer of intimate confidences and the depository of hidden secrets." She played a political role while the older "ministers were debarred from executing business, and she was free to issue commands and prohibitions." Also, two of the other three divisions of the empire also had female governors. Not only were most of the rulers women, but surprisingly, none had been born Mongol. They had married into the family from a conquered steppe tribe, and aside from Fatima, most of the women were Christians. When Güyük took power he managed to have her imprisoned and killed in 1248.

1248-51 Empress Khanum Hatun Ogul Gamys of The Yuan Dynasty in China 
Also known as Oghul Qamish or Ghaimish. After the death of her husband, Greath Khan Güyük, she became regent for her three young sons Qucha, Naqu and Qughu and thereby became ruler over parts of China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakstan and Turkestan. In 1250 she received three envoys of Louis IX of France. She accepted their presents as a tribute and demanded that the king of France made more explicit submission to her. In 1251 fighting broke out between rival Factions of the ruling family, she was convicted of sorcery, sewn up in a sack and drowned in 1252. 

1264 and 1274-76 Regent Dowager Empress Xie Qingdau of China
After her the death of her husband, Emperor
Lizong (1224-1264) she became regent for his nephew, Emperor Duzong (1264-1274). After his death she again took over the leadership, this time for his son, Gongdi (1274-76). The Mongols conquered parts of the territory and massacred the population and in order to prevent further bloodshed she desided to surrender. The terms were negotiated over three months and on February 21, 1276, the young Song emperor assembled a few officials to make obeisance to the North in the Yuan capital Dadu (Beijing). The Song imperial family was taken captive. Due to serious illness, Xie left Hangzhou several months later. The entourage traveled for two months and arrived at Dadu from where they journeyed to the Yuan emperor's summer residence. There, they were received by a grand feast and stripped of their titles. Xie was given tax free property in Dadu where she lived until her death She lived (1210-1276).

1276-79 Regent Dowager Empress Yang-shi of China (in Jiling in South China)
Her husband, Emperor Duzong had died in 1276 and was succeeded by a relative, Emperor Gongdi.The Mongols were threatening the capital and it was decided that the Emperor should remain with his mother and grandmother to either defend the capital or failing it, to negotiate the surrender terms. It was also decided that her son Zhao Shi and his half-brother, Zhao Bing (d.1279) should flee south to the sea with their mothers and their maternal uncles, Yang Chen and Yu Rugui. After Gongdi and the imperial court were captured and taken north to Dadu, the Mongol capital, the loyalist forces crowned her son as Emperor, in Fuzhou in June of 1276. He was only nine years old and she was named Empress Dowager and regent. When the Mongols threatened Fuzhou, the loyalists, under the command of Zhang Shijie (1236-1279) took the two young boys to the sea and sailed along the Guangzhou prefecture. In January 1278, a hurricane struck when they were offshore near present day Zongshan and destroyed the vessel that carried the boy emperor. Although he was rescued, he never recovered from the shock and died in May. Her late husband's youngest son was then crowned as Emperor Bingdi. He was then six years of age and she continued as regent. In March of 1279, the Mongols pressed the loyalists and Lu Xiufu (1238-1279) jumped into the sea, carrying the boy emperor, and committed suicide. Yang-shi, accompanied by Zhang Shijie, continued to search for possible surviving members of the royal family but she despaired and committed suicide by drowning herself in the sea. Records differ on her burial site. Some say that she was buried in Yaishan, others say that she was buried in Champa in present day Vietnam and was later known as the Goddess of the Sea. (d. 1279).

1307 Dowager Empress Khanum Bulugan of the Yuan Dynasty in China
She was widow of Temur Oljetu (Chengzong) who ruled (1294-1307) as successor to Khubilai Setsen Khan (Shizu) and acted as regent for her step-grandson Wuzong, also known as Khaishan or Hai San. She was born as Princess Bulukhan of the Baya'ud. 

1366-71 Regent Princess Beng Shi
She was regent for son, who was pretender of the Yuan-throne. 

1368-98 Politically Influential Empress Ma
She assisted her husband, Zhu Yuanzhang in both his military activities, the management of his household and the decisions he made in institutional matters and in managing his civil and military subordinates. She influenced his decisions on a wide range of issues from the punishment of senior officials and merchants whom he suspected of treason to the treatment of prisoners forced to do corvee labour. She took a personal interest in the welfare of the students at the National University at Nanjing, and sponsored the setting up of the “Red Plank Granary” to dispense grain as part of a stipend for the students and their families.

1402-24 Politically Influential Empress Xu of China
In charge of the administration of the City of Yan while her husband Zhu Di (the Yongle Emperor),  was pursuing his campaign and in the midst of fierce fighting, she ascended the city walls and personally encouraged the troops to defend it.

1435-42 Regent Dowager Empress Zang of China  
She was widow of Emperor Hsuan Te (1425-35) regent for son, Zhu Qizhen (Zhengtong), who was Emperor (1435-49) and (1457-64). She was one of the most powerful of all Ming empresses was accompanied by her son, on a visit to Wansuishan, the artificial mountain just behind the palace. They also made a very public visit to the Ming tombs, thirty li northwest of the city. (d. 1442).

1493 Taoist Priest Empress Zhang
The scroll which documents her ordination as a Taoist priest is one of the most important surviving documents of the relationship between Taoism and the Ming imperial family. The painting shows her with a group of divine ladies called "jade maidens," the Taoist priest who ordained her, and a procession of deities. Each deity can be identified by an accompanying inscription, making this work an invaluable source for the identification of images of Taoist gods in the Ming dynasty. The depiction of empress and priest together with Taoist gods indicates that the human figures have achieved divine status. She was married to Emperor Hongzhi.

1643-87 Politically Influential
Grand Empress Dowager Xiao Zhuang of China
Widow of Hong Tajii, she took part of the affairs of state during the reign of her son, and when he died at the age of 24 and was succeeded by his 8 years old son, Kang Xi, she asked the four appointed regents, Oboi, Sonim, Suksaha and Ebilun to assist her grandson and advised her grandson to learn from his ministers since they were most experienced and had been assisting the late emperor during his reign. She took charge of Kang Xi's upbringing after the death of his mother. When Oboi was posing a threat to Kang Xi's rule, she helped the young emperor to get rid of Oboi. Born as Bumbutai., she was a daughter of a prince of Borjigit, the Khorchin Mongols, prince Jaisang, thus was a descendant of Chinggis Khan, known as Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu in Manchu
(d. 1688).

1861-73 Co-Regent, Dowager Empress Niuhuru (Xiaozhen) Dong Taihou of China
Dong Taihou means Eastern Empress - the main wife of the Emperor. She was sister of Cixi, had no children lived (1837-1881)

1861-73 Co-Regent Dowager Empress Cixi huangtaihou of China (2.12-23.2)
1874-75 De-facto Co-Regent (18.12-14.1)
1875-81 Co-Regent (12.1-8.4.)
1881-89 Empress Regent (Huang Tai Hu) (8.4-4.3)
1898-1908(†) Empress Regent (De-facto Reigning Empress)(22.9-15.11)
Her full name was H.I.M. [Yi] Cixi [Hsiao-chin Hsien Hung Hu] Tuan Yu Kang I Chao Yu Chuang Cheng Shou Kung Chin Hsien Chung Hsi. She was secondary Consort (Kuei Fei) after 1856, Empress of the West (Si Kong). In 1861-81 Cixi ruled jointly with Co-Dowager-Empress Cian (Xiaozhen) (1837-1881) for Cixi's son Zaichun (1862-75) and successors Zaitian (1875-1908) and Puyi (1908-12). She became legendary for her despotic and conservative rule and her attempts to fight back the influence of the Western Countries. She lived (1834-1908).  

1908-11 De-facto Co-Regent, Dowager Empress Xiao Ding Jing Long Yu huagtaihou (13.11-6.12)
1911-12  Empress-Regent (6.12-12.2)
Dowager Empress Cixi entrusted a vaguely specified Imperial authority to her. She was the holder of the Imperial Seal and exercised the Imperial authority. On 6.12.11 the regent and father of Emperor Puyi, Prince Zaifeng, resigned. At 6.12.1912 she signed the decree which abolished the monarchy. She was the niece of Empress Cixi and was the childless widow of Emperor Zaitian and lived (1868-1913)  

1954-76 Vice-Chairperson of The Peoples' Republic (Deputy Head of State) Song Qingling
1968-74 Co-Acting Head of State (31.10-24.2).
(1976-78 Acting Head of State, Provisoric Chairperson of the Permanent Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (6.8.76-4.3.78))
1979-81(†) Honorary President of China (16.5.79-29.5.81)
1980 Chairperson of the 3rd Session of the National People’s Congress
In 1927-29 Member of Government Council, 1929-49 Leader of Opposition against her brother-in-Law President Chiang Kai-chek and 1948 Honorary Chairperson of the Kuomintang, 1949-54 Deputy Premier Minister, 1954-59 and 1975-78 Vice-Chairperson of the National People’s Congress, 1954-59 Vice-Chairperson of China People’s Consultative Consultative Conference, CPPCC, 1968-74 the Post of Chair of the Republic was vacant and she and the other Vice-Chairperson, Dong Biw shared the Presidential Powers. Soong Qingling was widow of Sun Yat-Sen, Provisoric President of China in 1911. Her sister Soong May-ling (b. 1897) played a crucial role as wife of Chiang Kai-chek, President of China till 1945 and of Taiwan 1945-75. And her brother T. V. Soong was Premier Minister in Taiwan. A third sister was a business magnate. She lived (1893-1981).

1976-82 Vice-Chairperson of the NPC Deng Yingchan
1980 Permanent Chairperson of the NPC
1980-81 Chairperson of the CPPCC
In the period 1976-78 there was no Chairperson of the NPC and she was one of the 21 vice-chairmen who constituted the collective Head of State. Other sources name Song Qingling as Provisoric Chairperson.

1976-79 Vice-Chairperson of the NPC Cai Chang
1980-81 Permanent Chairperson of the NPC
In the period 1976-78 there was no Chairperson of the NPC and she was one of the 21 vice-chairmen who constituted the collective Head of State.

-1976-78- Vice-chairperson Li Suwen
In the period 1976-78 there was no Chairperson of the NPC and she was one of the 21 vice-chairmen who constituted the collective Head of State.


Last update 12.02.08